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Sample records for adolescent smoking prevention

  1. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  2. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco. PMID:21176132

  3. A meta-analysis of adolescent smoking prevention programs.

    PubMed Central

    Bruvold, W H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. A large number of studies evaluating adolescent smoking prevention programs have been published. Systematic quantitative reviews of this literature are needed to learn what does and does not work. The present meta-analysis focuses on the efficacy of school-based programs. METHODS. Evaluations of 94 separate interventions were included in the meta-analysis. Studies were screened for methodological rigor and those with weaker methodology were segregated from those with more defensible methodology; major analyses focused on the latter. RESULTS. Behavioral effect sizes were found to be largest for interventions with a social reinforcement orientation, moderate for interventions with either a developmental or a social norms orientation, and small for interventions with the traditional rational orientation. Attitude effect sizes followed the same pattern, but knowledge effect sizes were similar across all four orientation categories. CONCLUSIONS. Because behavioral effect represents the fundamental objective of programs for prevention of adolescent tobacco use, the present results indicate that school-based programs should consider adopting interventions with a social reinforcement, social norms, or developmental orientation. PMID:8498627

  4. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  5. Smoking and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents' smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents' habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents' smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents' smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents' smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents' health and improve their quality of life. PMID:22232621

  6. Types of Interventions for Smoking Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan

    2015-01-01

    Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented. PMID:26738374

  7. Using anti-tobacco industry messages to prevent smoking among high-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, James F; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2006-06-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in order to test whether reactions to anti-industry advertisements (ads), the attitudes these ads target, and the relationship between these attitudes and smoking differed by social bonding and sensation-seeking risk factors. Results indicated that anti-industry ad reactions and the strength of anti-industry attitudes were comparable between high- and low-sensation seeking adolescents, whereas weakly bonded adolescents had less favorable ad reactions and weaker anti-industry attitudes than strongly bonded adolescents. Social bonding also moderated the influence of sensation seeking on anti-industry ad reactions, such that sensation seeking had a positive influence among more strongly bonded adolescents and no influence among weakly bonded adolescents. Finally, the relationship between anti-industry attitudes and smoking appeared consistent across risk groups, whether risk was defined using social bonding, sensation seeking or the interaction between them. Overall, these results suggest that anti-industry messages are a promising strategy for preventing smoking among high- and low-risk adolescents alike. PMID:16492681

  8. A school-based smoking prevention program for adolescent girls in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, M M

    1989-01-01

    Teenaged girls comprise the largest percentage of new cigarette smokers in the United States today. Factors contributing to smoking initiation include peer pressure, family and social influences, cigarette availability, and cigarette advertising. Because three-quarters of smokers become dependent on cigarettes by age 20, smoking prevention programs aimed at the adolescent population have great potential. The proposed program outlined is directed at girls 12 to 18 years of age in New York City. Among the objectives are increasing students' knowledge of the short- and long-term health effects of smoking and awareness of the social factors which lead to smoking. Participants would be taught social skills and behaviors which could help them to resist initiating smoking, by such activities as assertiveness training through role playing. Endurance sports activities would be emphasized while learning of the effects of smoking on physical conditioning. The costs of such a program are estimated, and classroom activities are outlined. PMID:2493667

  9. Prevention of smoking in adolescents with lower education: a school based intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students. Design: Group randomised controlled trial. Setting: 26 Dutch schools that provided junior secondary education. Subjects: 1444 students in the intervention and 1118 students in the control group, all in the first grade, average age 13 years. Intervention: Three lessons on knowledge, attitudes, and social influence, followed by a class agreement not to start or to stop smoking for five months and a class based competition. Main outcome measures: Comparison of smoking status before and immediately after and one year after the intervention, using multilevel analysis. Results: In the intervention group, 9.6% of non-smokers started to smoke, in the control group 14.2%. This leads to an odds ratio of 0.61 (95% CI= 0.41 to 0.90) to uptake smoking in the intervention group compared with the control group. One year after the intervention, the effect was no longer significant. Conclusions: In the short-term, an intervention based on peer pressure decreases the proportion of adolescents with lower education who start smoking. Influencing social norms and peer pressure would therefore be a promising strategy in terms of preventing smoking among adolescents. The results also suggest that additional interventions in later years are needed to maintain the effect. PMID:12933772

  10. Preventing smoking in children and adolescents: Recommendations for practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years. However, despite large numbers of campaigns and interventions, thousands of young Canadians continue to initiate cigarette smoking every year. The increasing popularity of alternative tobacco products and e-cigarettes is also creating new health challenges. Research has shown that the deleterious effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke are significant and long lasting. Health care professionals have key responsibilities in preventing tobacco use among youth and their families, and need to know more about effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. Clinicians need to integrate tobacco counselling into health assessments of teenagers and be aware of the roles that families, communities and governments can play in promoting tobacco-free environments. Information, effective strategies and opportunities for health care professionals to intervene and advocate for Canadian adolescents are discussed. PMID:27429575

  11. Smoking cessation programs for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donovan, K A

    2000-10-01

    Many smoking cessation programs for adult smokers are described in the medical and nursing literature. Programs designed to prevent smoking among adolescents and children also are prevalent in the literature. Despite these prevention programs, many adolescents choose to start smoking. Once adolescents begin smoking, it is difficult to find ways to help them quit. Few programs exist that are targeted to help this population with smoking cessation. This article provides an in-depth review of 5 smoking cessation programs designed for adolescents. Each of the programs presents unique strategies for helping teenage smokers quit. Techniques used in these programs include peer leadership, nicotine patch therapy, peer support, computer instruction, and one-on-one counseling with a nurse practitioner. Each program was studied for efficacy with adolescents. Although none of the programs reviewed showed remarkable success, they serve as guides for future program development. Additional programs need to be developed and studied with larger, more diverse populations. Nurses must identify or develop smoking cessation programs that meet the needs of all types of adolescents and are effective in helping them to quit. Once designed, these smoking cessation programs should be made accessible to adolescents in a variety of settings.

  12. Reaching adolescent girls through social networking: a new avenue for smoking prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.

  13. Smoking in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.; And Others

    Intended primarily for researchers and prevention program personnel, this booklet provides current background information on the continuing problem of smoking among children and adolescents. In the first brief section, research findings concerning American youth's current smoking patterns and beliefs are described. The second section considers…

  14. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  15. Randomized Trials on Consider This, a Tailored, Internet-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools…

  16. Acceptability and Appeal of a Web-Based Smoking Prevention Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlove, Amy E.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Hoerauf, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important source of preventable morbidity and premature mortality worldwide (American Lung Association, 2002). Statistics show that youth who do smoke report having their first cigarette while in middle school, thus this is a critical opportunity for prevention (Eissenburg & Balster, 2000). This…

  17. Randomized trials on consider this, a tailored, internet-delivered smoking prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buller, David B; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W Gill; Hall, John R; Hines, Joan M; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2008-04-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools containing Grades 6 through 9. Australian children using Consider This reported reduced 30-day smoking prevalence. This reduction was mediated by decreased subjective norms. The amount of program exposure was low in many classes, but program use displayed a dose-response relationship with reduced smoking prevalence. American children only reported lower expectations for smoking in the future. Intervening to prevent smoking is a challenge, and this data suggest small benefits from an Internet-based program that are unlikely to be of practical significance unless increased by improved implementation. Implementation remains the major challenge to delivering interventions via the Internet, both for health educators and researchers.

  18. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  19. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  20. The ABCs of Adolescent Smoking Prevention: An Environment and Skills Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; Stern, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Based on social skills and operant behavioral perspectives, an Environment and Skills Model of smoking acquisition and prevention is proposed. This model involves an integrated examination of the antecedents, behaviors, and consequences of smoking. The importance of the "consequence end" of this three-term contingency is discussed. (Author/CT)

  1. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  2. Parenting practices and adolescent smoking in mainland China: the mediating effect of smoking-related cognitions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect associations of general and smoking-specific parenting practices with Chinese adolescents' smoking behaviors. Adolescents aged 14-17 years (N = 658) and their parents were recruited from three high schools in mainland China. Adolescents completed an anonymous online survey on their smoking behaviors, perceptions of parenting behaviors, and smoking-related cognitions including attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Parents completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire on their parenting behaviors. Results indicated that psychological control and frequency of communication about smoking were positively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of two smoking-related cognitions-attitude and subjective norm. Parental knowledge of adolescent activities, disapproval of adolescent smoking, and home rules were negatively linked to adolescent smoking through the mediation of attitude and subjective norm. Results suggest that parenting practices and smoking-related cognitions are critical components to be incorporated in prevention and intervention programs for adolescent smoking in China.

  3. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  4. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Smoking Prevention Programme for Romanian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotrean, L. M.; Dijk, F.; Mesters, I.; Ionut, C.; De Vries, H.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effects of a school-based smoking prevention programme that used both a video and peer-led discussion groups among Romanian junior high school students aged 13-14 years. The programme embraced the social influence approach and concentrated on enhancing self-efficacy and the acquisition of cigarette refusal…

  5. Smoking in Movies and Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Florek, Ewa; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies from the U.S. suggest a causal relationship between exposure to images of smoking in movies and adolescent smoking onset. Purpose This study investigates whether adolescent smoking onset is predicted by the amount of exposure to smoking in movies across six European countries with various cultural and regulatory approaches to tobacco. Methods Longitudinal survey of 9987 adolescent never-smokers recruited in the years 2009–2010 (mean age 13.2 years) in 112 state-funded schools from Germany, Iceland, Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom (UK), and followed-up in 2011. Exposure to movie smoking was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were performed in 2012 to assess the relationship between exposure at baseline and smoking status at follow-up. Results During the observation period (M=12 months), 17% of the sample initiated smoking. The estimated mean exposure to on-screen tobacco was 1560 occurrences. Overall, and after controlling for age; gender; family affluence; school performance; TVscreen time; personality characteristics; and smoking status of peers, parents, and siblings, exposure to each additional 1000 tobacco occurrences increased the adjusted relative risk for smoking onset by 13% (95% CI=8%, 17%, p<0.001). The crude relationship between movie smoking exposure and smoking initiation was significant in all countries; after covariate adjustment, the relationship remained significant in Germany, Iceland, The Netherlands, Poland, and UK. Conclusions Seeing smoking in movies is a predictor of smoking onset in various cultural contexts. The results confirm that limiting young people’s exposure to movie smoking might be an effective way to decrease adolescent smoking onset. PMID:23498098

  6. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  7. Intergenerational Patterns of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental and adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States. Methods. We used data from the 2004 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which ascertained smoking behaviors of 1 parent and 1 adolescent aged 12 to 17 years in 35 000 dyads. We estimated associations between parental and adolescent smoking behaviors, adjusted for covariates. Results. Parental current dependence was strongly associated with adolescents’ lifetime smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47, 3.55), whereas parental current nondependent smoking (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.92, 2.67) and former smoking (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.75) were less strongly associated. Only parental nicotine dependence was associated with adolescent nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.74). Associations between parental and adolescent smoking did not differ by race/ethnicity. Parents’ education, marital status, and parenting and adolescents' mental health, beliefs about smoking, perception of schoolmates’ smoking, and other substance use predicted adolescent smoking and dependence. Conclusions. Reducing parental smoking would reduce adolescent smoking. Prevention efforts should encourage parental smoking cessation, improve parenting, address adolescent mental health, and reinforce adolescents' negative beliefs about smoking. PMID:26378847

  8. Adolescents' protection motivation and smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The protection motivation theory (PMT) is a well-known theory of behaviour change. This study tested the applicability of the sub-constructs of threat and coping appraisal in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intentions and smoking behaviour longitudinally. Adolescents (N = 494) aged 11-16 years and not currently smoking at baseline participated in the study. Predictive validity of PMT constructs was tested in a path analysis model. Self-efficacy significantly predicted behavioural intention at baseline, which significantly predicted behavioural intention at follow-up, which in turn predicted smoking behaviour at follow-up. The effect of self-efficacy on behavioural intention at follow-up was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and the effect of self-efficacy on smoking behaviour was mediated by behavioural intention at baseline and follow-up. In conclusion, we found support for one part of the PMT, namely for the predictive validity of the coping appraisal construct self-efficacy in predicting adolescents' smoking-related behavioural intention and smoking behaviour. These results fail to support the appropriateness of the PMT's construct threat appraisal in longitudinally predicting adolescents' smoking as well as the applicability of communicating fear and negative information as preventive interventions for this target group.

  9. Are Anti-Smoking Parenting Practices Related to Adolescent Smoking Cognitions and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior by showing the mediating effects of cognitions. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control condition of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA). Anti-smoking parenting…

  10. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  11. Patterns of Change in Adolescent Smoking Behavior and Results of a One Year Follow-up of a Smoking Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Rodney M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A smoking prevention program consisting of eight one-hour sessions was conducted with seventh- and eighth-grade students focusing on resisting peer pressure and understanding the role of mass media in encouraging smoking. One year after the program, the proportion of nonsmoking students remained higher among program participants. (FG)

  12. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed.

  13. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  14. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  15. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  16. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  17. The role of cognitive attributions for smoking in subsequent smoking progression and regression among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Unger, Jennifer B; Palmer, Paula H; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have documented that cognitive attributions are correlated with adolescent smoking. The present study further explored whether cognitive attributions for smoking influenced adolescents' future smoking behaviors, especially transitions to more advanced stages of smoking. Participants were 12,382 middle and high school students (48.5% males and 51.5% females) in seven large cities in China. They completed two waves of surveys one year apart. Cognitive attributions for smoking and three smoking behavior outcomes (lifetime smoking, past 30-day smoking, and daily smoking) were assessed. Changes in smoking, including progression from lower stages to higher stages and regression from higher stages to lower stages, over a one-year period, were defined longitudinally. Polychotomous logistic regression was used to examine associations between cognitive attributions for smoking and changes in smoking status over one year, adjusting for demographic characteristics and other plausible confounders. Seven out of eight cognitive attributions for smoking were associated with subsequent smoking behaviors (p<0.05). Curiosity, autonomy, social image, social belonging, and coping influenced earlier stages of smoking, whereas mental enhancement and engagement influenced later stages of smoking. Curiosity, autonomy, social image, and mental enhancement preceded smoking progression; social belonging prevented smoking regression; and coping and engagement both preceded smoking progression and prevented smoking regression. This study demonstrates that different cognitive attributions influence smoking at different stages in different ways. These findings could inform smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Chinese adolescents.

  18. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of Adolescent Psychosocial Smoking Prevention Programs Published between 1978 and 1997 in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Myunghee Song; Yeagley, Kathleen Lux; Petosa, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial smoking prevention studies have shown inconsistent results and theory-driven programs have been related to program success. This meta-analysis was used as a judgment tool for resolving these issues by estimating average program effects and investigating the relative efficacy of program types. The present study examined 65 adolescent…

  20. The power of policy: the relationship of smoking policy to adolescent smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Pentz, M A; Brannon, B R; Charlin, V L; Barrett, E J; MacKinnon, D P; Flay, B R

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the effects of smoking policy on 4,807 adolescents in 23 schools over a two-county area in California. Amounts and prevalence rates of adolescent smoking were measured with a self-report survey and a biochemical measure; school smoking policy was measured with two independent surveys of school staff. Policy effects were evaluated with multiple and logistic regression analyses controlling for school-level socioeconomic status and environmental support for teaching and administration. Of the 23 schools, 100 percent had a formal written and regularly enforced policy component restricting student smoking on school grounds, 94 percent restricted students leaving school grounds, 65 percent restricted smoking near school grounds, and 57 percent had a smoking prevention education plan. Schools with policies having all four versus less than four components, high versus low emphasis on prevention, and a low versus high emphasis on cessation reported lower amounts of smoking in the last week and in the last 24 hours. Punitive consequences of policy violation had no effect. Results were compared to school staff observations of adolescent smoking, and school archival records of student smoking violations in the last year. Results suggest that school smoking policy is associated with decreased amounts of smoking in adolescents. PMID:2735472

  1. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  2. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  3. Cognitions about smoking and not smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    ter Doest, Laura; Dijkstra, Arie; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Vitale, Salvatore

    2009-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior identifies important proximal determinants of behavior, including attitude toward the behavior, perception of subjective norms exerted by significant others, and perception of perceived control over performance of the behavior. Because research in the planned behavior tradition has focused on desirable target behaviors, it is not clear how these determinants can best be conceptualized to account for adolescents' acquisition of health risk behaviors such as smoking. This cross-sectional study compared the explanatory power of planned behavior constructs assessed in relation to "smoking" and "not smoking" in a sample of 248 Dutch secondary students (aged 12 to 17 years; 56% girls). The results indicated that four variables--attitude toward smoking, perceived subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control over both smoking and not smoking--best explained the adolescents' smoking intentions and smoking behavior. Methodological and practical implications for smoking interventions are discussed.

  4. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  5. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  6. [Prevention of coronary heart disease: smoking].

    PubMed

    Heitzer, T; Meinertz, T

    2005-01-01

    antithrombotic vs prothrombotic factors, and decrease of fibrinolytic activity. Given the enormous health hazard of tobacco use, complete abstinence from smoking should be achieved. Smoking cessation counselling should be given to healthy subjects and even more vigorously to patients with manifested disease. Every effort should be undertaken to prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke. Brief tobacco dependence treatment is effective, and every smoker should be offered at least brief treatment at every office visit. More intensive treatment is more effective in producing long-term abstinence from tobacco. Nicotine replacement therapy (nicotine patches or gum), clinician-delivered social support, and skills training are the three most effective components of smoking cessation treatment. A framework for tobacco control measures is necessary to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke. Recommendations on specific tobacco control interventions are: 1. increase in tobacco taxes; 2. comprehensive tobacco advertising bans; 3. legislation prohibiting smoking in work and public places; 4. prohibiting the sales of tobacco products to persons under 18; 5. comprehensive disclosure of the physical, chemical and design characteristics of all tobacco products; 6. training of health professionals to promote smoking prevention and cessation interventions; and 7. development of a national network of smoking cessation treatment services.

  7. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  8. Improving measurement of normative beliefs involving smoking among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Switzer, Galen E.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify different components of smoking normative beliefs and determine if each component is independently associated with two clinically relevant measures of smoking in adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting One large suburban high school. Participants 1211 high school students aged 14–18. Main outcome measures Current smoking and susceptibility to smoking. Results Nineteen percent (N=216) of students reported current smoking, and 40% (N=379) of the non-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Factor analysis identified three normative beliefs constructs, labeled “perceived prevalence of smoking,” “perceived popularity of smoking among elite/successful elements of society,” and “disapproval of smoking by parents/peers.” On average, students felt that 56% of people in the US smoke cigarettes. Twenty-four percent (24%) believed that wealthy people smoke more than poor people. Multiple logistic regression showed that each of the three constructs was independently associated with current smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.08; Adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.23; Adjusted OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.75; respectively) even after controlling for covariates. Students’ perceptions of smoking among successful/elite and disapproval by parents/peers were independently associated with susceptibility to future smoking (Adjusted OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.29; Adjusted OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.79, 0.96; respectively). Conclusions Adolescents’ normative beliefs about smoking are multidimensional and include at least three distinct components, each of which was independently related to smoking outcomes. These distinct components should be considered in the design and evaluation of programs related to prevention and cessation of adolescent smoking. PMID:17485617

  9. Variation in the Sustained Effects of the Communities That Care Prevention System on Adolescent Smoking, Delinquency, and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, J. David; Fagan, Abigail A.; Abbott, Robert D.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls’ and boys’ problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p=0.08) larger for boys than for girls. PMID:23412948

  10. Variation in the sustained effects of the communities that care prevention system on adolescent smoking, delinquency, and violence.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls' and boys' problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p = 0.08) larger for boys than for girls.

  11. The Minnesota Smoking Prevention Program: A Seventh Grade Health Curriculum Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkin, Rise Morgenstern; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Two approaches to smoking prevention directed at adolescents were tested as a possible supplement to the seventh-grade health curriculum. A peer-led approach focused on the social influences which encourage smoking and on the immediate consequences of smoking. The second approach focused on the long-term health risks of smoking. Both approaches…

  12. [Tobacco prevention. The "smoke-free" youth campaign].

    PubMed

    Lang, P; Strunk, M

    2010-02-01

    The sharp increase of adolescent tobacco consumption between 1990 and 2001 and the national health target "reducing tobacco consumption" were two main reasons for the increased prevention measures of the Federal Center for Health Education in promoting non-smoking among young people. This article focuses on the offers and measures of the "smoke-free" youth campaign from the Federal Center for Health Education. To promote non-smoking in adolescence, the Federal Center for Health Education started the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2002 and has continuously expanded it through the present. The campaign is based on a goal-oriented planning process and is predominantly directed towards adolescents younger than 18 years. To achieve national effects in the target group, concerted measures ranging from mass media (television/cinema spots, advertisement), internet, and face-to-face communication--with a focus on school--were implemented. Simultaneous with the start of the "smoke-free" youth campaign in 2001, there is evidence for continuous reduction of the smoking prevalence of adolescents. The rate of smoking adolescents between 12 and 17 years decreased from 28% in 2001 to 15% in 2008, thus, reaching an all-time low.

  13. Longitudinal associations between smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Beal, Sarah J; Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Pabst, Stephanie; Schulenberg, John

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is an important period for initiation of smoking and manifestation of depression, which are often comorbid. Researchers have examined associations between depressive symptoms and smoking to elucidate whether those with increased depressive symptoms smoke more to self-medicate, whether those who smoke experience increased subsequent depressive symptoms, or both. Collectively, there have been mixed findings; however, studies have been limited by (1) cross-sectional or short-term longitudinal data or (2) the use of methods that test associations, or only one direction in the associations, rather than a fully-reciprocal model to examine directionality. This study examined the associations between smoking and depressive symptoms in a sample of adolescent girls using latent dual change scores to model (1) the effect of smoking on change in depressive symptoms, and simultaneously (2) the effect of depressive symptoms on change in smoking across ages 11-20. Data were from a cohort-sequential prospective longitudinal study (N = 262). Girls were enrolled by age cohort (11, 13, 15, and 17 years) and were primarily White (61 %) or African American (31 %). Data were restructured by age. Every 6 months, girls reported depressive symptoms and cigarette use. Results indicated that controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, higher levels of smoking predicted a greater increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence. These findings suggest that a higher level of cigarette smoking does contribute to more depressive symptoms, which has implications for prevention of depression and for intervention and future research.

  14. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  15. Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Percentage of U.S. Adolescents Who Smoke Cigarettes Tobacco use is the leading ... This measure is calculated by the Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease ...

  16. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  17. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27136374

  18. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  20. Adolescent cancer survivors’ smoking intentions are associated with aggression, attention, and smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Tyc, Vida L.; Wilson, Stephanie J.; Nelms, Jenna; Hudson, Melissa M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The present study examines behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with smoking intentions and experimentation among adolescent survivors of pediatric cancer. Methods Adolescent survivors of brain tumor and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=99) provided information about their smoking histories and their intentions to smoke in the future. Behavior rating scales were completed by survivors, parents, and teachers. Results Past experimentation with smoking and higher levels of self-reported aggression were associated with intentions to smoke in the future (OR=4.18, 95%CI 1.02–17.04, and OR=1.08, 95% CI 1.01–1.15, respectively), while teacher-ratings of inattention in the classroom were negatively associated with intentions to smoke (OR=0.94, 95% CI.88–.99), all p<.05. Experimentation with smoking was more likely among older survivors (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.16–2.66, p<.01) and those whose parents had divorced (OR=4.40, 95% CI 1.21–16.06, p<.05). Discussion A concerning minority of adolescent survivors have clear intentions to smoke, a behavior that adds to their overall health risk. Smoking intentions and experimentation are important precursors to regular smoking. Prevention efforts are needed to interrupt the progression from intentions and experimentation to established smoking and nicotine dependence in this medically vulnerable population. Implications for cancer survivors Assessment of an adolescent’s history of parental divorce, past experimentation with smoking, and aggressive behavior will identify those survivors who are likely to consider smoking in the future. Screening for these characteristics will allow clinicians to be more vigilant in health promotion. PMID:20922493

  1. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting. PMID:15925127

  2. A longitudinal test of the theory of planned behavior predicting smoking onset among asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van De Ven, Monique O M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J J M

    2007-10-01

    Despite the particularly detrimental health risks of smoking for adolescent with asthma, several studies demonstrated higher smoking rates among asthmatic adolescents than among healthy adolescents. To gain insight into underlying mechanisms, longitudinal studies on differences in smoking predictors between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents are essential. This longitudinal study with two waves with an 18 months interval tests the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) among 346 asthmatic adolescents and 3,733 non-asthmatic adolescents aged 12-16 years. Structural equation models were used to test the predictive value of the TPB in these two groups. The results show, consistent with the TPB, that smoking-related cognitions (attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm) predict smoking onset via intention among both asthmatic and non-asthmatic adolescents. The TPB predicted smoking onset even stronger among adolescents with asthma. These findings may contribute to the development of tailored interventions for the prevention of smoking among asthmatic adolescents.

  3. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  4. A Critique of Evaluated Adolescent Smoking Cessation Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Warren R.; Smith, Katrina M.

    2002-01-01

    Rates of adolescent smoking appear to be on the increase, with a number of authors documenting increases in the 1990's. However, the issue of prevention rather than cessation has received greater attention in tobacco control programmes among youth. This review provides details of published school based and other tobacco cessation programmes for…

  5. Attitudes of Senegalese schoolgoing adolescents towards tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, W; Vandewiele, M

    1983-08-01

    Results show that tobacco smoking is a widespread phenomenon among Senegalese adolescents for several important reasons: economic (the intensive advertisement campaigns in favor of tobacco smoking), cultural (the ambivalence of traditional attitudes of Western urbanization, and the attractiveness of the Western way of life), psychological (the traumas of modernism on a basically poor developing country). Despite this alarming picture, signs point to an effective preventive strategy aimed mainly at schoolgoing adolescents and based on joint legal, scientific, cultural, and even religious action. PMID:24306312

  6. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco. PMID:24157424

  7. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco.

  8. Adolescents' perceptions of smoking and stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Scales, Monica B; Monahan, Jennifer L; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-08-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they suggested that the primary reasons why they smoked-namely, as a coping mechanism (to calm nerves), for social acceptance, and because of environmental influences. Family issues, boyfriend/girlfriend problems, and school were common stressors. Although participants overwhelmingly believed that people smoke to reduce their stress, a few believed that cigarettes do not actually reduce stress. When asked for examples of smoking in popular media, teens predominantly generated examples of individuals smoking to reduce stress. Ethnic and gender differences were found among the types of media in which they had seen smoking, their opinions of anti-smoking messages, and the media's perceived influence.

  9. Smoking in Hollywood movies: impact on teen smoking with special reference to German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies that have linked exposure to movie smoking and smoking initiation among adolescents. Much of the research linking exposure to smoking to movies with adolescent smoking comes from studies of U.S. children and their exposure to smoking in Hollywood movies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have assessed such exposure and have found a strong, independent association with smoking onset. A first study conduced in Germany reveals that smoking in internationally distributed movies is a risk factor for ever and current smoking among European adolescents, too. It is concluded that limiting exposure of young adolescents to movie smoking could have important world-wide public health implications.

  10. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Smoking and Stress Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Monica B.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they…

  12. Choosing Adolescent Smokers as Friends: The Role of Parenting and Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years) during spring 2006. Follow-up was conducted 12…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking and Their Correlates From Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Maria; Tucker, Joan S.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Klein, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking initiation typically occurs in adolescence and increases over time into emerging adulthood. Thus adolescence and emerging adulthood compose a critical time period for prevention and intervention efforts. To inform these efforts, this study used latent growth mixture modeling to identify 6 smoking trajectories from ages 13 to 23 among 5,914…

  14. Examining Hookah Smoking Among a Cohort of Adolescent Ever Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Mermelstein, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Evidence suggests that hookah smoking is growing among adolescents, particularly among those with a history of cigarette smoking, and is an emerging public health concern. We examined hookah use and its correlates among a sample of adolescents who have ever smoked and may be considered high risk for hookah use. Methods: We examined differences between hookah users and nonusers among a cohort of 951 adolescents (75.3% of the baseline sample, mean age 17.6 years at 24 months), consisting exclusively of youth who reported ever smoking cigarettes who were participating in a longitudinal study of adolescent smoking predictors and patterns. Ever and 30-day hookah use were assessed at 24 months. Results: Of the 951 participants, 58.5% reported ever use and 30.2% reported smoking hookah at least 1 day in the past 30 days. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that 30-day hookah use was associated with sex (p < .05); race (p < .001); current cigarette (p < .0001), cigar (p < .01), kretek (p < .05), and alcohol use (p < .01); and attending a hookah bar, lounge, or restaurant (p < .001). Participants who were male, White, and were concurrent users of multiple tobacco products and other substances had increased odds of 30-day hookah use. Conclusions: Prevalence of hookah use is high among youth who have already tried cigarette smoking and is associated with a variety of tobacco and other substance use behaviors. Evidence-based programs may be needed to prevent initiation of or reduce Hookah smoking, as well as address cooccurring problem behaviors, to lessen the health risks associated with use among adolescents. PMID:21896886

  15. Adolescent mental health as a risk factor for adolescent smoking onset

    PubMed Central

    Hockenberry, Jason M; Timmons, Edward J; Weg, Mark W Vander

    2011-01-01

    Smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable deaths and rates of trying cigarettes and progression to daily smoking among adolescents continues to remain high. A plethora of risk factors for smoking among adolescents has been addressed in the research literature. One that is gaining particular interest is the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking (both initiation and progression). This paper reviews the evidence for adolescent mental health as a risk factor for cigarette smoking. We focus on the specific mental health conditions that have been more thoroughly addressed as possible risk factors in community-dwelling adolescents. We discuss the multiple hypotheses that have been posited as to the nature of the relationship between adolescent mental health and smoking, as well as detailing so called third factors that may account for the observed relationship. We highlight the contribution of the existing studies to the body of knowledge on this topic, as well as the limitations and open questions that remain as a result. We conclude with discussion of a broad research agenda going forward. PMID:24600273

  16. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Cognitive Attributions of Smoking in Thai and South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Park, Sunhee; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Park, Hyunju; Kemeny, Maria; Philips, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the cognitive attributions of smoking has the potential to advance youth smoking prevention efforts; however, research on this subject is limited in Asian countries. We attempted to determine the degree to which cognitive attributions of smoking differ among adolescents in 2 Asian countries, Thailand and South Korea.…

  17. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents.

  18. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  19. Smoking Prevention Strategies for Urban and Minority Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Urban areas are the sites of many smoking prevention strategies targeting special populations. This digest provides an overview of these initiatives. Adolescents smoke for the same reasons that they use alcohol and other drugs. Personal factors that contribute to risk are enhanced by tobacco company advertising that makes smoking seem attractive.…

  20. Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists' Practices in Assisting Their Adolescent Patients Who Smoke to Quit Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Sidani, Jaime E.; Price, Joy A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This national study examined the practices and perceptions of smoking cessation activities among child and adolescent psychiatrists. Method: A random sample of child and adolescent psychiatrists was identified from the membership list of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and was mailed a valid and reliable 34-item…

  1. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  2. Smoking Prevention Program for Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oei, Tian P. S.; Fea, Annette

    1987-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding factors associated with children's initiation into smoking and examines efficacy of health education programs in preventing smoking in children. Though using peer leaders as health educators has been successful, parent-implemented health prevention programs aiming at children at younger ages may be more effective in…

  3. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  4. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  5. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  6. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  7. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  8. Perceptions of Second-hand Smoke Risks Predict Future Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Glantz, Stanton A.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To directly test whether perceptions of second-hand smoke risks deter adolescent smoking initiation. Methods A longitudinal survey design was utilized in this study. Baseline surveys measuring perceptions of tobacco-related risks and smoking behaviors were administered to 395 high school students, with three follow-up assessments every 6 months. Results Perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks and parental second-hand smoke risks significantly deterred adolescent smoking initiation. Perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks reduced the odds of smoking by a factor of 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42–0.94) for each quartile increase in perceptions of personal second-hand smoke risks. Adolescents who provided the highest estimates of risks for personal second-hand smoke were 0.25 as likely to smoke as adolescents who provided the lowest estimates of risk. Perceptions of parental second-hand smoke risks reduced the odds of smoking by a factor of 0.64 (95% CI = 0.43–0.93) for each quartile increase. Adolescents who perceived the highest estimates of risks associated with parental second-hand smoke were 0.26 as likely to smoke in the future compared to adolescents who provided the lowest estimates of risk. These effects are over three times as large as a smoking peer’s influence on a nonsmoking adolescents’ risk for smoking initiation, odds ratio [OR] = 1.18 (95% CI = 1.02–1.35). Conclusions Adolescent perceptions of risks of second-hand smoke are strongly associated with smoking initiation. Encouraging adolescents to express their objections to second-hand smoke, as well as encouraging parents to create smoke-free homes, may be powerful tobacco control strategies against adolescent smoking. PMID:19931835

  9. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States.

  10. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  11. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M A

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention.

  12. Exposure to School and Community Based Prevention Programs and Reductions in Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in the United States, 2000-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    Smoking remains prevalent among US youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12-17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use…

  13. Designing an Effective Prevention Program: Principles Underlying the Rand Smoking and Drug Prevention Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.

    This paper describes the Project ALERT program (Adolescent Learning Experiences in Resistance Training) which was established by the Rand Corporation to prevent smoking and drug use among seventh graders. The program is based on the social influence model of drug use initiation. Curriculum features are described including motivation to resist and…

  14. Influence of rural non-smoking adolescents' sense of coherence and exposure to household smoking on their commitment to a smoke-free lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Rantao, Masego M

    2013-06-01

    This 18-month longitudinal study examined the influence of adolescents' sense of coherence (SOC) and exposure to household smoking on their commitment to a smoke-free lifestyle. This study investigated a representative sample of 8th graders from 21 randomly selected high schools in the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa (n = 2,119). Of the total sample of 2,119 participants, 294 (14%) reported smoking at baseline and were therefore excluded from further analysis. Of those who did not smoke at baseline, 98.1% (n = 1,767) reported no intention of smoking in the upcoming 12 months. Of those who completed follow-up and had no intention of smoking at baseline (n = 1,316), 89.1% still did not smoke and remained committed to being smoke-free. Having a lower SOC, reporting alcohol binge-drinking at baseline, and having a household member who regularly smokes indoors (OR = 0.46: 0.26-0.82), as compared to not having any smoker in the household, were associated with lower odds of honoring a commitment to a smoke-free lifestyle. Furthermore, those who identified themselves as black Africans, as opposed to belonging to other race groups, were more likely to maintain a smoke-free lifestyle. Our findings suggest that interventions to prevent adolescent smoking should prioritize stress-coping skills and promote smoke-free homes. PMID:23765190

  15. Perceptions of Smoking and Nonsmoking Peers: The Value of Smoker and Nonsmoker Prototypes in Predicting Smoking Onset and Regular Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spijkerman, Renske; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of persons their age who smoke cigarettes (also known as prototypes of smoking peers) play a critical role in an adolescent's decision to start smoking. However, adolescents' perceptions of their peers who do not smoke (prototypes of nonsmoking peers) could be implicated in adolescents' smoking decisions as well. In the…

  16. Peer beliefs and smoking in adolescence: A longitudinal social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ragan, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Peer smoking is one of the strongest predictors of adolescent cigarette use, but less is known about whether other peer characteristics also contribute to this behavior. Objectives This study examines the links between adolescent cigarette use and peer beliefs about smoking. It tests whether peer beliefs about smoking are associated with changes in cigarette use, whether this association is a result of changes in individual beliefs about smoking, and how beliefs inform friendship choices. Methods Analyses draw on data collected from 29 school-based networks, each measured at five occasions as students moved from 6th through 9th grade, as part of the study of the PROSPER partnership model. Longitudinal social network models provide estimates of friendship selection and behavior for an average of 6,200 students at each measurement point and more than 9,000 students overall. Results Peer beliefs about smoking influence cigarette use both directly and through their impact on individual beliefs. Respondents tend to name friends whose beliefs about smoking are similar to their own, and the likelihood of being named as a friend is higher for those who report more positive beliefs about smoking. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that peer beliefs about smoking, in addition to peer cigarette use itself, are associated with adolescent smoking through several mechanisms. Because beliefs favorable to cigarette use are present before adolescents actually smoke, these results underscore the importance of implementing smoking prevention programs in early adolescence. PMID:26809592

  17. Influence and Selection Processes in Friendships and Adolescent Smoking Behaviour: The Role of Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Vitaro, Frank; Blokland, Endy Den Exter; de Kemp, Raymond; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2004-01-01

    Concerning the role of parental smoking on development of adolescent smoking, most studies have exclusively focused on the direct effects of parents' smoking on youths' smoking. However, parental smoking may also play an indirect role by affecting youths' susceptibility to peer influences and by affecting friendship selection. Data were from a…

  18. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  19. Exposure to Smoking Imagery in Popular Films and Adolescent Smoking in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Sargent, James D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking imagery in films is consistently associated with smoking behavior and its psychological antecedents among adolescents in high-income countries, but its association with adolescent smoking in middle-income countries is unknown. Methods In 2006, a cross-sectional sample of 3876 Mexican adolescents in secondary school was surveyed on smoking behavior, smoking risk factors, and exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking. Participants were classified into quartiles of exposure to smoking imagery across all films they reported having seen. Models were estimated to determine associations among quartiles of film-smoking exposure, smoking behavior, and the psychological antecedents of smoking, adjusting for age, gender, sensation seeking, self-esteem, parental smoking, sibling smoking, best-friend smoking, having a bedroom TV, and private versus public school attendance. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Adolescents were exposed to an average of 51.7 (SE=1.3) minutes of smoking in the films they viewed. Crude and adjusted ORs indicated positive associations between quartiles of film-smoking exposure and both current smoking (AOR4v1=3.13; p<0.0001) and having ever smoked (AOR4v1=2.42; p<0.0001). Data from never-smokers (n=2098) were analyzed to determine associations between film-smoking exposure and psychological antecedents of smoking uptake. Crude and adjusted coefficients indicated significant, positive associations between exposure and susceptibility to smoking (AOR4v1=1.66; p<0.05); favorable attitudes toward smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.44; p<0.0001); and perceived peer prevalence of smoking (Adjusted B4v1=0.26; p<0.0001). Conclusions Exposure to smoking in films appears associated with smoking among Mexican adolescents. Policies could aim to decrease youth exposure to smoking in nationally and internationally distributed films. PMID:18617078

  20. Perceptions of Smoking-Related Risks and Benefits as Predictors of Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Anna V.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Cornell, Jodi L.; Ramos, Malena E.; Biehl, Michael; Kropp, Rhonda Y.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive value of perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits with regard to adolescent smoking initiation has not been adequately established. We used prospective, longitudinal data to directly test whether smoking-related perceptions predict smoking initiation among adolescents. Methods. We administered surveys assessing perceptions of smoking-related risks and benefits to 395 high school students, beginning at the start of their ninth-grade year. We conducted follow-up assessments every 6 months until the end of 10th grade, obtaining 4 waves of data. Results. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of long-term smoking-related risks were 3.64 times more likely to start smoking than were adolescents who held the highest perceptions of risk. Adolescents who held the lowest perceptions of short-term smoking-related risks were 2.68 times more likely to initiate. Adolescents who held the highest perceptions of smoking-related benefits were 3.31 times more likely to initiate. Conclusions. Findings from this study provide one of the first sets of empirical evidence to show that smoking initiation is directly related to smoking-related perceptions of risks and benefits. Thus, efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should continue to communicate the health risks of smoking and counteract perceptions of benefits associated with smoking. PMID:19106420

  1. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  2. Interactivity and Equifinality of Risks for Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Adrian B.; Jackson-Carroll, Courtney J.

    2007-01-01

    Key psychosocial risks associated with adolescent smoking are well established. However, the ways in which the key risks of impulsivity, peer cigarette smoking, and self-reported use of alcohol interact to predict adolescent cigarette smoking is largely unknown. A sample of 210 Australian middle high school students aged 14-16 completed…

  3. Prospective Use of Psychosocial Factors to Predict Cigarette Smoking in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Jill Mestel; And Others

    In order to prevent cigarette smoking in young adolescents, the factors which cause it need to be better understood. A study was conducted to investigate the contribution of three psychosocial factors, suggested by previous theory and research, on smoking in a longitudinal sample of seventh graders (N=3,940) who were studied again in the eighth…

  4. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  5. Starting young? Children's experiences of trying smoking during pre-adolescence.

    PubMed

    Milton, Beth; Woods, S E; Dugdill, L; Porcellato, L; Springett, R J

    2008-04-01

    Although the risks smoking poses to health are now well known, many young people continue to take up the habit. While numerous cross-sectional studies of adolescents have identified correlates of smoking initiation, much less prospective, longitudinal research has been conducted with young children to gather their accounts of early experiences of smoking, and this study fills that significant gap. Quantitative and qualitative data, collected using questionnaires, interviews and focus groups, are presented from the pre-adolescent phase of the Liverpool Longitudinal Study of Smoking. By age 11, 27% of the cohort had tried smoking, 13% had smoked repeatedly and 3% were smoking regularly. Rates of experimentation increased over time. Qualitative data revealed that curiosity and the role of peers were central to children's accounts of early smoking. By pre-adolescence, children are at different stages in their smoking careers, therefore interventions must be targeted to their varied experiences. Current prevention strategies often focus on restricting access to cigarettes, but a broad range of intervention measures is required which take account of the multifactorial nature of smoking onset. To be effective, policies that aim to prevent smoking must be grounded in children's lived experiences.

  6. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  7. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention and anti-smoking activists;…

  8. Time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on adolescent smoking regularity

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Dierker, Lisa C.; Rose, Jennifer S.; Hedeker, Donald; Tan, Xianming; Li, Runze; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on the regularity of adolescent smoking behavior. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which followed adolescent smokers over 5 assessment waves spanning 48 months. Participants included former experimenters (smoked <100 cigarettes/lifetime but did not smoke in past 90 days), recent experimenters (smoked <100 cigarettes/lifetime and smoked in past 90 days), and current smokers (smoked >100 cigarettes/lifetime and smoked in past 30 days). Mixed-effects regression models were run to examine the time-varying effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence on regularity of smoking behavior, as measured by number of days smoked. Results Smoking quantity and nicotine dependence were each found to be significantly associated with regularity of adolescent smoking and the size of each effect exhibited significant variation over time. The effect of smoking quantity decreased across time for each smoking group, while the effect of nicotine dependence increased across time for former and recent experimenters. By the 48-month follow-up, the effects of smoking quantity and nicotine dependence had each stabilized across groups. Conclusions This study reveals that smoking quantity and nicotine dependence are not static risk factors for the development of more regular smoking patterns. At low levels of smoking when nicotine dependence symptoms are less common, smoking quantity is a stronger predictor of increased regularity of smoking, while for more experienced smokers, nicotine dependence predicts further increases in regularity. PMID:22995764

  9. Influences of Tobacco Advertising Exposure and Conduct Problems on Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescent Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males’ excess risk for conduct problems and females’ susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents’ exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Methods: Adolescents completed baseline (2001–2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007–2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. Results: At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. Conclusions: The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted. PMID:24590388

  10. [Surgical smoke: risks and preventive measures].

    PubMed

    Carbajo-Rodríguez, Hilario; Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Soria-Aledo, Víctor; García-López, Concepción

    2009-05-01

    The application of the advanced technologies in medicine has led to the appearance of new risk factors for health personnel. One of these could be the surgical smoke produced by electrosurgical instruments, ultrasounds or laser. However, there is still insufficient evidence in the published population studies on the detrimental effects of chronic exposure to surgical smoke. The main concern on the possible damage to the health of operating room staff is mainly based on the components currently detected until the date and laboratory experiments. Caution must also be used when extrapolating the results of in vitro studies to daily clinical practice. The organisations responsible for protecting the health of the workers in different countries have still not issued guidelines for the treatment and removal of the surgical smoke generated in both open and laparoscopic procedures. In this article we try to present a view of the consequences that surgical smoke has on health and the preventive measures that can be adopted. PMID:19376504

  11. The Myth of Peer Influence in Adolescent Smoking Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-01-01

    The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as…

  12. Intrapersonal and Ecodevelopmental Factors Associated with Smoking in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…

  13. Social Influences on Adolescents' Smoking Progress: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min Qi; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Reports a study that examined social factors which might predict adolescent smoking transition from nonsmoking or experimental to more advanced stages. Data from teens who participated in the Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey indicated that best friends' smoking status was the only factor that consistently predicted adolescent smoking…

  14. The myth of peer influence in adolescent smoking initiation.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen

    2007-08-01

    The widespread belief that peer influence is the primary cause of adolescent smoking initiation is examined and called into question. Correlational and longitudinal studies purporting to demonstrate peer influence are analyzed, and their limitations described. Qualitative interview studies of adolescent smoking initiation are presented as depicting the more complex role of the peer context. Finally, a new model of the role of peers in smoking initiation is offered, with an emphasis on how adolescents' characteristics lead to the selection of their friends, who then provide a peer context that may or may not support smoking.

  15. Knowledge about the Deleterious Effects of Smoking and Its Relationship to Smoking Cessation among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Susan A.; Higgins, Linda W.; Lebow, Howard

    2000-01-01

    Examines adolescents' knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking on pregnant women and fetuses and its relationship to efforts to quit smoking with a sample of pregnant adolescents (N=71). A three-group randomized intervention design -- Teen FreshStart, Teen Freshstart with buddy, and usual care control -- was used. Results show that…

  16. Own and Friends' Smoking Attitudes and Social Preference as Early Predictors of Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Roy; Wanner, Brigitte; Vitaro, Frank; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of friends' attitudes in adolescent smoking (N = 203). Growth mixture modeling was used to identify three trajectories of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 14 years: a "low-rate" group, an "increasing-rate" group, and a "high-rate" group. Adolescents' own and their friends' attitudes at age 11 years were not…

  17. Evaluation of School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabors, Laura; Iobst, Emily A.; McGrady, Meghan E.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of individuals who will become "smokers" begin smoking during their teenage years. Schools are optimal settings for relaying messages about health risks associated with smoking and for implementing smoking prevention programs. This article presents successful components of smoking prevention programs, describes the evaluation process,…

  18. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  19. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed.

  20. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  1. Movie Character Smoking and Adolescent Smoking: Who Matters More, Good Guys or Bad Guys?

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah; Gibson, Jennifer; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between smoking onset and exposure to movie smoking according to character type. Methods A longitudinal, random-digit-dial telephone survey of 6522 US adolescents was performed with movie exposure assessed at 4 time points over 24 months. Adolescents were asked whether they had seen a random subsample of recently released movies, for which we identified smoking by major characters and type of portrayal (divided into negative, positive, and mixed/neutral categories). Multivariate hazard regression analysis was used to assess the independent effects of these exposures on the odds of trying smoking. Results By the 24-month follow-up survey, 15.9% of baseline never-smokers had tried smoking. Within the sample of movies, 3848 major characters were identified, of whom 69% were male. Smokers represented 22.8% of 518 negative characters, 13.7% of 2486 positive characters, and 21.1% of 844 mixed/neutral characters. Analysis of the crude relationship showed that episodes of negative character smoking exposure had the strongest influence on smoking initiation. However, because most characters were portrayed as positive, exposure to this category was greatest. When the full population effect of each exposure was modeled, each type of character smoking independently affected smoking onset. There was an interaction between negative character smoking and sensation-seeking with stronger response for adolescents lower in sensation-seeking. Conclusions Character smoking predicts adolescent smoking initiation regardless of character type, which demonstrates the importance of limiting exposure to all movie smoking. Negative character portrayals of smoking have stronger impact on low risk-taking adolescents, undercutting the argument that greater exposure is a marker for adolescent risk-taking behavior. PMID:19564293

  2. [Smoking prevention as a political issue].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, J; López, V

    2001-01-01

    The causes of many health problems such as smoking are beyond individual action. To change them requires the development of interventions dealing with the social factors that cause them, interventions of a political nature. In this paper we review for Spain public policies influencing smoking, with an emphasis on those with greater potential impact (fiscal policies to increase price, and those controlling the promotion and publicity of tobacco products), as well as the role of different government levels in regulation (local, regional central and European). The role of the Central government and of the European Union are crucial today in Spain. Some aspects influencing the adoption of smoking prevention policies (problem definition, private interests, and ideology) are also analyzed, as well as the need for a strategic coalition to promote them. PMID:11423033

  3. [Smoking prevention as a political issue].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, J; López, V

    2001-01-01

    The causes of many health problems such as smoking are beyond individual action. To change them requires the development of interventions dealing with the social factors that cause them, interventions of a political nature. In this paper we review for Spain public policies influencing smoking, with an emphasis on those with greater potential impact (fiscal policies to increase price, and those controlling the promotion and publicity of tobacco products), as well as the role of different government levels in regulation (local, regional central and European). The role of the Central government and of the European Union are crucial today in Spain. Some aspects influencing the adoption of smoking prevention policies (problem definition, private interests, and ideology) are also analyzed, as well as the need for a strategic coalition to promote them.

  4. Factors influencing reductions in smoking among Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dessaix, Anita; Maag, Audrey; McKenzie, Jeanie; Currow, David C

    2016-01-01

    A continued increase in the proportion of adolescents who never smoke, as well as an understanding of factors that influence reductions in smoking among this susceptible population, is crucial. The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate structure to briefly examine Australian and New South Wales policies and programs that are influencing reductions in smoking among adolescents in Australia. This paper provides an overview of price and recent tax measures to reduce the demand for tobacco, the evolution of smoke-free environment policies, changes to tobacco labelling and packaging, public education campaigns, and restrictions to curb tobacco advertising. It also discusses supplyreduction measures that limit adolescents' access to tobacco products. Consideration is given to emerging priorities to achieve continued declines in smoking by Australian adolescents. PMID:26863168

  5. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  6. Cluster Subtypes Appropriate for Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Mary Colleen; Velicer, Wayne F

    2011-01-01

    Objective While the majority of women quit smoking either before or during pregnancy, 60 to 80% relapse in the postpartum period. The objective of this research was to examine postpartum women who quit smoking during their pregnancies and to determine the predictive factors for relapse in the postpartum period by identifying different subgroups that predict risk of relapse. Method One hundred forty four postpartum women who were abstinent at the time of delivery were recruited. Data regarding the Acquisition Stage of Change, Decisional Balance and Situational Temptations to Smoke were assessed in the immediate postpartum period. Based on their intention to remain abstinent, 121 women identified in the acquisition-Precontemplation (aPC) group comprised the study sample. Smoking status was assessed again at 2-months postpartum Results A cluster analysis was performed to idenitfy subgroups of the acquisition-Precontemplation (aPC) group. Four subgroups were identified and were labeled Most Protected, Ambivalent, Risk Denial, and High Risk. Logistic regression was performed to establish external validity of the clusters. The clusters and exclusive breastfeeding were the only statistically significant variables associated with relapse at 2-months postpartum. Conclusions The results confirmed the clusters identified in previous prevention research with both adolescents and postpartum women, The cluster profiles can serve to guide the development of a tailored intervention program. PMID:22136873

  7. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  8. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  9. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Antti J.; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% (n = 376). Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood. PMID:26273640

  10. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  11. The Prevention of Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gladstone, Tracy R.G.; Beardslee, William R.; O’Connor, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis This article provides a conceptual framework for research on the prevention of depression in youth and reviews the recent literature on prevention efforts targeting children and adolescents. Prevention efforts should target both specific and non-specific risk factors, enhance protective factors, use a developmental approach, and target selective and/or indicated samples. In general, a review of the literature indicates that prevention programs utilizing cognitive behavioral and/or interpersonal approaches, and family-based prevention strategies, are most helpful. Overall, it appears that there is reason for hope regarding the role of interventions in preventing depressive disorders in youth. Several new directions for future research on the prevention of depression in youth were outlined. PMID:21333838

  12. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  13. Gambling behaviors and attitudes in adolescent high-school students: Relationships with problem-gambling severity and smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Andrea H.; Franco, Christine A.; Hoff, Rani A.; Pilver, Corey E.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Wampler, Jeremy; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smoking is associated with more severe/extensive gambling in adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between smoking and gambling in adolescents. Methods Analyses utilized survey data from 1,591 Connecticut high-school students. Adolescents were classified by gambling (Low-Risk Gambling [LRG], At Risk/Problem Gambling [ARPG]) and smoking (current smoker, non-smoker). The main effects of smoking and the smoking-by-gambling interactions were examined for gambling behaviors (e.g., type, location), and gambling attitudes. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression; the latter controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, grade, and family structure. Results For APRG adolescents, smoking was associated with greater online, school, and casino gambling; gambling due to anxiety and pressure; greater time spent gambling; early gambling onset; perceived parental approval of gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. For LRG adolescents, smoking was associated with non-strategic gambling (e.g., lottery gambling); school gambling; gambling in response to anxiety; gambling for financial reasons; greater time spent gambling; and decreased importance of measures to prevent teen gambling. Stronger relationships were found between smoking and casino gambling, gambling due to pressure, earlier onset of gambling, and parental perceptions of gambling for ARPG versus LRG adolescents. Discussion Smoking is associated with more extensive gambling for both low- and high-risk adolescent gamblers. Conclusion Smoking may be a marker of more severe gambling behaviors in adolescents and important to consider in gambling prevention and intervention efforts with youth. PMID:25959617

  14. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived. PMID:18165423

  15. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-08-01

    Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (<100 cigarettes/lifetime; N = 594) and light (100+ cigarettes/lifetime, but ≤5 cigarettes/day; N = 152) adolescent smokers. Time-varying effect models were used to examine the relationship between baseline nicotine dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (<16), but stronger at older ages (20-23), relative to light smokers. Additionally, nicotine dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5-16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression. PMID:27312479

  16. Smoking in movies and adolescent smoking: cross-cultural study in six European countries

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Karlsdottir, Solveig; Jonsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the association between exposure to smoking in movies and smoking among youth is independent of cultural context. Method Cross-sectional survey of 16 551 pupils recruited in Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD=1.18) and an equal gender distribution. School-based surveys were conducted between November 2009 and June 2010. Using previously validated methods, exposure to movie smoking was estimated from the 250 top-grossing movies of each country (years 2004–2009) and related to ever smoking. Results Overall, 29% of the sample had tried smoking. The sample quartile (Q) of movie smoking exposure was significantly associated with the prevalence of ever smoking: 14% of adolescents in Q1 had tried smoking, 21% in Q2, 29% in Q3 and 36% in Q4. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, television screen time, number of movies seen, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents and siblings), the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking in the entire sample were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) for adolescents in Q2, 1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.9) for Q3 and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.0) for Q4 compared with Q1. The adjusted relationship between ever smoking and higher movie smoking exposure levels was significant in all countries with a non-linear association in Italy and Poland. Conclusions The link between smoking in movies and adolescent smoking is robust and transcends different cultural contexts. Limiting young people's exposure to movie smoking could have important public health implications. PMID:21873322

  17. Adolescent Reasons for Quitting Smoking: Initial Psychometric Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; MacPherson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Most adolescent smokers report intentions to quit and the majority attempt cessation. Yet, little is known regarding the relationship between adolescent motives for cessation and smoking cessation efforts. To this end, the present study describes an initial evaluation of the psychometric characteristics of the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale (ARFQ), a measure of adolescent motives for smoking cessation. Participants were 109 current smoking high school students assessed at baseline and 6-month follow up. The ARFQ item content and format was developed in a separate qualitative study with 36 high school students who had previously attempted to quit smoking. Exploratory factor analyses of ARFQ items yielded three subscales: short-term consequences, social disapproval, and long-term concerns. Validation analyses were conducted in relation to concurrent intentions to stop smoking and prospective smoking cessation attempts, providing evidence of concurrent, predictive and discriminant validity. In particular, the social disapproval and long-term concern subscales significantly predicted subsequent cessation attempts. As such, the ARFQ may prove valuable for informing interventions to encourage adolescent smoking cessation. PMID:18298239

  18. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  20. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.

  1. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  2. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  3. Measurement of adolescent smoking behavior: rationale and methods.

    PubMed

    Pechacek, T F; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Mittelmark, M B; Johnson, C A; Shutz, J M

    1984-03-01

    The initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents is a health problem which has been the subject of discussion and study for many years. The evaluation of strategies to deter the adoption of smoking has long been hampered by the problems of measuring adolescent smoking behavior. Recently, interest has increased in biochemical measures of smoking under the assumption that they are more objective measures. The validity of this assumption is addressed for several ages of adolescents. This paper presents saliva thiocyanate levels, expired air carbon monoxide levels, and smoking self-reports from a sample of 2200 junior and senior high-school students. Interrelationships among the biochemical and behavioral measures are strong among the total population, ranging from 0.48 to 0.95 (Pearson r) but are much weaker at the younger age levels. Normative levels of carbon monoxide and saliva thiocyanate are presented by age (11-13, 14-15, and 16-17 years old). These data indicate that habitual smoking appears to develop in a gradual fashion and that several years may pass between initial experimentation and adult levels of smoking. Younger students consistently display lower levels of thiocyanate and carbon monoxide than older students of the same self-reported levels of smoking, suggesting that inhalation patterns may vary as a function of age or years smoking.

  4. Does allowing adolescents to smoke at home affect their consumption and dependence?

    PubMed

    Luther, Emily J; Parzynski, Craig S; Jaszyna-Gasior, Maria; Bagot, Kara S; Royo, Marc B; Leff, Michelle K; Moolchan, Eric T

    2008-06-01

    Negative parental attitudes towards smoking decrease adolescent smoking initiation but limited research explores the relationship between parental attitudes and degree of adolescent smoking among established smokers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between parental allowance of smoking in the home and adolescent smoking behavior and level of dependence. Interviews from 408 youths seeking assistance to quit smoking showed that adolescents who were allowed to smoke at home smoked more cigarettes per day and had higher scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence than those not allowed to smoke at home. Studies that additionally evaluate parental smoking status and the temporal relationship of parental allowance of smoking with changes in adolescent smoking behavior are warranted to clarify public health implications of parental smoking interdictions. PMID:18272294

  5. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  6. Development and Validation of the Smoking Expectancy Scale for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Donald W.; Honan, Cynthia A.; Marks, Anthony D. G.; Brettschneider, Karla

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the Smoking Expectancies Scale for Adolescents (SESA) using 717 Australian adolescents (87% nonsmokers, 11% current smokers, and 2% ex-smokers). Exploratory factor analysis of SESA yielded 8 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 8-factor…

  7. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  8. Adolescent preventive services.

    PubMed

    Reif, C J; Elster, A B

    1998-03-01

    Today, there are significant risks to the health of teenagers. Drugs (tobacco, alcohol, steroids and others), sex (pregnancy, STDs, date rape), nutrition (obesity and eating disorders), and violence (abuse, fighting) are unfortunately a part of many teens' lives. These risks increase throughout the teen years. Since each risk has a strong behavioral component, we hope to modify the behavior and minimize the risk. Prevention and health promotion are an important part of health care for teens. Primary care providers, such as family physicians, are in an excellent position to provide teen preventative care that is comprehensive and specific to the needs of each teen. PMID:9469914

  9. Adolescents' Smoking Behaviors, Beliefs on the Risks of Smoking, and Exposure to ETS in Juarez, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Yelena; Moraros, John; Olsen, Larry K.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Thompson, Beti

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the smoking behaviors, beliefs about the risks of smoking, and exposure to ETS among adolescents in Juarez, Mexico. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with sixth-grade students (N=506), aged 11-13 years old, attending 6 randomly selected schools. Schools were classified by school setting and SES. Results:…

  10. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  11. Parental Smoking-Specific Communication, Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Friendship Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Leeuw, Rebecca N. H.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Leeuwe, Jan F. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether parental smoking-specific communication is related to adolescents' friendship-selection processes. Furthermore, we investigated whether adolescents and their best friends influence each other over time, and what role parents play in this process. In the present study we used data from the Family and Health…

  12. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  13. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended. PMID:19570279

  14. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  15. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-05-12

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy.

  16. Prevention and Treatment of Smoking in School Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzzeri, Alfred; Jason, Leonard A.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable erosion of gains have often been found during follow-up periods for behavioral treatment programs directed towards adult smokers. Focusing more attention on preventing smoking among youngsters currently not smoking or reducing smoking among those just beginning the habit might produce more favorable results. (Author)

  17. A prospective test of distal and proximal determinants of smoking initiation in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Scott C; Granillo, Teresa M

    2006-04-01

    This study tests a broad array of determinants of utility for developing smoking preventive interventions using a population-based cohort of early adolescents. Multivariable logistic regressions using never-smokers at baseline (N=1137; age 11-14) showed a model of distal determinants was more predictive of initiation within the approximate 10 month follow up period than one of proximal determinants. When all determinants were simultaneously considered, lesser academic achievement and fewer environmental impediments to smoking most strongly predicted initiation. The findings are consistent with some current smoking prevention programs, however such programs may be further potent by using theory-based social development approaches and through reducing tobacco availability or social contexts where youth can smoke without another adult knowing.

  18. Development and Validation of a Smoking Expectancies Measure for Adolescents Seeking to Quit Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Branstetter, Steven A.; Mercincavage, Melissa; Dino, Geri; Horn, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Background A more comprehensive understanding of factors that affect smoking cessation outcomes among adolescents may help enhance treatment interventions. One promising but underexplored factor that may influence cessation success is teens’ specific expectancies or beliefs about smoking outcomes. The present study evaluated the validity and reliability of a new measure of expectancies and its association with cessation outcomes among 762 adolescent smokers participating in studies of the American Lung Association’s Not-On-Tobacco cessation program. Methods Self-report questionnaires were collected prior to and following participation in a smoking cessation program. Self-reported cigarette use was verified with expired-air carbon monoxide. A multi-step exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and reliability and validity analyses were performed. Results Four theoretically-related yet empirically independent factors were identified by the Smoking Expectancies Questionnaire (SEQ): 1) Positive Reinforcement, 2) Negative Reinforcement / Emotional Regulation, 3) Negative Reinforcement / Addiction and Withdrawal, and 4) Negative Outcomes/Risk. These factors could be subsumed by a single SEQ factor that reflected an overall concept of smoking expectancies relevant for adolescent smoking cessation. An overall SEQ Function score reflecting the balance between positive and negative expectancies predicted both pre-intervention cigarettes per day and cessation outcomes. Conclusions A single, overall SEQ Function score may prove useful for understanding the associations among individual, social and contextual factors in predicting treatment outcomes. Additionally, study findings may assist with modifying smoking expectancies among cessation program participants thereby enhancing treatment outcomes with diverse youth smoking populations. PMID:24635745

  19. Counseling Women on Smoking Relapse Prevention During Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Ann; Britton, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Many women who quit smoking after learning they are pregnant revert back to smoking after birth of their baby. The high rate of recidivism suggests that women need education about risk of relapse and effective strategies to remain smoke free even before they are discharged from the hospital. Despite evidence that smoking cessation and relapse prevention counseling is effective during early postpartum, many nurses do not provide their patients with this important information, perhaps because they feel inadequately prepared to do so. Helping Women Stop Smoking in Pregnancy and Beyond is an education program designed to help perinatal nurses inform women of negative risks of smoking and offer women strategies to avoid the high probability of resuming smoking after birth. It includes evidence-based interventions that can be used by nurses to provide effective smoking relapse prevention counseling to women during postpartum. PMID:27537087

  20. Biomarker evaluation of Greek adolescents' exposure to secondhand smoke.

    PubMed

    Vardavas, C I; Tzatzarakis, M N; Plada, M; Tsatsakis, A M; Papadaki, A; Saris, W H; Moreno, L A; Kafatos, A G

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) is a significant threat to public health, and represents a danger for both the development and health status of children and adolescents. Taking the above into account, our aim was to quantify Greek adolescents' exposure to SHS using serum cotinine levels. During 2006, 341 adolescents aged 13-17 were randomly selected from high schools in Heraklion and agreed to participate as part of the European Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Blood samples were drawn from a random sample of 106 adolescents, while serum cotinine/nicotine concentrations were measured by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean levels of serum cotinine and nicotine were calculated at 1.60 +/- 2.18 ng/mL and 4.48 +/- 4.00 ng/mL, respectively, while 97.7% of the non-smoker adolescents were found to have measureable levels of serum cotinine indicating exposure to SHS. The analysis revealed that their paternal (p = .001) and maternal smoking habits (p = .018) as also the existence of a younger brother or sister (p = .008) were the main modifiers of SHS exposure during adolescence. Conclusively, almost all of the measured Greek adolescents were exposed to SHS, even when their parents were non-smokers. This finding indicates the need for both community and school-based educational programmes as also the implementation of a comprehensive ban on smoking in public places.

  1. Genetic Variation in Dopamine Pathways Differentially Associated with Smoking Progression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Frank, Josef; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Treutlein, Jens; Skowronek, Markus H.; Schumann, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A study examines whether genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associate with smoking progression in adolescence. Results indicate the influence of specific dopamine genes in different stages of smoking progression in adolescents.

  2. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; LaPrelle, J; Brown, J D; Koch, G G; Padgett, C A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings from a field experiment that evaluated mass media campaigns designed to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. METHODS: The campaigns featured radio and television messages on expected consequences of smoking and a component to stimulate personal encouragement of peers not to smoke. Six Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the Southeast United States received campaigns and four served as controls. Adolescents and mothers provided pretest and posttest data in their homes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The radio campaign had a modest influence on the expected consequences of smoking and friend approval of smoking, the more expensive campaigns involving television were not more effective than those with radio alone, the peer-involvement component was not effective, and any potential smoking effects could not be detected. PMID:2014859

  3. Preventing Adolescent Relapse: Concepts, Theories and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.; Ressler, Robert A.

    This chapter discusses adolescent drug abuse relapse prevention. It presents the following four conclusions regarding the efficacy of prevention programs. First, more controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of relapse prevention strategies with adolescents in reducing factors such as cravings and increasing their…

  4. Significant others, knowledge, and belief on smoking as factors associated with tobacco use in italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cosci, Fiammetta; Zagà, Vincenzo; Bertoli, Giuly; Campiotti, Aquilele

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is dramatically increasing among youth. Growing attention has been addressed towards possible predictors of smoking in such a population. We evaluated a sample of Italian adolescents to verify whether adults and peers might influence their smoking status. Cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 schools of North Italy. Data were collected from 2001 to 2010 by means of a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic data and individual/social possible predictors of smoking. 2,444 students (56.7% boys; 43.3% girls; mean = 14.32 ± 1.384 years) were analysed. 607 (24.8%) were current smokers; 1,837 (75.2%) were nonsmokers. The presence of smokers in the family, seeing teachers who smoke, the influence of friends, and the feeling of inferiority were predictors of youth smoking as well as unawareness of nicotine dangerous action to health. Running the logistic multivariate analysis with all the variables listed above in the same model, the strongest predictors of smoking were as follows: being unaware that pipe/cigar is harmful to health as cigarettes; not knowing that passive smoking is harmful to the growth of children; having seen teachers smoking. The present findings help to identify the variables that might favour smoking in youth. Such variables should become the target of prevention programs.

  5. Predictors of Smoking Cessation and Duration: Implication for Smoking Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Etedali, Farshad; Sereshti, Nafiseh; Sabour, Elnaz; Samani, Marzieh Dehghani; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Piri; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Maracy, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are few articles studding the factors associated with successful smoking cessation in Iranian smokers. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between socio-demographic factors and smoking behavior, such as number of failed smoking cessation and duration of abstinence in Iranian population. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey of 673 participants was conducted in a local government health-care center. The questionnaire included items on socio-demographic information including, age, marital status, education, income, and job. Furthermore, information on smoking cigarettes including number of smoking per day, duration of smoking, cigarettes brand, nicotine concentration, and history of cessation was obtained. Results: Mean ± SD of age and daily cigarette consumption were 39.7 ± 1.1 and 22.1 ± 1.1 respectively. Failure rate of smoking cessation was higher in the lower age group (odds ratios [OR] 2.9; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1, 7.7) and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.3, 4.5) and duration of smoking more than 30 years (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.2, 9.3) and foreign cigarette brand (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.7). Length time of cessation was prominent in participants with lower age group (OR 5.4; 95% CI 1.3, 22.1), and less than 10 numbers smoking per day (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.5, 4.9) and lower in smokers with duration of smoking more than 10 and 10-19 years (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.12, 0.89), (OR 0.34; 95% CI 0.17, 0.76), respectively. Conclusions: The above results suggest that there are a significant association between socio-demographic factors and smoking-related behaviors in the Iranian population, consistent with previous reports world-wide. These factors should be considered to have appropriate public-health and policy response. PMID:23776723

  6. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  7. Life Events, Genetic Susceptibility, and Smoking among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pampel, Fred C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Daw, Jonathan; Stallings, Michael C.; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Widaman, Keith F.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Conger, Rand D.

    2015-01-01

    Although stressful life events during adolescence are associated with the adoption of unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, both social circumstances and physical traits can moderate the relationship. This study builds on the stress paradigm and gene-environment approach to social behavior by examining how a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR moderates the effect of life events on adolescent smoking. Tests of interaction hypotheses use data from the Family Transitions Project, a longitudinal study of 7th graders followed for 5 years. A sibling-pair design with separate models for the gender composition of pairs (brothers, sisters, or brother/sister) controls for unmeasured family background. The results show that negative life events are significantly and positively associated with smoking. Among brother pairs but not other pairs, the results provide evidence of gene-environment interaction by showing that life events more strongly influence smoking behavior for those with more copies of the 5-HTTLPR S allele. PMID:26463545

  8. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  9. Adolescent smoking behaviour and cigarette brand preference in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Osaki, Y; Tanihata, T; Ohida, T; Minowa, M; Wada, K; Suzuki, K; Kaetsu, A; Okamoto, M; Kishimoto, T

    2006-01-01

    Objectives As part of efforts to develop a smoking control strategy for Japanese adolescents, the results of two nationwide surveys on adolescent smoking behaviour were compared. Design Descriptive study on smoking behaviour among high school students was conducted. Self‐reporting anonymous questionnaires were administered to 115 814 students in 1996 and 106 297 in 2000 through randomly sampled junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Main outcome measures Smoking prevalence, proportion of smokers by usual sources of cigarettes, national estimated cigarettes consumed by minors, share of cigarette brands smoked by high school students. Results The experiment rate among junior high school boys decreased in 2000 compared with that in 1996, whereas current and daily smoking rates did not. Although prevalence among Japanese girls was much lower than that among boys, prevalence among girls increased in 2000. The main source of cigarettes among high school smokers was vending machines. The proportion of smokers who usually purchased cigarettes from vending machines increased in 2000, in spite of the 1998 introduction of restrictions on night‐time operations. Japanese adolescents were more likely than adults to smoke American cigarette brands, and the adolescent market share of American brands has increased rapidly, especially for menthol brands. Conclusions This survey revealed the seriousness of the problem of smoking behaviour among Japanese high school students, and suggested that this behaviour may be influenced by social environmental factors, including the marketing strategies of the tobacco industry. Action should be taken to reduce the prevalence and impact of pro‐tobacco marketing messages and to abolish cigarette vending machines. PMID:16728747

  10. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items.

  11. Biomarkers of early respiratory effects in smoking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Miert, E; Sardella, A; Bernard, A

    2011-12-01

    Noninvasive biomarkers can be used to evaluate airways damage caused by tobacco smoke, but studies so far have only involved adult smokers. In this study, we evaluated whether such biomarkers can detect early respiratory effects in adolescents passively or actively exposed to tobacco smoke. In a cross-sectional study of 845 adolescents (mean age 16 yrs), we measured exhaled nitric oxide (NO) and various epithelial markers in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) and serum, including Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein (SP)-D. Information about smoking habits and potential confounders was collected by questionnaire. Four groups of equal size (n = 36), of nonsmokers, passive smokers, light smokers (<5 cigarettes · day(-1), median 0.08 pack-yrs) and heavy smokers (≥ 5 cigarettes · day(-1), median 0.35 pack-yrs), were matched using an automated procedure. The levels of exhaled NO and of CC16 in NALF were significantly decreased in the group of heavy smokers. A trend towards lower levels of CC16 in NALF was observed in passive smokers. There were no significant changes in serum CC16 and SP-D, which suggests that the deep lung epithelium had not yet been affected by smoking. In conclusion, tobacco smoke can cause early changes in the airways of adolescents with a cumulative smoking history of <1 pack-yr. PMID:21565920

  12. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  13. School characteristics and adolescent smoking. Results from the MRC/Derbyshire Smoking Study 1974-8 and from a follow up in 1981.

    PubMed

    Murray, M; Kiryluk, S; Swan, A V

    1984-06-01

    In the MRC/Derbyshire Smoking Study a cohort of about 6000 adolescents was surveyed annually from 1974 when they entered secondary school aged 11-12 years until 1978 when they reached 15-16 years. In 1981 after the adolescents had left school they were again surveyed by post. Each year from 1974 to 1978 and again in 1981 they answered a questionnaire on their smoking behaviour and other issues. Information on the schools attended by these adolescents was obtained from their teachers and headteachers. This paper examines the relation between the school environment and the adolescents' smoking behaviour both before and after leaving school. The prevalence of smoking was higher among those boys who attended schools that were single sex, non-denominational, or had a parent-teacher association, no health education, no female teachers, or whose headteacher smoked cigarettes. Among girls the prevalence of smoking was higher if they attended a school that had optional school uniform and no health or antismoking education. The importance of these findings for the development of effective preventive measures is discussed. PMID:6747518

  14. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): short-term effects.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Wetzels, Joyce; Uiters, Ellen; Ariza, Carles; Vitória, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtuvuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2003-12-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) resulted in a smoking prevention project for six European countries. It included activities on four levels: adolescents, schools, parents and out-of-school activities. Common goals and objectives were developed, but countries were also able to include additional objectives. National diversities required country-specific methods. The most important common element was a school-based programme consisting of at least five lessons paying attention to social influence processes and training in refusal skills. During the first year, significantly more smoking prevention activities were realized in experimental schools compared with control schools. Not all countries had the same number of lessons on resisting peer pressures. Significant cognitive changes were observed in Spain, resulting in more negative attitudes, increased self-efficacy levels and a more negative intention towards smoking in the experimental group. Counter-productive cognitive effects were observed in the UK. Significantly less onset of weekly smoking in experimental groups was found in Finland (4.7%) and Spain (3.1%). Counter-productive effects were observed in Denmark and the UK. In conclusion, while having common objectives, the ESFA approach allowed for a great deal of diversity. Fundamental research using dismantling designs is needed to be able to detect the most effective elements of smoking prevention programmes for different age groups. Attention to parenting styles and practices is also needed.

  15. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  16. A theoretical model for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

    PubMed

    McGahee, T W; Kemp, V; Tingen, M

    2000-01-01

    The age of the onset of smoking is on a continual decline, with the prime age of tobacco use initiation being 12-14 years. A weakness of the limited research conducted on smoking prevention programs designed for preteen children (ages 10-12) is a well-defined theoretical basis. A theoretical perspective is needed in order to make a meaningful transition from empirical analysis to application of knowledge. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1977, 1986), the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), and other literature linking various concepts to smoking behaviors in preteens were used to develop a model that may be useful for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

  17. Indirect effects of smoking motives on adolescent anger dysregulation and smoking.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Emily R; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Knapp, Ashley A; Bilsky, Sarah A; Ham, Lindsay; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and death in the United States, and smoking typically begins in adolescence. It is therefore important to understand factors that relate to increased risk for cigarette smoking during this stage of development. Adolescence is a period when emotion regulatory capacities are still emerging and a common affective state to be regulated is anger, which adult research has linked to nicotine use. Drawing from work suggesting that negative affect reduction motives are one of the most common reasons for cigarette smoking, the current study was designed to evaluate the indirect effects of negative affect reduction motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and nicotine use within a sample of 119 treatment-seeking adolescents enrolled in group-based residential therapy. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses, suggesting significant indirect effects of negative affect reduction smoking motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and smoking outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of negative affect reduction motives for cigarette use in the context of anger regulation among youths. PMID:25128636

  18. Indirect effects of smoking motives on adolescent anger dysregulation and smoking.

    PubMed

    Mischel, Emily R; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Knapp, Ashley A; Bilsky, Sarah A; Ham, Lindsay; Lewis, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of disease and death in the United States, and smoking typically begins in adolescence. It is therefore important to understand factors that relate to increased risk for cigarette smoking during this stage of development. Adolescence is a period when emotion regulatory capacities are still emerging and a common affective state to be regulated is anger, which adult research has linked to nicotine use. Drawing from work suggesting that negative affect reduction motives are one of the most common reasons for cigarette smoking, the current study was designed to evaluate the indirect effects of negative affect reduction motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and nicotine use within a sample of 119 treatment-seeking adolescents enrolled in group-based residential therapy. Results were generally consistent with hypotheses, suggesting significant indirect effects of negative affect reduction smoking motives on the relation between anger dysregulation and smoking outcomes. Findings are discussed in terms of negative affect reduction motives for cigarette use in the context of anger regulation among youths.

  19. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  20. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  1. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  2. Changing Correlates of Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    This study examined whether and at what time point various interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of smoking shifted over four assessment points in a longitudinal study of 461 individuals. The study began when the subjects, who had been participating in a study of adolescent and young adult development were in junior high school. Four…

  3. An Ecological System Approach to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine the effect of factors related to school, leisure, family and the individual on adolescent smoking. These determining factors occupy the micro- and mesosystems of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. Data were collected using questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of…

  4. Smoking Intensity among Nigerian Secondary Schools Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhonde, Henry O.; Aluede, Oyaziwo

    2007-01-01

    This study examined smoking intensity among secondary school adolescent smokers. A total of 800 students, made up of 685 males and 115 females who have at least tasted a cigarette once, from twenty secondary schools (5 private and 15 public secondary schools) in Benin City, Nigeria participated in the study. A questionnaire was used in collecting…

  5. Factors Influencing Openness to Future Smoking among Nonsmoking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Weaver, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the correlates of youth tobacco use in terms of nonsmoking adolescents' openness to future smoking, a secondary analysis of the 2000 and 2004 Indiana Youth Tobacco Survey (IYTS) was conducted. Methods: A representative sample of 1416 public high school students in grades 9-12 and 1516 public middle school students in…

  6. Social Contexts in Adolescent Smoking: Does School Policy Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontek, D.; Buehler, A.; Rudolph, U.; Metz, K.; Kroeger, C.; Gradl, S.; Floeter, S.; Donath, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to an ecological perspective in psychology and in line with social cognitive theory, smoking behaviour is determined by different social contexts (for example, peers, family and school) providing adolescents with important role models. This paper investigates the effects of personal characteristics as well as family, peer and school…

  7. Adolescents' View on Smoking, Quitting and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijk, Froukje; de Nooijer, Jascha; Heinrich, Evelien; de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the beliefs of 15-17 year-old Dutch adolescents about starting or quitting smoking and to explore their preferences regarding education concerning this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows that a total of 12 group interviews were held with 101 students in the highest classes in secondary…

  8. Family and School Influences on Adolescent Smoking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how influences at home and school interact to predict smoking among adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 15-year-old pupils from Norway (n=1,404 in 73 Grade 10 school classes). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine how family and school influences interact to…

  9. Associations between Smoking and Extreme Dieting among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and dieting behaviors and trends in that association among US adolescents in grades 9-12 between 1999 and 2007. Youth Risk Behavior Survey datasets were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. The sample size of each survey year ranged from 13,554 to 15,273 with…

  10. Assessing the Validity of Self-Reported Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gary L.; Newman, Ian M.

    1988-01-01

    Compared adolescent cigarette smoking rates determined by traditional questionnaire, random response questionnaire, and carbon monoxide test. Results from 1,160 ninth graders in 40 classrooms in 7 schools indicated that random response questionnaire elicited statistically larger proportion of smokers than did traditional questionnaire. Neither…

  11. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  12. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W; Dorwaldt, Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation.

  13. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W; Dorwaldt, Anne L

    2011-12-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation. PMID:21885672

  14. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation. PMID:21885672

  15. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  16. Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, C; Fagan, P; Matthews, E; Grana, R

    2003-01-01

    Data sources:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two major reviews that span January 1978 to May 2002. PubMed, PsychInfo, and SCCI were searched for young adults from January 1990 to May 2002. Study selection:Data included smoking prevention studies published from January 1990 to May 2002 and conducted in the USA; all identified smoking cessation studies for adolescents. Young adult data were limited to initiation and cessation studies. Data extraction:Extraction of data was by consensus of the authors. Data synthesis:Results of the review are qualitative in nature using a consensus approach of the authors. Conclusions:School based curricula alone have been generally ineffective in the long term in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use but are effective when combined with other approaches such as media and smoke-free policies. Prevention research should consider multiple approaches and the social conditions that influence the development of youth problem behaviours including tobacco use. Because youth smoking cessation has been understudied to date, scientifically rigorous adolescent smoking cessation studies need to be conducted with attention to high risk smokers and less than daily smokers. Tobacco prevention and cessation for young adults needs focused attention. Prevention and cessation programmes need to address other tobacco products in addition to cigarettes. PMID:14645940

  17. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  18. Preventing Sin: The Ethics of Vaccines against Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lieber, Sarah R.; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Advances in immunotherapy are paving the way toward vaccines that target unhealthy behaviors, such as a vaccine that blocks the action of nicotine, reducing the pleasure caused by smoking. Such a tool could prove to be an effective tool for preventing children from taking up smoking. Would it be permissible? PMID:23650065

  19. Evaluating Injury Prevention Programs: The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallonee, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates how evaluating the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project increased its success in reducing residential fire-related injuries and deaths. The program distributed and tested smoke alarms in residential dwellings and offered educational materials on fire prevention and safety. Evaluation provided sound data on program processes and outcomes,…

  20. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  1. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions. PMID:26066949

  2. Addiction as a Systems Failure: Focus on Adolescence and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baler, Ruben D.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Scientific advances in the field of addiction have forever debunked the notion that addiction reflects a character flaw under voluntary control, demonstrating instead that it is a bona fide disease of the brain. The aim of this review is to go beyond this consensus understanding and explore the most current evidence regarding the vast number of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors whose complex interactions modulate addiction risk and trajectory. Method Focusing on childhood and adolescent smoking as a paradigm, we review the important risk factors for the development of addictions, starting at the level of genetics and closing with a focus on sociocultural and policy factors. Results A critical review of the pertinent literature provides a detailed view of the cumulative power of risk and protection factors across different phenomenological levels to modulate the risk of undesirable outcomes, particularly for young people. The result represents a compelling argument for the need to engage in comprehensive, multilevel approaches to promoting health. Conclusions Today, the field of medicine understands more about disease than about health; however it need not be that way. The view of drug addiction as a systems failure should help refocus our general approach to developing dynamic models and early comprehensive interventions that optimize the ways in which we prevent and treat a complex, developmental disorder such as drug addiction. PMID:21421173

  3. The roles of parenting, church attendance, and depression in adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla; Choi, Won S; Kaur, Harsohena; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify contextual factors related to smoking among urban African-American and White adolescents. We administered a survey assessing demographic and psychosocial variables to 299 adolescents in an urban pediatric clinic in the Midwest. Results indicated that being female, older age, lower academic performance, depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, parental smoking, and parental attitudes toward smoking were related to adolescent smoking. After controlling for demographics, the multivariate model predicting adolescent smoking included depressive symptoms, less frequent church attendance, and parental disapproval of smoking. Given these findings, efforts to decrease adolescent smoking may be enhanced by attending to depressive symptoms demonstrated by adolescents as well as contextual factors including parental attitudes and church attendance.

  4. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of pulmonary function test values. Public health initiatives that aim to prevent smoking initiation, assist in cessation, and lessen SHS exposure of adolescents need to be school-based and employed as early as middle school. PMID:27418819

  5. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying.

  6. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying. PMID:26833280

  7. Smoking, substance use, and mental health correlates in urban adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the associations among smoking tobacco and/or cannabis with alcohol use, depression, disordered eating and healthy behaviors among adolescent girls enrolled in an HIV prevention intervention randomized trial. Baseline self-reported behaviors from 744 sexually active, low-income, urban participants were collected using an audio computer assisted self interview. Girls ranged in age from 15 to 19 years old with a mean age of 16.5. Over 16% of girls reported smoking cigarettes, 41% smoked cannabis and 12% used both substances. Girls who smoked either substance had higher scores for depression symptoms, alcohol use and disordered eating when compared to nonsmokers. Girls who used both substances were at a higher risk for alcohol use, depression symptoms and disordered eating. The association of cannabis and tobacco with the other health related issues differed depending on age, indicating that assessment and targeting of health behavior interventions may differ depending on a girl's age. Disordered eating, depressive symptoms and cannabis use were higher among these adolescent girls than previously documented in the literature, suggesting that to improve the health of this population multi-focused interventions must target girls before they have engaged in smoking. PMID:21107998

  8. Social Contexts of Regular Smoking in Adolescence: Towards a Multidimensional Ecological Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Ming; Van Duker, Heather; Olson, Lenora M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Add Health, this study examined multilevel factors of adolescent smoking after controlling for the baseline smoking behavior and individual characteristics. Results showed that peer, family and school were all important life domains contextually influencing subsequent smoking behavior among adolescents. Time spent with peers,…

  9. Examination of a Process Model of Adolescent Smoking Self-Change Efforts in Relation to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Myers, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Little information describes how adolescents change their smoking behavior. This study investigated the role of gender in the relationship of motivation and cognitive variables with adolescent smoking self-change efforts. Self-report and semi-structured interview data from a prospective study of smoking self-change efforts were examined among 98…

  10. The Theory of Planned Behavior, Domain Specific Self-Efficacy and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Robynne A.; Rickwood, Debra

    1997-01-01

    Used the theory of planned behavior in a sample of 15- and 16-year-old students (N=285), to create a comprehensive model for predictors of adolescent smoking. Students with lower conduct/morality self-efficacy had more positive attitudes toward smoking. Discusses results in terms of potential interventions to discourage adolescent smoking. (RJM)

  11. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  12. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking among Lebanese adolescents, a cross-sectional study, 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    El-Roueiheb, Zana; Tamim, Hala; Kanj, Mayada; Jabbour, Samer; Alayan, Iman; Musharrafieh, Umayya

    2008-02-01

    Waterpipe or "argileh" is a form of smoking other than cigarettes that is currently spreading among people of all ages. The objective of the present study was to assess tobacco smoking practices (waterpipe and/or cigarette) among public and private adolescent school students in Beirut, Lebanon. A sample of 2,443 students selected from 10 private and 3 public schools with intermediate/secondary classes filled out a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographic characteristics, and behavior about tobacco smoking. Binary analysis was performed as well as three regression models for the relationship between exclusive cigarettes smoking, exclusive waterpipe smoking and both cigarettes and waterpipe as the dependent variables and gender, type of school, and class as the independent variables. The current prevalence of cigarettes smoking was 11.4%, and that of waterpipe smoking was 29.6%. Gender was significantly associated with cigarettes (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.6) but not waterpipe smoking. Public school students were, respectively, 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.6) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.1) times more likely to be exclusive cigarettes smokers, and exclusive waterpipe smokers. Class was not significantly associated with exclusive cigarette smoking; however, students attending secondary classes were 1.3 (95% CI 1.1-1.6) times more likely to be exclusive waterpipe smokers. The reasons behind the high prevalence of both types of smoking are presented and discussed. The present study calls for school-based prevention programs and other types of interventions such as tax increases, and age-restrictions on tobacco sales. More aggressive interventions to disseminate education and awareness among parents and students altogether are warranted.

  13. The Effectiveness of Policy and Health Education Strategies for Reducing Adolescent Smoking: A Review of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Marc C.; de Zwart, Wil M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews international literature to identify the most effective measures to prevent smoking among adolescents. Concludes that isolated measures produce little effect. Most effect may be expected from a combination of a complete ban on tobacco advertising, increasing prices, restricting tobacco product sales to tobacconists, mass media education…

  14. The Influence of Three Mass Media Campaigns on Variables Related to Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Results of a Field Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Karl E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates 3 1985-87 mass media campaigns designed to prevent smoking by adolescents, using data gathered by telephone contact with over 2,000 households. The campaigns had but a modest or indeterminate result. Radio proved as effective as television. (DM)

  15. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

  16. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.

  17. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  18. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  19. Smoking in young adolescents: an approach with multilevel discrete choice models

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, J; Gonzalez, B; Barber, P; Santana, Y

    2002-01-01

    . Therefore we can prevent or delay tobacco smoking in adolescents not only by publicising health risks, but also by better enforcing no smoking rules in schools. PMID:11854347

  20. Smoking status moderates the contribution of social-cognitive and environmental determinants to adolescents' smoking intentions.

    PubMed

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, A; Van den Broucke, S; Van den Bergh, O

    2006-10-01

    In this study, it was tested whether attitudes, self-efficacy, social influences and the perception of the school and home environments had different associations with intentions for adolescent non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. A regression model allowing for separate slopes of social-cognitive and environment variables accounted for 72% of the variation in intentions. For non-smokers, ease of refusing to smoke (beta = -0.06) and social influences favouring smoking (beta = 0.05) were linked to intentions. Occasional and daily smokers' intentions were associated with health consequences (beta = -0.05 and beta = -0.06, respectively) and ease of smoking/buying cigarettes (beta = 0.05 and beta = 0.24, respectively). Social influences favouring smoking (beta = 0.10) were also associated with intentions in daily smokers. In an extended model for current smokers (adjusted R(2) = 0.45), context-cued nicotine cravings (beta = 0.27) were linked to daily smokers', but not occasional smokers' intentions. The results suggest that motivating adolescents to abstain from or to quit smoking implies working on different combinations of determinants in non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. Interventions for daily smokers should supplement motivational techniques with stratagems that allow smokers to reduce the number of cravings they experience in specific contexts.

  1. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  2. Developmental changes in genetic and shared environmental contributions to smoking initiation and subsequent smoking quantity in adolescence and young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies examining the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking have focused on adolescents or examined developmental changes in additive genetic, shared environment and unique environmental influences on liability to initiate cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. The aim of this study is to add to the literature on liability to initiate and use cigarettes during adolescence using a nationally representative sample. Method Data for this study came from adolescent and young adult twin pairs (ages 14-33) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We ran a series of developmental causal-contingent-common pathway models to examine whether additive genetic, shared and unique environmental influences on liability to the initiation of cigarette use are shared with those on smoking quantity, and whether their contributions change across development. Results We found evidence for a developmental shift in genetic and shared environmental contributions to cigarette use. Early in adolescence genetic and environmental influences work independently on liability to cigarette smoking initiation and quantity of cigarettes smoked, but liability to these behaviors becomes correlated as individuals age into young adulthood. Conclusions These findings provide insight into the causal processes underlying the liability to smoke cigarettes. With age, there is greater overlap in the genetic and environmental factors that influence the initiation of cigarette smoking and quantity of cigarettes smoked. PMID:26227182

  3. A comprehensive multi-media program to prevent smoking among black students.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J S; Jason, L A; Sawlski, L M; Halpert, J A

    1994-01-01

    Much research has been done in developing and implementing smoking prevention programs; however, few studies have focused on urban Black populations. In November of 1989, a comprehensive prevention program was implemented to decrease the incidence of new smokers within the adolescent population in a Black community. The program combined a school-based curriculum with a comprehensive media intervention. All components of the program were financed by business leaders from the targeted community. There were two experimental conditions: one group participated in a school-based intervention and were prompted to participate in a multi-media intervention and the other group had access to the multi-media intervention; however, they were not prompted to participate. A key finding was that the rate of smoking decreased for all children involved in the intervention. The authors present a model that can be employed to prevent other high-risk behaviors within the Black population.

  4. Personal and Family Factors Affecting Life time Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents in Tehran (Iran): A Community Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baheiraei, Azam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The prevalence of smoking among adolescents varies in different parts of the world. The current study aims to survey the socio-demographic and family characteristics related to adolescent lifetime cigarette smoking among 1201 Iranian adolescents aged 15-18 years old. Methods This study is a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted using the multistage random cluster sampling method in Tehran, Iran in the summer of 2010. Results The prevalence of lifetime cigarette use amongst boys (30.2%) was about 1.5 times that of girls (22.2%), (p=0.002). Older age, low parental control, very little parental supervision in the adolescent’s selection of friends, and having a friend or family member who smokes were associated with lifetime cigarette use among male adolescents. Moreover, the use of verbal punishment by the parents was a protective factor for female lifetime cigarette use. Smoking has become one of the great health threats among Iranian adolescents. Conclusions As a result, health promotion programs should be gender based whilst educational and interventional programs for preventing tobacco use should begin before adolescence. PMID:23772284

  5. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  6. Drive cancer out: a physician-led anti-smoking program directed at teens and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bousamra, M; Kloecker, G; Herbig, S

    2008-12-01

    Kentucky is among the states with the highest smoking-related mortality and youth smoking rates. Drive Cancer Out is a physician-led program that assesses and attempts to influence health literacy among Kentucky adolescents. Surveys on fifth-grade students identify social risk factors for smoking initiation and propose methods to decrease the rate of smoking among teenagers.

  7. The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

  8. Comment on "Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China".

    PubMed

    de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Chen and colleagues describe social factors that are related with Chinese adolescent smoking behaviors [Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al., 2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.02.009]. These types of studies in China are very much needed given the fact that smoking is a significant health problem in China. Environmental factors may be more important than sometimes thought, since some studies suggest that smoking onset may not be such a 'reasoned' process by youngsters (Kremers, S.P., Mudde, A.N., de Vries, N.K., Brug, J., de Vries, H., 2004. Unplanned smoking initiation: new insights and implications for interventions. Patient Educ. Couns. 55 (3), 345-52.). Studies indicate that a multitude of factors are related to smoking onset, and thus deserve attention in a smoking prevention approach (see, e.g., [Tyas, S., Pederson, L., 1998. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. Tob. Control 7, 409-420; Lantz, P., Jacobson, P., Warner, K., et al., 2000. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies. Tob. Control 9, 47-63]). The study conclusions were derived from a cross-sectional report. Consequently, one needs to be careful in making conclusions about causal pathways [Bauman, K., Fisher, L., 1986. On the measurement of friend behavior in research on friend influence and selection: findings from longitudinal studies of adolescent smoking and drinking. J. Youth Adolesc. 15 (4), 345-353]. Longitudinal studies also suggest the impact of selection mechanisms implying that adolescents were not pressured to start to smoke, but selected smoking friends. Chen, W., Wen, X., Muscat, J., et al.'s [2007-this issue. Modifiable family and school environmental factors associated with smoking status among adolescents in Guangzhou, China. Prev. Med. doi:10

  9. Adult versus adolescent onset of smoking: how are mood disorders and other risk factors involved?

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Landolt, Karin; Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Gutzwiller, Felix; Rössler, Wulf

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the strength of association between smoking and mood disorders and the association between smoking and its traditional risk factors, comparing those who started smoking in adolescence with those who started smoking in early adulthood. Design and participants The analyses relied on prospective data from the Zurich Study. This longitudinal community study started in 1979 with a stratified sample of 591 participants aged 20/21 years, weighted towards those with mental disorders. Follow-up interviews were conducted at ages 23, 28, 30, 35 and 41. Measurements In this analysis the adult versus adolescent onset of smoking was regressed on the cumulative prevalence of mood disorders, personality characteristics measured by the Freiburg Personality Inventory, common risk factors such as parental smoking, conduct and school problems, troubles with the family and basic sociodemographic variables (sex, education). Findings In the Zurich Study cohort we found that 61.6% were former or current smokers, of whom 87% started smoking before the age of 20 and 13% after the age of 20. Adolescent onset of smoking was associated strongly with later major depression, dysthymia or bipolar disorders and, furthermore, with parental smoking, extroverted personality and discipline problems and rebelliousness in youth. However, only depression and dysthymia were associated with adult onset smoking and other risk factors associated with smoking were not so associated in this group. Conclusions Correlates of smoking onset in adolescence are mainly not applicable to the onset of smoking in young adulthood. Smoking onset beyond adolescence is an open research issue. PMID:19624327

  10. A theoretical model for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

    PubMed

    McGahee, T W; Kemp, V; Tingen, M

    2000-01-01

    The age of the onset of smoking is on a continual decline, with the prime age of tobacco use initiation being 12-14 years. A weakness of the limited research conducted on smoking prevention programs designed for preteen children (ages 10-12) is a well-defined theoretical basis. A theoretical perspective is needed in order to make a meaningful transition from empirical analysis to application of knowledge. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1977, 1986), the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), and other literature linking various concepts to smoking behaviors in preteens were used to develop a model that may be useful for smoking prevention studies in preteen children. PMID:12026266

  11. High-school smoking prevention: results of a three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Collins, L M; Graham, J W

    1986-10-01

    This study compared two strategies for preventing cigarette smoking among high-school students. One strategy emphasized social-pressure resistance skills, while the other focused on education about health concerns which are relevant to high-school students. Additionally, the use of same-age peer leaders and the use of familiar models in media presentations were investigated. The results suggest that social-influences resistance training was efficacious in reducing transitions to higher use by those who had previously experimented with cigarettes. Health education was most effective in preventing initial experimentation among those who had not smoked prior to the beginning of the study. Neither program was effective in limiting transitions among those who had gone beyond the experimental stage of smoking, and neither had any effect on encouraging cessation. There were no differences which could be attributed to peer leaders or to familiar media models. During later adolescence, a combined health education and social skills training approach is advocated. It is suggested that while there are some gains by implementing programs during late adolescence, prevention programs targeted at younger students may be more effective generally.

  12. Oklahoma Researchers Go to the Source for Valuable Information on Teen Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, Vicki L.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Tall Chief, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Focus group discussions with Native-American adolescents aged 11 to 17 in Oklahoma examined why teen smokers started smoking, family and peer influences on smoking, reasons for continuing to smoke, reasons not to smoke, effectiveness of strategies to prevent adolescents from smoking, and awareness of the health risks of smoking. (SV)

  13. Longitudinal effects of hostility, depression, and bullying on adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jie W.; Cen, Steven; Mouttapa, Michele; Johnson, Andy C.; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the associations between smoking initiation and, hostility, depressive symptoms, and bullying (bullies and bully-victims) among a culturally diverse sample of 1771 adolescents who reported never having smoked at baseline. Methods Data were from a longitudinal school-based experimental trial of smoking prevention programs in Southern California. Students were surveyed annually while in the 6th, 7th, and 8th grades. All students in the 24 participating schools were invited to participate in the study during the 6th grade. Results The risk of smoking initiation was significantly higher among students who score higher on hostility and depressive symptoms, and were bully-victims. Conclusions The findings suggest that tobacco prevention programs should include strategies of managing hostile feelings and negative affect as part of the curriculum. In addition, it may be helpful to identify youth who score high on these psychosocial factors and teach them skills to handle interpersonal conflict and negative feelings to prevent their involvement in substance use. PMID:21575819

  14. Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jennifer S; Lee, Chien-Ti; Dierker, Lisa C; Selya, Arielle S; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2012-10-01

    Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of smoking, individual patterns of ND symptoms and other ND risk factors. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine profile differences in probability of becoming daily smokers 48 months later. Four distinct subgroups of smokers with different patterns of smoking behavior, ND symptoms, and alcohol and other substance use emerged. Heavier smoking adolescents with high symptom endorsement, particularly the need to smoke in the morning, were most likely to become daily smokers 48 months later. A subgroup of social smokers had high smoking exposure and symptom endorsement (except need to smoke in the morning), and high levels of other substance use. Despite lower rates of smoking frequency and quantity compared to the heavier smoking class, 36% of these adolescents smoked daily by 48 months, with a steeper decline in survival rates compared to other lighter smoking classes. Morning smoking symptoms and symptoms prioritizing smoking (i.e., choosing to spend money on cigarettes instead of lunch or smoking when ill or where smoking is forbidden) might quickly identify adolescent non-daily smokers with more severe dependence and higher risk for daily smoking. A focus on skills for avoiding social situations involving use of alcohol and other drugs and reducing peer smoking influences may be an important focus for reducing smoking and other substance use among social smokers. PMID:22673155

  15. A brief image-based prevention intervention for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Werch, Chudley E Chad; Bian, Hui; Diclemente, Carlo C; Moore, Michelle J; Thombs, Dennis; Ames, Steven C; Huang, I-Chan; Pokorny, Steven

    2010-03-01

    The authors evaluated the efficacy of a brief image-based prevention intervention and assessed current drug use as a moderator of intervention effects. In a clinical trial, 416 high school-age adolescents were randomized to either the brief intervention or usual care control, with data collected at baseline and 3-month follow-up. The brief intervention consisted of a tailored in-person communication and a series of parent/guardian print materials based on the behavior-image model. Health behavior goal setting increased for participants receiving the brief intervention, with an effect size in the small range (d = 0.33). Overall effect sizes for cigarette smoking frequency and quantity and alcohol use frequency and quantity were small (ds = 0.16-0.21) and in favor of the brief intervention. However, adolescents reporting current substance use who received the brief intervention reduced their frequency and heavy use of alcohol, frequency and quantity of cigarette smoking, and reported fewer alcohol/drug problems, with larger effects ranging from small to approaching medium in size (ds = 0.32-0.43, ps < .01). This study suggests that brief image-based messages may increase health behavior goal setting and reduce substance use, particularly among drug-using older adolescents.

  16. Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.
DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.
RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).
CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco

  17. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapies to Aid Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Steffani R.; Crew, Erin E.; Riske, Emily C.; Ammerman, Seth; Robinson, Thomas N.; Killen, Joel D.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent smoking remains a public health problem. Despite concerns regarding adolescent nicotine dependence, few well-designed smoking cessation studies have been conducted with teen smokers. This is particularly true regarding pharmacological treatments for nicotine dependence. Currently, pharmacological aids are not recommended for treating adolescent nicotine dependence, as efficacy has not been shown in this population. This review includes studies that have examined the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking abstinence and/or reduction in cigarette consumption among adolescent smokers who want to quit smoking, lab-based adolescent studies that have examined the effectiveness of these medications in reducing cravings and/or withdrawal symptoms, and/or studies that have assessed the tolerability of medications for smoking cessation in adolescent smokers. This review provides information on the pharmacologic action of each medication, the efficacy of each medication for adolescent smoking cessation, the tolerability of each medication based on reported adverse events, and compliance with the medication protocols. Thirteen relevant articles were identified and included in the review. Nicotine patch, nicotine gum, nicotine nasal spray, bupropion, and varenicline have been studied in adolescent smokers. The adverse events reported in the studies on pharmacology for adolescent smoking suggest that the side effect profiles for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, and varenicline are similar to those reported in adult studies. There is some evidence of efficacy of nicotine patch and bupropion at end of treatment (efficacy of varenicline has not been assessed), but none of the medications included in this review were efficacious in promoting long-term smoking cessation among adolescent smokers. It is noted that many of the study protocols did not follow the recommended dose or length of pharmacotherapy for adults, rendering it difficult to determine the true

  18. Social environmental and individual factors associated with smoking among a panel of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Rice, Janet; Johnson, Carolyn

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed changes in the influence of social environmental and individual factors-and the interaction of these factors with time-on smoking prevalence for girls. Longitudinal panel surveys of adolescent girls (N = 921 in both 2000 and 2004) from schools in Louisiana were completed in the ninth grade (2000) and then again in the twelfth grade (2004). A fixed effects hierarchical multiple regression model assessed the relation of changes in social environmental and individual factors to smoking prevalence. Increases in smoking prevalence over time among adolescent girls were associated with their perceptions of themselves as overweight and perceiving low risk associated with smoking. Increases in smoking prevalence over time were also associated with having friends who smoked, perceptions of friends' approval of smoking, having family members who smoked, and having monetary discretionary spending. Having friends who smoked was more strongly associated with smoking in the twelfth grade than in the ninth grade. While more black adolescent girls smoked than did white girls in the ninth grade, by the twelfth grade, more white adolescents girls smoked than did black girls. Interventions that target adolescent girls should consider the temporal variability of individual and social environmental factors. PMID:21547857

  19. Contribution of parental and school personnel smoking to health risk behaviours among Finnish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, Marianna; Pietikäinen, Minna; Kivimäki, Mika; Luopa, Pauliina; Jokela, Jukka; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    Background This study compared parental smoking with school personnel smoking in relation to adolescents' smoking behaviours, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Methods A cross-sectional survey for 24,379 adolescents was linked to a survey for 1946 school employees in 136 Finnish schools in 2004-2005. Surveys included smoking prevalence reported by school staff, adolescents' reports of school staff and parental smoking, adolescents' own smoking behaviours, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Multilevel analyses were adjusted for individual and school-level confounding factors. Results Parental smoking was associated with all health risk behaviours among both sexes (risk range 1.39 to 1.95 for other outcomes; Odds Ratio OR for smoking cessation 0.64, 95% Confidence Interval CI: 0.57, 0.72 among boys, 0.72; 0.64, 0.81 among girls). Among boys, high vs. low smoking prevalence among school personnel was associated with higher probability of smoking (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.01,1.41), higher frequency of smoking during school time (Cumulative Odds Ratio COR 1.81; 95% CI 1.32, 2.48), frequent alcohol use (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.01, 1.50), illicit drug use (OR 1.40; 95% CI 1.16, 1.69), and higher odds of reporting adults smoking at school (COR 1.51; 95% CI 1.09, 2.09). Among girls, high smoking prevalence among school personnel was related to higher odds of smoking (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02, 1.37) and lower odds of smoking cessation (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.72, 0.99). Conclusion Parental smoking and school personnel smoking are both associated with adolescents' health risk behaviours but the association of parental smoking seems to be stronger. PMID:19818130

  20. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  1. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  2. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  3. Adolescent brain maturation and smoking: what we know and where we're headed.

    PubMed

    Lydon, David M; Wilson, Stephen J; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings.

  4. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  5. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  6. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    PubMed Central

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  7. On social and cognitive influences: relating adolescent networks, generalized expectancies, and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths' friends smoking behavior and youths' own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths' friends and youths' own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends' generalized expectancies and youths' expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses.

  8. Adolescent Pathways to Adult Smoking: Ethnic Identity, Peer Substance Use, and Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    African-Americans and Puerto Ricans were interviewed during adolescence, in their early twenties, and then again in their mid-twenties. Results indicated that earlier adolescent smoking, family conflict, and weak ethnic identity were significantly related to antisocial behavior, which in turn was related to associating with friends who smoked and/or used illegal drugs, and ultimately, to their own smoking. Results further indicate that early interventions in the development of tobacco use should focus on decreasing parental and adolescent smoking and parent-child conflict. If intervention occurs at a later time point, the emphasis should be on increasing ethnic identity and decreasing antisocial behavior. PMID:20163390

  9. 78 FR 35054 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Program to Prevent Smoking in Hazardous Areas (Pertains to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Program to Prevent Smoking in... 30 CFR 75.1702 prohibits persons from smoking or carrying smoking materials underground or in places... operators are required to develop programs to prevent persons from carrying smoking materials, matches,...

  10. Critical discussion of social-cognitive factors in smoking initiation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde; Johansen, Christoffer

    2011-01-01

    Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted in connection with and sampled from a large quantitative study and the results of both studies are discussed. In the analyses, we explored the ASE constructs according to how they are described in the ASE theory. Furthermore, we examined contradictions and aspects which are not explained in the model and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore, the social-cognitive models are based on the assumption that adolescents talk about smoking norms and have a high degree of individual reflexivity, which is not always characteristic of adolescent behavior. Conclusion. Applying theoretical models in health research should be a continuous process of both applying the model and discussing the theoretical assumptions of the model when applied to a specific sample. The results of the qualitative study provide some support for use of the ASE model, but the results also suggest that further studies are needed to explore how social-cognitive models can be expanded to be more comprehensive behavioral models.

  11. Reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sunseri, A J; Alberti, J M; Kent, N D; Schoenberger, J A; Sunseri, J K; Amuwo, S; Vickers, P

    1983-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reading, demographic, social and psychological factors related to pre-adolescent smoking and non-smoking behaviors and attitudes. The school-home humanistic education program was implemented in a large, urban public school system. It stressed responsible decision-making, increased self-esteem and the inter-relationships among the acquisition of knowledge of the consequences of smoking, personal feelings, family relationships and behavior. The results showed that family involvement was necessary to affect smoking attitudes and behaviors. Of all the variables studied, reading had a most pervasive relationship. Peer influence and self-esteem also were related to smoking knowledge, smoking attitude, future smoking intentions and the "purchase" of cigarettes. Two of several conclusions drawn from the results are: 1. Family involvement is necessary to affect attitudes and behaviors. 2. Health education research that does not investigate the relationship between program outcomes and reading achievement may be misleading. PMID:6552341

  12. Smoking and Quitting History Correlates of Readiness to Quit in Multiethnic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Lee, Joann; Conway, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To describe smoking and quitting history among multiethnic adolescent smokers and examine these as correlates of readiness to quit. Methods: Data were analyzed from 121 high school smokers. Sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported smoking history, number and duration of recent quit attempts, attitudes toward smoking/quitting,…

  13. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  14. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Variables Related to Cigarette Smoking in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, L. L.; Lefcoe, N. M.

    1985-01-01

    Compared correlates of smoking in a cohort of 4,641 older adolescents with correlates of smoking in the same group when they were in grades 4 to 6. In contrast to the earlier follow-ups, attitude toward smoking has become a more important determinant than it was before, particularly among females. (Author/BL)

  15. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  16. Does film smoking promote youth smoking in middle-income countries?: A longitudinal study among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Huang, Liling; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Dorantes-Alonso, Ana; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to smoking imagery in films predicts smoking onset among never-smoking Mexican adolescents. Methods The analytic sample was comprised of 11- to 14-year old secondary school students who reported never having tried smoking at baseline, 83% (1741/2093) of whom were successfully followed up after one year. Exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking was assessed at baseline, whereas smoking behavior and risk factors were assessed at baseline and follow up. Logistic regression was used to estimate bivariate and adjusted relative risks of trying smoking and current smoking at follow up. Results At follow up, 36% reported having tried smoking and 8% reported having smoked in the previous month. Students who were successfully followed up were exposed to an average of 43.8 minutes of smoking in the films they reported viewing at baseline. Adjusted relative risks (ARRs) indicated that students in the two highest levels of exposure to film smoking were more than twice as likely to have smoked in the previous 30 days at follow up (ARR3v1=2.44, 95%CI 1.31, 4.55; ARR4v1=2.23, 95% CI 1.19, 4.17). The adjusted relative risk of having tried smoking by follow up reached statistical significance only when comparing the 3rd highest to the lowest exposure group (ARR3v1=1.54, 95%CI 1.01, 2.64). Having a parent or best friend who smoked at baseline were the only other variables that independently predicted both outcomes. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is a risk factor for smoking onset among Mexican youth. PMID:19959694

  17. Intention to start cigarette smoking among Iranian male adolescents: usefulness of an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Mahmood; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Hidarnia, Ali Reza; Hajizadeh, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the risk behaviours that begin in adolescence, and therefore identifying predictors of smoking is necessary for planning prevention programmes. Objectives To examine the ability of the extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict the intention to smoke. Methods This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Iran, 2011. The data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire which included items on demographics, smoking behaviour, components of the TPB model (attitude, subjective norms, perceived behaviour control and intention) and an added construct on smoking self-identity. Data were analysed using descriptive, correlation and linear regression statistics. Results 365 male high school students with a mean age of 16.5 (SD=1.2) years were studied. Fifty-five (15.1%) of the students surveyed were current smokers. All components of the TPB model and smoking self identity were statistically significantly related to intention to smoke (p<0.001). The TPB constructs with and without smoking self-identity accounted for 58.5% (adjusted R2) and 54.8% of the variance observed for intention to smoke, respectively. Result also revealed the highest weights for perceived behaviour control (β=−0.35). Conclusions The extended model of the TPB predicted ‘intention to smoke’ better than the original TPB. The findings of this study might be used as a framework in designing heart disease prevention programmes. Thus the findings have implications for both health promotion specialists and cardiologists. They could place an emphasis on perceived behaviour control, specifying that individuals who do not smoke should not start and if they are smokers it is possible to stop smoking. PMID:27326046

  18. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs. PMID:27550979

  19. [Considering and tackling tobacco smoking in the context of adolescent development].

    PubMed

    Horn, W R; Rutishauser, Ch

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of smoking among young people is still on a high level. Many adolescents are incessantly attracted by advertising and other messages promising a fashionable, young and independent lifestyle with cigarettes as imperative symbols. Those adolescents suffering from cognitive, mental or social problems or being genetically more vulnerable have the greatest risk to misuse nicotine and to become addicted for many years. Unfortunately, being diagnosed with asthma or diabetes does not deter adolescents from smoking, thus increasing the burden of their chronic disease. Of similar concern is the considerable number of smoking young people at the reproductive age. In the last few years, only modest progress has been observed in the development of programmes, which are suited to diminish the rate of young smokers. There is a lack of effective strategies that could help them to get motivated and to stop smoking. Primary care physicians are in an unique position to contribute to adolescent smoking cessation. This article provides information to physicians on how to best accomplish this task. In order to reach sustainable changes in adolescent smoking behaviour, rigorous political steps are necessary which target on diminishing the social acceptance and attractiveness of smoking in general and on the reduction of the number of adult smokers, rather than exclusively focussing on adolescent smoking. This policy has to be supplemented with comprehensive steps to improve education and future life perspectives of adolescents. PMID:17245675

  20. New approaches to smoking prevention in the north.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, N V; Molokov, A L; Astakhova, T I

    1998-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are very high in Siberia. The prevalence of NCD risk factors is also very high, smoking being one of the most widespread risk factors. Prevention and cessation of smoking may improve the health of the population. Within the framework of the WHO MONICA (Monitoring Cardiovascular Diseases) project, we have conducted three population surveys in Novosibirsk within a 10-year period (1984-1995) to show trends of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. We also conducted similar surveys in some Siberian regions. Economic crisis and social stress greatly affect the health of the population, and new methods and approaches to disease prevention are needed. As participants in the WHO CINDI program (Countrywide Integrated Program for Disease Prevention), we started our work to reduce and control the main NCD risk factors. Smoking being widespread in Siberia, we started an anti-smoking campaign in Novosibirsk as participants in the international "QUIT & WIN" campaign in 1994. In 1995 we arranged a similar contest at the local level in the city; and now in May 1996 we are again taking part in the QUIT & WIN campaign. PMID:10093330

  1. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: A Symposium for Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientists' Inst. for Public Information, New York, NY.

    During a symposium on adolescent pregnancy, medical and education personnel presented an overview of the problem and its causes, a description of solutions currently in practice throughout the country, analysis of the state of research in the field of prevention, and a look at the government's role. Addressed in this transcipt of the symposium are…

  2. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  3. Adolescent Suicide Prevention: A Compendium of Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Richard A., Ed.; Wing, Michael, Ed.

    This guide presents information, direction, and resources to help teachers design a curriculum on suicide prevention tailored to their students' needs. Chapter I describes the problem of adolescent suicide at one high school and the program that developed as a result of that problem. Chapter II presents facts about suicide under the headings of…

  4. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  5. Mass media and school interventions for cigarette smoking prevention: effects 2 years after completion.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, B S; Worden, J K; Secker-Walker, R H; Pirie, P L; Badger, G J; Carpenter, J H; Geller, B M

    1994-01-01

    The long-term cigarette smoking prevention effects of mass media and school interventions were assessed. Adolescents in two communities received both mass media and school interventions; those in two matching communities received only school interventions. Surveys of 5458 students were conducted at baseline in grades 4 through 6 and 2 years after the 4-year interventions were completed, when students were in grades 10 through 12. Students exposed to the media-plus-school interventions were found to be at lower risk for weekly smoking (odds ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval = 0.49, 0.78) than those receiving school interventions only, indicating that the effects of the combined interventions persisted 2 years after the interventions' completion. PMID:8017542

  6. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Balázs, Máté Á

    2012-03-01

    While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N=2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean=15.4 years, S.D.=1.8 years; 49,2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring.

  7. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking. PMID:25038194

  8. The Meaning of Smoking as Health and Social Risk in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation describes what smoking means to adolescents, and attempts to better understand it as a rite of passage. Applying a social ontology to an often-individualized issue, interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent smokers between the ages of 13 and 19. Results show that adolescents possess detailed information about the risks of…

  9. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  10. Curbing adolescent smoking: a review of the effectiveness of various policies.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco-related mortality is one of the biggest killers in American medicine. Evidence suggests that if adolescents can be kept tobacco-free, most will never start using tobacco. Therefore, tobacco control policies directed at the youth population could provide an effective method for sustaining long-term reductions in smoking in all segments of the population. Many forms of tobacco control policies have been implemented including restrictive laws, public campaigns, and taxation duties; there has been disagreement over which is most effective. We investigate the efficacy of various methods of tobacco control in youth and present a review of the published evidence.Econometric data for both youth access restrictions and environmental tobacco smoke restrictions afford ambiguous results. Results vary in a continuum from a moderate negative effect toward, ironically, a marginal positive effect on smoking. While information dissemination policies may be somewhat effective on the onset, they are limited in their effect and eventually diminish over time. We conclude that increases in price affect teen smoking to a great degree. Most estimates show that for a 10 percent increase in prices, which could be implemented by a tax per pack, a 15 percent decrease in cigarettes consumed could be accomplished. Taxation policies are an effective means of preventative medicine. PMID:16197728

  11. Second Hand Smoke is Associated with Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Anil K.; Liu, Ying-Hua; Weitzman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure, either in utero or during childhood, has been linked to low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, increased asthma severity, dental caries, behavioral problems, ADHD, emotional problems, and otitis media (OM).To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the possible association between SHS and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in adolescent. Objectives The study objectives were to (1) exam risk factors for sensorial hearing loss in different age, gender, race, and income/poverty groups among adolescents (age 12 to 19) in the U.S. using data from most recent waves of NHANES (2005–2006); and, (2) evaluate the independent association between SHS and sensorial hearing loss among adolescents. Design Cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative data. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006. Participants 1533 non-institutionalized adolescents age 12–19 who underwent audiometric testing, had serum cotinine levels available, and were not actively smoking. Measurements The serum cotinine levels, presence of household smokers, and self-report of smoking were used to determine SHS exposure and active smoking. Low frequency hearing loss was defined as the average pure tone level greater than 15 dB for 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz; high frequency hearing loss was defined as the average pure tone level greater than 15 dB for 3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz. Results SHS exposure was associated with elevated pure tone hearing levels at 2, 3 and 4 kHz. and 1.8 fold increased risk of unilateral low frequency SNHL in multivariate analyses (95% C.I.: 1.08-3.46). The incidence of SNHL was directly related to level of SHS exposure as reflected in serum cotinine levels. In addition, nearly 82% of adolescents with low frequency SNHL did not report hearing difficulty. Conclusions SHS is associated with increased incidence of LFSNHL that is directly related to level of

  12. Passive smoking, invasive meningococcal disease and preventive measures: a commentary

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Active smoking is a recognized risk factor of various infectious diseases. In a systematic review published in BMC Public Health, Murray et al. demonstrated that exposure to passive smoking significantly increased the risk of meningococcal disease among children. Their review especially highlights that the risk remains high even if the exposure occurs during pregnancy or after birth, although the authors could not disentangle the independent effects of smoking during pregnancy from those in the postnatal period. How passive smoking increases the risk of childhood meningococcal disease is not precisely known. Both exposure to 'smoke', or 'smokers' (who are highly susceptible to pharyngeal carriage of meningococci) are postulated mechanisms, but unfortunately very few studies have examined the risk of exposure by considering these two variables separately, and this therefore remains a research priority. Quitting may well be the mainstay of preventing tobacco-related hazards but the available global data suggest that most smokers are reluctant to quit. Among other interventions, immunizing children with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine could, theoretically, reduce the risk of meningococcal disease among children and their smoker household contacts through herd immunity. See related article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/12/1062 PMID:23228079

  13. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  14. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  15. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  16. Beliefs and attitudes of male and female adolescents and the risk of smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasim, K; Al-Zalabani, A; Abd El-Moneim, ES; Amer, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adolescent smoking relates to numerous risk factors, of which beliefs and attitudes toward smoking may play a role. The study aimed to investigate the association between beliefs and attitudes and the risk of adolescent smoking. Materials and Methods: In a school-based cross-sectional study, 3,400 students were recruited from 34 intermediate and secondary schools in Madinah City, Al Madinah Region, Saudi Arabia. Data about sociodemographics, smoking-related factors, and beliefs and attitudes toward smoking were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was estimated and the studied beliefs and attitudes were compared by smoking status and sex using appropriate statistical analyses including multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of the 3,322 respondents, 33.02% (38.9% males and 26.4% females) were current smokers. Beliefs and attitudes toward smoking significantly differed between smokers and nonsmokers in the studied male and female students. The adjusted risk of smoking was significantly increased among female adolescents who believed that male smokers were more attractive [odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.6-2.9] and among male smokers who believed that female smokers are more attractive (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.2-2.2). The risk was also increased among all adolescents who believed that smoking lent comfort in social gatherings. Belief that smoking is harmful, however, was negatively associated with the risk of smoking, particularly among females (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.35-0.91). Conclusions: The study revealed a considerable high prevalence of smoking among male and female adolescents. Addressing the beliefs and knowledge about smoking during childhood is crucial in any antismoking program. PMID:27089105

  17. Adolescent first lapse following smoking cessation: situation characteristics, precipitants and proximal influences.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark G; Gwaltney, Chad J; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; Monti, Peter M; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-12-01

    Despite increased attention to adolescent smoking cessation, little is known about adolescent relapse following a quit attempt. To address this issue, the present study was designed to provide initial information regarding the characteristics of adolescent lapses to smoking following abstinence. Included in the present study were 204 adolescent participants in four independent smoking cessation trials. For the full sample, participants averaged 15.99 (1.27) years of age; 56% were female and 78% were white. Lapse characteristics and precipitants were assessed using the Adolescent Smoking Relapse Review. Three domains of the lapse experience were assessed: lapse situation characteristics, precipitants of use in the situation, and proximal influences (i.e., potential precipitants occurring on the same day, prior to the lapse situation). Participant reports indicated that the modal lapse situation occurred in the evening while socializing with friends at home. Urges or cravings and social pressure were commonly endorsed as occurring in lapse situations. The most frequently reported proximal influence was desire for a cigarette, followed by abstinence-violation cognitions (okay to smoke occasionally, wanted to see what it would be like) and negative emotions. The findings indicate that a broad range of factors appear to influence adolescent smoking lapse and commend the value of incorporating content relevant to managing social and affective cues, strategies for inhibiting the prepotent response to ask for a cigarette, addressing cognitions regarding the difficulty of not smoking (i.e., cessation expectancies) and combating perceptions of the ability to smoke occasionally.

  18. Simulating Dynamic Network Models and Adolescent Smoking: The Impact of Varying Peer Influence and Peer Selection.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa

    2015-12-01

    We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.

  19. Why Do Teenagers Smoke and Chew?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Cassie; Orlandi, Mario A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the factors related to the acquisition of adolescent smoking and describe intervention programs that have evolved to prevent smoking. They hypothesize that the same correlates would apply to smokeless tobacco use among this age group. (CH)

  20. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates’ Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents’ affiliations or two-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the “affiliation exposure model.” This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by joint participation in school-based organized sports activities with smokers. The analytic sample consisted of 1260 American adolescents from age 10 to 13 in middle schools, and the results of the longitudinal regression analyses showed that adolescents were more likely to smoke as they were increasingly exposed to teammates who smoke. This study illustrates the importance of peer influence via affiliation through team sports. PMID:22313152

  1. Evaluating injury prevention programs: the Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project.

    PubMed

    Mallonee, S

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of injury prevention programs is critical for measuring program effects on reducing injury-related morbidity and mortality or on increasing the adoption of safety practices. During the planning and implementation of injury prevention programs, evaluation data also can be used to test program strategies and to measure the program's penetration among the target population. The availability of this early data enables program managers to refine a program, increasing the likelihood of successful outcomes. The Oklahoma City Smoke Alarm Project illustrates how an evaluation was designed to inform program decisions by providing methodologically sound data on program processes and outcomes. This community intervention trial was instituted to reduce residential fire-related injuries and deaths in a geographic area of Oklahoma City that was disproportionately affected by this problem. The distribution of free smoke alarms in targeted neighborhoods was accompanied by written educational pamphlets and home-based follow-up to test whether the alarms were functioning correctly. Early evaluation during the planning and implementation phases of the program allowed for midcourse corrections that increased the program's impact on desired outcomes. During the six years following the project, the residential fire-related injury rate decreased 81% in the target population but only 7% in the rest of Oklahoma City. This dramatic decline in fire-related injuries in the target area is largely attributed to the free smoke alarm distribution as well as to educational efforts promoting awareness about residential fires and their prevention. PMID:10911692

  2. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking. PMID:15554118

  3. Smoke-free homes, smoking susceptibility and familial smoking among never-smoking high school students: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gregoire, Bruce; Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that living in a smoke-free home has a positive effect on adolescents' perceived acceptance of smoking. However, the relationship between smoke-free homes and adolescent smoking behaviours remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between smoke-free homes and smoking susceptibility among high school students, and to determine whether these associations persist when analyses are stratified by familial smoking status. Methods: We conducted a random cross-sectional survey (2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey) of primary, junior and high school students in Canada (n = 47 203). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between smoke-free homes and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking high school students, with and without stratification by familial smoking. Results: Analyses showed that adolescents living in a smoke-free home had reduced odds of being susceptible to smoking (odds ratio [OR] 0.582, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.428-0.791) compared with their peers living in households where smoking was permitted. When adolescents had other family members who were smokers, having a smoke-free home was not significantly associated with reduced smoking susceptibility (OR 0.878, 95% CI 0.721-1.071). Interpretation: Our results suggest that smoke-free homes may influence future smoking initiation. Optimal success in preventing youth smoking uptake necessitates having a coherent antismoking message between the home smoking environment and familial smoking behaviour. PMID:27398377

  4. Moderating roles of primary social influences in the relationship between adolescent self-reported exposure to antismoking messages and smoking intention.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin

    2008-11-01

    This study explores moderating roles of primary social influences in the relationship between adolescent triers' and experimenters' self-reported exposure to antismoking messages and their smoking intentions. The theoretical arguments are drawn from primary socialization theory, group socialization theory, and the social development model, and the data are from the 2004 National Youth Tobacco Survey. The tobit regression models demonstrate that, as a primary social influence, peer smoking seems to be a strong risk factor for all of the adolescent segments' smoking intentions, whereas parental monitoring can be a significant counter-risk factor for middle-schoolers' smoking intentions. In addition, school intervention programs and parental monitoring against smoking appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between high-school triers' self-reported exposure to antismoking messages and their smoking intentions. The findings seem to suggest that campaigners should make more efforts to incorporate primary social influences to prevent adolescent smoking. The findings also suggest that campaigners should tailor antismoking programs to fit specific target audiences. In particular, middle-school experimenters deserve more attention from antismoking campaigners because they seem most vulnerable to future smoking. PMID:19089700

  5. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  6. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-05-03

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention.

  7. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86-2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I² = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  8. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S.; Hipp, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively. PMID:25239115

  9. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S; Hipp, John R

    2015-09-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively.

  10. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  11. Evaluation of Smoking Prevention Television Messages Based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…

  12. Oregon Research Institute's Smoking Prevention Program: Helping Students Resist Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herbert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, Oregon Research Institute implemented Programs to Advance Teen Health (PATH), a smoking prevention program that helps seventh and ninth graders learn to resist social pressures to smoke. This report describes PATH and discusses the reasons behind its smoking prevention strategy. The report first notes the importance of preventing…

  13. State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2012 and 2013

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015 STATE ESTIMATES OF ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF RISK OF SMOKING: 2012 AND 2013 AUTHORS ... with an inverse association between use and risk perceptions (i.e., the prevalence of use is lower ...

  14. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  15. School-based smoking prevention programmes: ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Lotrean, Lucia Maria; Trofor, Antigona; Mihălţan, Florin; Santillan, Edna Arillo

    2011-01-01

    School-based health education has the potential to inform and educate young people, in order to promote healthy behaviours among them, which will help to prevent diseases and social problems. The present study gives an overview of several ethical issues which must be considered in different phases of school-based smoking prevention programs. This will help health educators, public health professionals and researchers in their activity of health education in schools. The ethical issues must be taken into consideration during all the activities and refer to the involvement of officials, schools, parents, young people who participate into the program, authors and persons/institutions responsible with the implementation, evaluation or funding of the programs. The application into practice of these ethical principles, influence the quality of the health education, its acceptability BY the target group and the correctness of results. Also, it prevents possible problems and misunderstandings between persons and institutions involved in the health education and smoking prevention process, which could seriously affect and even destroy implementation of such health education activities.

  16. Waterpipe a gateway to cigarette smoking initiation among adolescents in Irbid, Jordan: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Jaber, R.; Madhivanan, P.; Veledar, E.; Khader, Y.; Mzayek, F.; Maziak, W.

    2015-01-01

    SETTING According to anecdotal evidence, waterpipe smoking may lead to the initiation of cigarette smoking among young people. This hypothesis is yet to be examined using an appropriate study design and a theoretical model for behavioral change. OBJECTIVE To compare the risk of cigarette smoking initiation among waterpipe-only smokers and never smokers in a school-based sample of adolescents from Irbid, Jordan. METHODS A total of 1454 cigarette-naïve participants were drawn from a longitudinal study on smoking behavior conducted in Irbid among 1781 seventh graders who were enrolled at baseline (2008) and completed the study questionnaire on smoking behavior annually until 2011. Grouped time-survival analysis was used to compare the risk of subsequent initiation of cigarette smoking between waterpipe smokers (n = 298) and never smokers (n = 1156) using adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS Risk of initiation of cigarette smoking among waterpipe smokers was significantly higher than among never smokers after adjusting for potential confounders (aHR 1.67, 95%CI 1.46–1.92). The association between waterpipe and cigarette smoking initiation was dose-dependent. The risk of initiating cigarette smoking increased with increase in the frequency of waterpipe smoking (P for linear trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Waterpipe smoking led to the initiation of cigarette smoking among this cohort of Jordanian adolescents; the effect was dose-dependent. PMID:25860006

  17. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Conclusions Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools. PMID:24896251

  18. Image, context and transition: smoking in mid-to-late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Susan; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; McNeill, Ann

    2005-10-01

    This paper explores 16-19-year-old Scottish smokers' experiences and attitudes towards smoking and their understandings of the ways in which this transitional period impacts on their smoking behaviour. The study involved 49 qualitative interviews conducted mostly in friendship pairs. Interviewees also completed a brief smoking questionnaire. The paper highlights the salience of social context in smoking initiation and maintenance, and the role of smoking across a range of social spheres. Interviewees described how transitions from school to work, further education or un/employment, impacted on their smoking. Smoking was perceived to be an important 'lubricant' for social relations, and marker of an acceptable identity in familiar and new contexts which acted to reinforce and increase smoking. In contrast, smoking restrictions at home, work and/or educational settings were felt to moderate consumption. This has implications for cessation programmes for older adolescents who have been relatively ignored by tobacco control. The study also suggests that if smoke-free policies were extended to all workplaces, this would have a particular impact on smoking amongst older adolescents by hindering the transition from social to regular smoking.

  19. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  20. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Krasny, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial declines in smoking in the United States. However, smoking still remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature deaths in the country. Despite the continuing challenges of implementing tobacco control strategies and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry to undermine such strategies, there are now unprecedented opportunities to prevent smoking initiation, facilitate cessation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent literature discussing key strategies that have proven effective in tobacco control including regulations on sales and marketing of tobacco products, taxation, and smoke-free legislation. We focused on these three tobacco control strategies because of their potential to positively influence the environment of both minors and adults regardless of their smoking status. Although research has identified significant individual and social predictors of tobacco use, environmental influences are also important risk factors for tobacco use. PMID:24634706

  1. Smoking on school property as a risk factor for substance use among adolescent smokers.

    PubMed

    Sneed, Carl D; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Matsumura, Scott H; Hess, Ryan A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine if smoking on high-school property was associated with increased risk for other substance use among U.S. adolescents. Secondary analyses were carried out with data from the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS, N = 15,503). Only adolescents who reported smoking at least one cigarette in the last 30 days were selected for analyses (n = 2531, 44% female). Alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine use was assessed among participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the relationship between smoking on school property (yes versus no) with each of the substance use variables. Adolescent smokers who reported smoking on school property were significantly more likely to report substance use across all substances examined compared to smokers who did not smoke on campus. For example, campus smokers were 3.91 times more likely to use marijuana in their lifetime and 3.85 times more likely to have used crack or cocaine in their lifetime compared to smokers who did not smoke on campus. Health care providers who provide services to adolescents should screen for smoking on school property to help identify adolescents at increased risk for substance use.

  2. Association of Smoking in Adolescence With Abdominal Obesity in Adulthood: A Follow-Up Study of 5 Birth Cohorts of Finnish Twins

    PubMed Central

    Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Kantonen, Suvi; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the association of adolescent smoking with overweight and abdominal obesity in adulthood. Methods. We used the FinnTwin16, a prospective, population-based questionnaire study of 5 consecutive and complete birth cohorts of Finnish twins born between 1975 and 1979 (N = 4296) and studied at four points between the ages of 16 and 27 years to analyze the effect of adolescent smoking on abdominal obesity and overweight in early adulthood. Results. Smoking at least 10 cigarettes daily when aged 16 to 18 years increased the risk of adult abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR]=1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39, 2.26). After we adjusted for confounders, the OR was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.11, 1.88), and after further adjustment for current body mass index (BMI), the OR was 1.34 (95% CI = 0.95, 1.88). Adolescent smoking significantly increased the risk of becoming overweight among women even after adjustment for possible confounders, including baseline BMI (OR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.88). Conclusions. Smoking is a risk factor for abdominal obesity among both genders and for overweight in women. The prevention of smoking during adolescence may play an important role in promoting healthy weight and in decreasing the morbidity related to abdominal obesity. PMID:19059868

  3. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  4. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  5. The Role of Smoking in the Lives of Low-Income Pregnant Adolescents: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Erma Jean

    1994-01-01

    Examined role of cigarette smoking in lives of low-income, pregnant adolescents (n=20). Findings indicated that subjects smoked to cope with increased weight gain; to deliver smaller infants which in turn would decrease duration of labor and reduce pain of delivery; and to establish identity separate from their parents' and peers' drug abuse.…

  6. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  7. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  8. Pubertal Development, Choice of Friends, and Smoking Initiation among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Gebelt, Janet L.; McRee, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pubertal development and peer associations are important determinants of adolescent smoking behavior. However, more remains to be learned about "why" these variables matter or how they may be related to one another in ways that lead to the initiation of smoking. Using contractual data from the National…

  9. Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis through Young Adulthood. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-333

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aims of this report are to (1) identify the incidence of daily smoking at several time points during the adolescent and young adult years, including the prevalence of new daily smokers relative to repeat daily smokers; (2) identify several specific developmental patterns of smoking; and (3) examine the specific developmental patterns…

  10. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  11. Relationship of Acculturation and Family Functioning to Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, JieWu; Garbanati, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the combination of acculturation, family functioning, and parental smoking as predictors of smoking attitudes and behaviors among Asian-American adolescents. The participants were 106 Asian-American high school students whose ages ranged from 15 to 19 (51 male and 55 female, mean age = 16.30…

  12. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  13. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  14. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.

  15. Effect of Televised, Tobacco Company–Funded Smoking Prevention Advertising on Youth Smoking-Related Beliefs, Intentions, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths’ smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. Methods. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103 172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. Results. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company–sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Conclusions. Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12. PMID:17077405

  16. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tyas, S.; Pederson, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables.
CONCLUSIONS—Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.


Keywords: adolescence; smoking initiation; psychosocial factors PMID:10093176

  17. Predicting experimentation with cigarettes: the childhood antecedents of smoking study (CASS).

    PubMed

    Mittelmark, M B; Murray, D M; Luepker, R V; Pechacek, T F; Pirie, P L; Pallonen, U E

    1987-02-01

    In a two-year investigation of cigarette smoking incidence in a population of Minnesota adolescents, the perceived smoking behavior of friends at baseline was a strong predictor of smoking onset. Additional predictors included: siblings' smoking behavior, parents' education level, and seven psychosocial scales including independence and rebelliousness. Smoking prevention strategies which teach youth to cope with social influences are well founded. Results also indicate that younger adolescents may yet be dissuaded from beginning smoking by knowledge of the health consequences of smoking.

  18. Preventing Smoking in Open Public Places in University Campus Settings: A Situational Crime Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jing; Prenzler, Tim; Buys, Nicholas; McMeniman, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions using situational crime prevention approaches to reduce the smoking rate in outdoor areas of a university campus. Design/methodology/approach: A prospective intervention design was designed for the study. Surveys and observations were used to measure the impacts…

  19. Prevention of relapse in women who quit smoking during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, C M; Curry, S J; Lando, H A; Pirie, P L; Grothaus, L C; Nelson, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study is an evaluation of relapse prevention interventions for smokers who quit during pregnancy. METHODS: Pregnant smokers at 2 managed care organizations were randomized to receive a self-help booklet only, prepartum relapse prevention, or prepartum and postpartum relapse prevention. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 28 weeks of pregnancy and at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postpartum. RESULTS: The pre/post intervention delayed but did not prevent postpartum relapse to smoking. Prevalent abstinence was significantly greater for the pre/post intervention group than for the other groups at 8 weeks (booklet group, 30%; prepartum group, 35%; pre/post group, 39%; P = .02 [different superscripts denote differences at P < .05]) and at 6 months (booklet group, 26%, prepartum group, 24%; pre/post group, 33%; P = .04) postpartum. A nonsignificant reduction in relapse among the pre/post group contributed to differences in prevalent abstinence. There was no difference between the groups in prevalent abstinence at 12 months postpartum. CONCLUSIONS: Relapse prevention interventions may need to be increased in duration and potency to prevent post-partum relapse. PMID:10224982

  20. Defining Cigarette Smoking Status in Young Adults: A Comparison of Adolescent vs Adult Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delnevo, Cristine D.; Lewis, M. Jane; Kaufman, Ira; Abatemarco, Diane J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the agreement between 2 measures (adult vs adolescent) of current cigarette smoking among young adults. Methods: We examined data from 1007 young adults from the New Jersey Adult Tobacco Survey. The adult measure incorporates lifetime and present use, whereas the adolescent measure assesses past 30-day use. The kappa…

  1. Trends in Smoking among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United Kingdom: Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandford, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine trends in smoking prevalence among adolescents and young adults in the UK and to identify any developments in health education theory and practice relating to adolescent tobacco use since 2000. The implications of such research are discussed. Design/methodology/approach: A literature search was…

  2. Mediating Influences of Negative Affect and Risk Perception on the Relationship Between Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Patricia E.; Bekman, Nicole M.; Worley, Matthew J.; Monreal, Teresa K.; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. Methods: The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. Results: As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p < .001) and lifetime (z = 6.14, p < .001) smoking was mediated by both negative affect and risk perception. Conclusions: These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect. PMID:21436297

  3. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. PMID:23816473

  4. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries.

  5. Smoking Prevention in China: A Content Analysis of an Anti-Smoking Social Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The China Tobacco Control Media Campaign on Sina Weibo is novel in the context of smoking prevention and cessation in China and has not to date been evaluated. This study draws on health behavior theories and dialogic theory in public relations to analyze microblog campaign postings and their relationships with the outcome of online audience engagement. Microblog postings from May 2011 to January 2015 were content analyzed, showing that the most common persuasive content characteristic was perceived risk, followed by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Perceived risk and self-efficacy postings positively influenced online audience engagement, whereas subjective norm postings was a nonsignificant predictor. Postings were more likely to share information than aim to interact with audience members. However, both information sharing and audience interaction postings were positive predictors of online audience engagement. There was also evidence of main and interactive effects of message originality on online audience engagement. The current study has, to the best of our knowledge, broken new ground in 2 regards: (a) using health behavior theories as a basis for analyzing the content of an anti-smoking social media campaign and (b) examining the content of an anti-smoking media campaign of any type in China.

  6. Smoking Prevention in China: A Content Analysis of an Anti-Smoking Social Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The China Tobacco Control Media Campaign on Sina Weibo is novel in the context of smoking prevention and cessation in China and has not to date been evaluated. This study draws on health behavior theories and dialogic theory in public relations to analyze microblog campaign postings and their relationships with the outcome of online audience engagement. Microblog postings from May 2011 to January 2015 were content analyzed, showing that the most common persuasive content characteristic was perceived risk, followed by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Perceived risk and self-efficacy postings positively influenced online audience engagement, whereas subjective norm postings was a nonsignificant predictor. Postings were more likely to share information than aim to interact with audience members. However, both information sharing and audience interaction postings were positive predictors of online audience engagement. There was also evidence of main and interactive effects of message originality on online audience engagement. The current study has, to the best of our knowledge, broken new ground in 2 regards: (a) using health behavior theories as a basis for analyzing the content of an anti-smoking social media campaign and (b) examining the content of an anti-smoking media campaign of any type in China. PMID:27232655

  7. Innovative collaboration to prevent repeated adolescent pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R B; Brown, H N

    1997-01-01

    Nurse educators from a university setting and staff from the county health department collaborated to establish an innovative program to prevent repeated pregnancy in adolescents. Called Dollar-A-Day and patterned after the original in Denver, CO, the program was operated jointly for 5 years and today continues to operate under the auspices of the health department. Success of the venture is attributed to use of skills in assessment, building, managing, and evaluating, as described by Loxley (1997). These elements were used to construct a context for collaboration.

  8. Association Between Smoking and Problematic Internet Use Among Japanese Adolescents: Large-Scale Nationwide Epidemiological Study.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Higuchi, Susumu; Jike, Maki; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Kanda, Hideyuki; Nakagome, Sachi; Ohida, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the association between smoking and problematic Internet use (PIU), such as Internet addiction (IA) and excessive Internet use (EIU), among Japanese adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Responses were obtained from 100,050 students (0.94:1 ratio of boys to girls). The prevalence of IA (as indicated by a Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction score ≥5) in all participants, boys, and girls was 8.1%, 6.4%, and 9.9%, respectively. The prevalence of EIU (≥5 hours/day) in all participants, boys, and girls was 12.6%, 12.3%, and 13.0%, respectively. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for IA and EIU were significantly higher among students who smoked (including those who previously smoked) than among those who never smoked (p < 0.01 for all comparisons). In addition, the AORs were the highest for students who smoked ≥21 cigarettes per day. The prevalence and AORs of IA and EIU tended to increase with smoking frequency and number of cigarettes smoked per day, indicating a dose-dependent relationship. Thus, IA and EIU have strong associations with smoking. This study revealed that adolescents who routinely smoked or those who smoked more cigarettes per day had a higher risk of PIU than adolescents who did not. These findings suggest that there is a close association between smoking and PIU among Japanese adolescents. PMID:27635442

  9. Maternal Influences on Smoking Initiation among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Tracy R.; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined associations between maternal social influences to smoke and girls' early smoking behaviors. Data were collected separately from 450 urban minority girls (65.7% Black, 21.5% Latina, and 12.8% other) and their mothers on smoking frequency as well as demographic and social factors hypothesized to promote smoking. Results showed…

  10. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  11. Adolescents' and Teachers' Perceptions of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Gleason, Jamie H.; Johnson, Stephanie A.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of adolescent and teacher perceptions of adolescent pregnancy-prevention programs using dolls that simulate infant behavior. Uses experimental and control groups of high school students from Midwest suburban areas. Finds increased appreciation for difficulty of infant care among adolescents in experimental groups. Majority of teachers…

  12. Brighter Futures: The Wisconsin Plan To Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Executive Committee on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention, Madison.

    The Executive Committee and the Subcommittee on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention were charged to develop and provide leadership to implement a state plan to reduce adolescent pregnancy in Wisconsin. Both the negative outcomes for adolescent parents and their children and the cost to society are at issue. This document serves as a first step to…

  13. Communication about Smoking in Dutch Families: Associations between Anti-Smoking Socialization and Adolescent Smoking-Related Cognitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Willemsen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Parents play an important role in the development of young people's smoking behavior, through the modeling effects of their own smoking status, through the ways they raise their children and through the ways they deal with smoking at home. The present study focused on anti-smoking socialization by, first, comparing the perspectives of both parents…

  14. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of cigarette smoking in male adolescents in northern Jordan, and the influence of waterpipe use and asthma diagnosis: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-09-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11-12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99-5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46-3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53-3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted.

  15. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of cigarette smoking in male adolescents in northern Jordan, and the influence of waterpipe use and asthma diagnosis: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-09-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11-12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99-5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46-3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10-2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53-3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  16. Nicotine-Dependence-Varying Effects of Smoking Events on Momentary Mood Changes among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Selya, Arielle S.; Updegrove, Nicole; Rose, Jennifer S.; Dierker, Lisa; Tan, Xianming; Hedeker, Donald; Li, Runze; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Theories of nicotine addiction emphasize the initial role of positive reinforcement in the development of regular smoking behavior, and the role of negative reinforcement at later stages. These theories are tested here by examining the effects of amount smoked per smoking event on smoking-related mood changes, and how nicotine dependence (ND) moderates this effect. The current study examines these questions within a sample of light adolescent smokers drawn from the metropolitan Chicago area (N=151, 55.6% female, mean 17.7 years). Instruments Ecological momentary assessment data were collected via handheld computers, and additional variables were drawn from a traditional questionnaire. Methods Effects of the amount smoked per event on changes in positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) after vs. before smoking were examined, while controlling for subject-averaged amount smoked, age, gender, and day of week. ND-varying effects were examined using varying effect models to elucidate their change across levels of ND. Results The effect of the amount smoked per event was significantly associated with an increase in PA among adolescents with low-to-moderate levels of ND, and was not significant at high ND. Conversely, the effect of the amount smoked was significantly associated with a decrease in NA only for adolescents with low levels of ND, Conclusions These findings support that the role of positive reinforcement in early stages of dependent smoking, but do not support the role of negative reinforcement beyond early stages of smoking. Other potential contributing factors to the relationship between smoking behavior and PA/NA change are discussed. PMID:25306388

  17. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  18. Preventing adolescent pregnancy: in hot pursuit.

    PubMed

    Carrera, M A

    1995-01-01

    Many children and teenagers are raised in unstable and unsupportive family and community environments ridden with poverty, institutionalized racism, poor housing, substandard health care, inadequate education, and limited career opportunities. Under such conditions, they see no hope for the future. Having sexual intercourse helps these young people to cope with their otherwise harsh realities. Taking precautions against unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) is of secondary importance to the immediate need for emotional and physical bonding through intimate sexual relations. Simply providing adolescents and youths in this context with information on family planning and STD avoidance will not convince them to delay the onset of sexual intercourse or modify their sexual behavior once begun. The desire to live a long, successful, and productive life is what encourages youths to delay the onset of intercourse and to use contraception consistently once they begin to have sex. Youth workers, teachers, and counselors must therefore provide relevant prevention information while also attempting to replace sexual intercourse as a coping mechanism with concrete and hopeful alternatives. Patricia Dempsey and the author launched a program in 1985 at the Children's Aid Society to develop a long-term, holistic, multidimensional adolescent sexuality and pregnancy prevention pilot program for young people, parents, and adults in Harlem. The program would address teen pregnancy and childbearing as well as the underlying causes. This paper presents an overview of the participants and program components.

  19. Beliefs of Turkish and Moroccan Immigrants in The Netherlands about Smoking Cessation: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nierkens, Vera; Stronks, Karien; van Oel, Clarine J.; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a very important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity, and this is also the case in immigrant populations. Therefore, smoking cessation interventions need to take these groups into account. Insight into the applicability of behavioral smoking cessation interventions for non-Western populations is necessary. The objective…

  20. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels. PMID:27351343

  1. Smoking behaviour of Czech adolescents: results of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in the Czech Republic, 2002.

    PubMed

    Sovinová, H; Csémy, L

    2004-03-01

    The Czech Republic Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is a school-based survey of students in grades 7-9, conducted in 2002. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to produce representative data for all of the Czech Republic. On a large sample of students (N=4,149) from 7-9th grade it reveals that smoking among children has been continually growing. According to the results of this study, over 34% of the respondents smoke. Results of the study help us to understand social and attitudinal factors that affect adolescent smoking habits. Social factors include particularly the convenient availability of cigarettes and the lack of the legal regulation of the retail of cigarettes: over one half of all smokers under 15 years of age regularly purchase cigarettes in regular retail outlets; 72% of them reported never having been restricted in their purchases because of their age. Advertising and media coverage appears to be another important factor that affects smoking in this age group. Over 80% of children under 15 years of age reported that they have been exposed to the tobacco advertising. The study also allows an interesting analysis of the exposure to the environmental tobacco smoke. Compared to non-smokers, this exposure has been significantly higher in the case of smokers--both in their homes and at other locations (58% vs. 25%, and 90% vs. 57% respectively). The analysis of the data also revealed a strong misconception about the health risks related to passive smoking among smokers. The study provides three key findings for health promotion: (1) it is necessary to exert a continuous pressure on the political representation to strictly enforce the regulations of tobacco distribution and availability to minors; (2) school health education as well as community oriented prevention programs need to explicitly communicate non-smoking as a standard; and (3) it is important to increase the attractiveness and availability of smoking cessation programs. PMID:15068204

  2. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors. PMID:18087898

  3. Sex differences in prevalence rates and predictors of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Siziya, S; Ntata, P R T; Rudatsikira, E; Makupe, C M; Umar, E; Muula, A S

    2007-09-01

    An analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey for Kilimanjaro, Tanzania was carried out to assess sex differences in the prevalence rates and predictors of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents. A total of 2323 adolescents participated in the study of whom 53% were females and 47% males. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 3.0% and 1.4% among males and females, respectively. The common factors that were significantly positively associated with cigarette smoking between sexes were: having more pocket money, closest friend smoked cigarettes, seeing actors smoke on TV, videos or movies, and seeing advertisements for cigarettes at social gatherings. Seeing anti-smoking messages at social gatherings were negatively associated with smoking among both sexes. While having had something such as a t-shirt or pen with a cigarette brand logo on it was positively associated with cigarette smoking among males, it was negatively associated with cigarette smoking among females. Male adolescents older than 15 years, those in their 9th year of schooling, and those who had seen cigarette brand names on TV were more likely to smoke. Meanwhile, male respondents who were in their 8th year of schooling, had seen anti-smoking media messages, and advertisements for cigarettes in newspapers or magazines were less likely to smoke. Among female adolescents, those who had parents who smoked, and surprisingly those who perceived that cigarette smoking as harmful were more likely to smoke. Interestingly, seeing advertisement for cigarettes on billboards was negatively associated with smoking among female adolescents. Interventions aimed to reduce adolescent smoking need to be designed and implemented with due consideration of sex differences in these associated factors.

  4. Receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control messages and adolescent smoking initiation

    PubMed Central

    Emory, Kristen T; Messer, Karen; Vera, Lisa; Ojeda, Norma; Elder, John P; Usita, Paula; Pierce, John P

    2015-01-01

    Background Tobacco industry cigarette advertising is associated with increased adolescent smoking, while counter tobacco advertising is associated with reduced smoking. As these campaigns compete for influence, there is a need to understand their inter-relationship on youth smoking. Methods This study reports data from a national population of families (n=1036) with an oldest child aged 10–13 years, identified by random digit dialling. Parent and child dyads completed baseline questionnaires in 2003. Adolescents were resurveyed in 2007–2008 (response rate 74%). Adjusted logistic regression explores associations between receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. Results In 2007–2008, 57.9% of adolescents reported a favourite tobacco control advertisement and 43.3% reported being receptive to cigarette advertisements. Thirty per cent reported receptivity to cigarette and tobacco control advertisements. Among those receptive to cigarette advertising, having a favourite anti-smoking advertisement had a borderline significant association with a 30% lower smoking rate. Anti-industry tobacco control messages were three times more likely to be favourites of those who were receptive to cigarette advertising than other tobacco control advertising. Conclusions Receptivity to tobacco control advertising appeared to ameliorate the promotion of initiation from cigarette advertising. Anti-industry advertising appears to be the most effective counter for tobacco control and should be considered for wider use. A larger longitudinal study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24503771

  5. Social capital and adolescent smoking in schools and communities: a cross-classified multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Bart; Pfoertner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hublet, Anne; Maes, Lea

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine whether social capital at the individual-, school- and community-level can explain variance in adolescent smoking and accounts for social inequalities in smoking. We collected data as part of the 2005/6 Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of high school pupils in Belgium (Flanders). Social capital was assessed by structural and cognitive components of family social capital, a four-factor school social capital scale and a cognitive community social capital scale. We fitted non-hierarchical multilevel models to the data, with 8453 adolescents nested within a cross-classification of 167 schools and 570 communities. Significant variation in adolescent regular smoking was found between schools, but not between communities. Only structural family social capital and cognitive school social capital variables negatively related to regular smoking. No interactions between socio-economic status and social capital variables were found. Our findings suggest that previously observed community-level associations with adolescent smoking may be a consequence of unmeasured confounding. Distinguishing nested contexts of social capital is important because their associations with smoking differ.

  6. Cigarette smoking habits, attitudes and associated social factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beaglehole, R; Eyles, E; Harding, W

    1978-04-12

    Cigarette smoking habits and attitudes and associated social factors of 997 third and fourth form pupils were studied, using an interviewer administered questionnaire, in two co-educational secondary schools as part of a smoking intervention programme. Overall, 32 percent of the pupils were regular smokers with 15% smoking more than two cigarettes per day. The majority of smokers began smoking before secondary school; boys started earlier than girls,nd heavy smokers earlier than light smokers. The commonest reason for giving up smoking was personal dislike. Heavy smokers were more likely to have respiratory symptoms than other pupils. The smoking habits of the pupils were related to those of their parents, siblings and friends. The majority of pupils thought cigarette smoking bad for their health irrespective of their own smoking habits.

  7. Environmental stressors, low well-being, smoking, and alcohol use among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2011-05-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N = 2195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2195 Black, mixed ancestry ("Colored"), Indian, and White youth, aged 12-17 years old (mean age = 14.6; SD = 1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant's preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies.

  8. A web-based computer-tailored smoking prevention programme for primary school children: intervention design and study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the number of smokers has declined in the last decade, smoking is still a major health problem among youngsters and adolescents. For this reason, there is a need for effective smoking prevention programmes targeting primary school children. A web-based computer-tailored feedback programme may be an effective intervention to stimulate youngsters not to start smoking, and increase their knowledge about the adverse effects of smoking and their attitudes and self-efficacy regarding non-smoking. Methods & design This paper describes the development and evaluation protocol of a web-based out-of-school smoking prevention programme for primary school children (age 10-13 years) entitled ‘Fun without Smokes’. It is a transformation of a postal mailed intervention to a web-based intervention. Besides this transformation the effects of prompts will be examined. This web-based intervention will be evaluated in a 2-year cluster randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) with three study arms. An intervention and intervention + prompt condition will be evaluated for effects on smoking behaviour, compared with a no information control condition. Information about pupils’ smoking status and other factors related to smoking will be obtained using a web-based questionnaire. After completing the questionnaire pupils in both intervention conditions will receive three computer-tailored feedback letters in their personal e-mail box. Attitudes, social influences and self-efficacy expectations will be the content of these personalised feedback letters. Pupils in the intervention + prompt condition will - in addition to the personalised feedback letters - receive e-mail and SMS messages prompting them to revisit the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. The main outcome measures will be ever smoking and the utilisation of the ‘Fun without Smokes’ website. Measurements will be carried out at baseline, 12 months and 24 months of follow-up. Discussion The present study

  9. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  10. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  11. A study on smoking and associated psychosocial factors among adolescent students in Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Nilay Nilay; Ganguly, Samrat; Pal, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sukanta

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use among school children and adolescents is an increasing problem world-wide, particularly in the developing countries. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out in six co-educational high schools in Kolkata, West Bengal among 526 students of 15-19 years to determine the prevalence of smoking and to find out any difference among the smokers and non-smokers regarding factors related to family relations, peer group and personal characteristics. The overall rate of smoking was found to be 29.6%, mean age of initiation of smoking was earlier in males. Among smokers 75% students started smoking by 15 years. Smoking of father and peer group, family conflict and pornography addiction were found to have significant association with smoking of students. Early school health based interventions addressing these factors might help in effectively tackling this problem. PMID:24748358

  12. Preventing adolescent tobacco use and assisting young people to quit: population-, community-, and individually focused evidence-based interventions.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, Diana P

    2012-03-01

    Tobacco use among adolescents is declining in the United States but remains a major public health problem in the United States and globally. The Healthy People 2020 model of determinants of health is useful in understanding the complex interaction of factors that help explain adolescent smoking-related behaviors. Nurses are well positioned to take leadership roles in health care settings, schools, and their own communities as well as at the state, national, and global levels in advocating for policies that prevent and treat adolescent tobacco use and the subsequent burden of disease in future populations.

  13. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  14. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  15. Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising. PMID:16624795

  16. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  17. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  18. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J.; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012–2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. EXPOSURES Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. RESULTS Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary

  19. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  20. Are you in or out? Recruitment of adolescent smokers into a behavioral smoking cessation intervention

    PubMed Central

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Goecke, Michaela; Bühler, Anneke

    2015-01-01

    Even though many adolescent smokers want to quit, it is difficult to recruit them into smoking cessation interventions. Little is known about which adolescent smokers are currently reached by these measures. In this study we compare participants of a group-based, cognitive behavioral smoking cessation intervention with adolescent smokers who decided against participating. Within a non-randomized controlled trial, data of 1053 smokers (age 11–19) from 42 German secondary schools were analyzed. Of these smokers, 272 were recruited into 47 courses of the intervention. An in-class information session, individually addressing potential participants, and incentives were used as means of recruitment. Personal predictors of participation were analyzed using regression analyses and multivariate path analyses to test for mediation. In the path analysis model, nicotine dependence, quit motivation, and a previous quit attempt were directly positively related to participation. Heavier smoking behavior was indirectly positively associated with participation through nicotine dependence and negatively through quit motivation, yielding an overall positive indirect effect. The positive effect of a previous quit attempt on participation was partially mediated through nicotine dependence and quit motivation. The proportion of smoking friends were indirectly positively related to participation, mediated through nicotine dependence. Since adolescents with heavier smoking behavior and stronger nicotine dependence are less likely to undertake a successful unassisted quit attempt, the reach of these young smokers with professional cessation interventions is desirable. Further measures to improve the recruitment of those currently not motivated to quit have to be examined in future studies. PMID:25678303

  1. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  2. Randomized trial outcomes of a TTM-tailored condom use and smoking intervention in urban adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584

  3. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. Materials and methods C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. Conclusion RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema. PMID:27313451

  4. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  5. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  6. Connectedness and suicide prevention in adolescents: pathways and implications.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Janis; Wyman, Peter A; Moore, Sarah R

    2014-06-01

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health concern. Stressing the need for public health-based solutions, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified "connectedness" as one means of pursuing this agenda. To advance this effort in suicide prevention with adolescents, (1) consistencies and variation in the literature overtly linking connectedness to suicide thoughts and behaviors (STB) are reviewed, (2) three more specific mechanistic pathways are proposed whereby connectedness may influence STB, and (3) several implications related to use of connectedness as a public health framework for adolescent suicide prevention and intervention are outlined.

  7. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  8. Project ASPIRE: an Interactive, Multimedia Smoking Prevention and Cessation curriculum for culturally diverse high school students.

    PubMed

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Kelder, Steven H; Shegog, Ross; Conroy, Jennifer L; Murray, Nancy; Peters, Ronald; Cinciripini, Paul M; De Moor, Carl; Hudmon, Karen S; Ford, Kentya H

    2010-05-01

    A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE) is an innovative, computer-based smoking prevention and cessation intervention delivered to a culturally diverse population of high school students. Founded in the Transtheoretical Model of Change, five main and two "booster" sessions comprise the interactive intervention. Here we describe the intervention and the baseline characteristics from our study sample of 1,574 10th graders from 16 high schools in Houston, Texas. Environmental and behavioral smoking risk factors were assessed, and the two intervention groups were comparable with respect to most measured variables. The intervention program holds considerable promise in its ability to reduce smoking among teens.

  9. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site

    PubMed Central

    Aryal, Umesh R.; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October–November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14–16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46–4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28–4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13–4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05–2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on

  10. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Brooks, N; Kirby, R

    1991-12-01

    Smoking habits and related attitudes were assessed in a sample of 4059 11- to 16-year-olds who also identified their best friends from among their fellow respondents. Subjects' responses were directly collated with those of their friends and indicated a clear covariation of smoking status (controlling for sex and age) as anticipated from previous research in which adolescents have been asked to report on the smoking habits of their friends. Such covariation, however, was not specific to smoking habits, but generalized to related measures of attitude and normative beliefs, alcohol use, health locus of control, school performance, spending habits and socio-economic status. Similarities on these other attributes were much the same, whether or not friends shared each others' smoking habits. It is concluded that these data argue against a simplistic view of unidirectional 'peer group influence' and invite an interpretation of friendship choice based on multiple dimensions of similarity. PMID:1799862

  11. Adolescent health behaviour and similarity-attraction: friends share smoking habits (really), but much else besides.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Brooks, N; Kirby, R

    1991-12-01

    Smoking habits and related attitudes were assessed in a sample of 4059 11- to 16-year-olds who also identified their best friends from among their fellow respondents. Subjects' responses were directly collated with those of their friends and indicated a clear covariation of smoking status (controlling for sex and age) as anticipated from previous research in which adolescents have been asked to report on the smoking habits of their friends. Such covariation, however, was not specific to smoking habits, but generalized to related measures of attitude and normative beliefs, alcohol use, health locus of control, school performance, spending habits and socio-economic status. Similarities on these other attributes were much the same, whether or not friends shared each others' smoking habits. It is concluded that these data argue against a simplistic view of unidirectional 'peer group influence' and invite an interpretation of friendship choice based on multiple dimensions of similarity.

  12. Enhancing self-report of adolescent smoking: the effects of bogus pipeline and anonymity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jane; Parkinson, Lynne; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Walsh, Raoul A

    2008-10-01

    Adolescent smoking prevalence is usually assessed via self-complete questionnaires. However, concern has been expressed about the validity of such self-report. One approach to increase validity involves the threat of biological validation, known as the bogus pipeline method (BPL).This study aimed to assess the effects of BPL, using an expired air carbon monoxide monitor, and of questionnaire anonymity on student smoking self-report data. High school students (n=801) were randomly allocated to one of four conditions: anonymous questionnaire+BPL, named questionnaire+BPL, anonymous questionnaire without BPL and named questionnaire without BPL. Overall, 37% of students agreed that questionnaires were a good way to obtain honest answers. In a logistic regression analysis, students in the BPL condition had significantly higher odds of reporting weekly smoking (OR=1.83 95% CI 1.27-2.65) and monthly smoking (OR=1.66 95% CI 1.21-2.28) but not of lifetime smoking compared with non-BPL students. Students in the named questionnaire condition had a significantly higher odds of reporting lifetime smoking (OR=1.49 95% CI 1.08-2.04) compared with anonymous students. Studies assessing current smoking patterns in adolescents should consider incorporating a BPL method.

  13. Association of Smoking Onset With R-Rated Movie Restrictions and Adolescent Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Tanski, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10–14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were nationally representative of the US population. Subjects were monitored for 2 years and queried about their smoking status, their sensation-seeking propensity, and how often they were allowed to watch R-rated movies. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between parental R-rated movie restrictions, sensation-seeking propensity, and risk for smoking onset. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 32% of the US adolescents reported being completely restricted from watching R-rated movies by their parents. Model findings revealed that adolescents' sensation seeking was related to greater risk for smoking onset not only directly but also indirectly through their parents becoming more permissive of R-rated movie viewing. Parental R-rated movie restrictions were found to decrease the risk of smoking onset directly and indirectly by changing children's sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that, beyond direct influences, the relationship between adolescents' sensation seeking and parental R-rated movie restrictions in explaining smoking onset is bidirectional in nature. Finally, these findings highlight the relevance of motivating and supporting parents in limiting access to R-rated movies. PMID:21135004

  14. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with “objective” socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Methods Scottish 13–15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: “objective” SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Results Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Conclusions Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than “objective” or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. PMID:26095407

  15. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  16. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention: Empowerment for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulette, Carol A.

    Adolescent suicide has tripled in the past two decades and is considered to be a leading cause of death among America's youths. This increase has prompted much research on the assessment and prevention of adolescent suicide. Suicidologists have agreed there are no scientifically proven methods to assess which individual might attempt suicide.…

  17. Getting a Puff: A Social Learning Test of Adolescents Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Jacquelyn

    2004-01-01

    This article is a description of a study that sought to examine the applicability of Ronald Akers' social learning theory. According to Akers' theory, differential associations with smokers, differential reinforcements for smoking, favorable definitions of smoking and the availability of role models (imitation) offer an explanation as to why…

  18. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  19. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods: Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results: Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N =…

  20. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  1. Using Books to Prevent and Treat Adolescent Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardeck, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Presents strategies for using bibliotherapeutic process to prevent and treat adolescent alcohol and drug abuse. Definitions, goals, and principles of bibliotherapy are overviewed. Synopses of several useful books that focus on chemical dependency are presented. (Author)

  2. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game. PMID:22871481

  3. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  4. [Assesment of the Spanish law 28/2005 for smoking prevention].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R

    2009-01-01

    The implementation in 2006 of the law 28/2006 for smoking prevention was a milestone for modern public health in Spain. This law regulated three aspects: it banned the direct and indirect tobacco publicity and sponsorship, it reduced points of sale, and it banned smoking in enclosed workplaces and public spaces, with exemptions concentrating in the restaurant and hospitality sector. As it was implemented, other changes with preventive capacity were adopted: taxes on cigarettes were raised, and there were more resources for prevention and treatment, besides information campaigns and an intensive social debate on smoking. To evaluate the isolated effect of the law is complex, but in this paper we make an attempt by reviewing all the available information, despite its heterogeneity. More than three years after its implementation there are elements suggesting a positive impact on smoking prevalence among teens, in the general consumption of cigarettes and in acute myocardial infarction morbidity. Public policies are important for smoking prevention and to improve population s health, as they create a context conducive to smoking cessation. To reach further progress in smoking prevention in Spain, the current exemption for bars and restaurants in the smoking ban should be removed, and the taxation of tobacco products should be increased.

  5. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  6. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  7. Examining Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Female Adolescent Smoking in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…

  8. Factors Influencing Agreement between Self-Reports and Biological Measures of Smoking among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolcini, M. Margaret; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 28 studies comparing adolescent self-report of smoking with biological indicators. Identifies four factors limiting agreement: biases in self-report due to limitations of biological measures; limitations of self-report measures; social desirability; and analytic and statistical issues. Concludes that, with optimal measurement, self-report…

  9. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  10. A Review of Motivational Smoking Cessation Programs for Adolescents in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh; McClain, Mary-Catherine; Hurst, Vicie; Grossman, Steffanie; Dehili, Vincent; Flagg, Scott; Marshall, Diana; Prevatt, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a qualitative overview of school-based smoking cessation programs for adolescents, with a focus on motivationally based programs. Project-Ex and Not-On-Tobacco are two heavily studied interventions with substantial empirical support. Other programs such as use of Motivational Interviewing with the stage of change model have…

  11. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  12. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  13. The Relationship between Smoker Role Models and Intentions to Smoke among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    The study examines how adolescents' perceptions of exposure to smoker role models relate to their intentions to smoke, both directly, and indirectly through attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control. The data is based on a national representative sample of 15-year-olds (n=1670) in Norway. Path analysis indicates that perceptions of model…

  14. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  15. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  16. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  17. Affective behavior and temperament predict the onset of smoking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Ali; Allen, Nicholas B; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Whittle, Sarah; Byrne, Michelle L; Sheeber, Lisa; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-06-01

    Earlier use of tobacco in adolescence is associated with numerous adverse outcomes later in life. Although a number of studies have linked individual differences in affective functioning to adolescent smoking, these have relied primarily on self-report measures, and the contribution of different dimensions of affect to the onset of tobacco use during this period remains unclear. The current study examined these issues in a sample of 180 adolescents recruited from an ongoing prospective, longitudinal study examining emotional development. At approximately age 12, participants completed a questionnaire measure of affective temperament and took part in a family interaction task that was coded observationally to provide measures of dysphoric, aggressive, and positive behaviors. At 2 subsequent assessments, which took place approximately 2.5 years and 4 years after the initial assessment, participants completed a questionnaire measure of substance use. In total, 70 participants initiated smoking between the ages of 12 and 17. An earlier onset of smoking was predicted by more aggressive and less positive observed behavior during the interaction task, as well as lower levels of self-reported temperamental Effortful Control. There were no associations between dysphoric behaviors, or temperamental measures of negative affectivity or surgency and the onset of smoking. The findings add to a small body of literature demonstrating that behavioral components of affect can prospectively predict substance use in adolescence and suggest that different dimensions of affect show unique relationships with early substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Seasonal variations in the initiation of smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Brian; Ramirez, Nicolas; Koehly, Laura; Stevens, Stacey; Smith, Dennis W; Creekmur, Shannon

    2006-04-01

    Numerous studies have identified a variety of reasons that youths give for starting smoking. Few efforts have been made, however, to identify seasonal variations in initiation. This study was an attempt to fill that void. We examined data from 342 youths participating in a mandated smoking education and cessation program in Texas. Data were collected based on responses to questions in participant workbooks, including an item asking participants about the month in which they started smoking. A total of 47% of the participants indicated that they started smoking in May through August (chi2 = 91.42, df = 3). Post-hoc analyses indicated that significantly more youths than expected began smoking in May and June, whereas significantly fewer youths than expected began smoking in September and November. Unsupervised time out of school during the first months of summer vacation is a period of increased danger for smoking initiation. The significantly lower rates during September seem to be related to the beginning of school.

  19. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  20. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  1. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  2. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  3. Three-month effects of Project EX: A smoking intervention pilot program with Thai adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Charoenca, Naowarut; Sidhu, Anupreet; Lapvongwatana, Punyarat; Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Sussman, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent smoking is a major public health problem around the world, including Thailand. The current study provides a three-month follow-up evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use cessation program among Thai adolescents. The intervention was tested involving a quasi-experimental trial with 185 smokers, with two program and two control condition schools (within each condition, one school in Bangkok Province and one school in Nakhon Pathom Province). At 3-month follow-up, the intent-to-treat (ITT) quit rate was 23% in the program group and 11% in the standard care control group (p<0.02). The intervention also lowered the level of last 30-day smoking at follow-up among persons who did not quit in the program condition, while no change in level of smoking was reported in the control condition. These results are promising for teen tobacco use cessation programming in Thailand.

  4. Determinants of Tobacco and Hookah Smoking in a Nationally Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Djalalinia, Shirin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Keikha, Mojtaba; Ardalan, Gelayol; Najafi, Fereshteh; Khoramdad, Maliheh; Asayesh, Hamid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of tobacco through a hookah is growing in popularity, especially among children and adolescents, but little is known about the determinants of hookah smoking. Objectives The current study aimed to assess the determinants of tobacco smoking and hookah smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Patients and Methods This study was conducted as part of the fourth cross-sectional survey of a national school-based program. Using a cluster random sampling method, a validated questionnaire was completed anonymously by 14,880 students who were aged 6 - 18 years and living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Results The final study group consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents (participation rate of 90.6%), of whom 49.2% were girls and 75.6% were urban residents. The mean age was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. According to the self-reports of the students, 2.6% (3.5% of boys and 1.7% of girls) were current tobacco smokers, 5.9% (7.5% of boys and 4.2% of girls) were ever tobacco smokers, and 1.8% (2.49% of boys and 1.14% of girls) were current hookah smokers. Based on a multiple logistic regression (MLR) model, the following factors increased the risk of current smoking: age, number of days spent with friends per week, hookah smoking or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, hookah smoking by other members of the family, and screen time. The age, number of days spent with friends, hookah or cigarette smoking by the father, hookah smoking by siblings, and screen time increased the risk of hookah smoking. Female gender and living in rural areas decreased the risk of current tobacco and hookah smoking. Conclusions Preventive measures against tobacco use should be underscored for Iranian families. The preparation of strategies on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle should be considered a health priority. PMID:27781117

  5. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  6. Adolescent pregnancy: an interpersonal skill training approach to prevention.

    PubMed

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D

    1977-01-01

    The research literature reports numerous negative consequences of adolescent pregnancy. Unfortunately, contemporary approaches to preventing teenage pregnancies have been largely unsuccessful. Recent evidence, however, suggests that interpersonal communication skill training may represent an important step in helping adolescents deal with their sexual and contraceptive behavior. This describes a pilot study of an interpersonal skill training model for sexually active inner-city teenagers. Results show that this training model is a feasible and attractive approach to modifying the youths' communication patterns. Findings indicate that such training is a fruitful direction for future pregnancy prevention research with the adolescent target population.

  7. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    PubMed

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  8. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  9. HIV and smoking: associated risks and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Kariuki, Wanjiku; Manuel, Jennifer I; Kariuki, Ngaruiya; Tuchman, Ellen; O'Neal, Johnnie; Lalanne, Genevieve A

    2016-01-01

    High rates of smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) may reduce the effectiveness of HIV treatment and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Factors associated with smoking in PLWH include mental health comorbidity, alcohol and drug use, health-related quality of life, smoking among social networks and supports, and lack of access to care. PLWH smokers are at a higher risk of numerous HIV-associated infections and non-HIV related morbidity, including a decreased response to antiretroviral treatment, impaired immune functioning, reduced cognitive functioning, decreased lung functioning, and cardiovascular disease. Seventeen smoking cessation interventions were identified, of which seven were randomized controlled trials. The most effective studies combined behavioral and pharmacotherapy treatments that incorporated comprehensive assessments, multiple sessions, and cognitive-behavioral and motivational strategies. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored to the unique needs of diverse samples and incorporate strategies to reduce the risk of relapse are essential to advancing health outcomes in PLWH. PMID:26766919

  10. HIV and smoking: associated risks and prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Wanjiku; Manuel, Jennifer I; Kariuki, Ngaruiya; Tuchman, Ellen; O’Neal, Johnnie; Lalanne, Genevieve A

    2016-01-01

    High rates of smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) may reduce the effectiveness of HIV treatment and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Factors associated with smoking in PLWH include mental health comorbidity, alcohol and drug use, health-related quality of life, smoking among social networks and supports, and lack of access to care. PLWH smokers are at a higher risk of numerous HIV-associated infections and non-HIV related morbidity, including a decreased response to antiretroviral treatment, impaired immune functioning, reduced cognitive functioning, decreased lung functioning, and cardiovascular disease. Seventeen smoking cessation interventions were identified, of which seven were randomized controlled trials. The most effective studies combined behavioral and pharmacotherapy treatments that incorporated comprehensive assessments, multiple sessions, and cognitive-behavioral and motivational strategies. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored to the unique needs of diverse samples and incorporate strategies to reduce the risk of relapse are essential to advancing health outcomes in PLWH. PMID:26766919

  11. Tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L T; Anthony, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study builds on previous observations about a suspected causal association linking tobacco smoking with depression. With prospective data, the study sheds new light on the temporal sequencing of tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence. METHODS: The epidemiologic sample that was studied consisted of 1731 youths (aged 8-9 to 13-14 years) attending public schools in a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area, who were assessed at least twice from 1989 to 1994. A survival analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship from antecedent tobacco smoking to subsequent onset of depressed mood, as well as from antecedent depressed mood to subsequent initiation of tobacco use. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking signaled a modestly increased risk for the subsequent onset of depressed mood, but antecedent depressed mood was not associated with a later risk of starting to smoke tobacco cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence is consistent with a possible causal link from tobacco smoking to later depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence, but not vice versa. PMID:10589312

  12. With Others or Alone? Adolescent Individual Differences in the Context of Smoking Lapses

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Colby, Suzanne M.; Gwaltney, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although a great deal of adolescent smoking research has investigated predictors of initiation, much less has focused on predictors of lapsing during a quit attempt. In particular, the role of social context may deserve greater attention in models of adolescent smoking cessation. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in order to examine individual differences in social lapsing—the extent to which lapses occur around others vs. when alone. Methods Analyses focused on 179 adolescent smokers (aged 14-18) engaged in an unassisted quit attempt. There were two general EMA assessment intervals: pre-quit (1 week) and post-quit (2 weeks). Participants reported every time that they smoked a cigarette and at random, nonsmoking times; in each assessment, participants responded to questions about their current environment, behaviors, and psychological state. A 3-month follow-up assessed longer-term smoking-related outcomes. Results Consistent with other adolescent research, the overall rate of lapsing was very high (93%). Social lapsing rates were likewise high (among those who lapsed, 73% reported their first lapse was social), but also varied continuously across individuals. We computed a social lapsing coefficient for each youth, and found that it related to smoking factors at baseline (e.g., lower smoking intensity and dependence) and follow-up (e.g., lower cotinine levels). Conclusions These results suggest that higher rates of social lapsing are associated with being a lighter, less dependent smoker and having better eventual cessation prospects. Findings provide evidence that accounting for variability in social lapsing may improve theory and treatment. PMID:25664557

  13. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26962975

  15. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  16. Collectivism in Smoking Prevention Programs for Hispanic Preadolescents: Raising the Ante on Cultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.; Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines collectivist influences in preventing smoking among Hispanic youths. Using a pretest/posttest design, sixth-graders received a collectivist or standard curriculum. Both curricula contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent perspective. Compared to the standard…

  17. High School Smoking Prevention: The Relative Efficacy of Varied Treatments and Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cheryl L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of a social consequence curriculum to health effects curriculums in a high school smoking prevention program. Results showed none of the programs was significantly more successful in reducing smoking onset or encouraging cessation. Teacher-taught programs were as effective as those taught by college students. (JAC)

  18. A Randomized Crossover Study of Web-Based Media Literacy to Prevent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML…

  19. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    PubMed

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters. PMID:8442571

  20. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  1. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention, Postvention and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Peggy

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…

  2. Atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent after heavy smoking of contraband cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Ozyilmaz, Sinem; Tosun, Oyku; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup

    2015-08-01

    The use of contraband cigarettes is a serious public health problem. We present a case of atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent suspected to be caused by smoking contraband cigarettes. A 15-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department experiencing syncope and palpitations. He was a cigarette smoker, but he had never smoked any illicit tobacco products before. He had finished a pack of counterfeit cigarettes (20 pieces) in 1.5 h. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and irregular RR intervals. The patient had no history of alcohol use, surgery, palpitations, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, or any infectious diseases. His atrial fibrillation was converted to a normal sinus rhythm after the cardioversion treatment. Our patient was discharged from the pediatric cardiology service and advised to quit smoking cigarettes, strictly warning against illicit tobacco products. In conclusion, intensive smoking of counterfeit cigarettes may lead to occurrences of atrial fibrillation.

  3. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  4. Combined analysis of CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CYP2A6 in relation to adolescent smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Santiago; Cook, Derek G; Gaunt, Tom R; Nightingale, Claire M; Whincup, Peter H; Day, Ian Nm

    2011-07-01

    CYP2A6 influences smoking uptake in adolescence. Genetic variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3 region influences smoking behaviour in adults. However, their combined effects on smoking in adolescence have not been tested to date. We present data on 1450 adolescents from the Ten Towns Heart Health Study (TTHHS) extensively phenotyped for smoking-related traits during adolescence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms from CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 (previously associated with smoking), were typed in our study population, previously genotyped for CYP2A6. Association analyses between each genotype and both smoking status and behavioural markers of smoking were performed. rs16969968 in CHRNA5 was associated both at 13-15 years and 18 years with current smoking amongst adolescents who had tried smoking (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.10-3.01, p = 0.02 at age 13-15; OR = 2.39, CI = 1.37-4.17, p = 0.002 at age 18). No association was found for rs578776 in CHRNA3. The effects of CHRNA5 and CYP2A6 genotypes in TTHHS appeared to be independent, with each approximately doubling the odds of being a regular smoker by age 18 years. CYP2A6 genotype insufficiency increases adolescent likelihood of being a regular smoker but increases later life quitting likelihood and reduces average consumption. In contrast, CHRNA5 genotype, acting recessively, affects smoking similarly in adolescents and older adults. These contrasting actions, in digenic combination, illustrate behavioural genetic complexity.

  5. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  6. Trends in exposure to second hand smoke at home among children and nonsmoker adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-01-15

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2012 were used to evaluate trends in exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) at home among children aged 3-11 years and nonsmoker adolescents aged 12-19 years. A total of 12,815 children and 10,269 adolescents were included in the analyses. Serum cotinine was used as a biomarker for exposure to SHS at home. Regression models with log10 transformed values of serum cotinine as dependent variables and age, race/ethnicity, NHANES survey year, and family poverty income ratio as a surrogate measure of socioeconomic status were used in models for those with and without exposure to SHS at home. In addition, for those with exposure to SHS at home, number of smokers smoking inside home and number of cigarettes smoked at home every day were also used as independent variables. There was a biennial increase of 1.05 ng/L in adjusted serum cotinine levels for children with exposure to SHS at home over the period of 1999-2012. Serum cotinine levels among nonsmoker adolescents with exposure to SHS at home did not change over time. When there was no exposure to SHS at home, there was a statistically significant downward trend for serum cotinine levels for both children and nonsmoker adolescents. Serum cotinine levels attributable to SHS exposure increased with age among nonsmoker adolescents (p≤0.02) but decreased with age among children (p<0.01). For a unit decrease in family poverty income ratio, SHS exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels (Table 6) increased by 1.18 ng/L among children and by 1.30 ng/L among nonsmoker adolescents. In general, observed serum cotinine levels associated with SHS exposure at home were higher for children than they were for nonsmoker adolescents. PMID:26519575

  7. Depression and AIDS Preventive Self-efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. PMID:26804507

  8. Can it be done? Implementing adolescent clinical preventive services.

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, E M; Adams, S H; Lustig, J L; Millstein, S G; Camfield, K; El-Diwany, S; Volpe, S; Irwin, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the implementation of an intervention to increase the delivery of adolescent preventive services within a large managed care organization. Target health areas were tobacco, alcohol, sexual behavior, and safety (seat belt and helmet use). DATA SOURCE/STUDY DESIGN: Adolescent reports of clinician screening and counseling were obtained from adolescents who attended well visits with their primary care providers. A prepost study design was used to evaluate the preventive services intervention. The intervention had three components: (1) 89 clinicians from three outpatient pediatric clinics attended a training to increase the delivery of preventive services; (2) customized adolescent screening and provider charting forms were integrated into the clinics; and (3) the resources of a health educator were provided to the clinics. DATA COLLECTION: Following a visit, adolescents completed surveys reporting on clinician screening and counseling for each of the target risk areas. Preimplementation (three months), 104 adolescents completed surveys. Postimplementation of the training, tools, and health educator intervention, 211 adolescents completed surveys (five months). For 18 months postimplementation clinicians delivered services and 998 adolescents completed surveys. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chi-square analyses of changes in screening from preimplementation to postimplementation showed that screening increased in all areas (p < .000), with an average increase in screening rates from 47 percent to 94 percent. Postimplementation counseling in all areas also increased significantly, with an average increase in counseling rates from 39 percent to 91 percent. There were slight decreases in screening from postimplementation to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers support for the efficacy of providing training, tools, and resources as a method for increasing preventive screening and counseling of adolescents across multiple risky health behaviors during a

  9. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Alomari, Mahmoud A.; Shah, Smita; Gallagher, Patrick; Gallagher, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP) use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815) using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%), although 10 years was also common (25.3%). Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76), asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78), grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11), and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24). However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted. PMID:25257355

  10. The influence of tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking intentions via normative beliefs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123 in Wave 3 (mid-ban) and 1159 in Wave 4 (post-ban). Structural equation modelling was used to assess the direct effect of tobacco advertising and promotion on intentions at each wave, and also the indirect effect, mediated through normative influences. Pre-ban, higher levels of awareness of advertising and promotion were independently associated with higher levels of perceived sibling approval which, in turn, was positively related to intentions. Independent paths from perceived prevalence and benefits fully mediated the effects of advertising and promotion awareness on intentions mid- and post-ban. Advertising awareness indirectly affected intentions via the interaction between perceived prevalence and benefits pre-ban, whereas the indirect effect on intentions of advertising and promotion awareness was mediated by the interaction of perceived prevalence and benefits mid-ban. Our findings indicate that policy measures such as the TAPA can significantly reduce adolescents' smoking intentions by signifying smoking to be less normative and socially unacceptable. PMID:19286895

  11. Fat Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Prevention among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a weight-related teasing prevention program and evaluate the effectiveness of the program among adolescents. One hundred forty-three students in 7th-grade in health classes at the middle school were asked to participate in the study. The weight-related teasing prevention program was implemented as part of…

  12. Counselors Can Make a Difference in Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that school counselors can play vital role in the prevention of adolescent suicide. Lists warning signs of suicide risk and characteristics of at-risk students. Presents set of guidelines for helping potential suicide victims. Sees key to teenage suicide prevention to be communication skills. Identifies components for suicide prevention…

  13. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey J; Millett, Christopher; Polansky, Jonathan R

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate youth exposure to smoking in movies in the UK and compare the likely effect with the USA. Methods We collected tobacco occurrences data for 572 top-grossing films in the UK screened from 2001 to 2006 and estimated the number of on-screen tobacco impressions delivered to British youths in this time period. Results 91% of films in our sample that contained smoking were youth-rated films (British Board of Film Classification rating ‘15’ and lower), delivering at least 1.10 billion tobacco impressions to British youths during theatrical release. British youths were exposed to 28% more smoking impressions in UK youth-rated movies than American youth-rated movies, because 79% of movies rated for adults in the USA (‘R’) are classified as suitable for youths in the UK (‘15’ or ‘12A’). Conclusion Because there is a dose-response relation between the amount of on-screen exposure to smoking and the likelihood that adolescents will begin smoking, the fact that there is substantially higher exposure to smoking in youth-rated films in the UK than in the USA suggests that the fraction of all youth smoking because of films in the UK is probably larger than in the USA. Other countries with ratings systems that are less conservative (in terms of language and sexuality) than the USA will also be likely to deliver more on-screen tobacco impressions to youths. Assigning an ‘18’ classification to movies that contain smoking would substantially reduce youth exposure to on-screen smoking and, hence, smoking initiation among British youths. PMID:20197360

  14. Reducing adolescent smoking: a comparison of peer-led, teacher-led, and expert interventions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J H; MacPherson, B; Holmes, D R; Jones, R

    1986-03-01

    To test the effectiveness of a psychosocial strategy of smoking deterence on seventh grade students, the School Health Education Development project implemented peer-led, teacher-led, and expert-led interventions in six Vermont schools. Four additional schools served as control groups. The teacher-led approach reduced the rate of smoking onset and the intention to smoke in the future among highly vulnerable females but not among males. The peer-led approach reduced the behavioral intention to smoke for both sexes but did not affect current smoking behavior. The expert-led approach did not produce favorable effects. Both the peer-led and teacher-led interventions had positive, though not significant, effects on student perception of locus of control. In the control schools, females experienced higher levels of smoking onset than males. Generally, the study points toward further development of a teacher-led approach to smoking deterence based on the theory of adolescent psychosocial development and the principle of continuous reinforcement.

  15. Cigar, Cigarillo, and Little Cigar Use Among Current Cigarette-Smoking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Cigar, cigarillo, and little cigar (CCLC) use is prevalent among adolescents, particularly among those who smoke cigarettes. Methods: Using data from a longitudinal study of smoking patterns among adolescents, we examined differences between CCLC users (ever and past 30 days) and nonusers (never and not in the past 30 days) among adolescents who smoked a cigarette in the last month (n = 486). Results: In our sample, 76.7% reported ever trying CCLC and 40.7% reported past month CCLC use. Bivariate analyses showed that CCLC users differed from nonusers in terms of demographics, other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses found that both ever and past 30-day CCLC use were strongly associated with being male and concurrent use of hookah. Ever CCLC use was also strongly associated with recent use of alcohol, and past 30-day CCLC use was strongly associated with antisocial behavior. After controlling for the number of days on which cigarettes were smoked in the past 30 days, past 30-day CCLC use was associated with most other forms of tobacco use, other substance use, and mental health, but not with number of cigarettes smoked in the past month and nicotine dependence. Conclusions: Results suggest that CCLC use is high among adolescent cigarette users and is associated with a variety of negative correlates. Importantly, many of these relationships are not accounted for by the adolescent’s level of cigarette use. Further characterizing CCLC use will be important for developing more targeted and tailored interventions. PMID:23072873

  16. Use of mobile phone text messaging to deliver an individualized smoking behaviour intervention in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hui-Jing; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Yu, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Yue

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a mobile phone text-messaging based smoking cessation intervention package among Chinese adolescent smokers. Students aged 16-19 years were recruited from six vocational high schools located in Shanghai. We assigned the six schools to an intervention group or a control group by cluster randomization. The 92 participants in the intervention group were given tailored information via mobile phone text-messaging for 12 weeks. The 87 participants in the control group were provided with a self-help pamphlet about smoking cessation instead. After the intervention, attitudes towards the disadvantages of smoking were significantly improved, and the level of nicotine dependence and cigarette dependence significantly decreased in the intervention group. The intervention group had a relatively higher self-reported 7-day abstinence compared to the control group and 30-day abstinence, but the differences were not significant. However, the intervention group had a significantly higher rate of smoking reduction (66% vs. 35%) and moving forward in quitting stages (52% vs. 18%) compared to the control group. The interactive and tailored assistance provided by the mobile phone text-messaging was effective in smoking behaviour intervention in Chinese adolescent smokers.

  17. Preventable Lifestyle Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases in the Pakistan Adolescents Schools Study 1 (PASS-1)

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Saleem; Motwani, Komal; Khoja, Adeel Akbar; Azam, Iqbal Syed; Fatmi, Zafar; Ali, Badar Sabir; Kadir, Muhammad Masood

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The rising burden of preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among adolescents is a major public health challenge worldwide. We identified the preventable risk factors for NCDs in adolescents. Methods In a school-based study, pre-tested structured questionnaires were completed by 414 adolescents (14 to 17 years) at six schools in three cities in Pakistan. The chi-squared test and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated in a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Results Over 80% of the adolescents had unhealthy diets, and 54% were physically inactive. Most adolescents were exposed to passive smoking, and 14% were also current smokers. More than one-third of participants chewed betel nut, and one-quarter used oral tobacco. More girls were physically inactive (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 2.69 to 6.17), whereas a greater proportion of boys were current smokers (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.19 to 3.91), exposed to passive smoking (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.72 to 3.83), and using betel nut (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.34 to 3.06). Only 3.1% of the participants were without any preventable lifestyle risk factor for NCDs, and over 80% had ≥2 factors. Co-existence of risk factors was independently associated with fathers being blue-collar workers (aOR, 3.57; 95% CI, 1.07 to 11.92) and parents not treating their child fairly (aOR, 5.05; 95% CI, 1.29 to 19.78). Conclusions Most of the adolescents studied had preventable risk factors for NCDs. These results warrant comprehensive and integrated interventions to prevent lifestyle risk factors, and parents are front-line stakeholders. PMID:22020186

  18. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  19. Real-Time Readiness to Quit and Peer Smoking within a Text Message Intervention for Adolescent Smokers: Modeling Mechanisms of Change.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Floyd Campbell, Leah

    2015-12-01

    The psychological construct, readiness to change, is established as a central construct within behavioral change theories such as motivational interviewing (MI). Less is known about the interplay of mechanisms for change within adolescent treatment populations. Understanding the timing and interactive influence that adolescents' readiness to stop smoking and peer smoking have on subsequent tobacco use is important to advance intervention research. Toward this end, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data from an automated texting smoking intervention randomized controlled trial to model the interactive effects of readiness to stop smoking and friends smoking on adolescent tobacco use. Two hundred adolescents were randomized into experimental treatment or attention control conditions, provided smart phones, and were followed for 6 months. African American youth represented the majority of the sample. We collected monthly EMA data for 6 months on friends smoking and readiness to stop smoking as well as survey outcome data. We tested a moderated mediation model using bias corrected bootstrapping to determine if the indirect effect of treatment on cigarettes smoked through readiness to stop smoking was moderated by friends smoking. Findings revealed that readiness to stop smoking mediated the effects of treatment on cigarettes smoked for those adolescents with fewer friends smoking, but not for those with more friends smoking. These results support importance of peer-focused interventions with urban adolescents and provide target mechanisms for future research.

  20. Real-Time Readiness to Quit and Peer Smoking within a Text Message Intervention for Adolescent Smokers: Modeling Mechanisms of Change.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Floyd Campbell, Leah

    2015-12-01

    The psychological construct, readiness to change, is established as a central construct within behavioral change theories such as motivational interviewing (MI). Less is known about the interplay of mechanisms for change within adolescent treatment populations. Understanding the timing and interactive influence that adolescents' readiness to stop smoking and peer smoking have on subsequent tobacco use is important to advance intervention research. Toward this end, we used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data from an automated texting smoking intervention randomized controlled trial to model the interactive effects of readiness to stop smoking and friends smoking on adolescent tobacco use. Two hundred adolescents were randomized into experimental treatment or attention control conditions, provided smart phones, and were followed for 6 months. African American youth represented the majority of the sample. We collected monthly EMA data for 6 months on friends smoking and readiness to stop smoking as well as survey outcome data. We tested a moderated mediation model using bias corrected bootstrapping to determine if the indirect effect of treatment on cigarettes smoked through readiness to stop smoking was moderated by friends smoking. Findings revealed that readiness to stop smoking mediated the effects of treatment on cigarettes smoked for those adolescents with fewer friends smoking, but not for those with more friends smoking. These results support importance of peer-focused interventions with urban adolescents and provide target mechanisms for future research. PMID:26297323

  1. Culture Circles in adolescent empowerment for the prevention of violence

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Neto, Waldemar Brandão; de Lima, Luciane Soares; de Aquino, Jael Maria; Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities; changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance; expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks. PMID:25931647

  2. Factors Contributing to Regular Smoking in Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat; Oztuna, Funda; Ozgun, Sukru; Can, Emine; Yavuzyilmaz, Asuman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of lifetime cigarette use, daily use, and current use among young people (aged 15-19 years) and to examine the risk factors contributing to regular smoking. Methods: The number of students was determined proportionately to the numbers of students in all the high schools in the…

  3. Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and provides pulmonary restoration.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kengo; Ishigami, Akihito; Sato, Yasunori; Hirai, Toyohiro; Yuan, Yiming; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Tobino, Kazunori; Sato, Tadashi; Sekiya, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Maruyama, Naoki; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant and is essential for collagen synthesis. We investigated whether VC treatment prevents and cures smoke-induced emphysema in senescence marker protein-30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice, which cannot synthesize VC. Two smoke-exposure experiments using SMP30-KO mice were conducted. In the first one (a preventive study), 4-month-old mice received minimal VC (0.0375 g/l) [VC(L)] or physiologically sufficient VC (1.5 g/l) [VC(S)] and exposed to cigarette smoke or smoke-free air for 2 months. Pulmonary evaluations followed when the mice were 6 months of age. The second study began after the establishment of smoke-induced emphysema (a treatment study). These mice no longer underwent smoke exposure but received VC(S) or VC(L) treatment for 2 months. Morphometric analysis was performed, and measurements of oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the lungs were evaluated. Chronic smoke exposure caused emphysema (29.6% increases of mean linear intercepts [MLI] and 106.5% increases of destructive index compared with the air-only group) in 6-month-old SMP30-KO mice, and this emphysema closely resembled human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoke-induced emphysema persisted in the VC(L) group after smoking cessation, whereas VC treatment provided pulmonary restoration (18.5% decrease of MLI and 41.3% decrease of destructive index compared with VC(L) group). VC treatment diminished oxidative stress, increased collagen synthesis, and improved vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the lungs. Our results suggest that VC not only prevents smoke-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice but also restores emphysematous lungs. Therefore, VC may provide a new therapeutic strategy for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans.

  4. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  5. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  6. Adolescent sexual health behavior in Thailand: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee

    2006-01-01

    Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:17250438

  7. Smoking relapse-prevention intervention for cancer patients: Study design and baseline data from the surviving SmokeFree randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Diana B; Brandon, Thomas H; Sutton, Steven K; Meltzer, Lauren R; Hoehn, Hannah J; Meade, Cathy D; Jacobsen, Paul B; McCaffrey, Judith C; Haura, Eric B; Lin, Hui-Yi; Simmons, Vani N

    2016-09-01

    Continued smoking after a cancer diagnosis contributes to several negative health outcomes. Although many cancer patients attempt to quit smoking, high smoking relapse rates have been observed. This highlights the need for a targeted, evidence-based smoking-relapse prevention intervention. The design, method, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of a self-help smoking-relapse prevention intervention are presented. Cancer patients who had recently quit smoking were randomized to one of two conditions. The Usual Care (UC) group received the institution's standard of care. The smoking relapse-prevention intervention (SRP) group received standard of care, plus 8 relapse-prevention booklets mailed over a 3month period, and a targeted educational DVD developed specifically for cancer patients. Four hundred and fourteen participants were enrolled and completed a baseline survey. Primary outcomes will be self-reported smoking status at 6 and 12-months after baseline. Biochemical verification of smoking status was completed for a subsample. If found to be efficacious, this low-cost intervention could be easily disseminated with significant potential for reducing the risk of negative cancer outcomes associated with continued smoking. PMID:27468664

  8. Evidence-Based Prevention for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Erin; Catalano, Richard F

    2016-07-01

    Due to the significant consequences of adolescent substance use behaviors, researchers have increasingly focused on prevention approaches. The field of prevention science is based on the identification of predictors of problem behaviors, and the development and testing of prevention programs that seek to change these predictors. As the field of prevention science moves forward, there are many opportunities for growth, including the integration of prevention programs into service systems and primary care, an expansion of program adaptations to fit the needs of local populations, and a greater emphasis on the development of programs targeted at young adult populations.

  9. Developmental approach to prevent adolescent suicides: research pathways to effective upstream preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Wyman, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (1) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (2) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  10. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. ... of the same problems as smokers do. E-cigarettes often look like cigarettes, but they work differently. ...

  11. A systematic review of longitudinal studies on the association between depression and smoking in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Rehm, Jurgen

    2009-01-01

    Background It is well-established that smoking and depression are associated in adolescents, but the temporal ordering of the association is subject to debate. Methods Longitudinal studies in English language which reported the onset of smoking on depression in non clinical populations (age 13-19) published between January 1990 and July 2008 were selected from PubMed, OVID, and PsychInfo databases. Study characteristics were extracted. Meta-analytic pooling procedures with random effects were used. Results Fifteen studies were retained for analysis. The pooled estimate for smoking predicting depression in 6 studies was 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32, 2.40; p < 0.001). The pooled estimate for depression predicting smoking in 12 studies was 1.41 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.63; p < 0.001). Studies that used clinical measures of depression were more likely to report a bidirectional effect, with a stronger effect of depression predicting smoking. Conclusion Evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that the association between smoking and depression is bidirectional. To better estimate these effects, future research should consider the potential utility of: (a) shorter intervals between surveys with longer follow-up time, (b) more accurate measurement of depression, and (c) adequate control of confounding. PMID:19772635

  12. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of current smoking among adolescent students in Thailand, 2005.

    PubMed

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, René; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-12-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3 (U.S. seventh through ninth grades) students. Weighted prevalence estimates of the percentage of students who were current smokers (smoked on ≥ 1 day during the past 30 days) and noncurrent smokers were calculated for the sample and for each psychosocial variable. Separate logistic regression models were calculated for males and females to examine the independent association of the psychosocial correlates of current smoking. Significant correlates for both males and females included close peer smoking, secondhand smoke exposure, being offered a free cigarette by a tobacco industry representative, and belief that smoking is not harmful. These correlates are examined in the context of comprehensive tobacco control laws in Thailand.

  13. Does Extended Telephone Callback Counselling Prevent Smoking Relapse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segan, C. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested whether extended callback counselling that proactively engaged ex-smokers with the task of embracing a smoke-free lifestyle (four to six calls delivered 1-3 months after quitting, i.e. when craving levels and perceived need for help had declined) could reduce relapse compared with a revised version of…

  14. Enrichment in Pre-Kindergarten Life Predicts Initiation of Cigarette Smoking in Asian American and Hispanic/Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Weiss, Jie Wu

    2007-01-01

    The risk of tobacco use during adolescence may be traced back to early childhood, the time when a child is most vulnerable to environmental influence. We examined daily-life enrichment during pre-kindergarten period as a predictor of initiation of cigarette smoking among Asian American and Hispanic/Latino children during adolescence. Survey data…

  15. Agreement Between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide Threshold Levels and Self-Reported Cigarette Smoking in a Sample of Male Adolescents in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; Kheirallah, Khalid A; Mangnall, Linda J Thomson; Gallagher, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to measure the percent agreement between Exhaled Breath Carbon Monoxide (eBCO) measure using a piCO+ smokerlyzer® and self-reported cigarette smoking status and to determine the optimal thresholds for definite identification of cigarette smokers of male school students in Jordan. A descriptive, cross sectional, study of a random sample of male adolescents in grades 7 and 8 from four public high schools in Irbid, completed an adaptation of a standardized Arabic-language tobacco smoking questionnaire and an eBCO measure. Sensitivity and specificity of the eBCO were calculated against self-reported cigarette smoking. Participants (n = 439) had a mean age of 12.5 years (SD = 0.50) and 174 (39.9%) reported being an ever smoker of whom 59 (33.9%) reported being a recent (30-day) smoker. The optimal eBCO cut-off point for recent smoking was 4.5 ppm with a sensitivity of 84.7% and specificity of 65.5%. Overall, eBCO can accurately identify recent smokers and distinguish them from non-smokers. The eBCO use enables healthcare professionals and researchers to assess efficacy of smoking cessation and prevention programs without necessarily relying on self-report. Further research is indicated to validate our findings and should be expanded to include females, detailed characteristics of cigarette and waterpipe smoking. PMID:25599375

  16. Long-term effects of adolescent smoking on depression and socioeconomic status in adulthood in an urban African American cohort.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Juon, Hee-Soon; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2014-06-01

    Despite known adverse causal effects of cigarette smoking on mental health, findings for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later depression and socioeconomic status remain inconclusive. Previous studies have had shorter follow-up periods and did not have a representative portion of the African American population. Using an analytical method that matches adolescent smokers with nonsmokers on childhood and background variables, this study aims to provide evidence on the effects of adolescent regular smoking on adult depression and socioeconomic status. Our longitudinal study is from the Woodlawn Study that followed 1,242 African Americans in Chicago from 1966-1967 (at age 6-7) through 2002-2003 (at age 42-43). We used a propensity score matching method to find a regular and a non-regular adolescent smoking group with similar childhood socioeconomic and family background and first grade academic and behavioral performance. We compared the matched samples to assess the longitudinal effects of adolescent smoking on adult outcomes. Comparing the matched 199 adolescent regular smokers and 199 non-regular smokers, we found statistical support for the effects of adolescent cigarette smoking on later educational attainment (OR, 2.13; 95 % CI, 1.34, 3.39) and long-term unemployment (OR, 1.74; 95 % CI, 1.11, 2.75), but did not find support for the effects on adulthood major depressive disorders. With a community population of urban African Americans followed for 40 years, our study contributes to the understanding of the relationships between adolescent smoking and later educational attainment and employment.

  17. School Programs To Prevent Smoking: The National Cancer Institute Guide to Strategies That Succeed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    This guide to school-based smoking prevention programs for educators is the product of five years of work to prevent cancer. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is currently funding 23 coordinated intervention trials directed at youth. Although not all the studies are complete, sufficient results are available to recommend the most effective…

  18. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group. PMID:27625766

  19. Estimating the Transitional Probabilities of Smoking Stages with Cross-sectional Data and 10-Year Projection for Smoking Behavior in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Pouyan, Ali Akbar; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important health-related risk factors in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we introduced a new method for deriving the transitional probabilities of smoking stages from a cross-sectional study and simulated a long-term smoking behavior for adolescents. Methods: In this study in 2010, a total of 4853 high school students were randomly selected and were completed a self-administered questionnaire about cigarette smoking. We used smoothed age- and sex-specific prevalence of smoking stages in a probabilistic discrete event system for estimating of transitional probabilities. A nonhomogenous discrete time Markov chain analysis was used to model the progression of the smoking in 10 years ahead in the same population. The mean age of the students was 15.69 ± 0.73 years (range: 14–19). Results: The smoothed prevalence proportion of current smoking varies between 3.58 and 26.14%. The age-adjusted odds of initiation in boys is 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.9–10.0) times of the odds of initiation of smoking in girls. Our study predicted that the prevalence proportion of current smokers increased from 7.55% in 2010 to 20.31% (95% CI: 19.44–21.37) for 2019. Conclusions: The present study showed a moderately but concerning prevalence of current smoking in Iranian adolescents and introduced a novel method for estimation of transitional probabilities from a cross-sectional study. The increasing trend of cigarette use among adolescents indicated the necessity of paying more attention to this group.

  20. An Integration of Parents’ and Best Friends’ Smoking, Smoking-Specific Cognitions, and Nicotine Dependence in Relation to Readiness to Quit Smoking: A Comparison between Adolescents with and without Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Kleinjan, Marloes; van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of parents’ and best friends’ smoking, nicotine dependence, and craving on smoking-specific cognitions, and readiness to quit in adolescents with and without asthma. Methods Structural equation analyses were applied to data from a sample of 1,120 daily smoking adolescents, 83 of whom had asthma. Results Adolescents with asthma felt more ready to quit, and cognitions were more strongly related to readiness to quit among adolescents with asthma than among adolescents without asthma. Moreover, best friends’ smoking seemed more relevant to the cognitions of adolescents with asthma. Nicotine dependence and craving were strongly related to cognitions, and to readiness to quit in both groups. The relation between craving and readiness to quit, however, was stronger among participants with asthma. Conclusions Reduction of nicotine dependence and craving is essential for both groups. Youth with asthma may benefit even more from cognitive-based cessation services than healthy youth. The finding that adolescents with asthma are relatively more ready to quit, and that their cognitions are more easily affected can be turned into advantages in asthma-specific cessation services. PMID:18287108

  1. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously.

  2. Secondary Prevention of Attempted Suicide in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotgrove, Andrew; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adolescents discharged from a hospital following suicide attempt who were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving standard management plus a token allowing readmission to the hospital on demand, or a control group receiving standard management only. Results suggest lower rates of repeat suicide attempts in the group that received…

  3. The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background School-based smoking prevention programs have been shown to increase knowledge of the negative effects of smoking and prevent tobacco smoking. The majority of evidence on effectiveness comes from Western countries. This study investigated the impact of school-based smoking prevention programs on adolescents’ smoking knowledge, attitude, intentions and behaviors (KAIB) in Aceh, Indonesia. Methods We conducted a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial among 7th and 8th grade students aged 11 to 14 years. Eight schools were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three school-based programs: health-based, Islamic-based, or a combined program. Students in the intervention groups received eight classroom sessions on smoking prevention education over two months. The KAIB impact of the program was measured by questionnaires administered one week before and one week after the intervention. Results A total of 477 students participated (58% female, 51% eighth graders). Following the intervention, there was a significant main effect of the Health based intervention for health knowledge scores (β = 3.9 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). There were significant main effects of the Islamic-based intervention in both health knowledge (β = 3.8 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) and Islamic knowledge (β = 3.5 ± 0.5, p < 0.001); an improvement in smoking attitude (β = −7.1 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). The effects of Health and Islam were less than additive for the health and Islamic factors for health knowledge (β = −3.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.01 for interaction) and Islamic knowledge (β = −2.0 ± 0.8, p = 0.02 for interaction). There were no significant effects on the odds of intention to smoke or smoking behaviors. Conclusions Both Health and Islamic school-based smoking prevention programs provided positive effects on health and Islamic related knowledge respectively among adolescents in Indonesia. Tailoring program interventions with

  4. Smoking Status Moderates the Contribution of Social-Cognitive and Environmental Determinants to Adolescents' Smoking Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victoir, An; Eertmans, A.; Van den Broucke, S.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, it was tested whether attitudes, self-efficacy, social influences and the perception of the school and home environments had different associations with intentions for adolescent non-smokers, occasional smokers and daily smokers. A regression model allowing for separate slopes of social-cognitive and environment variables accounted…

  5. The association between family structure and adolescent smoking among multicultural students in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yajun; Palmer, Paula H.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Blake, Jerome; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether the prevalence of smoking was associated with family structure among multicultural adolescents and whether there was gender disparity on the association. Methods Data were collected from a sample of 7th graders in Hawaii who completed in-class questionnaires in 2004. The final sample included 821 multicultural students from different family structures. Descriptive analyses, Chi-square tests and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence of smoking and the association between family structure and smoking prevalence. Results This sample contained students who lived in intact (61.7%), single-parent (16.5%), step-parent (15.6%), and no-parent (6.2%) families. The overall prevalence of ever/lifetime smoking was 24.0%, and was not significantly different between genders in each family structure (P > 0.05). Compared with living in intact families, living in single-parent, step-parent, or no-parent families was significantly associated with higher odds of ever/lifetime smoking among all students (P < 0.05) and living in single-parent and step-parent families was significantly associated with higher odds of ever/lifetime smoking among females (P < 0.05) and among males (P < 0.05) respectively, after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions These findings suggest that family structure is a risk factor for smoking among multicultural students. Anti-smoking programs should consider this factor. PMID:26056625

  6. The Spatial Distribution of Smoking Violations on a No-Smoking Campus: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Stephen F.; Block, Steven; Belance, Ronald; Marteache, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study extends research on campus smoking bans by examining where smokers are violating the policy at a large university in the southeastern region of the United States. Participants: The data collection was conducted by one graduate student from the university in August of 2014. Methods: A global positioning system device…

  7. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  8. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  9. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence.

  10. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence. PMID:27214054

  11. Could zinc prevent reproductive alterations caused by cigarette smoke in male rats?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patrícia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Cecatto; Sankako, Michele Kimie; Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zinc on fertility through semen parameters, testosterone level and oxidative DNA damage to spermatozoa of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control, cigarette-smoking (20 cigarettes per day), zinc (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) and zinc plus cigarette-smoking (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹; 20 cigarettes per day). The treatment was applied for nine weeks and the following parameters were analysed: bodyweight, wet weights of the reproductive organs and the adrenal gland, plasma testosterone concentration, testicular function (seminal analysis and daily sperm production) and sperm DNA oxidative damage. The exposure to cigarette smoke decreased testosterone concentration, the percentage of normal morphology and the motility of spermatozoa. In addition, this exposure increased sperm DNA oxidative damage. Zinc treatment protected against the toxic damage that smoking caused to spermatozoa. This study showed a correlation between smoking and possible male infertility and subfertility, and also that the majority of smoking-induced changes in spermatozoa were prevented by zinc treatment. In conclusion, zinc, an antioxidant and stimulant of cell division, can be indicated as a promising treatment in men with infertility caused by the toxic components of cigarette smoke.

  12. Does it matter what friends think, say, or do? The role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Chip

    2014-05-01

    Using stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis, this study examines the role of friends' smoking attitudes and behavior for Dutch adolescents' smoking behavior in four secondary schools (N = 875). The data were collected in two waves in two small suburban towns under second graders in 2008 to 2009 by means of a standardized questionnaire. Stochastic actor-based models for longitudinal network analysis can control for friendship selection while examining the effect of friends' attitudes and smoking behavior on the smoking behavior of a student. The findings suggest that friends tend to select each other on similar smoking behavior. Influence of friends' smoking behavior seems to play no role. In one school, an effect of friends' attitudes towards smoking on the smoking behavior is found. The implications for future research are to consider attitudes when examining the influence of friendship network on smoking behavior. The main limitation of this study lies in the limited sample, which makes generalizations to the general population difficult.

  13. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  14. Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-12-01

    Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

  15. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  16. Adolescent pregnancy prevention strategies used by school nurses.

    PubMed

    Kobokovich, L J; Bonovich, L K

    1992-01-01

    This survey identified a range of adolescent pregnancy prevention activities used by school nurses in selected Mid-Atlantic public schools. A purposive sample of 224 public school nurses completed the School Nurse Questionnaire adapted from an instrument used previously to survey school nurses. Based on a 54% response rate, a task analysis revealed that respondents performed only one pregnancy prevention activity frequently. A sub-sample of nurses, serving students in grades 6-12, used seven of 21 pregnancy prevention activities frequently. Though nurses did not actually perform the remaining activities, they felt prepared to do so. However, the structure of school nursing services often does not allow adequate time or opportunity to engage in adolescent pregnancy prevention activities. PMID:1548856

  17. Partners in Prevention: Whole School Approaches to Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Marcia A., Ed.; Wooley, Susan F., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This resource describes how pregnancy prevention efforts can be integrated into the various components of a school health program (the linkages between classroom instruction to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the school's health and mental health services, the necessary administrative policies, the type and extent of faculty and staff…

  18. Susceptibility to Smoking among Adolescents and Its Implications for Mexico’s Tobacco Control Programs. Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003–2004 and 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Reynales-Shiguematsu, Luz Myriam; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Smoking prevention efforts should either prevent target groups from becoming susceptible to smoking or prevent susceptible adolescents from progressing to becoming regular smokers. To describe the prevalence of susceptibility to smoking among never smoker students from cities that applied the GYTS in 2003 and 2006. The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12–15 years enrolled in public, private, and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 399 schools in 9 cities. The GYTS surveyed 33,297 students during the academic years 2003–04 and 2006–07. Among never smokers, about 25% are likely to initiate smoking in the next 12 months. There are no differences in susceptibility to smoking by gender. When comparing results from 2003 and 2006, the susceptibility index has not changed, but for one city. The GYTS results are useful for monitoring susceptibility to smoking among adolescents and provide evidence for strengthening the efforts of tobacco control programs in Mexico. PMID:19440444

  19. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  20. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  1. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  2. Adolescent Use of Two Types of HIV Prevention Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Shillington, Audrey M.; Min, Jong Won; Clapp, John D.; Mueller, Kristin; Hovell, Melbourne

    2008-01-01

    This study compared two groups of adolescents seeking help at HIV prevention drop-in agencies. The first group attended agencies in low-income Hispanic neighborhoods which recruited within the locale. The second group of youth attended agencies that recruited based upon a specific population--they targeted homeless and LGBQ youth. We explored the…

  3. Coping with Stress: Implications for Preventive Interventions with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Champion, Jennifer E.; Reeslund, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to stress and the ways individuals cope with stress are of central importance for prevention of mental health and adjustment problems during childhood and adolescence. Coping may be a moderator, or a protective factor, which increases or decreases the probability of developing mental health problems in response to a…

  4. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  5. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Theoretical Models for Effective Program Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Jeanne A.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenting remains a pressing social and public health concern because the United States continues to have the highest teen pregnancy rate among Western developed nations and because of the attendant social, psychological, and physical problems for young parents and their children. Prevention efforts to reduce the incidence…

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  7. Prevention of smoking in Middle School Students: psychometric assessment of the Temptations to Try Smoking Scale.

    PubMed

    McGee, Heather A; Babbin, Steven F; Redding, Colleen; Paiva, Andrea; Oatley, Karin; Meier, Kathryn S; Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F

    2012-04-01

    Establishment of psychometrically sound measures is critical to the development of effective interventions. The current study examined the psychometric properties, including factorial invariance, of a six item Temptations to Try Smoking Scale on a sample of middle school students. The sample of 6th grade students (N=3527) was from 20 Rhode Island middle schools and was 52% male and 84% white. The Temptations to Try Smoking Scale consisted of two correlated subscales: Positive Social and Curiosity/Stress. Structural equation modeling was implemented to evaluate the factorial invariance across four different subgroups defined by gender (male/female), race (white/black), ethnicity (Hispanic/Non-Hispanic), and school size (<200/ >200 6th graders). A model is factorially invariant when the measurement model is the same in each of the subgroups. Three levels of invariance were examined in sequential order: 1) Configural Invariance (unconstrained nonzero factor loadings); 2) Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings); and 3) Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors). Strong Factorial Invariance provided a good fit to the model across gender (CFI=.96), race (CFI=.96), ethnicity (CFI=.94), and school size (CFI=.97). Coefficient Alphas for the two subscales, Positive Social and Curiosity/Stress, were .87 and .86, respectively. These findings provide empirical support for the construct validity of the Temptations to Try Smoking Scale in middle school students.

  8. Investing in youth tobacco control: a review of smoking prevention and control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Lantz, P.; Jacobson, P.; Warner, K.; Wasserman, J.; Pollack, H.; Berson, J.; Ahlstrom, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To provide a comprehensive review of interventions and policies aimed at reducing youth cigarette smoking in the United States, including strategies that have undergone evaluation and emerging innovations that have not yet been assessed for efficacy.
DATA SOURCES—Medline literature searches, books, reports, electronic list servers, and interviews with tobacco control advocates.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions and policy approaches that have been assessed or evaluated were categorised using a typology with seven categories (school based, community interventions, mass media/public education, advertising restrictions, youth access restrictions, tobacco excise taxes, and direct restrictions on smoking). Novel and largely untested interventions were described using nine categories.
CONCLUSIONS—Youth smoking prevention and control efforts have had mixed results. However, this review suggests a number of prevention strategies that are promising, especially if conducted in a coordinated way to take advantage of potential synergies across interventions. Several types of strategies warrant additional attention and evaluation, including aggressive media campaigns, teen smoking cessation programmes, social environment changes, community interventions, and increasing cigarette prices. A significant proportion of the resources obtained from the recent settlement between 46 US states and the tobacco industry should be devoted to expanding, improving and evaluating "youth centred" tobacco prevention and control activities.


Keywords: youth smoking prevention; teen cessation programmes; community interventions; policy PMID:10691758

  9. The density of tobacco retailers in home and school environments and relationship with adolescent smoking behaviours in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Shortt, N K; Tisch, C; Pearce, J; Richardson, E A; Mitchell, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Neighbourhood retailing of tobacco products has been implicated in affecting smoking prevalence rates. Long-term smoking usually begins in adolescence and tobacco control strategies have often focused on regulating ‘child spaces’, such as areas in proximity to schools. This cross-sectional study examines the association between adolescent smoking behaviour and tobacco retail outlet density around home and school environments in Scotland. Methods Data detailing the geographic location of every outlet registered to sell tobacco products in Scotland were acquired from the Scottish Tobacco Retailers Register and used to create a retail outlet density measure for every postcode. This measure was joined to individual responses of the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (n=20 446). Using logistic regression models, we explored the association between the density of retailers, around both home and school address, and smoking behaviours. Results Those living in the areas of highest density of retailers around the home environment had 53% higher odds of reporting having ever smoked (95% CI 1.27 to 1.85, p<0.001) and 47% higher odds of reporting current smoking (95% CI 1.13 to 1.91 p<0.01). Conversely, those attending schools in areas of highest retail density had lower odds of having ever smoked (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.86 p<0.01) and lower odds of current smoking (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.95, p<0.05). Conclusions The density of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods is associated with increased odds of both ever smoked and current smoking among adolescents in Scotland. Policymakers may be advised to focus on reducing the overall density of tobacco outlets, rather than concentrating on ‘child spaces’. PMID:25370699

  10. Teenage Smoking: Immediate and Long-Term Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dorothy E.

    National surveys of teenagers have provided information for making decisions about smoking prevention programs. Repeated surveys are necessary because smoking patterns change over time. The prevalence of adolescent smoking and the variables related to it were investigated as well as the potential utility of those variables in predicting habitual…

  11. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  12. A comprehensive study of smoking in primary school children in Hong Kong: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J; Hedley, A J; Lam, T H; Betson, C L; Wong, C M

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with smoking behaviour in primary school children in Hong Kong. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey in which both children and parents completed questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the smoking status of the children; and risk factors (knowledge of and attitude to smoking and demographic and socioeconomic background) were identified as predictors of ever/never smoking. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Altogether 9598 primary school children, aged 8-13 years, and attending 27 schools from two districts in Hong Kong participated. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-smoking was 12% (1119)-15% (760) in boys and 7% (359) in girls. It ranged from 3% in 8 year old girls to 52% in 13 year old boys. The factors associated with ever-smoking included the following: being a boy (adjusted odds ratio 2.21; 95% confidence interval 1.89, 2.59), increasing age per year (1.48; 1.40, 1.57), living in Kwai Tsing district (1.29; 1.10, 1.50), having one or more smokers at home (2.07; 1.78, 2.39), and having a father who was not working (1.41; 1.19, 1.67). Children who were ever-smokers had both seen and approved of their friends' smoking (8.79; 5.33, 14.50), had a more positive attitude towards smoking (3.35; 2.21, 5.09), and were more successful in recognising cigarette brand names and logos (1.67; 1.42, 1.96), but they lacked confidence (1.78; 1.32, 2.39). CONCLUSIONS: The influences on child smoking are multifactorial and programmes in Hong Kong are falling to curb them. The control of these risk factors must be incorporated in the smoking prevention policy of Hong Kong and supported by future enforced legislation. PMID:9229051

  13. After-school supervision and adolescent cigarette smoking: contributions of the setting and intensity of after-school self-care.

    PubMed

    Mott, J A; Crowe, P A; Richardson, J; Flay, B

    1999-02-01

    This paper looks at the independent contributions of the setting and the intensity of after-school self-care to the cigarette smoking behaviors of 2352 ninth graders. We controlled for a variety of correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking that have not been accounted for in existing research. Results indicated that the intensity of the self-care experience was significantly associated with adolescent smoking behavior irrespective of the typical setting of the adolescents' after-school activities. Our findings also indicated that a nonpermissive parenting style, family rule-setting about cigarettes, and especially, in absentia parental monitoring may reduce the likelihood of cigarette smoking among latchkey and nonlatchkey adolescents alike. However, latchkey youth were not any more sensitive to these aspects of parenting than other adolescents. This is consistent with the notion that targeting these aspects of the home lives of all adolescents has the potential to reduce smoking behaviors among latchkey as well as nonlatchkey children.

  14. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Beginning in Adolescence Predict Insomnia in the Mid Thirties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insomnia is increasingly recognized as a public health concern in modern society. Insomnia diagnoses appear to be increasing and are associated with poor health outcomes. They may cost $100 billion annually in health services. Objective Given the adverse consequences of insomnia such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and depression, the present study was designed to examine the relationship of the trajectories of earlier cigarette smoking and later insomnia. The ultimate goal is to reduce the prevalence of insomnia. Methods 674 participants (53% African Americans, 47% Puerto Ricans, 60% females) were surveyed at 6 points in time. We employed the growth mixture model to obtain the trajectories of cigarette smoking from age 14 to 32. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the trajectories of smoking and insomnia. Results Males were less likely to have insomnia than females (Adjusted odds ratio: AOR=0.34, p<.05). A higher Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) for the chronic smoking trajectory group (AOR=2.69, p<.05) and for the moderate smoking trajectory group (AOR=5.33, p<.01) was associated with an increased likelihood of having insomnia at age 36 compared with the BPP of the no or low smoking trajectory group. Conclusions Prevention and treatment programs for individuals who suffer from insomnia should be implemented in parallel with programs for smoking cessation. From a public health perspective, our longitudinal study that examined the association between earlier smoking trajectories and later insomnia suggests that treatments designed to reduce or cease smoking may lessen the occurrence of symptoms of insomnia. PMID:27008539

  15. Do total smoking bans affect the recruitment and retention of adolescents in inpatient substance abuse treatment programs? A 5-year medical chart review, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Brewster, Joan M; Johnson, Joy; Taylor, Lawren; Beach, Glenn; Lentz, Tim

    2007-10-01

    Adolescents engaged in substance abuse treatment manifest a rate of cigarette smoking approximately four times higher than that of youth in the general population ( approximately 80% vs. 20%) and a high rate of smoking persistence into adulthood. Although there has been a shift toward the implementation of no-smoking policies in substance abuse treatment programs, few studies have examined the relation between cigarette-smoking bans and key clinical outcomes. The current study examined the medical charts of all adolescents (N = 520) admitted to the only adolescent hospital-based substance abuse treatment program in the northern two thirds of the province of British Columbia, Canada. During the span of the study period (March 2001-December 2005), the treatment site moved from a partial smoking ban to a total smoking ban, and then retreated to partial smoking ban. The total smoking ban was not associated with a lower proportion of adolescent smokers seeking treatment at the facility or a lower treatment completion rate among smokers. Total smoking bans do not appear to be an obstacle for adolescent smokers seeking residential substance abuse treatment, nor do total smoking bans appear to compromise the treatment completion rates of smokers in comparison to nonsmokers. Despite these null findings, the effective implementation of smoke-free policies in adolescent substance abuse treatment programs requires not only large-scale organizational change but also the transformation of current commonly held beliefs about tobacco dependence in addictions treatment and recovery communities.

  16. Genetic Variants and Early Cigarette Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Phenotypes in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Labbe, Aurélie; Low, Nancy C.; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Dugas, Erika N.; Karp, Igor; Engert, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While the heritability of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence (ND) is well-documented, the contribution of specific genetic variants to specific phenotypes has not been closely examined. The objectives of this study were to test the associations between 321 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture common genetic variation in 24 genes, and early smoking and ND phenotypes in novice adolescent smokers, and to assess if genetic predictors differ across these phenotypes. Methods In a prospective study of 1294 adolescents aged 12–13 years recruited from ten Montreal-area secondary schools, 544 participants who had smoked at least once during the 7–8 year follow-up provided DNA. 321 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 24 candidate genes were tested for an association with number of cigarettes smoked in the past 3 months, and with five ND phenotypes (a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire, the ICD-10 and three clusters of ND symptoms representing withdrawal symptoms, use of nicotine for self-medication, and a general ND/craving symptom indicator). Results The pattern of SNP-gene associations differed across phenotypes. Sixteen SNPs in seven genes (ANKK1, CHRNA7, DDC, DRD2, COMT, OPRM1, SLC6A3 (also known as DAT1)) were associated with at least one phenotype with a p-value <0.01 using linear mixed models. After permutation and FDR adjustment, none of the associations remained statistically significant, although the p-values for the association between rs557748 in OPRM1 and the ND/craving and self-medication phenotypes were both 0.076. Conclusions Because the genetic predictors differ, specific cigarette smoking and ND phenotypes should be distinguished in genetic studies in adolescents. Fifteen of the 16 top-ranked SNPs identified in this study were from loci involved in dopaminergic pathways (ANKK1/DRD2, DDC, COMT, OPRM1, and SLC6A3). Impact Dopaminergic pathways may be salient during early smoking and the

  17. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  18. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Results: Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. Conclusion: The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation. PMID:15564218

  19. The soundtrack of substance use: music preference and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2009-01-01

    A connection between preferences for heavy metal, rap, reggae, electronic dance music, and substance use has previously been established. However, evidence as to the gender-specific links between substance use and a wider range of music genres in a nationally representative sample of adolescents has to date been missing. In 2003, the Dutch government funded the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use (DNSSSU), a self-report questionnaire among a representative school-based sample of 7,324 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, assessed music preference, tobacco, and alcohol use and a set of relevant covariates related to both substance use and music preference. Overall, when all other factors were controlled, punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse, and reggae were associated with more substance use, while pop and classical music marked less substance use. While prior research showed that liking heavy metal and rap predicts substance use, in this study a preference for rap/hip-hop only indicated elevated smoking among girls, whereas heavy metal was associated with less smoking among boys and less drinking among girls. The types of music that mark increased substance use may vary historically and cross-culturally, but, in general, preferences for nonmainstream music are associated positively with substance use, and preferences for mainstream pop and types of music preferred by adults (classical music) mark less substance use among adolescents. As this is a correlational study no valid conclusions in the direction of causation of the music-substance use link can be drawn.

  20. Peer Influences: The Impact of Online and Offline Friendship Networks on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065