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Sample records for adolescent smoking prevention

  1. Determination of smoking and drinking and preventive measures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Altay, Naime; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Citak, Ebru Akgun

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9-12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying "no," good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.

  2. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco. PMID:21176132

  3. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  4. A school-based smoking prevention program for adolescent girls in New York City.

    PubMed Central

    Hynes, M M

    1989-01-01

    Teenaged girls comprise the largest percentage of new cigarette smokers in the United States today. Factors contributing to smoking initiation include peer pressure, family and social influences, cigarette availability, and cigarette advertising. Because three-quarters of smokers become dependent on cigarettes by age 20, smoking prevention programs aimed at the adolescent population have great potential. The proposed program outlined is directed at girls 12 to 18 years of age in New York City. Among the objectives are increasing students' knowledge of the short- and long-term health effects of smoking and awareness of the social factors which lead to smoking. Participants would be taught social skills and behaviors which could help them to resist initiating smoking, by such activities as assertiveness training through role playing. Endurance sports activities would be emphasized while learning of the effects of smoking on physical conditioning. The costs of such a program are estimated, and classroom activities are outlined. PMID:2493667

  5. Preventing smoking in children and adolescents: Recommendations for practice and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Canada has witnessed a general decrease in smoking prevalence among all age groups in recent years. However, despite large numbers of campaigns and interventions, thousands of young Canadians continue to initiate cigarette smoking every year. The increasing popularity of alternative tobacco products and e-cigarettes is also creating new health challenges. Research has shown that the deleterious effects of nicotine and cigarette smoke are significant and long lasting. Health care professionals have key responsibilities in preventing tobacco use among youth and their families, and need to know more about effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. Clinicians need to integrate tobacco counselling into health assessments of teenagers and be aware of the roles that families, communities and governments can play in promoting tobacco-free environments. Information, effective strategies and opportunities for health care professionals to intervene and advocate for Canadian adolescents are discussed. PMID:27429575

  6. The contribution of parent-child interactions to smoking experimentation in adolescence: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    White, James

    2012-02-01

    Because few prospective studies have examined the independent influence of mothers and fathers on smoking experimentation, we tested the association between a set of parent-specific, familial and peer interactions with smoking experimentation in early adolescence. Data come from two cohorts in the British Youth Panel Survey (N = 1736; mean age at baseline, 11.26; SD = 0.65), a study of children resident with members of the British Household Panel Survey. Baseline data showed 8.2% of participants had smoked which increased to 40.3% after a 3-year follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models showed risk factors for the onset of experimentation included frequent time spent with peers (P < 0.001), maternal smoking (P = 0.001), female gender and older participant age (P < 0.001). Parent-child quarrels, mother-child conversations, family meal frequency and household income were not significantly associated with experimentation. Frequent father-child conversations, about things which mattered to children, were the only type of parent-child contact associated with a reduced risk of experimentation (P < 0.001), and a significant interaction suggested that maternal smoking increased the likelihood of girls but not boys experimentation (P = 0.01). This study suggests that familial risk and protective factors operate independently and that more attention should be paid to the role of fathers in smoking prevention.

  7. Reaching adolescent girls through social networking: a new avenue for smoking prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.

  8. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.

  9. A Role for Epigenetics in Broadening the Scope of Pediatric Care in the Prevention of Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R.H.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Brody, Gene H.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence presents a critical opportunity to support the development of healthy patterns of behavior and prevent future health problems. Unfortunately, there is not yet a well-developed prevention model that allows pediatricians to initiate and monitor prevention efforts for the substantial minority of individuals who engage in risky behavior during adolescence. We suggest that recently developed epigenetic technologies may provide a bridge to a new prevention paradigm in which pediatricians screen for indicated smoking prevention services. Specifically, since currently available tobacco use screening measures are insensitive to low levels of use, newly developed methylation based approaches may enhance the sensitivity of the initial screening for nascent smoking behavior as well monitoring of outcomes. We conclude that the incorporation of Next Gen screening technologies into standard pediatric evaluations may allow for more effective referral to prevention programming for tobacco use. In addition to the potential direct impact on long-term enhancement of health outcomes secondary to smoking prevention, well-established links between smoking and other risk behaviors suggest that expanded referral for nascent smoking may also create opportunities to address other risky adolescent behaviors, and so decrease several interrelated drivers of long-term health care costs. PMID:27500081

  10. Smoking in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Richard I.; And Others

    Intended primarily for researchers and prevention program personnel, this booklet provides current background information on the continuing problem of smoking among children and adolescents. In the first brief section, research findings concerning American youth's current smoking patterns and beliefs are described. The second section considers…

  11. [Primary prevention in the young. Methodology and initial results of a smoking prevention program for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Arciti, C; Vidili, M G; Doglio, B; Gipponi, M; Santi, L

    1986-05-12

    An antismoking campaign aimed at the 9-18 year old Genoese school population in 1981-1985 is described. The high percentage of smokers in Italy and the worryingly early age at which the habit is acquired suggested the need for a carefully prepared ongoing programme of primary prevention that would not be limited to occasional speeches. Part of the programme was also directed towards school health officers, teachers and families for whom seminars and refresher courses and topics appropriate for each group were organised. The dangers of smoking framed in a broader context were described and debater before a total of 26,000 school children in 4 years. The results that can only now be examined due to initial difficulties in implementing the programme show that out of 4613 smokers involved in the programme 29.8% stopped smoking after a year. Significantly in the same group and in the same period only 2.5% of the school children began to smoke. In contrast 15.8% new smokers were found in the control group. Further checks on a wider sample are scheduled in order to verify and confirm the results presented.

  12. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  13. Project FLAVOR: 1-Year Outcomes of a Multicultural, School-Based Smoking Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Gallaher, Peggy; Cen, Steven; Lichtman, Kara; Azen, Stanley; Johnson, C Anderson

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate a multicultural smoking prevention curriculum, 16 schools were randomized to receive the multicultural curriculum or a standard curriculum and program effects on 1-year smoking initiation among 1430 never smokers were assessed. Hispanic boys who received the multicultural curriculum were less likely to initiate smoking than were those who received the standard curriculum; effects were insignificant among other groups. The prevention effect among Hispanic boys is encouraging, but additional research is needed to improve prevention effects among other groups.

  14. Randomized Trials on Consider This, a Tailored, Internet-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools…

  15. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  16. Acceptability and Appeal of a Web-Based Smoking Prevention Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlove, Amy E.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Hoerauf, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important source of preventable morbidity and premature mortality worldwide (American Lung Association, 2002). Statistics show that youth who do smoke report having their first cigarette while in middle school, thus this is a critical opportunity for prevention (Eissenburg & Balster, 2000). This…

  17. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  18. Time spent with smoking parents and smoking topography in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Charles C; Lippmann, Brad M; Lo, Suzanne J; Moolchan, Eric T

    2008-12-01

    Although the relationship between parental and adolescent smoking has been linked to health consequences of smoking, limited study has explored the specific association between exposure to smoking and adolescent smoking topography (the way a cigarette is smoked). As a first step in this line of enquiry, smoking topography measures were collected from 67 adolescent dependent smokers. Participants smoked one cigarette of their own brand while being monitored by a computer-based smoking-topography unit and completed questionnaires about their time spent daily with parents who smoke. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that time spent daily with parents who smoke was significantly associated with maximum puff velocity (r=0.285, p=.019), a parameter predicting later pulmonary morbidity. ANOVAs, after a median split, were consistent with correlation analyses. There was a significant group effect on puff velocity (F(2,66)=5.197, p=.008); no significant relationship was found with puff volume (F(2,66)=.617) or puff duration (F(2,66)=.776). A post hoc Tukey HSD test indicated puff velocity was higher in the "high time spent" (M=54.37, SD=12.03) than in the "low time spent" group (M=45.59, SD=9.91) and in the group with non-smoking parents (M=44.96, SD=10.17). Future research with a larger non-treatment seeking sample of adolescents aimed at preventing tobacco smoking related diseases should further examine parental influences on adolescent smoking, including potential modeling effects.

  19. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  20. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Laura J; Bunn, Janice Y; Flynn, Brian S; Pirie, Phyllis L; Worden, John K; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-08-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory. The authors enrolled 2,030 adolescent smokers into the cohort (n = 987 experimental; n = 1,043 comparison) and assessed them via annual telephone surveys for 3 years. Although the condition by time interaction was not significant, the proportion of adolescents smoking in the past month was significantly lower in the experimental than comparison condition at 3-year follow-up when adjusted for baseline smoking status. The media campaign did not impact targeted mediating variables. A media campaign based on social cognitive constructs produced a modest overall effect on smoking prevalence among adolescents, but the role of theory-based constructs is unclear.

  1. Smoking in movies: impact on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D

    2005-06-01

    This article examines the evidence that supports an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often is modeled by stars, who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies that assess audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The two published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Pediatricians should support public health campaigns to pressure the movie industry to voluntarily reduce smoking in movies and encourage parents to adhere to the Motion Picture Ratings System to reduce adolescent exposure to this powerful social influence to smoke.

  2. Intergenerational Patterns of Smoking and Nicotine Dependence Among US Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between parental and adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence in the United States. Methods. We used data from the 2004 to 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which ascertained smoking behaviors of 1 parent and 1 adolescent aged 12 to 17 years in 35 000 dyads. We estimated associations between parental and adolescent smoking behaviors, adjusted for covariates. Results. Parental current dependence was strongly associated with adolescents’ lifetime smoking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.47, 3.55), whereas parental current nondependent smoking (AOR = 2.26; 95% CI = 1.92, 2.67) and former smoking (AOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.31, 1.75) were less strongly associated. Only parental nicotine dependence was associated with adolescent nicotine dependence (AOR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.74). Associations between parental and adolescent smoking did not differ by race/ethnicity. Parents’ education, marital status, and parenting and adolescents' mental health, beliefs about smoking, perception of schoolmates’ smoking, and other substance use predicted adolescent smoking and dependence. Conclusions. Reducing parental smoking would reduce adolescent smoking. Prevention efforts should encourage parental smoking cessation, improve parenting, address adolescent mental health, and reinforce adolescents' negative beliefs about smoking. PMID:26378847

  3. Are Anti-Smoking Parenting Practices Related to Adolescent Smoking Cognitions and Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huver, Rose M. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; de Vries, Hein

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain the effects of anti-smoking parenting practices on adolescent smoking cognitions and behavior by showing the mediating effects of cognitions. Data were gathered among Dutch high school students in the control condition of the European Smoking prevention Framework Approach (ESFA). Anti-smoking parenting…

  4. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  5. Familial influences on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2003-05-01

    The family unit is the primary source of transmission of basic social, cultural, genetic, and biological factors that may underlie individual differences in smoking. Existing information on the role of familial factors in tobacco use is characterized by two separate, but somewhat overlapping, lines of research: genetic epidemiological studies and risk-factor research. The present paper summarizes and evaluates studies assessing the association between adolescent smoking and parent and sibling smoking behaviors. A review of 87 studies reveals that methods are limited by a lack of standardized instruments, failure to measure important confounding and mediating factors, reliance on cross-sectional designs and the use of inconsistent definitions of tobacco-related behavior and assessment procedures. Moreover, there are no systematic family studies of the acquisition and continuation of smoking that have employed contemporary methodological standards for examining familial aggregation of tobacco behaviors among adolescents. Findings across studies show weak and inconsistent associations between parent and adolescent smoking; inconsistent findings may be attributed to methodological issues or associated factors that may complicate the relation between parent and adolescent smoking. Sibling and peer smoking show greater associations with adolescent smoking. Suggestions for future research include contemporary family studies that delineate meaningful phenotypes of tobacco use and prospective work on the later stages of tobacco use and the timing of the influence and valence of parent and family factors. Integration of the risk factor approach within the family study design may enrich both approaches to elucidate familial influences on smoking.

  6. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  7. Association between personality and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H J; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2006-02-01

    The present study examined the association between adolescents' personality traits and smoking, and tested whether this association was moderated by birth order or gender. Participants were 832 Dutch siblings aged 13 to 17 years participating at baseline assessment (T1) and at follow-up 12 months later (T2). Personality was assessed by applying a variable-centered approach including five personality dimensions (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Openness to Experience), and a person-oriented approach using three personality types (i.e., Resilients, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers). Cross-sectional findings indicated that Extraversion (at T1 and T2), Agreeableness (at T2), Conscientiousness (at T2), and Emotional Stability (at T2) were related to adolescent smoking. Longitudinal findings indicated that only Extraversion and Emotional Stability were related to onset of adolescent smoking. Using a person-oriented approach, Overcontrollers and Undercontrollers did not differ from Resilients on smoking onset. No indication was found for a moderating effect of birth order on the association between personality and smoking. Additional findings showed that gender moderated the effect of Agreeableness on adolescents' smoking onset. Implications for prevention are also addressed.

  8. Perceived peer influence and peer selection on adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Beth R; Monge, Peter R; Chou, Chih-Ping; Valente, Thomas W

    2007-08-01

    Despite advances in tobacco control, adolescent smoking remains a problem. The smoking status of friends is one of the highest correlates with adolescent smoking. This homophily (commonality of friends based on a given attribute) may be due to either peer pressure, where adolescents adopt the smoking behaviors of their friends, or peer selection, where adolescents choose friends based on their smoking status. This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of peer influence and peer selection on ever smoking by adolescents. The primary analysis of the model did not reach significance, but post hoc analyses did result in a model with good fit. Results indicated that both peer influence and peer selection were occurring, and that peer influence was more salient in the population than was peer selection. Implications of these results for tobacco prevention programs are discussed.

  9. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy, Child Behavior Problems, and Adolescent Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Kandel, Denise B.; Davies, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Used longitudinal sample of 187 mother-child dyads to examine the role of child behavior problems in explaining the effect of maternal prenatal smoking on adolescent daughters' smoking. Found that maternal prenatal smoking retained a unique effect on girls' current smoking with controls for current maternal smoking, child behavior problems, and…

  10. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  11. From the Experience of Interactivity and Entertainment to Lower Intention to Smoke: A Randomized Controlled Trial and Path Analysis of a Web-Based Smoking Prevention Program for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Calabro, Karen Sue; Mitra, Natasha; Shegog, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Background Web-based programs for smoking prevention are being increasingly used with some success among adolescents. However, little is known about the mechanisms that link the experience of such programs to intended nicotine or tobacco control outcomes. Objective Based on the experiential learning theory and extended elaboration likelihood model, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a Web-based intervention, A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience (ASPIRE), on adolescents’ intention to smoke, while considering the experience of interactivity and entertainment as predictors of reduced intention to smoke, under a transitional user experience model. Methods A total of 101 adolescents were recruited from after-school programs, provided consent, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 2 conditions: the full ASPIRE program as the experimental condition (n=50) or an online , text-based version of ASPIRE as the control condition (n=51). Data were collected at baseline and immediate follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effects models and path analyses were conducted. Results A total of 82 participants completed the study and were included in the analysis. Participants in the experimental condition were more likely to show a decrease in their intention to smoke than those in the control condition (beta=−0.18, P=.008). Perceived interactivity (beta=−0.27, P=.004) and entertainment (beta=−0.20, P=.04) were each associated with a decrease in intention to smoke independently. Results of path analyses indicated that perceived interactivity and perceived entertainment mediated the relationship between ASPIRE use and emotional involvement. Furthermore, perceived presence mediated the relationship between perceived interactivity and emotional involvement. There was a direct relationship between perceived entertainment and emotional involvement. Emotional involvement predicted a decrease in intention to smoke (beta=−0.16, P=.04). Conclusions

  12. Density and Proximity of Licensed Tobacco Retailers and Adolescent Smoking: A Narrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwon, Seok Hyun; DeGuzman, Pamela B.; Kulbok, Pamela A.; Jeong, Suyong

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent smoking prevention is an important issue in health care. This literature review describes the theoretical concept of ecological model for adolescent smoking and tobacco retailers and summarizes previous studies on the association between the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and adolescent smoking. We reviewed nine studies on…

  13. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  14. Determinants of smoking behaviour among adolescents in Semarang, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Smet, B.; Maes, L.; De Clercq, L.; Haryanti, K.; Winarno, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To determine the smoking prevalence and to examine the determinants of smoking behaviour among male adolescents in Semarang, Indonesia.
DESIGN—A random sample of schools in Semarang (population 1.5 million) was obtained using a stratified sampling procedure (strata based on type of school and district). A total of 149 schools were selected (response rate 72%). Within the schools 186 classes were selected, targeting the 11, 13, 15, and 17 year olds. An anonymous, self administered questionnaire was filled in by all students present at the day of the survey (total sample size 6276).
OUTCOME MEASURES—Smoking prevalence, exposure to family and peer smoking, and other variables that may be related to smoking. Logistic regression was used to examine the determinants of smoking behaviour. Only male students were included in the analysis.
RESULTS—Smoking increased dramatically between the ages of 11 and 17, from 8.2% to 38.7%. The variance explained by the regression model increased from 19.8% for 11 year olds to 53% for 17 year olds. The smoking behaviour of best friends was the most powerful determinant of smoking, and this was consistent across the age groups. Best friends' attitudes towards smoking and older brothers' smoking behaviour were also important determinants of smoking.
CONCLUSIONS—Smoking prevalence among male adolescents in Semarang, Indonesia is high. Effective smoking prevention programmes should take into account the dominant influence of peers in the onset and maintenance of smoking behaviour. In general, school related items had a less important role in predicting smoking behaviour than expected.


Keywords: adolescents; smoking prevalence; smoking initiation predictors; Indonesia PMID:10478404

  15. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  16. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  17. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  18. [Health education: prevention of smoking].

    PubMed

    Ducommun, S; Mounoud, R L

    1979-03-01

    With the aim of primary prevention, the Health Education Service of Geneva organizes in all schools since 1970, an information campaign against the dangers of smoking! The objectives of this preventive action are to render the pupils conscient of the dangers of smoking, to draw their attention on the lures of advertisement and to permit them to make a personal opinion on the subject. This information is given in primary and secondary schools by the teachers who receive the necessary audio-visual equipment from the Health Education Service. In the higher degrees, this information is integrated in a regular health teaching program. All future teachers also receive an "anti-smoking" information given by doctors of our Department. We hope that this form of objective and scientific instruction in schools will minimise the effects of publicity, making the young people aware of the risks they encounter.

  19. Variation in the sustained effects of the communities that care prevention system on adolescent smoking, delinquency, and violence.

    PubMed

    Oesterle, Sabrina; Hawkins, J David; Fagan, Abigail A; Abbott, Robert D; Catalano, Richard F

    2014-04-01

    Communities That Care (CTC) is a universal, science-based community prevention system designed to reduce risk, enhance protection, and prevent adolescent health and behavior problems community wide. CTC has been found to have sustained effects on cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors in grade 10 in a panel of 4,407 students followed from fifth grade in a community randomized trial. It is important to test variation in the effects of this prevention system designed to be universal to understand for whom it is most effective and whether it fails to produce change or leads to iatrogenic effects for certain categories of individuals. The present study examined variation in the sustained effects of CTC on tenth-grade cigarette use and delinquent and violent behaviors. Interaction analyses suggest that the effect of CTC did not differ between those who had high levels of community-targeted risk factors at baseline or had already engaged in substance use, delinquency, or violence at baseline versus those who had not. Although CTC reduced the prevalence of both girls' and boys' problem behaviors, the effect on delinquency was marginally (p = 0.08) larger for boys than for girls.

  20. 75 FR 13241 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... protect children and adolescents as required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control...

  1. Smoker Identity Development among Adolescents who Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Hertel, Andrew W.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. PMID:27136374

  2. Smoker identity development among adolescents who smoke.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-06-01

    Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Stages of smoking acquisition versus susceptibility as predictors of smoking initiation in adolescents in primary care.

    PubMed

    Huang, Minnie; Hollis, Jack; Polen, Michael; Lapidus, Jodi; Austin, Donald

    2005-07-01

    We evaluated whether susceptibility, the stages of smoking acquisition, and socio-environmental factors can identify adolescents who will become smokers. Our data came from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent adolescent smoking. Subjects were adolescents (n=1955) ages 14-17 being seen for routine medical care. The dependent variable was 30-day smoking status at 2-year follow-up (89.6% response rate). Independent variables included susceptibility, the stages of acquisition, and socio-environmental factors. Susceptible adolescents were two to three times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible adolescents. Compared to acquisition precontemplators, acquisition contemplators were three to five times more likely, and acquisition preparers were five to eight times more likely, to be smokers. When combined into a single measure, susceptible precontemplators were two times, contemplators were six times, and preparers were nine times more likely to be smokers than non-susceptible precontemplators. Our findings suggest that acquisition stage and susceptibility can independently predict smoking onset. They may be used together to target teens for smoking prevention efforts in the clinical setting.

  4. Efficacy of smoking prevention program 'Smoke-free Kids': study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A strong increase in smoking is noted especially among adolescents. In the Netherlands, about 5% of all 10-year olds, 25% of all 13-year olds and 62% of all 17-year olds report ever smoking. In the U.S., an intervention program called 'Smoke-free Kids' was developed to prevent children from smoking. The present study aims to assess the effects of this home-based smoking prevention program in the Netherlands. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial is conducted among 9 to 11-year old children of primary schools. Participants are randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. The intervention program consists of five printed activity modules designed to improve parenting skills specific to smoking prevention and parent-child communication regarding smoking. These modules will include additional sheets with communication tips. The modules for the control condition will include solely information on smoking and tobacco use. Initiation of cigarette smoking (first instance of puffing on a lighted cigarette), susceptibility to cigarette smoking, smoking-related cognitions, and anti-smoking socialization will be the outcome measures. To collect the data, telephone interviews with mothers as well as with their child will be conducted at baseline. Only the children will be examined at post-intervention follow-ups (6, 12, 24, and 36 months after the baseline). Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized controlled trial that will evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based smoking prevention program. We expect that a significantly lower number of children will start smoking in the intervention condition compared to control condition as a direct result of this intervention. If the program is effective, it is applicable in daily live, which will facilitate implementation of the prevention protocol. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1465 PMID:20025727

  5. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  6. [Family structure of smoking onset and regular smoking among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to present the prevalence of the regular tobacco smoking, the age of Polish adolescents' smoking onset, as well as the trends in these behaviours in 2010-2014, and to identify the fam- ily factors related to early tobacco initiation, and regular smoking. The study was conducted in 2013/2014 as a part of the HBSC--Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO collaborative cross-national study, in a representative sample of Polish students (n=4545; 2263 boys, and 2282 girls), in three age groups, in mean age 11.6; 13.6; 15.6. The international, standard HBSC questionnaire was used. Results showed that prevalence of adolescents smoking onset, as well as regular smoking increased with age. There was no statistically significant difference comparing to HBSC study conducted in 2009/10. The important predictors of early tobacco initiation were: the male gender, living in broken or reconstructed family, and living in the rural area. Considering regular smoking, the most important risk factors were: older age (13,15 y.o.) and living with single parent or in reconstructed family. In planning the prevention strategies there is a need to take into account the family role in children and adolescents' smoking prevention, as well as how to support single parents.

  7. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  8. Application of the protection motivation theory in predicting cigarette smoking among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yaqiong; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Chen, Xinguang; Xie, Nianhua; Chen, Jing; Yang, Niannian; Gong, Jie; Macdonell, Karen Kolmodin

    2014-01-01

    Reducing tobacco use among adolescents in China represents a significant challenge for global tobacco control. Existing behavioral theories developed in the West - such as the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) - may be useful tools to help tackle this challenge. We examined the relationships between PMT factors and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intention among a random sample of vocational high school students (N=553) in Wuhan, China. Tobacco-related perceptions were assessed using the PMT Scale for Adolescent Smoking. Among the total sample, 45% had initiated cigarette smoking, and 25% smoked in the past month. Among those who never smoked, 15% indicated being likely or very likely to smoke in a year. Multiple regression modeling analysis indicated the significance of the seven PMT constructs, the four PMT perceptions and the two PMT pathways in predicting intention to smoke and actual smoking behavior. Overall, perceived rewards of smoking, especially intrinsic rewards, were consistently positively related to smoking intentions and behavior, and self-efficacy to avoid smoking was negatively related to smoking. The current study suggests the utility of PMT for further research examining adolescent smoking. PMT-based smoking prevention and clinical smoking cessation intervention programs should focus more on adolescents' perceived rewards from smoking and perceived efficacy of not smoking to reduce their intention to and actual use of tobacco.

  9. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  10. Adolescents' Perceptions of Smoking and Stress Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Monica B.; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Johnson-Turbes, Ashani

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how adolescents perceive the relationship between smoking and stress and where they learn that smoking cigarettes may be an effective stress-reduction mechanism. Eight focus groups were conducted with low-income African American and European American 14- to 16-year-olds in urban and rural locations, in which they…

  11. Adolescent Social Networks: General and Smoking-Specific Characteristics Associated With Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Nargiso, Jessica E.; Gaitonde, Linda Brazil; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Converging lines of research suggest that adolescents’ smoking behaviors are strongly influenced by the characteristics of their social network and the social processes their network facilitates. The primary goal of this study was to conduct a detailed comparison of the social networks of adolescent smokers and nonsmokers to determine what aspects relate the most to smoking status. A secondary goal was to conduct within-group analyses to examine relationships between key measures of behavior-specific social support and (a) smoking susceptibility among nonsmokers, and (b) readiness to quit smoking among smokers. Method: A matched sample of 190 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers (Mage = 16.8 years; 51% female) completed a questionnaire in which they nominated and reported on up to 10 important people in their lives. This measure allowed us to examine adolescents’ overall networks (both peers and family) and to investigate numerous aspects, including general network characteristics (e.g., size of network, average contact with network members), social support (e.g., importance of people in the network), and the pervasiveness of smoking in the network (e.g., percentage of smoking peers). Results: The pervasiveness of smoking in adolescents’ social network was the strongest distinguisher of smokers versus nonsmokers. In addition, behavior-specific social support was strongly associated with susceptibility to initiate smoking among nonsmokers and readiness to quit among smokers. Conclusions: This research offers insight into potential targets for prevention and early intervention by demonstrating how social networks can both promote and attenuate risk for smoking. PMID:25785800

  12. Choosing Adolescent Smokers as Friends: The Role of Parenting and Parental Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Sleddens, E. F. C.; de Vries, H.; Steglich, C. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether parenting and parental smoking can prevent children from selecting smoking friends during adolescence. 254 Adolescents of one Belgian secondary school participated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among 2nd-4th graders (mean ages = 14.2-16.2 years) during spring 2006. Follow-up was conducted 12…

  13. Cross-Cultural Analysis of Cognitive Attributions of Smoking in Thai and South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Park, Sunhee; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Park, Hyunju; Kemeny, Maria; Philips, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding the cognitive attributions of smoking has the potential to advance youth smoking prevention efforts; however, research on this subject is limited in Asian countries. We attempted to determine the degree to which cognitive attributions of smoking differ among adolescents in 2 Asian countries, Thailand and South Korea.…

  14. Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: an intergenerational perspective on tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Rende, Richard; Boergers, Julie; Abrams, David B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Clark, Melissa A.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Hitsman, Brian; Kazura, Alessandra N.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Stroud, Laura R.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Adolescence is an important period of risk for the development of lifelong smoking behaviors. Compelling, although inconsistent, evidence suggests a relation between parental smoking and the risk of smoking initiation during adolescence. This study investigates unresolved issues concerning the strength and nature of the association between parent smoking and offspring smoking initiation. Methods We enrolled 564 adolescents aged 12-17, along with one of their parents, into the New England Family Study between 2001-2004. Lifetime smoking histories were obtained from parents and their adolescent offspring. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the influence of parental smoking histories on the risk of adolescent smoking initiation. Results Parental smoking was associated with a significantly higher risk of smoking initiation in adolescent offspring (odds ratio=2.81, 95% CI=1.78, 4.41). In addition, the likelihood of offspring smoking initiation increased with the number of smoking parents and the duration of exposure to parental smoking, suggesting a dose-response relation between parental smoking and offspring smoking. Offspring of parents who had quit smoking were no more likely to smoke than offspring of parents who had never smoked. The effects of parental smoking on offspring initiation differed by sex (with a stronger effect of father's smoking on boys than girls), developmental period (with a stronger effect of parental smoking before the adolescent was age 13 than afterwards), and residence of parents (with effects of father's smoking being dependent on living in the same household as the adolescent). Parental smoking was also associated with stronger negative reactions to adolescents' first cigarette, a potential marker of the risk of progression to higher levels of use. Conclusions Parental smoking is an important source of vulnerability to smoking initiation among adolescents, and parental smoking cessation might attenuate this

  15. Cigarette advertising and adolescent experimentation with smoking.

    PubMed

    Klitzner, M; Gruenewald, P J; Bamberger, E

    1991-03-01

    The extent to which cigarette advertising contributes to increases in smoking has been debated by public health professionals and the tobacco industry. One aspect of this debate has been the degree to which advertising influences smoking among adolescents. Previous research suggests that there are significant relationships between measures of advertising and smoking. However, potential simultaneous relationships between these measures have not been addressed. Observed correlations may arise from the effects of advertising on smoking or from smokers' selective exposure to advertisements. This study examined relationships between cigarette advertising and smoking experimentation. Using environmental and psychological measures of advertising exposure, it was demonstrated that adolescents who experimented with cigarettes were better able to recognize advertised products than those who had not, a selective exposure effect. Conversely, subjects who were better at recognizing advertised brands were more likely to have experimented with cigarettes, an effect due to their exposure to cigarette advertising.

  16. Smoking Prevention Strategies for Urban and Minority Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Urban areas are the sites of many smoking prevention strategies targeting special populations. This digest provides an overview of these initiatives. Adolescents smoke for the same reasons that they use alcohol and other drugs. Personal factors that contribute to risk are enhanced by tobacco company advertising that makes smoking seem attractive.…

  17. Smoking habits in adolescents with mild to moderate asthma.

    PubMed

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Mandel, Dror; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak

    2004-09-01

    To study the impact of mild to moderate asthma on smoking habits in adolescents. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that asthma does not prevent adolescents from smoking. A research questionnaire, filled by a systematic sample of military personnel upon enrollment to service in the Israeli Defense Force (IDF), was analyzed. Conscripts were asked to voluntarily fill (after obtaining a signed informed consent) a research questionnaire about their medical history, and several health related topics including smoking. This database was matched with the military medical profile of the soldier, which includes the patient asthma status. Overall, 38,047 young adults were included in this study. There was a significant increase in the rate of mild to moderate asthma, from the mid-1980's to date. During the 1980's and early 1990's, asthmatics smoked significantly less frequently (20-22%) than non-asthmatics (25-27%). In the mid- to late-1990's, the smoking rates increased relatively more in asthmatics, to the point that in the last 8 years of this study, they were found to be almost identical in both groups, at a rate of approximately 30%. The presence of asthma is not a powerful motivating agent to prevent from smoking. It is likely that smoking asthmatic teenagers are at risk for suboptimal lung growth, and as young adults, they will become at greater risk of lung function deterioration. We suggest that primary care physicians, caring for asthma in children, adolescents, and young adults, should explain the particular risks generated by tobacco smoking.

  18. Romantic attraction and adolescent smoking trajectories.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Michael S; Tucker, Joan S; Green, Harold D; Kennedy, David P; Go, Myong-Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Research on sexual orientation and substance use has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are more likely to smoke than heterosexuals. This analysis furthers the examination of smoking behaviors across sexual orientation groups by describing how same- and opposite-sex romantic attraction, and changes in romantic attraction, are associated with distinct six-year developmental trajectories of smoking. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health dataset is used to test our hypotheses. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting smoking trajectory membership as a function of romantic attraction were separately estimated for men and women. Romantic attraction effects were found only for women. The change from self-reported heterosexual attraction to lesbian or bisexual attraction was more predictive of higher smoking trajectories than was a consistent lesbian or bisexual attraction, with potentially important differences between the smoking patterns of these two groups.

  19. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  20. Early Emerging Nicotine Dependence Symptoms in Adolescence Predict Daily Smoking in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Hedeker, Donald; Rose, Jennifer; Selya, Arielle; Mermelstein, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study evaluated the predictive validity of individual early emerging nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescence on smoking behavior in young adulthood. Methods A total of 492 adolescents who, at baseline, had not smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and 123 adolescents who smoked more than 100 cigarettes lifetime, and who participated in the 6-year follow-up assessment were included in the present analyses. Predictive validity of 10 nicotine dependence items administered at baseline was evaluated at the 6 year follow-up when the sample had entered young adulthood (mean age=21.6). Results Among adolescents who had smoked fewer than 100 cigarettes, experiencing higher levels of overall nicotine dependence as well as individual symptoms at baseline longitudinally predicted an increase in risk for daily smoking in young adulthood, after controlling for baseline smoking and other tobacco use. For adolescents who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes at baseline, level of nicotine dependence and individual symptom endorsement did not predict smoking behavior in young adulthood. Conclusions These findings add to accumulating evidence that early emerging dependence symptoms reported at low levels of smoking exposure signal a greater propensity for continued smoking behavior. Screening for these early emerging symptoms among novice adolescent smokers represents an important and unused tool in tobacco control efforts aimed at preventing the development of chronic smoking patterns. PMID:25840749

  1. Adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Novick, Lloyd F; Cibula, Donald A; Sutphen, Sally M

    2003-05-01

    This case-prevention of adolescent suicide-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This teaching case examines the issue of prevention of adolescent and young adult suicide both at an individual and at a population or community level, using data from the Onondaga County Health Department. In the first section of the case, students are asked to determine whether five deaths related to falling or jumping at a local shopping mall should be considered to be suicidal deaths. Students then develop skills in the reporting as well as in the epidemiology of adolescent suicidal deaths in Onondaga County. As the case progresses, students analyze the results of a local surveillance study of suicidal attempts and ideation. The case concludes with students evaluating a hypothetical screening study intended to reduce the risk of suicidal death and discussing a research design to examine the effectiveness of this prevention strategy.

  2. A comparison of adolescent smoking initiation measures on predicting future smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Minaker, Leia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests that age at smoking initiation has implications for tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and resulting long-term health and chronic disease outcomes. The objective of the current study was to examine two different measures of smoking onset and to compare their validity in predicting future adolescent smoking survey. Methods Data from grades 9–12 students who participated in the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally-generalizable Canadian survey, and who had ever tried a cigarette, even a few puffs (n = 8126) were used in a multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the association between age at smoking onset and current smoking behavior. Results Both “age at first puff” and “age at first whole cigarette” were significantly associated with current smoking status. Specifically, a delay of one year in the age at first puff was associated with lower odds of being a current smoker by 24% (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.73–0.79). Similarly, high school students who smoked their first whole cigarette at old age were less likely to report being a current smoker (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.62–0.71). Conclusion Efforts to prevent smoking uptake among youth, especially younger youth, are especially important in tobacco control efforts. PMID:26844068

  3. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  4. Smoking Prevention Program for Children: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oei, Tian P. S.; Fea, Annette

    1987-01-01

    Reviews literature regarding factors associated with children's initiation into smoking and examines efficacy of health education programs in preventing smoking in children. Though using peer leaders as health educators has been successful, parent-implemented health prevention programs aiming at children at younger ages may be more effective in…

  5. The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA): Effects after 24 and 30 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Hein; Dijk, Froukje; Wetzels, Joyce; Mudde, Aart; Kremers, Stef; Ariza, Carles; Vitoria, Paulo Duarte; Fielder, Anne; Holm, Klavs; Janssen, Karin; Lehtovuori, Riku; Candel, Math

    2006-01-01

    The European Smoking Prevention Framework Approach (ESFA) study in six countries tested the effects of a comprehensive smoking prevention approach after 24 (T3; N = 10751) and 30 months (T4; N = 9282). The programme targeted four levels, i.e. adolescents in schools, school policies, parents and the community. In Portugal, 12.4% of the T1…

  6. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States.

  7. Cigarette smoking and adolescents: messages they see and hear.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary preventable cause of mortality and morbidity in the US. But in the mid-1990s, more than one-third of US teenagers were smokers, despite their awareness of the health risks and negative consequences of tobacco use. In 1996, as part of a three-year qualitative study to explore differences in adolescent smoking by gender and ethnicity, members of the Tobacco Control Network examined messages that teens receive about cigarette smoking. Consisting of 178 focus groups with 1,175 teenagers covering all levels of smoking experience, the study included teens from five ethnic groups, stratified by gender and ethnicity, from urban and rural areas across the US. The authors reviewed the sources and content of messages that teens reported were most influential in their decisions to smoke or not smoke cigarettes. Family and peers, school, television, and movies were the primary sources for both pro- and anti-smoking messages. The authors conclude that a lack of clear, consistent antismoking messages leaves teens vulnerable to the influences of pro-smoking messages from a variety of sources. Interventions need to be culture- and gender-specific. Family-based interventions appear to be needed and efficacious, but resource intensive. Building self-esteem may prove to be a promising intervention. PMID:11889286

  8. What Works to Prevent Adolescent Smoking? A Systematic Review of the National Cancer Institute's Research-Tested Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Elyse J.; Primack, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cigarette use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Although school is an ideal setting for antismoking interventions, school-based programs have not been successful in the long term. The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of programs deemed to be successful short-term Research-Tested…

  9. The Effectiveness of School-Based Smoking Prevention Interventions among Low- and High-SES European Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Crone, M. R.; De Vries, H.; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Lien, N.; Fagiano, F.; Vitoria, P. D.; Van Lenthe, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Preventing smoking initiation among adolescents of lower socio-economic groups is crucial for the reduction of socio-economic inequalities in health. The aim of the present study was to examine whether effective smoking prevention interventions in Europe are equally effective among adolescents of low- and high-socio-economic status (SES). As part…

  10. Exposure to School and Community Based Prevention Programs and Reductions in Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in the United States, 2000-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    Smoking remains prevalent among US youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12-17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use…

  11. "Deviance Proneness" and Adolescent Smoking 1980 versus 2001: Has There Been a "Hardening" of Adolescent Smoking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio; Sherman, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a midwestern community sample, we tested for evidence of "hardening" of adolescent cigarette smoking between 1980 and 2001 by comparing adolescent smokers and nonsmokers at these two times on measures indicative of "deviance proneness" in Jessor and Jessor's [Jessor, R., & Jessor, S. L. (1977). "Problem behavior and psychosocial development: A…

  12. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  13. [The impact of smoking in movies on children and adolescents. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Maruska, K; Hanewinkel, R

    2010-02-01

    In accordance with the conclusion of the US National Cancer Institute to consider smoking in films, in addition to other factors, as one risk factor for the initiation of smoking among children and adolescents, the World Health Organization has invited its member states to implement rules for limiting smoking depictions in films. Results of methodically high-value longitudinal and experimental studies which provide empirical evidence for the association between smoking depictions in films and smoking among children and adolescents are presented. Interpretation of this association as causal according to Hill criteria is discussed. In this systematic review, future personal and structural preventive interventions to address this problem in Germany are presented and discussed. Of special importance is the enhancement of both parental competence in media education as well as media literacy in children and adolescents. Rating films depicting smoking as approved for adults only could yield the largest effect, since it leads to an enduring reduction of exposure.

  14. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  15. The Effects of Antismoking Messages From Family, School, and Mass Media on Smoking Behavior and Smoking Intention Among Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaohua; Koplan, Jeffrey; Eriksen, Michael P; Yao, Shuo; Redmon, Pamela; Song, Julia; Uretsky, Elanah; Huang, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent smoking has been increasing rapidly in China. Expanding adolescent exposure to antismoking messages may be an effective approach to prevent tobacco use among this population. Using a cross-sectional sample of 8,444 high school students in four Chinese cities, this study assessed the relation between self-reported exposure to antismoking messages from families, schools, and mass media and the rate of past 30-day smoking and smoking intention among junior and senior high school students. Results from logistic regression suggested that antismoking messages delivered via school and media inhibited both tobacco use and the intention to smoke. The effects of familial warnings about harmful effects of smoking, in contrast, were at best insignificant.

  16. Beliefs about Smoking among Adolescents--Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendell C.; Ayars, Candace L.; Gladney, Alicia P.; Peters, Ron J., Jr.; Roy, Jacquilin R.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    1999-01-01

    Study identifies gender and ethnic beliefs about cigarette smoking and abstention from smoking. The development of the moral/ethical theme is discussed along with the study results. Recommendations are presented for future research to clarify influences for smoking and not smoking by gender and ethnic group among adolescents. (Author/GCP)

  17. Predicting Adolescent Perceptions of the Risks and Benefits of Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Song, Anna V.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate developmental changes, personal smoking experiences, and vicarious smoking experiences as predictors of adolescents’ perceptions of the risks and benefits of cigarette smoking over time, in order to identify new and effective targets for youth smoking prevention programs. Design 395 adolescents were surveyed every six months for two school years, from the beginning of 9th grade to the end of 10th grade. Main Outcome Measures Time, participant smoking, friend smoking, parental smoking, and sex were evaluated as predictors of smoking-related short-term risk perceptions, long-term risk perceptions, and benefits perceptions using multilevel modeling techniques. Results Perceptions of benefits did not change over time. Perceptions of risk decreased with time, but not after sex and parental smoking were included in the model. Adolescents with personal smoking experience reported decreasing perceptions of risk and increasing perceptions of benefits over time. Adolescents with more than 6 friends who smoked also reported increasing perceptions of benefits over time. Conclusions Changes in risk perceptions may not purely be the result of developmental processes, but may also be influenced by personal and vicarious experience with smoking. Findings highlight the importance of identifying and targeting modifiable factors that may influence perceptions. PMID:20939640

  18. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  19. Identifying demographic and psychosocial factors related to the escalation of smoking behavior among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shete, Sahil S; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2017-02-21

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States; smoking in Mexican American adolescents, a rapidly growing population, remains a major concern. Factors associated with escalation or progression along the smoking trajectory have not been studied in adolescent Mexican Americans. A better understanding of escalation is needed for cancer prevention and overall health. N=1,328 Mexican American adolescents joined a cohort in 2005-06. At baseline participants provided demographic, acculturation and psychosocial data, and reported their smoking status using the Minnesota Smoking Index. Those that never tried a cigarette or only had a few puffs in their life were included in this study. The primary outcome of interest, escalation in smoking status, was defined as moving up the Minnesota Smoking Index by 2010-2011. The current analysis is based on 973 participants of whom 48.2% were male, mean age=11.8 (SD=0.8), and 26.0% were born in Mexico. By 2010-2011, 283 (29%) escalated their smoking status and 690 (71%) remained the same. Being older (OR=1.30; CI=1.07-1.57), male (OR=1.88, CI=1.40-2.53), having higher levels of anxiety (OR=1.03, CI=1.02-1.05), intending to smoke (OR=1.70, CI=1.18-2.46), having friends who smoke (OR=1.73, CI=1.12-2.70) and having parents' friends who smoke (OR=1.38, CI=1.02-1.88) increased risk for smoking escalation. Higher levels of subjective social status (OR=0.91, CI=0.83-0.99) were protective against smoking escalation. Contrasting previous work in smoking experimentation, parents' friends influence was a stronger predictor than the family household influence. Preventative interventions for Mexican American youth could address this risk factor to reduce smoking escalation.

  20. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Cassandra A.; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers’ smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers’ smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs. PMID:23226718

  1. Intrapersonal and Ecodevelopmental Factors Associated with Smoking in Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Barbara; Huang, Shi; Wang, Wei; Prado, Guillermo; Brown, C. Hendricks; Zeng, Guang; Flavin, Kathryn; Pantin, Hilda

    2010-01-01

    We examined how relationships among intrapersonal (i.e., attitudes and beliefs about smoking) and ecodevelopmental (i.e., family, school, and peer) factors influence risk for lifetime smoking in immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Our sample was comprised of 223 immigrant Hispanic adolescents and their families and was drawn from 3 middle schools in a…

  2. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada’s health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  3. Cigarette Smoking among Korean Adolescents: Prevalence and Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juon, Hee-Soon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines prevalence of cigarette smoking and explores its relationship with individual, family, school, and psychological factors among Korean adolescents. Current prevalence of cigarette smoking was 8.45 percent. Smoking prevalence increased with age among boys. Perceived peer use, academic stress, grade, and type of school were associated with…

  4. All Physical Activity May Not Be Associated with a Lower Likelihood of Adolescent Smoking Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Research has documented that physical activity is associated with a lower risk of adolescent smoking uptake, yet it is unclear whether this relationship exists for all types of physical activity. We sought to determine whether certain types of physical activity are associated with a decreased or an increased risk of adolescent smoking uptake. Methods In this longitudinal cohort study, adolescents (n=1,356) were surveyed every six months for four years (age 14 – 18 years old). Smoking and physical activity were measured at each of the eight time-points. Physical activity that was negatively associated with smoking across the eight waves was considered positive physical activities (i.e., PPA; linked to not smoking such as racquet sports, running, and swimming laps). Physical activity that was positively associated with smoking across the eight waves were considered negative physical activities (i.e., NPA; linked to smoking such as skating, walking, bicycling, sport fighting, and competitive wrestling). Results Associative Processes Latent Growth Curve Modeling revealed that each 30-minute increase in NPA per week at baseline was associated with a 4-fold increased odds of smoking progression (OR=4.10, 95% CI=2.14, 7.83). By contrast, each 30-minute increase in PPA at baseline was associated with a 51% decrease in the odds of smoking progression (OR=.49, 95% CI=.25, .93). Conclusions The type of physical activity that an adolescent engages appears to be important for the uptake of cigarette smoking among adolescents. These associative relationships warrant consideration in interventions to increase overall physical activity and those promoting physical activity to prevent smoking uptake. PMID:26280377

  5. Movie Character Smoking and Adolescent Smoking: Who Matters More, Good Guys or Bad Guys?

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne E.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Cin, Sonya Dal; Worth, Keilah; Gibson, Jennifer; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between smoking onset and exposure to movie smoking according to character type. Methods A longitudinal, random-digit-dial telephone survey of 6522 US adolescents was performed with movie exposure assessed at 4 time points over 24 months. Adolescents were asked whether they had seen a random subsample of recently released movies, for which we identified smoking by major characters and type of portrayal (divided into negative, positive, and mixed/neutral categories). Multivariate hazard regression analysis was used to assess the independent effects of these exposures on the odds of trying smoking. Results By the 24-month follow-up survey, 15.9% of baseline never-smokers had tried smoking. Within the sample of movies, 3848 major characters were identified, of whom 69% were male. Smokers represented 22.8% of 518 negative characters, 13.7% of 2486 positive characters, and 21.1% of 844 mixed/neutral characters. Analysis of the crude relationship showed that episodes of negative character smoking exposure had the strongest influence on smoking initiation. However, because most characters were portrayed as positive, exposure to this category was greatest. When the full population effect of each exposure was modeled, each type of character smoking independently affected smoking onset. There was an interaction between negative character smoking and sensation-seeking with stronger response for adolescents lower in sensation-seeking. Conclusions Character smoking predicts adolescent smoking initiation regardless of character type, which demonstrates the importance of limiting exposure to all movie smoking. Negative character portrayals of smoking have stronger impact on low risk-taking adolescents, undercutting the argument that greater exposure is a marker for adolescent risk-taking behavior. PMID:19564293

  6. Movie smoking exposure and smoking onset: a longitudinal study of mediation processes in a representative sample of U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg

    2008-06-01

    The authors tested 2 mechanisms for the relation of movie smoking exposure with onset of cigarette smoking in adolescence. Longitudinal data with 8-month follow-up were obtained from a representative sample of 6,522 U.S. adolescents, ages 10-14 years. Structural modeling analysis based on initial nonsmokers, which controlled for 10 covariates associated with movie exposure, showed that viewing more smoking in movies was related to increases in positive expectancies about smoking and increases in affiliation with smoking peers, and these variables were both related to smoking onset. A direct effect of movie exposure on smoking onset was also noted. Mediation findings were replicated across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Tests for gender differences indicated that girls showed larger effects of movie exposure for some variables. Implications for policy and prevention research are discussed.

  7. Movie Smoking Exposure and Smoking Onset: A Longitudinal Study of Mediation Processes in a Representative Sample of U.S. Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested 2 mechanisms for the relation of movie smoking exposure with onset of cigarette smoking in adolescence. Longitudinal data with 8-month follow-up were obtained from a representative sample of 6,522 U.S. adolescents, ages 10–14 years. Structural modeling analysis based on initial nonsmokers, which controlled for 10 covariates associated with movie exposure, showed that viewing more smoking in movies was related to increases in positive expectancies about smoking and increases in affiliation with smoking peers, and these variables were both related to smoking onset. A direct effect of movie exposure on smoking onset was also noted. Mediation findings were replicated across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Tests for gender differences indicated that girls showed larger effects of movie exposure for some variables. Implications for policy and prevention research are discussed. PMID:18540724

  8. Prevalence of smoking among school adolescents in Khartoum State

    PubMed Central

    Adil, Abo-mali; Mustafa, Babiker M.; Abdo, Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco is the single most important cause of chronic morbidity in the Developed World. Tobacco use primarily begins in early adolescence, reportedly before the time of high school graduation. By 2015 tobacco use is projected to cause 50% more deaths than AIDS. A cross sectional school based survey was conducted in primary and secondary school in Khartoum State. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of smoking in school adolescents and associated personal and social factors. A total of 910 students with complete questionnaires were included in the analysis, of whom 13.6% were found to be current cigarette smokers. Factors that played role in initiation of smoking included smoking among parents, other family members and close friends. School adolescents who have friends or parents who smoke should be the main target for tobacco control. Smoking should become public health priority in Sudan to educate adolescents and parents regarding its hazards. PMID:27493344

  9. Readiness to change smoking behavior in adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Apodaca, Timothy R; Abrantes, Ana M; Strong, David R; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2007-06-01

    There has been recent increased interest in utilizing motivational interviewing (MI) to increase adolescent readiness to quit smoking, but attempts to impact quit rates have thus far been discouraging. A better understanding of factors associated with adolescent readiness to quit smoking prior to receiving any intervention may provide guidance when tailoring future MI interventions in order to increase their effectiveness with this population. Adolescent smokers (N=191) who had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and enrolled in a clinical trial evaluating MI completed questionnaires that assessed smoking behavior and variables thought to be related to smoking. Confidence to quit smoking and negative beliefs about smoking were significant predictors of adolescents' baseline readiness to quit smoking. The failure to demonstrate relationships between health consequences and readiness suggest that caution may be warranted in the use of feedback, a common component of MI-based interventions. Such feedback tends to focus on health consequences, which was unrelated to adolescent baseline readiness to change smoking behavior in the current study. Parallels between current results and the Theory of Planned Behavior are discussed in consideration of developing more effective MI-based interventions for adolescent smokers.

  10. Do Favorite Movie Stars Influence Adolescent Smoking Initiation?

    PubMed Central

    Distefan, Janet M.; Pierce, John P.; Gilpin, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine whether adolescents whose favorite movie stars smoke on-screen are at increased risk of tobacco use. Methods. During interviews, adolescent never smokers taking part in the California Tobacco Survey nominated their favorite stars. We reviewed popular films released during 1994 through 1996 to determine whether stars smoked on-screen in at least 2 films. Results. One third of never smokers nominated a star who smoked on-screen, which independently predicted later smoking risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 1.82). The effect was strong among girls (OR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.26, 2.73). Among boys, there was no independent effect after control for receptivity to tobacco industry promotions. Conclusions. Public health efforts to reduce adolescent smoking must confront smoking in films as a tobacco marketing strategy. PMID:15226149

  11. Personal values, advertising, and smoking motivation in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chingching

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the role that personal values plays in motivating Taiwanese adolescents to smoke. In a nationwide survey of high school students, smokers attached greater importance to hedonic gratification values and less importance to idealism values than did nonsmokers. Hedonic gratification values were associated with favorable attitudes toward smoking, while idealism values were associated with unfavorable attitudes toward smoking. Attitudes toward smoking predicted adolescent smoking behavior. Evidence suggested that advertising plays an important role in motivating adolescents with hedonic gratification values to smoke. First, in the survey, hedonic gratification values were associated with paying attention to and expressing favorable attitudes toward cigarette advertising. Second, a content analysis of cigarette ads in magazines found hedonic gratification values to be the most commonly portrayed values, occurring in 62.7% of ads.

  12. Depression, sensation seeking, and maternal smoking as predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    van de Venne, Judy; Bradford, Kay; Martin, Catherine; Cox, Megan; Omar, Hatim A

    2006-06-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11-18 years) and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (beta = 0.29, p < 0.001 and beta = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively). Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (beta = 0.24, p < 0.01) when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (beta = 0.20, p < 0.05). These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  13. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome…

  14. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  15. Cigarette smoking and the disenfranchisement of adolescent girls: a discourse of resistance?

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Marjorie; Wright, Nancy E

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of smoking for women are of particular concern in light of recent observations that more adolescent females than males are taking up smoking. To date, few studies have explored gender differences in depth, but we do know that males and females smoke for different reasons and that current smoking prevention programs may be differentially effective depending on gender. Recent evidence suggests that the school environment may have an important influence on smoking. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore gender differences in the relationships between cigarette smoking and adolescents' experiences of school climate and their relationships with the school and significant adults in their lives. A secondary data analysis was done using a data set derived from a student survey conducted in 20 secondary schools in British Columbia (BC), Canada, which included 8,179 students in grades 8 to 12. Analyses were primarily descriptive. The results demonstrated that adolescent girls who smoke are more likely than either males or nonsmoking females to experience powerlessness in their school environment and to feel considerably less attachment to the school. Female smokers are more likely than males or female nonsmokers to be engaged in oppositional, distanced, and unsatisfactory relationships with important adults in their lives, particularly those who are in positions of relative power and authority. These findings are discussed in relation to critical and feminist perspectives that suggest smoking is part of a larger discourse of resistance within schools. The implications for health practitioners are discussed.

  16. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Saari, Antti J.; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% (n = 376). Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood. PMID:26273640

  17. The unique roles of intrapersonal and social factors in adolescent smoking development.

    PubMed

    Defoe, Ivy N; Semon Dubas, Judith; Somerville, Leah H; Lugtig, Peter; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation and peak of many harmful risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, which is among the most addictive and deadliest behaviors. Generic metatheories like the theory of triadic influence (TTI) suggest that interrelated risk factors across multiple domains (i.e., intrapersonal and social/environmental) jointly contribute to adolescent smoking behavior. Yet, studies are lacking that investigate risk factors across different domains in the same study, which obscures whether each makes a unique contribution to the increase in smoking throughout adolescence or whether there is overlap across the domains. Hence, to fill this gap using a latent growth approach, the current accelerated longitudinal study investigated the collective contribution of multiple intrapersonal and social risk factors in the development of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 17 in 574 ethnically diverse Dutch adolescents. Results from the latent growth model showed that whereas the contribution of motivational-intrapersonal factors like sensation-seeking was no longer significant in the stringent multivariate model, higher levels of impulsivity (cognitive-intrapersonal) and overt peer pressure (social) at age 12 proved to be robust and unique predictors of linear increases in adolescent smoking up until age 17. Consistent with the TTI, adolescent smoking progression does not occur in isolation and the determinants are wide-ranging as they stem from both intrapersonal and social domains. Thus focusing on such confluence of intrapersonal and social risk factors via prevention programs from as young as age 12 might halt the deadly increase in smoking behavior throughout adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Weaver, Terri E; Romer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although smoking initiation is rare in young adulthood, the progression to a higher level of smoking still occurs at this developmental stage. Thus, this study was aimed at exploring predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking in late teens and young adults using the 2nd and 3rd waves from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Predictors were chosen based on Problem Behavior Theory and others that have been found to be influential in the literature. Of the variables studied, age, racial-ethnic identity (Black and Hispanic as compared to White youth), risk-taking tendency, and marijuana use predicted daily smoking 5 years later. Only one predictor, GPA, was protective for reducing the likelihood for the transition to daily smoking. The results are discussed in regard to implications for prevention of the progression to persistent daily smoking.

  19. Multilevel Analysis of the Impact of School-Level Tobacco Policies on Adolescent Smoking: The Case of Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Oh, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Background: In efforts to curb and prevent youth smoking, school tobacco policies have become an important and effective strategy. This study explores the degrees and types of tobacco-free school policy (TFSP) enforcement that are associated with adolescent smoking. Methods: A multilevel analysis was performed using 983 students who are nested in…

  20. Early-Emerging Nicotine Dependence Has Lasting and Time-Varying Effects on Adolescent Smoking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Selya, Arielle S; Dierker, Lisa; Rose, Jennifer S; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2016-08-01

    Novice and light adolescent smokers can develop symptoms of nicotine dependence, which predicts smoking behavior several years into the future. However, little is known about how the association between these early - emerging symptoms and later smoker behaviors may change across time from early adolescence into young adulthood. Data were drawn from a 7-year longitudinal study of experimental (<100 cigarettes/lifetime; N = 594) and light (100+ cigarettes/lifetime, but ≤5 cigarettes/day; N = 152) adolescent smokers. Time-varying effect models were used to examine the relationship between baseline nicotine dependence (assessed at age 15 ± 2 years) and future smoking frequency through age 24, after controlling for concurrent smoking heaviness. Baseline smoking status, race, and sex were examined as potential moderators of this relationship. Nicotine dependence symptoms assessed at approximately age 15 significantly predicted smoking frequency through age 24, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, though it showed declining trends at older ages. Predictive validity was weaker among experimenters at young ages (<16), but stronger at older ages (20-23), relative to light smokers. Additionally, nicotine dependence was a stronger predictor of smoking frequency for white smokers around baseline (ages 14.5-16), relative to nonwhite smokers. Nicotine dependence assessed in mid-adolescence predicts smoking frequency well into early adulthood, over and above concurrent smoking heaviness, especially among novice smokers and nonwhite smokers. Early-emerging nicotine dependence is a promising marker for screening and interventions aimed at preventing smoking progression.

  1. The Contributions of Mothers and Fathers to the Intergenerational Transmission of Cigarette Smoking in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Denise B.; Wu, Ping

    1995-01-01

    A study found that children whose parents smoke are more likely to be smokers than children whose parents do not smoke. Maternal smoking has a stronger effect than paternal smoking on smoking by young adolescents, and has a stronger effect on daughters than on sons. Perceived peer smoking is an important determinant of a child smoking, especially…

  2. Psychosocial Correlates of Smoking Trajectories Among Urban African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergus, Stevenson; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known of smoking trajectories or of the correlates of smoking trajectories among African American youth. Ninth-grade African American adolescents (n = 566) were interviewed in Year 1 and then were subsequently interviewed annually for 3 additional years. Five trajectories of cigarette smokers were identified: abstainers,…

  3. Effect of anti-smoking advertisements on Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unal, E; Gokler, M E; Metintas, S; Kalyoncu, C

    2016-12-12

    The aim of the present study was to determine the perception of 10 anti-smoking advertisements in 1434 Turkish adolescents. We used the Effectiveness of the Anti-smoking Advertisements Scale, which included 6 items for each advertisement; each item was assessed on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the impact of the advertisements. All the advertisements were more effective for adolescents who had never smoked compared to ex-smokers and current smokers. We also noted that, regardless of age, smoking status decreased the effectiveness of all the advertisements. Previous studies have shown that smokers have a negative attitude towards anti-smoking messages. In the present study, the most effective advertisements among adolescents were those with "Sponge and tar", "Smoking harms in every breath" and "Children want to grow". In conclusion, although anti-smoking campaigns are targeted towards adults, they also have a strong influence on adolescents. The main target population for advertisements should be individuals aged < 15 years who have not yet started smoking.

  4. Emotional Intelligence, Hardiness, and Smoking: Protective Factors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the biggest threat to public health, and it remains a serious cause of death in the world. It even causes acute and chronic diseases in passive smokers. Remarkably, the age of the onset of cigarette smoking is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the attitudes among adolescents toward cigarette…

  5. Psychological Correlates of Adolescent Smoking in Response to Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, Sally; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that examined the relationship between high school students' smoking under stress, psychological distress, and social support. Survey data indicated that white students were more likely to engage in stress-related smoking than black students, as were adolescents with higher psychological distress and lower social support scores.…

  6. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  7. Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Villanti, Andrea; Boulay, Marc; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of social influences on adolescent smoking have focused on peers and parents, using data collected prior the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement. This study used the 2004 wave of the National Youth Tobacco Survey to examine associations between peer smoking, smoking at home, tobacco-related media exposure, and smoking behavior during early and middle adolescence. Findings indicate that peer smoking and smoking at home remain strongly associated with current smoking among early and middle adolescents, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity and exposure to tobacco industry and anti-tobacco media. The magnitude of the association between peer smoking and current smoking decreases from early adolescence to middle adolescence while the association between smoking at home and current smoking is static across developmental stage. Exposure to tobacco-related media is associated with increased current and former smoking in both early and middle adolescence.

  8. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  9. Adolescent Exposure to and Perceptions of Environmental Tobacco Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Timothy R.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Shah, Sapna

    2005-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) poses an underappreciated risk to adolescent health. This study examined perceptions of adolescents (n = 574) regarding ETS. About one half (54%) were exposed to ETS the previous week, and one third (30%) were exposed to 3 or more hours of ETS the past week. Concurrently, 29% believed that breathing someone else's…

  10. Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Smoking and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…

  11. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  12. Characterizing Patterns of Smoking Initiation in Adolescence: Comparison of Methods for Dealing With Missing Data

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is common and remains one of the leading causes of preventable death in developed countries. Smoking commonly begins in adolescence, and hence, it is important to understand how smoking behavior develops during this period. Methods: In a U.K.-based birth cohort, we analyzed repeated measures of smoking frequency in a sample of 7,322 young adolescents. Latent class analysis was used to summarize the data, and the resulting classes of behavior were related to a range of smoking risk factors. Results from a complete case analysis were compared with estimation using full-information maximum likelihood (FIML) and estimation using multiple imputation (MI). Results: Fifty-three percent of the sample reported having smoked a whole cigarette by age 16 years. The longitudinal data were summarized by 4 distinct patterns of smoking initiation: nonsmokers (79.7%), experimenters (10.3%), late-onset regular smokers (5.5%), and early-onset regular smokers (4.5%). Social disadvantage, other substance use, conduct problems, and female sex were strongly related to being a regular smoker; however, no risk factors studied showed any strong or consistent association with experimentation. In the complete case sample, smoking prevalence was lower, and in addition, the association between different smoking patterns and covariates was often inconsistent with those obtained through FIML/MI. Conclusions: Most young people have experimented with tobacco smoking by age 16 years, and regular smoking is established in a substantial minority characterized by social disadvantage, other substance, use and conduct disorder. Prevention strategies should focus on this subgroup as most children who experiment with tobacco do not progress to regular smoking. PMID:21994336

  13. Pubertal Timing, Friend Smoking, and Substance Use in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Marklein, Elizabeth; Negriff, Sonya

    2017-01-01

    The influence of friend substance use on the association between pubertal timing and substance use has received little consideration in the literature. With a sample of 264 female adolescents (11–17 years), this study examined (a) the relationship between pubertal timing and substance use, (b) the impact of number of friends that smoke cigarettes on adolescents' use of three substances (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana), and (c) the interactions between pubertal timing and friends' smoking in predicting individual substance use. Results showed a significant relationship between pubertal timing and alcohol use; later timing was related to more alcohol use. This association between late timing and alcohol use is contrary to previous literature and may be due to the broad age range of this sample. Pubertal timing may have less of an effect in late adolescence when drinking becomes more normative and less deviant; the rationale for this association is discussed. Second, this study found females who reported that more of their friends smoke regularly (at least once a week) used significantly more cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana than those who reported no friends who smoke. Finally, the interaction between pubertal timing and number of friends who were regular smokers was not significantly related to adolescent substance use. However, friend smoking explained more of the variation in substance use than pubertal timing. This indicates that having friends who smoke is more influential in predicting substance use than pubertal timing. These findings are important when considering the development of interventions to target adolescent substance use. PMID:19067163

  14. The effect of preventive educational program in cigarette smoking: Extended Parallel Process Model

    PubMed Central

    Gharlipour, Zabihollah; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Moeini, Babak; Nazari, Mahin; Beigi, Abbas Moghim; Tavassoli, Elahe; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Reisi, Mahnoush; Barkati, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is one of the preventable causes of diseases and deaths. The most important preventive measure is technique to resist against peer pressure. Any educational program should design with an emphasis upon theories of behavioral change and based on effective educational program. To investigate the interventions through educational program in prevention of cigarette smoking, this paper has used the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). Materials and Methods: This study is a quasi-experimental study. Two middle schools were randomly selected from male students in Shiraz. Therefore, we randomly selected 120 students for the experimental group and 120 students for the control group. After diagnostic evaluation, educational interventions on the consequences of smoking and preventive skills were applied. Results: Our results indicated that there was a significant difference between students in the control and experimental groups in the means of perceived susceptibility (P < 0.000, t = 6.84), perceived severity (P < 0.000, t = −11.46), perceived response efficacy (P < 0.000, t = −7.07), perceived self-efficacy (P < 0.000, t = −11.64), and preventive behavior (P < 0.000, t = −24.36). Conclusions: EPPM along with educating skills necessary to resist against peer pressure had significant level of efficiency in improving preventive behavior of cigarette smoking among adolescents. However, this study recommends further studies on ways of increasing perceived susceptibility in cigarette smoking among adolescents. PMID:25767815

  15. [Youth Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stare, Russell K., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter "Prevention Forum" focuses on smoking among adolescents. The articles are as follows: (1) "Where There's Smoke--Will Prevention Put Out the Fire?" (Joanne Burgess), an overview of the Surgeon General's report "Preventing Tobacco Use among Young People," including interviews with prevention…

  16. Genetic Variation in Dopamine Pathways Differentially Associated with Smoking Progression in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Becker, Katja; Frank, Josef; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Treutlein, Jens; Skowronek, Markus H.; Schumann, Gunter

    2008-01-01

    A study examines whether genetic variation in dopamine pathways differentially associate with smoking progression in adolescence. Results indicate the influence of specific dopamine genes in different stages of smoking progression in adolescents.

  17. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; LaPrelle, J; Brown, J D; Koch, G G; Padgett, C A

    1991-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports findings from a field experiment that evaluated mass media campaigns designed to prevent cigarette smoking by adolescents. METHODS: The campaigns featured radio and television messages on expected consequences of smoking and a component to stimulate personal encouragement of peers not to smoke. Six Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the Southeast United States received campaigns and four served as controls. Adolescents and mothers provided pretest and posttest data in their homes. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The radio campaign had a modest influence on the expected consequences of smoking and friend approval of smoking, the more expensive campaigns involving television were not more effective than those with radio alone, the peer-involvement component was not effective, and any potential smoking effects could not be detected. PMID:2014859

  18. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  19. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  20. Approach to adolescent suicide prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kostenuik, Marcia; Ratnapalan, Mohana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an approach to suicide prevention in youth. SOURCES OF INFORMATION A literature review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and evaluation studies or program evaluation, adolescent. MAIN MESSAGE Youth suicide might be prevented by earlier recognition and treatment of mental illness. Family physicians can and should screen for mental illness in youth; there are many diagnostic and treatment resources available to assist with this. CONCLUSION Earlier detection and treatment of mental illness are the most important ways family physicians can reduce morbidity and mortality for youth who are contemplating suicide. PMID:20705879

  1. Does a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program reduce smoking intentions among Aboriginal children? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    McKennitt, Daniel W; Currie, Cheryl L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. A grade 4 classroom in the second school received a standard smoking prevention program delivered in this jurisdiction. Children in each classroom were tested pre- and post-intervention to measure attitude changes about smoking. There was a significant reduction in intentions to smoke among Aboriginal children who received the culturally sensitive smoking prevention program. The small overall sample size precluded a direct comparison of the efficacy of the culturally sensitive and standard programs. The present findings suggest a smoking prevention program that has been culturally adapted for Aboriginal children may reduce future smoking intentions among Aboriginal grade 4 students. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which school smoking prevention programs adapted to respect the long-standing use of tobacco in Aboriginal cultural traditions may be more effective than standard programs in reaching Aboriginal youth.

  2. Are smoking and passive smoking related with heart rate variability in male adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Gondim, Renata Melo; Farah, Breno Quintella; Santos, Carolina da Franca Bandeira Ferreira; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relation between smoking and passive smoking with heart rate variability parameters in male adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 1,152 males, aged 14 and 19 years. Data related to smoking and passive smoking were collected using a questionnaire. RR intervals were obtained by a heart rate monitor, on supine position, for 10 minutes. After collecting the RR intervals, time (standard deviation of all RR intervals, root mean square of the squared differences between adjacent normal RR intervals and the percentage of adjacent intervals over 50ms) and frequency domains (low and high frequency and sympathovagal balance) parameters of heart rate variability were obtained. Results No significant differences between smoker and nonsmoker adolescents were observed in heart rate variability parameters (p>0.05). Similarly, heart rate variability parameters did not show significant difference between exposed and not exposed to passive smoking (p>0.05). Conclusion Cigarette smoking and passive smoking are not related to heart rate variability in adolescence. PMID:25993065

  3. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A; Berk, Michael

    2013-01-01

    significant health burden imposed by anxiety disorders, this study supports the importance of smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting children and adolescence.

  4. Preventing Adolescent Relapse: Concepts, Theories and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Shitala P.; Ressler, Robert A.

    This chapter discusses adolescent drug abuse relapse prevention. It presents the following four conclusions regarding the efficacy of prevention programs. First, more controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of relapse prevention strategies with adolescents in reducing factors such as cravings and increasing their…

  5. How does electronic cigarette access affect adolescent smoking?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Abigail S

    2015-12-01

    Understanding electronic cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning electronic cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period.

  6. Up in Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on adolescent smoking and nicotine addiction. Finds, for example, that smoking is linked to depression. Describes five stages of nicotine addiction. Offers tips for prevention. (Contains 12 references.) (PKP)

  7. Patient rights and law: tobacco smoking in psychiatric wards and the Israeli Prevention of Smoking Act.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Ilya; Kigli-Shemesh, Ronit; Tabak, Nili; Abramowitz, Moshe Z; Margolin, Jacob

    2004-09-01

    In August 2001, the Israeli Ministry of Health issued its Limitation of Smoking in Public Places Order, categorically forbidding smoking in hospitals. This forced the mental health system to cope with the issue of smoking inside psychiatric hospitals. The main problem was smoking by compulsorily hospitalized psychiatric patients in closed wards. An attempt by a psychiatric hospital to implement the tobacco smoking restraint instruction by banning the sale of cigarettes inside the hospital led to the development of a black market and cases of patient exploitation in return for cigarettes. This article surveys the literature dealing with smoking among psychiatric patients, the role of smoking in patients and the moral dilemmas of taking steps to prevent smoking in psychiatric hospitals. It addresses the need for public discussion on professional caregivers' dilemmas between their commitment to uphold the law and their duty to act as advocates for their patients' rights and welfare.

  8. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  9. A theoretical model for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

    PubMed

    McGahee, T W; Kemp, V; Tingen, M

    2000-01-01

    The age of the onset of smoking is on a continual decline, with the prime age of tobacco use initiation being 12-14 years. A weakness of the limited research conducted on smoking prevention programs designed for preteen children (ages 10-12) is a well-defined theoretical basis. A theoretical perspective is needed in order to make a meaningful transition from empirical analysis to application of knowledge. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (1977, 1986), the Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), and other literature linking various concepts to smoking behaviors in preteens were used to develop a model that may be useful for smoking prevention studies in preteen children.

  10. Bullying and Smoking: Examining the Relationships in Ontario Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Erin B.; Zhang, Bo; Bondy, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto), the relationships between bullying and smoking in adolescents were examined. A representative sample of 3314 grade 7-12 students was included in the analysis. Models were adjusted for confounders identified in the current literature.…

  11. Associations between Smoking and Extreme Dieting among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Jiang, Nan

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between cigarette smoking and dieting behaviors and trends in that association among US adolescents in grades 9-12 between 1999 and 2007. Youth Risk Behavior Survey datasets were analyzed using the multivariable logistic regression method. The sample size of each survey year ranged from 13,554 to 15,273 with…

  12. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  13. An Ecological System Approach to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine the effect of factors related to school, leisure, family and the individual on adolescent smoking. These determining factors occupy the micro- and mesosystems of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory. Data were collected using questionnaires from a nationally representative sample of…

  14. Adolescents' View on Smoking, Quitting and Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijk, Froukje; de Nooijer, Jascha; Heinrich, Evelien; de Vries, Hein

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore the beliefs of 15-17 year-old Dutch adolescents about starting or quitting smoking and to explore their preferences regarding education concerning this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows that a total of 12 group interviews were held with 101 students in the highest classes in secondary…

  15. Changing Correlates of Cigarette Smoking from Adolescence to Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    This study examined whether and at what time point various interpersonal and intrapersonal correlates of smoking shifted over four assessment points in a longitudinal study of 461 individuals. The study began when the subjects, who had been participating in a study of adolescent and young adult development were in junior high school. Four…

  16. Factors Influencing Openness to Future Smoking among Nonsmoking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Weaver, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the correlates of youth tobacco use in terms of nonsmoking adolescents' openness to future smoking, a secondary analysis of the 2000 and 2004 Indiana Youth Tobacco Survey (IYTS) was conducted. Methods: A representative sample of 1416 public high school students in grades 9-12 and 1516 public middle school students in…

  17. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  18. Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from the ELM were conducted in classroom settings among a diverse sample of non-smoking middle school students in three states (n = 1771). Students categorized as likely to have higher involvement in a decision to initiate cigarette smoking reported relatively high ratings on a cognitive processing indicator for messages focused on factual arguments about negative consequences of smoking than for messages with fewer or no direct arguments. Message appeal ratings did not show greater preference for this message type among higher involved versus lower involved students. Ratings from students reporting lower academic achievement suggested difficulty processing factual information presented in these messages. The ELM may provide a useful strategy for reaching adolescents at risk for smoking initiation, but particular attention should be focused on lower academic achievers to ensure that messages are appropriate for them. This approach should be explored further before similar strategies could be recommended for large-scale implementation. PMID:21885672

  19. Effects of parents' education and occupation on adolescent smoking and the mediating role of smoking-specific parenting and parent smoking.

    PubMed

    Ringlever, Linda; Otten, Roy; de Leeuw, Rebecca N H; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the independent effects of parents' educational attainment and occupational status on adolescent smoking and mediation of smoking-specific communication and parents' smoking behaviours on this link. Data were collected in a multi-informant, full-family design in two sampling waves separated by 3 years (n = 358). Education, occupational status, communication, and smoking were assessed via parent and child report. Different effects were found for the indicators of father and mother's socioeconomic status (education and occupation) for three study outcomes (adolescent lifetime smoking, smoking onset, and smoking continuation). Bootstrapping procedures revealed no mediation in any of the socioeconomic status adolescent smoking associations. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  20. School-based smoking prevention programs with the promise of long-term effects

    PubMed Central

    Flay, Brian R

    2009-01-01

    I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be. PMID:19323826

  1. Ibuprofen prevents synthetic smoke-induced pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Shinozawa, Y.; Hales, C.; Jung, W.; Burke, J.

    1986-12-01

    Multiple potentially injurious agents are present in smoke but the importance of each of these agents in producing lung injury as well as the mechanisms by which the lung injury is produced are unknown. In order to study smoke inhalation injury, we developed a synthetic smoke composed of a carrier of hot carbon particles of known size to which a single known common toxic agent in smoke, in this case HCI, could be added. We then exposed rats to the smoke, assayed their blood for the metabolites of thromboxane and prostacyclin, and intervened shortly after smoke with the cyclooxygenase inhibitors indomethacin or ibuprofen to see if the resulting lung injury could be prevented. Smoke exposure produced mild pulmonary edema after 6 h with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 5.6 +/- 0.2 SEM (n = 11) compared with the non-smoke-exposed control animals with a wet-to-dry weight ratio of 4.3 +/- 0.2 (n = 12), p less than 0.001. Thromboxane B, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha rose to 1660 +/- 250 pg/ml (p less than 0.01) and to 600 +/- 100 pg/ml (p greater than 0.1), respectively, in the smoke-injured animals compared with 770 +/- 150 pg/ml and 400 +/- 100 pg/ml in the non-smoke-exposed control animals. Indomethacin (n = 11) blocked the increase in both thromboxane and prostacyclin metabolites but failed to prevent lung edema.

  2. Prevention of Disordered Eating among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey-Stokes, Marilyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses unhealthy dieting behaviors that can lead to eating disorders during adolescence. Outlines ways middle school and high school teachers and administrators can aid in the prevention of disordered eating among adolescents. Lists resources for eating disorders awareness and prevention. (SR)

  3. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  4. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  5. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  6. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents: trends and intervention results.

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Senechal, V A

    1986-01-01

    Data from a 2-year study describe tobacco use trends, perceptions, and prevention effects for 1,281 5th and 6th graders enrolled in 12 randomly selected Washington State elementary schools. Youths were pretested, then randomly divided by school into skills, discussion, and control groups. Preventive intervention curriculums for the skills and discussion groups included age-relevant information on smoked and smokeless tobacco use, peer testimonials, debates, games, and homework. Youths in the skills group also learned communication and problem-solving methods for handling difficult situations around tobacco use. Following intervention, youths were posttested, then retested semiannually for 2 years. During the 2-year study, three-quarters of all smokers and nonusers and half of all smokeless tobacco users maintained their statuses. Only 10 percent of all smokers and 3 percent of all smokeless users quit their habits. One in six reported new tobacco use, one-third of smokers began using smokeless tobacco, and two-thirds of all smokeless users began smoking during the study. Most youths at final measurement perceived smokeless tobacco as less of a health risk than smoking. Nearly one in two of all smokeless users intended to smoke, and two-thirds were actually smoking at 24-month followup. Both smoked and smokeless tobacco use rates increased in all groups, and youths in the skills intervention group consistently showed the lowest rates relative to the other groups. These findings demonstrate the potential of skills intervention methods for lowering tobacco use rates among adolescents. PMID:3090603

  7. Addiction as a Systems Failure: Focus on Adolescence and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baler, Ruben D.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Scientific advances in the field of addiction have forever debunked the notion that addiction reflects a character flaw under voluntary control, demonstrating instead that it is a bona fide disease of the brain. The aim of this review is to go beyond this consensus understanding and explore the most current evidence regarding the vast number of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors whose complex interactions modulate addiction risk and trajectory. Method Focusing on childhood and adolescent smoking as a paradigm, we review the important risk factors for the development of addictions, starting at the level of genetics and closing with a focus on sociocultural and policy factors. Results A critical review of the pertinent literature provides a detailed view of the cumulative power of risk and protection factors across different phenomenological levels to modulate the risk of undesirable outcomes, particularly for young people. The result represents a compelling argument for the need to engage in comprehensive, multilevel approaches to promoting health. Conclusions Today, the field of medicine understands more about disease than about health; however it need not be that way. The view of drug addiction as a systems failure should help refocus our general approach to developing dynamic models and early comprehensive interventions that optimize the ways in which we prevent and treat a complex, developmental disorder such as drug addiction. PMID:21421173

  8. Does a Culturally Sensitive Smoking Prevention Program Reduce Smoking Intentions among Aboriginal Children? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKennitt, Daniel W.; Currie, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if a culturally sensitive smoking prevention program would have short-term impacts on smoking intentions among Aboriginal children. Two schools with high Aboriginal enrollment were selected for the study. A grade 4 classroom in one school was randomly assigned to receive the culturally sensitive smoking…

  9. Cultural and social influences on adolescent smoking dissipate by emerging adulthood among Hispanics in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for smoking among Hispanic adolescents and determine whether these factors continued to influence smoking into emerging adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from 932 Hispanics in the greater Los Angeles area who were surveyed in high school in 2007 and then again in emerging adulthood from 2010 to 2012. Logistic regression assessed the associations between predictors in adolescence and smoking in adolescence while an order one transition logistic model assessed predictors in adolescence and smoking in emerging adulthood. Results Adult and sibling smoking status, perceptions of smoking, perceived discrimination, and fatalism all influenced smoking in adolescence but not in emerging adulthood. Discussion Once Hispanics reach emerging adulthood different tactics to reduce smoking will be needed and are where future research should be directed. PMID:24057805

  10. Adolescent and young adult tobacco prevention and cessation: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, C; Fagan, P; Matthews, E; Grana, R

    2003-01-01

    Data sources:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two major reviews that span January 1978 to May 2002. PubMed, PsychInfo, and SCCI were searched for young adults from January 1990 to May 2002. Study selection:Data included smoking prevention studies published from January 1990 to May 2002 and conducted in the USA; all identified smoking cessation studies for adolescents. Young adult data were limited to initiation and cessation studies. Data extraction:Extraction of data was by consensus of the authors. Data synthesis:Results of the review are qualitative in nature using a consensus approach of the authors. Conclusions:School based curricula alone have been generally ineffective in the long term in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use but are effective when combined with other approaches such as media and smoke-free policies. Prevention research should consider multiple approaches and the social conditions that influence the development of youth problem behaviours including tobacco use. Because youth smoking cessation has been understudied to date, scientifically rigorous adolescent smoking cessation studies need to be conducted with attention to high risk smokers and less than daily smokers. Tobacco prevention and cessation for young adults needs focused attention. Prevention and cessation programmes need to address other tobacco products in addition to cigarettes. PMID:14645940

  11. Pulmonary effects of active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among adolescent students in Juárez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Yelena; Staines-Orozco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    lesser extent, exposure to SHS in adolescence leads to increased respiratory symptoms and reduction of pulmonary function test values. Public health initiatives that aim to prevent smoking initiation, assist in cessation, and lessen SHS exposure of adolescents need to be school-based and employed as early as middle school. PMID:27418819

  12. Depressive Mood, the Single-Parent Home, and Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covey, Lirio S.; Tam, Debbie

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between depressive mood and cigarette smoking among a sample of 123 adolescent males and 82 adolescent females. Finds an independent relation of depressive mood, friends' smoking behavior, and living in a single-parent home. Concludes that depressive mood and stress may contribute to the onset of smoking. (FMW)

  13. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  14. Associations between depression risk, bullying and current smoking among Chinese adolescents: Modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Hong, Lingyao; Gao, Xue; Zhou, Jinhua; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2016-03-30

    This school-based study aimed to investigate the prevalence of being at risk for depression, bullying behavior, and current smoking among Chinese adolescents in order to explore gender differences in the vulnerability of adolescents with these behaviors to develop a smoking habit. A total of 35,893 high school students sampled from high schools in eighteen cities in China participated in the study from 2011 to 2012. Overall, the prevalence of current smoking was estimated at 6.4%. In total, 1.7% (618) of the participants admitted to bullying others, 5.8% (2071) reported being bullied, 3.5% (1269) were involved in both bullying others and being bullied, and 5.6% (2017) were at high risk for depression. Logistic regression analysis indicated that among girls, with high depression risk, bullying others, being bullied, and both bullying others and being bullied were independently and positively associated with current smoking habits, while the final results among boys showed that bullying others and both bullying others and being bullied were independently associated with an increased risk of current smoking. School-based prevention programs are highly recommended, and we should focus on high-risk students, particularly girls with high risk of depression or involved in school bullying and boys who are involved in school bullying.

  15. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  16. Adolescent Cigarette Smoking as Compensatory Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.

    The extent to which smokers as compared to non-smokers recognize their failure to achieve was studied. The subjects were 80 ninth grade pupils, half of whom smoked. A nine point self-anchoring Expectation scale was developed to determine how closely the subjects came to meeting the perceived expectations of their parents, their school, their…

  17. Parental influence on adolescent smoking cessation: is there a gender difference?

    PubMed

    Kong, Grace; Camenga, Deepa; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2012-02-01

    We examined the association of parental disapproval of adolescent smoking and parental smoking status, with past smoking quit behaviors among daily-smoking, high school-aged adolescents, and also tested whether these associations differ for boys and girls. Adolescent regular smokers (N=253) completed questions on smoking behaviors, past smoking cessation behaviors, parental disapproval of smoking, and parental smoking. Past smoking cessation behaviors were defined as "the number of quit attempts that lasted longer than 24 hours" and "the longest number of days of abstinence". Logistic regression analyses showed that for all adolescents, even having one smoking parent was associated with decreased odds of being abstinent for longer than 2 days. However, for girls, not having any smoking parents was associated with greater duration of abstinence (>2 weeks). Having both parents, compared with not having any parents disapprove of smoking, was associated with greater number of quit attempts in boys, but this effect was not found in girls. The results indicate that parents have a salient role in adolescent smoking cessation behaviors, and this association appears to be gender-specific. However, further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that explain gender differences in parental influence on adolescent smoking cessation behaviors.

  18. Decomposing racial differences in adolescent smoking in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Amin, Vikesh; Lhila, Aparna

    2016-09-01

    Despite declining smoking rates in the U.S., a substantial fraction of adolescents still smoke. In addition, there are notable racial differences in adolescent smoking. We use Add Health data and apply a nonlinear decomposition method to determine the extent to which racial differences in observable characteristics account for (i) the racial smoking gaps in adolescent smoking (ages 12-18) and (ii) racial gaps in the probability of becoming a smoker in young adulthood (ages 18-24), conditional on being a non-smoker in adolescence. The model includes a host of explanatory factors, including individual, family socioeconomics, smoke exposure, school characteristics, and county crime rate. Of the 19 (9) percentage-point gap in white-black (white-Hispanic) smoking in adolescence, these factors together account for 22-28% (39-77%) of the smoking gap; and of the 18 (13) percentage-point gap in white-black (white-Hispanic) smoking up-take in young adulthood, these factors together account for 26-50% (48-100%) of the gap, depending on which set of coefficients are used for the decomposition. The biggest drivers of racial smoking gaps in adolescence are differences in friends' smoking and school peer smoking, while only school peer smoking contributes to the explained portion of racial gaps in smoking up-take in young adulthood.

  19. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.

  20. Adolescent smoking behavior in Japan, 1996.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Minowa, Masumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Wada, Kiyoshi

    2003-12-01

    We conducted second nationwide survey on smoking behavior among Japanese high school students. The survey was a cross-sectional sampling survey. The survey's targets were junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. Sample schools were selected by stratified cluster sampling. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were sent to sample schools for all students to fill out. 65.6% of the junior high schools and 67.0% of the senior high schools were responded to this survey. A total of 117,325 students responded and 115,814 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. 7.5% of boys and 3.8% of girls in the 1st grade of junior high school were classified as current smokers, compared with 36.9% of boys and 15.6% of girls in 3rd grade of senior high school. Less than 1% of boys and girls in the 1st grade of junior high school were classified as daily smokers, this figure increased markedly by the 3rd grade of senior high school to reach 25.4% of boys and 7.1% of girls. Of students in the 3rd grade of senior high school, 21.2% of boys and 9.9% of girls had tried smoking before 13 year of age. Cigarette consumption also increased with age, although the proportion of those smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day did not. The major source for cigarettes among current smokers was vending machines. This survey revealed that smoking prevalence among Japanese high school students has already reached quite high level. Comprehensive energetic measures for control minor smoking are necessary in Japan.

  1. Stop inhaling smoke: prevent coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Kaye H

    2003-02-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was rare a century ago and was diagnosed in few living patients prior to 1925. By 1950, it was the most common heart problem seen by clinicians. Thought at first to have been overlooked, there were many explanations offered for its neglect. Smoking, hypertension, and elevated cholesterol are associated with AMI, but of these only smoking should be considered a cause. Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia may be co-effects, perhaps of inflammation stimulated in the lung and blood vessels by smoking and air pollution, thus affecting vessels and arteries subjected to systemic blood pressure. Air pollution--the 20th century's other "big smoke"--deserves consideration as a 2nd cause. Auto exhaust blankets the world's cities. It consists of smoke and other effluents of petroleum vaporization and combustion that emanate from the crankcases and exhaust pipes of trucks and automobiles. The major living spaces (conurbations) of the world now imitate and exceed Los Angeles in their levels of air pollution. Auto exhaust gases fit the timeline, and their increasing amounts parallel the worldwide rise in coronary heart disease. Increasing doses of these chemicals imitate cigarette smoke and stimulate inflammation in the lungs. They appear to be absorbed into the blood, where they cause inflammation in blood vessels, increased blood pressure, and clogged coronary arteries. Avoidance is the obvious solution. Quit inhaling cigarette smoke and motor vehicle exhaust. The benefits have been shown and can be proved by intervention. The quest for clean air is hygienic-like avoiding water contaminated with feces was 150 yr ago. Clear air must be made a moral right. Its attainment requires a major revolution in priorities for energy use and lifestyle. Two types of smoke must be avoided. The world's most lethal disease.

  2. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  3. Weight gain prevention and smoking cessation: cautionary findings.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S M; Tunstall, C D; Vila, K L; Duffy, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Weight gain is a consistent sequela of smoking cessation. A successful intervention might attract smokers who fear weight gain. If the gain causes smoking relapse, such an intervention might reduce smoking relapse risk. METHODS. Using a sample of 158 smokers who completed a 2-week smoking treatment program, we compared an innovative weight gain prevention intervention with both a nonspecific treatment and standard treatment. Subjects were assessed on weight and smoking behavior and followed for 1 year. RESULTS. A disturbing, unexpected finding was that subjects in both the innovative and nonspecific conditions had a higher risk of smoking relapse than did standard treatment subjects. Some differences were observed between abstinent and smoking subjects in weight gain by treatment condition. CONCLUSIONS. Both active interventions may have been so complicated that they detracted from nonsmoking. Also, caloric restriction may increase the reinforcing value of nicotine, a psychoactive drug, thereby increasing smoking relapse risk. The magnitude of weight gain after smoking cessation may not merit interventions that increase smoking risk. Perhaps attitudinal modifications are the most appropriate. PMID:1585959

  4. The Effectiveness of Policy and Health Education Strategies for Reducing Adolescent Smoking: A Review of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Marc C.; de Zwart, Wil M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews international literature to identify the most effective measures to prevent smoking among adolescents. Concludes that isolated measures produce little effect. Most effect may be expected from a combination of a complete ban on tobacco advertising, increasing prices, restricting tobacco product sales to tobacconists, mass media education…

  5. Prevention of Depression in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Tandon, S Darius

    2016-04-01

    This article discusses strategies and programs used to prevent depression in children and adolescents. It describes the rationale for depression prevention and discusses prevention approaches in schools and other settings, highlighting examples of programs that have been empirically evaluated. Prevention effects are small but significant, comparable or greater in magnitude than adolescent prevention programs for other issues, including substance use and human immunodeficiency virus. Future research should include rigorous design features, including attention control groups, allocation concealment, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessments, and theory-driven tests of moderation and mediation, and should test larger-scale implementation of prevention programs.

  6. Association between Peer Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarette Smoking among Adolescent Nonsmokers: A National Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the association between electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and peer cigarette smoking, a major risk factor for the initiation of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Data from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 65,753 nonsmokers aged 13–18 years were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. A total of 3.8% of the Korean adolescents were ‘ever e-cigarette’ users and 1.2% were current users. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for current and ever e-cigarette use compared to those whose closest friends were non-smokers ranged from 2.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82–2.30) to 5.50 (95% CI, 4.77–6.34), and from 2.23 (95% CI, 1.77–2.81) to 7.82 (95% CI, 5.97–10.25) for those who had ‘some’ close friends to ‘most/all’ friends who smoked, respectively. The slopes of the adjusted ORs for e-cigarette use in ‘never smokers’ were more than twice as steep as those in ‘former smokers’, showing a significant interaction effect between the proportion of smoking closest friends and cigarette smoking status (never or former smokers) (p<0.001 for interaction). Peer cigarette smoking had a significant association with e-cigarette use in adolescent nonsmokers, and this association was greater on never smokers than former smokers. PMID:27695093

  7. Smoking in young adolescents: an approach with multilevel discrete choice models

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, J; Gonzalez, B; Barber, P; Santana, Y

    2002-01-01

    . Therefore we can prevent or delay tobacco smoking in adolescents not only by publicising health risks, but also by better enforcing no smoking rules in schools. PMID:11854347

  8. The Role of Family Factors and School Achievement in the Progression of Adolescents to Regular Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennanen, M.; Vartiainen, E.; Haukkala, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and…

  9. Adolescents' leisure activities, parental monitoring and cigarette smoking - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescent participation in leisure activities is developmentally beneficial, but certain activities may increase health compromising behaviours, such as tobacco smoking. A limited range of leisure activities has been studied, with little research on out-of-school settings where parental supervision is a potential protective factor. Tobacco smoking is an important, potentially modifiable health determinant, so understanding associations between adolescent leisure activities, parental monitoring, demographic factors and daily smoking may inform preventive strategies. These associations are reported for a New Zealand adolescent sample. Methods Randomly selected schools (n = 145) participated in the 2006 Youth In-depth Survey, a national, biennial study of Year 10 students (predominantly 14-15 years). School classes were randomly selected and students completed a self-report questionnaire in class time. Adjustment for clustering at the school level was included in all analyses. Since parental monitoring and demographic variables potentially confound relations between adolescent leisure activities and smoking, variables were screened before multivariable modelling. Given prior indications of demographic differences, gender and ethnic specific regression models were built. Results and Discussion Overall, 8.5% of the 3,161 students were daily smokers, including more females (10.5%) than males (6.5%). In gender and ethnic specific multivariate analysis of associations with daily smoking (adjusted for age, school socioeconomic decile rating, leisure activities and ethnicity or gender, respectively), parental monitoring exhibited a consistently protective, dose response effect, although less strongly among Māori. Attending a place of worship and going to the movies were protective for non-Māori, as was watching sports, whereas playing team sport was protective for all, except males. Attending a skate park was a risk factor for females and Māori which

  10. Preventing HIV/AIDS in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of School Health, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Examines issues in preventing further Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among adolescents, highlighting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, substance use, adolescent development, cultural and language diversity, health and social service needs, socioeconomic contexts, and role of media, school, and youth-serving organizations.…

  11. The role of family factors and school achievement in the progression of adolescents to regular smoking.

    PubMed

    Pennanen, M; Vartiainen, E; Haukkala, A

    2012-02-01

    This study examines whether parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' school achievement and anti-smoking parental practices as well as how these factors predicted later smoking. The sample comprised 1163 Finnish students in Grades 7 through 9. Results show that at the beginning of the seventh grade, parental smoking and single parenting were related to adolescents' lower levels of school achievement. Moreover, parental smoking had moderate association with lack of house smoking rules. At the beginning of the ninth grade, these associations were strengthened and lack of house smoking rules as well as loosened perceived parental punishment for smoking was related to both parental smoking and single parenting. The likelihood of ninth grade regular smoking was greater among adolescents whose parents smoked, who had no smoking rules in their homes and had substandard school achievement. These results suggest that smoking parents and single parents had similar anti-smoking regulations for their children at the baseline but once children became older smoking parents were not able to maintain these rules as successfully as non-smoking parents and families with two parents. Motivating parents to uphold these anti-smoking regulations offers a prospective intervention opportunity.

  12. Preventing adolescent pregnancy and associated risks.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R.

    1995-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a complex and frustrating problem that exacts a large social and personal cost. This year approximately 40,000 Canadian teenagers will become pregnant. With proper prevention, this number could be reduced. Pregnant teenagers seem to be at increased risk for some obstetric complications and their children for some neonatal complications. Family physicians who see patients over the course of a lifetime are in a good position to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the associated complications. PMID:8520241

  13. High-school smoking prevention: results of a three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Collins, L M; Graham, J W

    1986-10-01

    This study compared two strategies for preventing cigarette smoking among high-school students. One strategy emphasized social-pressure resistance skills, while the other focused on education about health concerns which are relevant to high-school students. Additionally, the use of same-age peer leaders and the use of familiar models in media presentations were investigated. The results suggest that social-influences resistance training was efficacious in reducing transitions to higher use by those who had previously experimented with cigarettes. Health education was most effective in preventing initial experimentation among those who had not smoked prior to the beginning of the study. Neither program was effective in limiting transitions among those who had gone beyond the experimental stage of smoking, and neither had any effect on encouraging cessation. There were no differences which could be attributed to peer leaders or to familiar media models. During later adolescence, a combined health education and social skills training approach is advocated. It is suggested that while there are some gains by implementing programs during late adolescence, prevention programs targeted at younger students may be more effective generally.

  14. [Vaping: a new strategy to prevent smoking-related diseases?].

    PubMed

    Polosa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    By quitting, smokers of all ages can gain substantial health benefits. No other single effort of public health is able to achieve an advantage comparable to smoking cessation on a large scale. However, conventional approaches to smoking cessation require tobacco users to completely abstain, and many smokers are unable - or have not the willingness - to achieve this goal, and then continue to smoke despite the looming negative consequences for health. But it is possible to consider another option: the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking (tobacco harm reduction) through the intake of nicotine from alternative sources safer than tobacco smoke, such as the electronic cigarette (e-cig). It is a promising product for the reduction of harm caused by tobacco smoking. In addition to providing nicotine through the vapour without the typical toxic and carcinogenic substances derived from combustion, the e-cig is also a good substitute for the rituals associated with the behaviour of the smoker. In this article, the author suggests that the wide dissemination of vaping behaviour can become a successful strategy to reduce smoking and preventing smoking-related diseases, advancing on how to succeed with this matter.

  15. Developmental Approach to Prevent Adolescent Suicides

    PubMed Central

    Wyman, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 National Strategy for Suicide Prevention expands the current suicide prevention paradigm by including a strategic direction aimed at promoting healthy populations. Childhood and adolescence are key suicide prevention window periods, yet knowledge of suicide prevention pathways through universal interventions is limited (Aspirational Goal 11). Epidemiologic evidence suggests that prevention programs in normative social systems such as schools are needed for broad suicide prevention impact. Prevention trial results show that current universal prevention programs for children and young adolescents are effective in reducing adolescent emotional and behavioral problems that are risk factors for suicidal behavior, and in the case of the Good Behavior Game, suicide attempts. A developmentally sequenced upstream suicide prevention approach is proposed: (a) childhood programs to strengthen a broad set of self-regulation skills through family and school-based programs, followed by (b) adolescent programs that leverage social influences to prevent emerging risk behaviors such as substance abuse and strengthen relationships and skills. Key knowledge breakthroughs needed are evidence linking specific intervention strategies to reduced suicidal behaviors and mortality and their mechanisms of action. Short- and long-term objectives to achieve these breakthroughs include combining evidence from completed prevention trials, increasing motivators for prevention researchers to assess suicide-related outcome, and conducting new trials of upstream interventions in populations using efficient designs acceptable to communities. In conclusion, effective upstream prevention programs have been identified that modify risk and protective factors for adolescent suicide, and key knowledge breakthroughs can jump-start progress in realizing the suicide prevention potential of specific strategies. PMID:25145747

  16. Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, J.; Sargent, J.; Dalton, M.; Beach, M.; Heatherton, T.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the relation between adolescents' favourite movie stars, the portrayal of tobacco use by those stars in contemporary motion pictures, and adolescent smoking.
DESIGN AND SETTING—632 students (sixth to 12th grade, ages 10-19 years) from five rural New England public schools completed a voluntary, self administered survey in October 1996. The survey assessed tobacco use, other variables associated with adolescent smoking, and favourite movie star. In addition, tobacco use by 43 selected movie stars was measured in films between 1994 and 1996.
OUTCOME MEASURES—Students were categorised into an ordinal five point index (tobacco status) based on their smoking behaviour and their smoking susceptibility: non-susceptible never smokers, susceptible never smokers, non-current experimenters, current experimenters, and smokers. We determined the adjusted cumulative odds of having advanced smoking status based on the amount of on-screen tobacco use by their favourite film star.
RESULTS—Of the 43 stars, 65% used tobacco at least once, and 42% portrayed smoking as an essential character trait in one or more films. Stars who smoked more than twice in a film were considered smokers. For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in only one film, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 0.78 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.15). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in two films, the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 1.5 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.32). For adolescents whose favourite stars smoked in three or more films (Leonardo DiCaprio, Sharon Stone, John Travolta), the odds of being higher on the smoking index was 3.1 (95% CI 1.34 to 7.12). Among never smokers (n = 281), those who chose stars who were smokers in three or more films were much more likely to have favourable attitudes toward smoking (adjusted odds ratio 16.2, 95% CI 2.3 to 112).
CONCLUSIONS—Adolescents who choose movie stars who use tobacco

  17. TABADO: "Evaluation of a smoking cessation program among Adolescents in Vocational Training Centers": Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Most of the efforts to reduce teenagers' tobacco addiction have focused on smoking prevention and little on smoking cessation. A smoking cessation program (TABADO study), associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy, on a particularly vulnerable population (vocational trainees), was developed. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of the program which was offered to all smokers in a population aged 15 to 20 years in Vocational Training Centers (VTC). This paper presents the TABADO study protocol. Methods The study is quasi-experimental, prospective, evaluative and comparative and takes place during the 2 years of vocational training. The final population will be composed of 2000 trainees entering a VTC in Lorraine, France, during the 2008-2009 period. The intervention group (1000 trainees) benefited from the TABADO program while no specific intervention took place in the "control" group (1000 trainees) other than the treatment and education services usually available. Our primary outcome will be the tobacco abstinence rate at 12 months. Discussion If the program proves effective, it will be a new tool in the action against smoking in populations that have been seldom targeted until now. In addition, the approach could be expanded to other young subjects from socially disadvantaged backgrounds in the context of a public health policy against smoking among adolescents. Trial registration Clinical trial identification number is NTC00973570. PMID:19912627

  18. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  19. Preventing Adolescent Pregnancy: A Youth Development Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse on Families and Youth, Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet presents the youth development approach to supporting adolescents in dealing with all the issues they face, including preventing unintended pregnancies. The Department of Health and Human Services promotes five principles that research and experience suggest are key to community efforts to prevent teen pregnancy: (1) parental and…

  20. Ecodevelopmental HIV Prevention Programs for Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pantin, Hilda; Schwartz, Seth J.; Sullivan, Summer; Prado, Guillermo; Szapocznik, José

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how an ecodevelopmental perspective on risk and protection can be applied to the study and prevention of unsafe sexual behavior in Hispanic immigrant adolescents. Special attention is given to culturally based ecodevelopmental risk and protective processes that may influence unsafe sexual behavior among Hispanic adolescents. Principles for designing prevention programs to offset these risks are offered on the basis of an ecodevelopmental HIV prevention program that has been developed and is currently being tested. PMID:15554814

  1. Influence of Motion Picture Rating on Adolescent Response to Movie Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking exposure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category. METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinal survey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at 8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months. MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A survival model evaluated time to smoking onset. RESULTS: Median MSE in PG-13–rated movies was ∼3 times higher than median MSE from R-rated movies, but their relation with smoking was essentially the same, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23–1.81) and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.23–1.81) for each additional 500 occurrences of MSE respectively. MSE from G/PG-rated movies was small and had no significant relationship with adolescent smoking. Attributable risk estimates showed that adolescent smoking would be reduced by 18% (95% CI: 14–21) if smoking in PG-13–rated movies was reduced to the fifth percentile. In comparison, making all parents maximally authoritative in their parenting would reduce adolescent smoking by 16% (95% CI: 12–19). CONCLUSIONS: The equivalent effect of PG-13-rated and R-rated MSE suggests it is the movie smoking that prompts adolescents to smoke, not other characteristics of R-rated movies or adolescents drawn to them. An R rating for movie smoking could substantially reduce adolescent smoking by eliminating smoking from PG-13 movies. PMID:22778305

  2. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    PubMed Central

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  3. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Influences on Their Smoking Behavior: A Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggi, Stefania; Lovato, Chris Y.; Hill, Erin M.; Johnson, Joy L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Shoveller, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe adolescents' perceptions of parental influences on their smoking behavior. Thirty-five adolescents, 14 to 18 years old, provided narrative accounts of their smoking histories in semistructured interviews. Most of the participants recognized that their parents played an important role in shaping their…

  4. The Influence of Tobacco Marketing on Adolescent Smoking Intentions via Normative Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123…

  5. A Comparison of Successful Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Mary G.; Pope, Mark

    2000-01-01

    This review of counseling literature analyzes the motivating and impeding factors for adults and adolescents regarding smoking cessation. Brief counseling increases adolescents' and adults' chances of success. Counselors can facilitate smoking cessation by increasing clients' motivation and teaching stress management. Counselors must be aware of…

  6. Adolescent brain maturation and smoking: what we know and where we're headed.

    PubMed

    Lydon, David M; Wilson, Stephen J; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F

    2014-09-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings.

  7. Smoking patterns among ninth-grade adolescents in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) and in eastern Finland.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Puska, Pekka

    2002-01-01

    This study describes how ninth-grade adolescents' smoking behavior in the Pitkäranta district (Russia) differs from their eastern Finland counterparts. Cross-sectional data from the second North Karelia Youth Study and the Pitkäranta Youth Study were used. Subjects were all (n=385) ninth-grade students in 10 comprehensive schools in Pitkäranta and all (n=2098) students of the same age in 24 comprehensive schools in eastern Finland. Students were asked about their smoking status, intentions to smoke, smoking situations, acquisition of tobacco products, and opportunity to smoke in the school area. The results showed very large differences in the smoking prevalence between Pitkäranta and eastern Finland. For boys, the prevalence of daily smoking was 29% and 19% in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively. The differences in girls were adverse: 7% and 21% of girls in Pitkäranta and eastern Finland, respectively, were daily smokers. However, as many as one third of the nonsmoking girls in Pitkäranta stated that they may experiment or start smoking later. Boys in Pitkäranta had vaguer attitudes about remaining nonsmokers than boys in eastern Finland. This situation anticipates worsening of the smoking epidemic in Pitkäranta and requires an effective prevention policy and cooperation between different groups in society.

  8. On social and cognitive influences: relating adolescent networks, generalized expectancies, and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths' friends smoking behavior and youths' own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths' friends and youths' own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends' generalized expectancies and youths' expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses.

  9. Adolescents' responses to anti-tobacco advertising: exploring the role of adolescents' smoking status and advertisement theme.

    PubMed

    Sutfin, Erin L; Szykman, Lisa R; Moore, Marian Chapman

    2008-01-01

    Anti-smoking media directed at adolescents use many different message themes, but little evidence exists as to which is most effective. Additionally, little is known about how teens who smoke respond to anti-tobacco ads. This study examined smoking and nonsmoking adolescents' responses to three popular thematic approaches: (1) endangering others, (2) negative life circumstances, and (3) industry manipulation. Sixteen groups of high school students (total N=488) were randomly assigned in a balanced fashion to one of three anti-tobacco ad conditions or a control condition. Outcome variables included adolescents' immediate emotional and cognitive responses, and intentions to smoke. Adolescents exposed to negative life circumstances ads reported lower intentions to smoke than those exposed to control and industry manipulation ads. Additionally, adolescents' responses differed based on smoking status. Smokers liked the ads less and had fewer positive and more negative thoughts. Findings suggest a media campaign focusing on negative life circumstances can be an effective component of a tobacco control program aimed at adolescents. Mechanisms through which the negative life circumstances ads influence adolescents' intentions to smoke are discussed. Findings also suggest that smokers respond differently to anti-tobacco ads, and their responses need to be considered when developing effective anti-tobacco advertising campaigns.

  10. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  11. Does film smoking promote youth smoking in middle-income countries?: A longitudinal study among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Huang, Liling; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Dorantes-Alonso, Ana; Pérez-Hernández, Rosaura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to smoking imagery in films predicts smoking onset among never-smoking Mexican adolescents. Methods The analytic sample was comprised of 11- to 14-year old secondary school students who reported never having tried smoking at baseline, 83% (1741/2093) of whom were successfully followed up after one year. Exposure to 42 popular films that contained smoking was assessed at baseline, whereas smoking behavior and risk factors were assessed at baseline and follow up. Logistic regression was used to estimate bivariate and adjusted relative risks of trying smoking and current smoking at follow up. Results At follow up, 36% reported having tried smoking and 8% reported having smoked in the previous month. Students who were successfully followed up were exposed to an average of 43.8 minutes of smoking in the films they reported viewing at baseline. Adjusted relative risks (ARRs) indicated that students in the two highest levels of exposure to film smoking were more than twice as likely to have smoked in the previous 30 days at follow up (ARR3v1=2.44, 95%CI 1.31, 4.55; ARR4v1=2.23, 95% CI 1.19, 4.17). The adjusted relative risk of having tried smoking by follow up reached statistical significance only when comparing the 3rd highest to the lowest exposure group (ARR3v1=1.54, 95%CI 1.01, 2.64). Having a parent or best friend who smoked at baseline were the only other variables that independently predicted both outcomes. Conclusions Exposure to movie smoking is a risk factor for smoking onset among Mexican youth. PMID:19959694

  12. Health risk behaviors in relation to making a smoking quit attempt among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Ana M; Lee, Christina S; MacPherson, Laura; Strong, David R; Borrelli, Belinda; Brown, Richard A

    2009-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine youth risk behaviors in relation to: (a) making a smoking quit attempt, and (b) successful cessation among adolescent smokers. Data were analyzed from the public use dataset of the 2003 national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The sample consisted of 2,033 students (weighted mean age of 16.3 years, 49.8% female, 73.6% White) who reported a history of daily smoking. While almost two-thirds (63.5%) of adolescent smokers reported making a quit attempt in the last year, only 10% of those were able to successfully quit. Factors associated with making a quit attempt included depression and participating in sports while high-risk sexual activity and engaging in substance use other than alcohol or marijuana were negatively related to making a quit attempt. Externalizing health behaviors (e.g., fighting, drug use, and high risk sexual activity) were associated with decreased likelihood of cessation. Findings from this study may inform efforts to develop more effective smoking prevention and treatment programs for youth.

  13. Correlates of sun safety practices in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents: Implications for skin cancer prevention interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B.; Tyc, Vida L.; Atkins, Michael B.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racial/ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of pediatric well-visits. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and non-white minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial/ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention and anti-smoking counseling. PMID:26269134

  14. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  15. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Balázs, Máté Á

    2012-03-01

    While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N=2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean=15.4 years, S.D.=1.8 years; 49,2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring.

  16. Parental smoking status, stress, anxiety, and depression are associated with susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking school adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kuang Hock; Chong, Zhuolin; Khoo, Yi Yi; Kaur, Jasvindar

    2014-09-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is a reliable predictor of smoking initiation. This article describes its prevalence and associated factors among Malaysian school adolescents. Data were obtained from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012, a nationwide representative sample of school adolescents. The overall prevalence of susceptibility to smoking was 6.0% and significantly higher among males (9.5%) compared with females (3.6%). Multivariable analyses revealed that males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.70-4.18) and school adolescents of indigenous Sabahan or Sarawakian descents (aOR 1.62, 95%CI 1.21-2.18) were significantly more likely to be susceptible to smoking. Susceptible school adolescents had a slightly higher likelihood to have symptoms of stress (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), anxiety (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40), depression (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.25-1.96), including those whose one or both parents/guardians were smokers (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.21-1.82; aOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.22-4.44, respectively). The findings from this study point out the need for proactive measures to reduce smoking initiation among Malaysian adolescents with particular attention toward factors associated with susceptibility to smoking.

  17. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  18. Adolescent Pregnancy: Implications for Prevention Strategies in Educational Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Kathleen D.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of research on pre-adolescent and adolescent pregnancy is provided, and innovative school and community-based prevention programs are discussed. The implications for psychologists with respect to preventive programing in school settings are considered. (SLD)

  19. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    PubMed

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  20. A classroom-administered simulation of a television campaign on adolescent smoking: testing an activation model of information exposure.

    PubMed

    Helme, Donald W; Donohew, Robert Lewis; Baier, Monika; Zittleman, Linda

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, research has shown that mass media can be used effectively either alone or in conjunction with interpersonal and institutional channels, such as schools. Much has yet been be learned about the application of newer, more effective strategies for media campaigns for adolescent smoking prevention interventions. This article describes a study applying an activation model of information exposure and a sensation-seeking targeting approach to the design of a smoking prevention campaign for adolescents. The participants were 1,272 middle school students aged 12-14 from across the Colorado Front Range who were stratified by their level of sensation seeking and then exposed to both high and low sensation value anti tobacco public service announcements (PSAs) at three time points. Hypothesized effects of the intervention on the primary dependent measures--attitudes (against smoking) and behavioral intentions not to smoke--were strongly supported for high sensation seekers. Further support is offered from the secondary indicators, self-efficacy, perceived message effectiveness, and perceived risk from smoking. No differences were demonstrated, however, in message effects between those selected by focus groups to be high in sensation value and those selected to be low in sensation value.

  1. Thai Adolescents' Normative Beliefs of the Popularity of Smoking among Peers, Adults, the Successful and Elite, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Sloan, Arielle; Kironde, Jennifer; West, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of Thailand adolescents regarding the prevalence of smoking, the popularity of smoking among successful/elite elements of society, and disapproval of smoking by friends and parents. These perceptions were analyzed in conjunction with actual smoking and smoking susceptibility rates among the…

  2. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs.

  3. Simulating Dynamic Network Models and Adolescent Smoking: The Impact of Varying Peer Influence and Peer Selection.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa

    2015-12-01

    We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.

  4. The search for equality: representations of the smoking act among adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Martínez, J Adriana; Ribeiro, Cléa Regina de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to discover the representations of the smoking habit in both non-smoking and smoking female adolescents from a high school in Querétaro, Mexico. It is a qualitative research, carried out with 14 female adolescents in 2005. A semi-structured interview and a socioeconomic survey were used to collect data. Results evidenced adolescents know the biomedical discourse, which proposes that smoking causes serious consequences to health. However, there are other symbolic reasons that influence its use such as the search for equality and image, since they think men find smoking women more attractive and mature. Peer pressure represents an important factor for women to smoke by validating its practice and minimizing its effects to the body.

  5. Current smoking among young adolescents: assessing school based contextual norms

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, S; Jason, L; Schoeny, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To extend research on the relation of school based contextual norms to current smoking among adolescents by using three analytic techniques to test for contextual effects. It was hypothesised that significant contextual effects would be found in all three models, but that the strength of these effects would vary by the statistical rigor of the model. Design: Three separate analytic approaches were conducted on baseline self report student survey data from a larger study to test the relation between school level perceived peer tobacco use and individual current smoking status. Participants: A representative sample of 5399 sixth through eighth grade students in 14 midwestern middle schools completed the survey. All enrolled sixth through eighth grade students were eligible to participate in the survey. The student participation rate was 91.4% for the entire sample, and did not differ significantly between the schools (range 82–100%). Main outcome measure: Thirty day cigarette smoking prevalence. Results: A level 2 only model based on aggregated individual responses indicated that students in schools with higher average reported peer tobacco use were more likely to be current smokers than students in schools with lower average peer tobacco use. Using a level 1 only model based on individual responses indicated that the effect of school level perceived peer tobacco use on current smoking was significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was excluded from the model but was non-significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was added to the model. A multilevel model also indicated that the effect of school level perceived peer tobacco use on current smoking was not significant when individual perceived peer tobacco use was added to the model. Conclusion: The analytic approach used to examine contextual effects using individuals' reports of peer tobacco use norms that were aggregated to obtain a context measure of the school norms may produce

  6. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  7. Adolescent Bereavement and the Domain of Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David

    2002-01-01

    Bereavement researchers have made some significant advances in the understanding of the dynamics and the processes of managing grief. In this article, the author presents three of these advances that are central to a discussion of adolescent grief and of preventive interventions: (1) Increasingly, both clinical and research evidence indicate that…

  8. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking.

  9. Electronic Cigarettes Use and Intention to Cigarette Smoking among Never-Smoking Adolescents and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jieming; Cao, Shuangshuang; Gong, Weiwei; Fei, Fangrong; Wang, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use is becoming increasingly common, especially among adolescents and young adults, and there is little evidence on the impact of e-cigarettes use on never-smokers. With a meta-analysis method, we explore the association between e-cigarettes use and smoking intention that predicts future cigarette smoking. Studies were identified by searching three databases up to January 2016. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) calculated by a fixed-effects model. A total of six studies (91,051 participants, including 1452 with ever e-cigarettes use) were included in this meta-analysis study. We found that never-smoking adolescents and young adults who used e-cigarettes have more than 2 times increased odds of intention to cigarette smoking (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.86–2.61) compared to those who never used, with low evidence of between-study heterogeneity (p = 0.28, I2 = 20.1%). Among never-smoking adolescents and young adults, e-cigarettes use was associated with increased smoking intention. PMID:27153077

  10. The Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale for Early Adolescents: Instrument Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Ju; Yeh, Ming-Chen; Tang, Fu-In; Yu, Shu

    2015-10-01

    Smoking-related outcome expectation and self-efficacy have been found to be associated with adolescent smoking initiation. There is, however, a lack of appropriate instruments to investigate early adolescents' smoking outcome expectations and antismoking self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Smoking Outcome Expectation Scale (SOES) and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficacy Scale (ASSES). A total of 232 fifth and sixth graders from four elementary schools in Taiwan participated in the study. Both scales had good content validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. On the basis of exploratory factor analysis, the 6-item SOES with two factors accounted for 54.72% of total variance and the 15-item ASSES with three factors accounted for 56.49% of total variance. The SOES had convergent and discriminant validity and ASSES had convergent validity. The two scales could help school nurses to understand early adolescents' smoking outcome expectation and antismoking self-efficacy and to develop more appropriate antismoking curricula.

  11. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Flick, L H

    1986-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent

  12. Relationship between self-reported task persistence and history of quitting smoking, plans for quitting smoking, and current smoking status in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marc L; Krejci, Jonathan A; Collett, Kerstin; Brandon, Thomas H; Ziedonis, Douglas M; Chen, Kevin

    2007-07-01

    The task persistence construct has previously been measured primarily behaviorally (e.g., with a mirror-tracing task, or breath holding), and only in adults. It has been shown to differentiate between adult smokers and non-smokers and to predict smoking cessation in adult smokers trying to quit. This theory-based analysis is the first to examine task persistence in adolescent smokers and to examine a two-item, internally consistent, self-report measure of task persistence. Results indicate that task persistence is greater among adolescent non-smokers as compared to adolescent current smokers, and those planning to quit smoking as compared to those with no plans to quit. Contrary to hypotheses, task persistence was not found to be related to prior successful attempts to quit smoking. Our results suggest that a brief, self-report measure of task persistence may be a methodologically sound, practical clinical tool for this population.

  13. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S; Hipp, John R

    2015-09-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively.

  14. Utility of the theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior for predicting Chinese adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer B; Lee, Liming; Xie, Bin; Chou, Chih-Ping; Palmer, Paula H; Sun, Ping; Gallaher, Peggy; Pentz, MaryAnn

    2007-05-01

    One third of smokers worldwide live in China. Identifying predictors of smoking is important for prevention program development. This study explored whether the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) predict adolescent smoking in China. Data were obtained from 14,434 middle and high school students (48.6% boys, 51.4% girls) in seven geographically varied cities in China. TRA and TPB were tested by multilevel mediation modeling, and compared by multilevel analyses and likelihood ratio tests. Perceived behavioral control was tested as a main effect in TPB and a moderation effect in TRA. The mediation effects of smoking intention were supported in both models (p<0.001). TPB accounted for significantly more variance than TRA (p<0.001). Perceived behavioral control significantly interacted with attitudes and social norms in TRA (p<0.001). Therefore, TRA and TPB are applicable to China to predict adolescent smoking. TPB is superior to TRA for the prediction and TRA can better predict smoking among students with lower than higher perceived behavioral control.

  15. Household and School-Level Influences on Smoking Behavior among Korean Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background Trends in adolescent smoking rates in South Korea have not shown substantial progress due to a lack of effective anti-smoking interventions and policies in school settings. Methods and Findings We examined individual- and school-level determinants of adolescent smoking behavior (ever smoking, current smoking, and daily smoking) using the nationally representative fifth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey conducted in 2009. We found that students in coeducation schools or vocational high schools had greater risks of smoking for each type of smoking behavior than those in single-sex schools or general high schools, respectively even after controlling for individual-level factors. Higher family affluence and higher weekly allowances were associated with greater risks of ever smoking, current smoking and daily smoking even after controlling for parental education and other confounders. Conclusions Whilst caution is required in interpreting results given the cross-sectional nature of the study, our findings suggest that in addition to raising the price of cigarettes, youth anti-smoking interventions in South Korea may benefit from focusing on coeducation schools and vocational high schools. PMID:24896251

  16. E-cigarette Use and Willingness to Smoke in a Sample of Adolescent Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Knight, Rebecca; Pagano, Ian; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little evidence on the consequences of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in adolescence. With a multiethnic sample of nonsmokers, we assessed the relation between e-cigarette use and social-cognitive factors that predict smoking combustible cigarettes (cigarettes). Methods School-based cross-sectional survey of 2,309 high school students (M age 14.7 years). Participants reported on e-cigarette use and cigarette use; on smoking-related cognitions (smoking expectancies, prototypes of smokers) and peer smoker affiliations; and on willingness to smoke cigarettes. Regression analyses conducted for non-cigarette smokers tested the association between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke cigarettes, controlling for demographics, parenting, academic and social competence, and personality variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses tested whether the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness was mediated through any of the three smoking-related variables. Results Nonsmokers who had used e-cigarettes (18% of the total sample) showed more willingness to smoke cigarettes compared to those who had never used any tobacco product; the adjusted odds ratio was 2.35 (95% confidence interval 1.73 – 3.19). Additionally, willingness prospectively predicted smoking onset. SEM showed that the relation between e-cigarette use and willingness to smoke was partly mediated through more positive expectancies about smoking but there was also a direct path from e-cigarette use to willingness. Conclusions Among adolescent nonsmokers, e-cigarette use is associated with willingness to smoke, a predictor of future cigarette smoking. The results suggest that use of e-cigarettes by adolescents is not without attitudinal risk for cigarette smoking. These findings have implications for formulation of policy about access to e-cigarettes by adolescents. PMID:26261237

  17. The Relationship between Depression and Smoking in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Julie S.; Hurford, David P.; Smith, Janet V.; Cole, AmyKay

    2003-01-01

    Study looked to determine the strength of the relationship between smoking, depression, intention to smoke, and several psychosocial and environmental factors. Participants completed the Multiscore Depression Inventory (MDI) and items regarding smoking behavior. Analyses found that participants were more likely to smoke if parents smoked, if…

  18. Oregon Research Institute's Smoking Prevention Program: Helping Students Resist Peer Pressure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severson, Herbert; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In 1980, Oregon Research Institute implemented Programs to Advance Teen Health (PATH), a smoking prevention program that helps seventh and ninth graders learn to resist social pressures to smoke. This report describes PATH and discusses the reasons behind its smoking prevention strategy. The report first notes the importance of preventing…

  19. Psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention: a review of findings.

    PubMed

    Flay, B R

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-seven school-based studies of psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention are reviewed. Two major approaches are represented: the "social influences" approach and the broader "life/social skills" approaches. The research studies are considered in four "generations": the seminal work by Richard Evans and colleagues at the University of Houston; seven "pilot" studies of improved programs at Stanford, Minnesota, New York, and Washington, with one school or classroom per experimental condition; twelve improved "prototype" studies by these four groups and others, with two or three units randomly assigned to conditions; and six studies in which maximizing internal validity was of prime concern. Reported results were fairly consistent, with each tested program seeming to reduce smoking onset by about 50%. However, none of the pilot or prototype studies considered alone provided easily interpreted results. The major contributions were improved programs and methods. The findings from the fourth generation of studies were more easily interpreted, though only two of them were interpreted with high confidence. It seems that psychosocial approaches to smoking prevention, particularly the social influences approach--fourth generation tests of the broader life/social skills approaches have yet to be reported--are effective, but at this time we know very little about why, for whom, or under what conditions. Suggestions are provided for improved future research.

  20. Examining the relationship between personality and affect-related attributes and adolescents' intentions to try smoking using the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale.

    PubMed

    Memetovic, Jasmina; Ratner, Pamela A; Gotay, Carolyn; Richardson, Christopher G

    2016-05-01

    Assessments of adolescents' smoking intentions indicate that many are susceptible to smoking initiation because they do not have resolute intentions to abstain from trying smoking in the future. Although researchers have developed personality and affect-related risk factor profiles to understand risk for the initiation of substance use and abuse (e.g., alcohol), few have examined the extent to which these risk factors are related to the tobacco use intentions of adolescents who have yet to try tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between personality and affect-related risk factors measured by the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) and smoking intentions in a sample of adolescents who have not experimented with tobacco smoking. Data is based on responses from 1352 participants in the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey (56% female, 76% in Grade 8) who had never tried smoking tobacco. Of these 1352 participants, 29% (n=338) were classified as not having resolute intentions to not try smoking. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between each SURPS dimension (Anxiety Sensitivity, Hopelessness, Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking) and the intention to try cigarettes in the future. Hopelessness (AOR 1.06, 95% CI [1.03, 1.10], p<.001), Impulsivity (AOR 1.07 [1.03, 1.11], p<.001) and Sensation Seeking (AOR 1.05 95% CI [1.02, 1.09], p<.01) had independent statistically significant associations with having an intention to try smoking. These findings may be used to inform a prevention-oriented framework to reduce susceptibility to tobacco smoking.

  1. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  2. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation

    PubMed Central

    Calo, William A.; Krasny, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial declines in smoking in the United States. However, smoking still remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature deaths in the country. Despite the continuing challenges of implementing tobacco control strategies and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry to undermine such strategies, there are now unprecedented opportunities to prevent smoking initiation, facilitate cessation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent literature discussing key strategies that have proven effective in tobacco control including regulations on sales and marketing of tobacco products, taxation, and smoke-free legislation. We focused on these three tobacco control strategies because of their potential to positively influence the environment of both minors and adults regardless of their smoking status. Although research has identified significant individual and social predictors of tobacco use, environmental influences are also important risk factors for tobacco use. PMID:24634706

  3. Subjective Invulnerability and Perceptions of Tobacco-Related Benefits Predict Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Holly E. R.; Lapsley, Daniel K.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence adolescents' decisions to start smoking is necessary to improve interventions for reducing tobacco use. The current longitudinal study was designed to determine the direction of influence between feelings of invulnerability to harm and cigarette smoking, and to test whether the perceived risks and benefits of…

  4. Use of the Transtheoretical Model to Predict Stages of Smoking Cessation in Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Ok Kyung; Lee, Young Ja

    2007-01-01

    Background: Smoking is popular among Korean male high school adolescents, with the prevalence of 20.7% differing markedly with the type of school, being 16.3% and 27.6% in academic and vocational technical high schools, respectively. The purpose of this study was to identify significant variables that predict stages of smoking cessation among…

  5. Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Analysis through Young Adulthood. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2005-333

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David C.

    2005-01-01

    The primary aims of this report are to (1) identify the incidence of daily smoking at several time points during the adolescent and young adult years, including the prevalence of new daily smokers relative to repeat daily smokers; (2) identify several specific developmental patterns of smoking; and (3) examine the specific developmental patterns…

  6. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  7. Self-Reported Depressive Feelings and Cigarette Smoking among Mexican-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesa, Jacqueline A.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Wang, Min Qi; Fu, Qiang

    1997-01-01

    Examined the relationship between depressive feelings and cigarette smoking in Mexican-American adolescents who participated in the 1993 Teenage Attitudes and Practices Survey II. Results suggest a relationship between certain feelings of depression and smoking, beyond that experienced by nonsmokers, which may be more evident in females.…

  8. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  9. [Prevention of beer dependence in adolescents in educational institutions].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, A G; Novikova, G A

    2013-01-01

    The authors have systematized approaches to the prevention of beer dependence in adolescents and presented the inner structure of prevention in educational institutions in terms of consecutive steps. The author's methods for adolescence beer dependence diagnosis are described. Different forms of preventive work with adolescences and their parents allowing to combine flexibly the preventive methods with the participation of cross-functional specialists are presented.

  10. Effects of motivational interviewing on smoking cessation in adolescents with psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R; Ramsey, S; Strong, D; Myers, M; Kahler, C; Lejuez, C; Niaura, R; Pallonen, U; Kazura, A; Goldstein, M; Abrams, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To test the hypothesis that among adolescent smokers hospitalised for psychiatric and substance use disorders, motivational interviewing (MI) would lead to more and longer quit attempts, reduced smoking, and more abstinence from smoking over a 12 month follow up. Design:Randomised control trial of MI versus brief advice (BA) for smoking cessation, with pre- and post-intervention assessment of self efficacy and intentions to change, and smoking outcome variables assessed at one, three, six, nine, and 12 month follow ups. Setting:A private, university affiliated psychiatric hospital in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Patients or other participants:Consecutive sample (n = 191) of 13–17 year olds, admitted for psychiatric hospitalisation, who smoked at least one cigarette per week for the past four weeks, had access to a telephone, and did not meet DSM-IV criteria for current psychotic disorder. Interventions:MI versus BA. MI consisted of two, 45 minute individual sessions, while BA consisted of 5–10 minutes of advice and information on how to quit smoking. Eligible participants in both conditions were offered an eight week regimen of transdermal nicotine patch upon hospital discharge. Main outcome measures:Point prevalence abstinence, quit attempts, changes in smoking rate and longest quit attempt. Proximal outcomes included intent to change smoking behaviour (upon hospital discharge), and self efficacy for smoking cessation. Results:MI did not lead to better smoking outcomes compared to BA. MI was more effective than BA for increasing self efficacy regarding ability to quit smoking. A significant interaction of treatment with baseline intention to quit smoking was also found. MI was more effective than BA for adolescents with little or no intention to change their smoking, but was actually less effective for adolescents with pre-existing intention to cut down or quit smoking. However, the effects on these variables were relatively modest and only

  11. Smoking cessation and adolescent treatment response with comorbid ADHD☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Delos-Reyes, Christina M.; Wasilow, Sherry; Svala, Kathleen M.; Kurtz, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Minors entering treatment for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders tend to smoke at high rates, and many have comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clear-air laws force patients to refrain from smoking on the premises of AOD treatment facilities, which may hinder the progress of treatment-seeking populations who smoke and struggle with ADHD comorbidity in particular. This study explores clinical characteristics associated with smoking among youths presenting for residential treatment, clinical characteristics associated with smoking cessation, and the impact of smoking cessation with ADHD comorbidity on AOD treatment response. Participants were 195 adolescents (52% female, aged 14–18 years) court-referred to residential treatment. Data were collected at intake, prospectively each week for the 10-week treatment period, and at discharge. Two-thirds (67%) of the enrollment sample entered treatment smoking half a pack a day on average, a large proportion (50%) of which did not smoke during treatment. ADHD patients were more likely to smoke before and during treatment except for those who got active in service and step-work. Quitting smoking did not adversely affect AOD outcomes and was associated with better prognosis of lowered AOD cravings for youths with and without ADHD. Smoking cessation during adolescent AOD treatment is recommended with provision of pharmaceutical and/or behavioral modalities that reduce nicotine withdrawal. PMID:27692184

  12. Adolescents' responses to peer smoking offers: the role of sensation seeking and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kathryn; Banerjee, Smita C

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with an important topic (youth smoking) and makes a contribution to the literature by validating existing research and extending our understanding of smoking resistance strategies. This study classified adolescent reports of their responses to cigarette smoking offers utilizing four drug refusal strategies of refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (REAL) and explored how personality factors explain adolescents' use of cigarette refusal strategies. Participants were predominantly Hispanic junior high students (6th-8th grades) from schools in the Northeast United States who participated in a survey design (N = 260). The strategy of explain was reported most frequently for initial and follow-up smoking offers. Adolescents with a greater number of friends who smoked were more likely to use the avoid strategy for initial smoking offers. Sensation seeking was positively related to the use of leave and avoid strategies for initial smoking offers and leave strategy for follow-up smoking offers. No association was found between self-esteem and use of smoking refusal strategies. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Approaches to adolescent pregnancy prevention.

    PubMed

    Haffner, D; Casey, S

    1986-09-01

    The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.

  14. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries.

  15. Comorbidity between depression and smoking moderates the effect of a smoking prevention program among boys in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Guo, Qian; Gong, Jie; Ma, Huiyan; Palmer, Paula H; Chou, Chih-Ping; Li, Yan; Sussman, Steve; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Xiao, Lin; Johnson, Carl Anderson

    2007-11-01

    Smoking prevention programs based on social influences have reduced smoking prevalence among youth. However, these effects have not been replicated consistently. It is possible that individuals and populations with different dispositional and behavioral characteristics will experience different program effects. This study explored a possible moderation of program effect by comorbidity between depression and smoking (CoM). Data for this analysis were from 2,450 seventh-grade youth (51% boys) who participated in the Wuhan (China) Smoking Prevention Trial (WSPT). WSPT was a randomized, controlled, 14-session, middle-school-based smoking prevention trial. Baseline and 1-year follow-up surveys were administered. The moderation effect between the program and CoM was tested on 1-year change in recent smoking. The CoM indicator was defined dichotomously as monthly cigarette use and high in depression level (among the top 20% in the sample). At baseline, a total of 26 girls and 60 boys were identified to have CoM. Among boys (but not girls), CoM significantly moderated the program effect on recent smoking (p = .01). The program effect among boys with CoM was 4.17 (95% CI 1.47-11.76) times larger than those without CoM. Among boys with CoM, the odds ratio of recent smoking was 0.18 (95% CI 0.06-0.55) for program vs. control condition. Among those without CoM, the program did not reduce the odds of recent smoking significantly (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.37-1.48). The study demonstrated that smoking prevention program effects can vary with individual characteristics, in this case comorbidity between depression and smoking. These findings may help explain the inconsistency in program effects across studies and populations. The findings also may contribute to the design of future programs to address the needs of defined populations and individuals with specific characteristics.

  16. Preventing Smoking in Open Public Places in University Campus Settings: A Situational Crime Prevention Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jing; Prenzler, Tim; Buys, Nicholas; McMeniman, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions using situational crime prevention approaches to reduce the smoking rate in outdoor areas of a university campus. Design/methodology/approach: A prospective intervention design was designed for the study. Surveys and observations were used to measure the impacts…

  17. Correlates of Sun Safety Practices in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Adolescents: Implications for Skin Cancer Prevention Interventions.

    PubMed

    Mays, Darren; Hawkins, Kirsten B; Tyc, Vida L; Atkins, Michael B; Tercyak, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    To guide skin cancer preventive interventions, this study examined correlates of sun safety behaviors in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 407 adolescents completing a self-report survey at the time of their pediatric wellness visit. Adolescents regularly practiced few sun safety behaviors, and greater interest in cancer prevention was associated with more sun safety behaviors, ever smoking cigarettes was associated with fewer sun safety behaviors, and nonwhite minority adolescents practiced fewer sun safety behaviors than non-Hispanic whites. Clinical preventive interventions to increase sun safety practices among adolescents of all racial and ethnic backgrounds could be integrated into general cancer prevention education, including combining skin cancer prevention with antismoking counseling.

  18. Smoking Prevention in China: A Content Analysis of an Anti-Smoking Social Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Beaudoin, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The China Tobacco Control Media Campaign on Sina Weibo is novel in the context of smoking prevention and cessation in China and has not to date been evaluated. This study draws on health behavior theories and dialogic theory in public relations to analyze microblog campaign postings and their relationships with the outcome of online audience engagement. Microblog postings from May 2011 to January 2015 were content analyzed, showing that the most common persuasive content characteristic was perceived risk, followed by subjective norms and self-efficacy. Perceived risk and self-efficacy postings positively influenced online audience engagement, whereas subjective norm postings was a nonsignificant predictor. Postings were more likely to share information than aim to interact with audience members. However, both information sharing and audience interaction postings were positive predictors of online audience engagement. There was also evidence of main and interactive effects of message originality on online audience engagement. The current study has, to the best of our knowledge, broken new ground in 2 regards: (a) using health behavior theories as a basis for analyzing the content of an anti-smoking social media campaign and (b) examining the content of an anti-smoking media campaign of any type in China.

  19. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

  20. Decomposing the Components of Friendship and Friends’ Influence on Adolescent Drinking and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Friendship networks are an important source of peer influence. However, existing network studies vary in terms of how they operationalize friendship and friend’s influence on adolescent substance use. This study uses social network analysis to characterize three types of friendship relations: (1) mutual or reciprocated, (2) directional, and (3) intimate friends. We then examine the relative effects of each friendship type on adolescent drinking and smoking behavior. Methods Using a saturated sample from the Add Health data, a nationally representative sample of high-school adolescents (N=2,533 nested in 12 schools), we computed the level of exposure to drinking and smoking of friends using a network exposure model, and their association with individual drinking and smoking using fixed effect models. Results Results indicated that the influence from (1) is stronger on adolescent substance use than (2), especially for smoking. Regarding the directionality of (2), adolescents are equally influenced by both nominating and nominated friends on their drinking and smoking behavior. Results for (3) indicated that the influence from “best friends” was weaker than the one from non-“best friends,” which indicates that the order of friend nomination may not matter as much as nomination reciprocation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that considering different features of friendship relationships is important in evaluating friends’ influence on adolescent substance use. Related policy implications are discussed. PMID:22824443

  1. Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Physical Activity and Smoking Among Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Abrantes, Ana M; Fokas, Kathryn F; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor with regard to tobacco use, such that physically active adolescents are less likely to initiate smoking, and smokers are less physically active than non-smokers. These findings, along with the well-documented benefits of exercise on mood and well-being in adults, have stimulated interest in exercise-based smoking cessation interventions. However, little research has explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking characteristics within adolescent smokers. Also, gender differences in adolescents' motives for smoking and exercise may have implications for intervention development, especially in clinical populations. The current study explored the relationship between physical activity and smoking in a sample of adolescent smokers (N = 191) and non-smokers (N = 48) receiving inpatient psychiatric treatment (61% female, mean age 15.3 years). Results indicated that smokers were less likely to be physically active than non-smokers. Additionally, there was a consistent pattern of gender differences in the relationship between smoking and physical activity within smokers. Specifically, physically active male smokers were less nicotine dependent and less prone to withdrawal, and had a trend toward greater motivation to quit, than their non-active counterparts. In contrast, physically active female smokers did not differ in dependence or withdrawal and were less motivated to quit than non-active female smokers. Taken together, these results suggest that within clinical populations of adolescent females, smoking and exercise may be used jointly as weight control strategies. Exercise-based interventions for smoking cessation for adolescent females, especially clinical populations, should address weight and body image concerns.

  2. The associations of personality traits and parental education with smoking behaviour among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Aina M; Leiva, Alfonso; Estela, Andreu; Čukić, Iva

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether personality traits and parental education are associated with smoking initiation in a sample of Spanish secondary school students. Participants, taken from the ITACA study (842 adolescents aged 14-15 years), completed a questionnaire assessing personality traits of the Five Factor Model, smoking behaviours and parental education. Multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age and sex were used to determine the independent associations and interactions of personality traits and parental education with risk of ever trying smoking, as well as with being a regular smoker in adolescence. Higher conscientiousness was related to a lower chance of trying smoking at least once (OR = 0.57, 95% CIs = 0.46, 0.71) as well as being a regular smoker (OR = 0.39, 95% CIs = 0.27, 0.55). Higher emotional instability (neuroticism) was associated with higher risk of being in either smoking category (OR = 1.33, 95% CIs = 1.10, 1.60 and OR = 1.76, 95% CIs = 1.31, 2.35, respectively). Higher extraversion was also associated with a higher risk of both types of smoking behaviour (OR = 1.38, 95% CIs = 1.12, 1.70 and OR = 2.43 (1.67, 3.55, respectively). Higher parental education was significantly related to lower risk of being a regular smoker (OR = 0.70, 95% CIs = 0.54, 0.89), but not with trying smoking in the past. Finally, we found no evidence of the interactions between adolescents' personality and parental education in predicting adolescent smoking behaviours. We conclude that personality factors and parental education are important and independent factors associated with smoking behaviour in adolescents.

  3. Effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking among adolescents: study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The likelihood of an adolescent taking up smoking may be influenced by his or her society, school and family. Thus, changes in the immediate environment may alter a young person’s perception of smoking. Methods/Design The proposed multi-center, cluster-randomized controlled trial will be stratified by the baseline prevalence of smoking in schools. Municipalities with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants will be randomly assigned to a control or intervention group. One secondary school will be randomly selected from each municipality. These schools will be randomized to two groups: the students of one will receive any existing educational course regarding smoking, while those of the other school will receive a four-year, class-based curriculum intervention (22 classroom lessons) aimed at reinforcing a smoke-free school policy and encouraging smoking cessation in parents, pupils, and teachers. The intervention will also include annual meetings with parents and efforts to empower adolescents to change the smoking-related attitudes and behaviors in their homes, classrooms and communities. We will enroll children aged 12-13 years as they enter secondary school during two consecutive school years (to obtain sufficient enrolled subjects). We will follow them for five years, until two years after they leave secondary school. All external evaluators and analysts will be blinded to school allocation. The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention in reducing the prevalence of smoking in the third year of compulsory secondary education (ESO) and two years after secondary school, when the participants are 14-15 and 17-18 years old, respectively. Discussion Most interventions aimed at preventing smoking among adolescents yield little to no positive long-term effects. This clinical trial will analyze the effectiveness of a complex intervention aimed at reducing the incidence and prevalence of smoking in this vulnerable age group. Trial

  4. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  5. The interaction between anxiety sensitivity and cigarette smoking level in relation to sleep onset latency among adolescent cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Bilsky, Sarah A; Feldner, Matthew T; Knapp, Ashley A; Babson, Kimberly A; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-08-01

    Cigarette smoking during adolescence is linked to a number of sleep disturbances and has been consistently linked to sleep onset latency among adults. However, little research has examined factors that may influence the relation between cigarette smoking level and sleep onset latency among adolescents. One factor that may be particularly important in this regard is anxiety sensitivity (AS). The current study examined whether cigarette smoking level interacted with AS in its association with sleep onset latency among 94 adolescent (Mage = 15.72) cigarette smokers. As hypothesized, AS interacted with smoking level to relate to sleep onset latency, even after controlling for age and gender. This relation was specific to sleep onset latency as opposed to other types of sleep disturbances, and that adolescents who smoked at higher levels tended to go to sleep later and wake up later than adolescents who smoked at relatively lower levels.

  6. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N = 216) and 40% of the nonsmokers (N = 342) were susceptible to smoking. In the adjusted models, current smoking was most strongly related to representation-reality domain items, but susceptibility to smoking was associated with each of the media literacy domains. Conclusion Varied relationships exist between individual facets of media literacy and smoking outcomes. PMID:18844513

  7. Preventing Adolescent Drug Use: From Theory to Practice. OSAP Prevention Monograph-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goplerud, Eric N., Ed.

    This monograph provides a framework for communities to build and evaluate adolescent drug abuse prevention programs. The first chapter "Adolescent Transitions and Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention," by Laurence Steinberg, focuses on the biological, cognitive, and psychosocial transitions of adolescence and how this knowledge can be used to…

  8. Cigarette Smoking by Adolescent Females: Implications for Health and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gritz, Ellen R.

    Cigarette smoking is a behavior with profound biomedical and psychosocial consequences across the life span. Although it is advertised in terms of youth, beauty, sexual appeal, success and independence, smoking is intimately linked with addiction, disease and death. Smoking has been shown to be a leading contributer to several kinds of cancer,…

  9. Media Literacy and Cigarette Smoking in Hungarian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Piko, Bettina F.; Balazs, Mate A.; Struk, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking media literacy in a sample of Hungarian youth and to determine its association with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Design: Quantitative cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four elementary and four high schools in Mako, Hungary. Method: A survey form was administered in regularly-scheduled classes to…

  10. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  11. The associations of personality traits and parental education with smoking behaviour among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez, Aina M.; Leiva, Alfonso; Estela, Andreu

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether personality traits and parental education are associated with smoking initiation in a sample of Spanish secondary school students. Participants, taken from the ITACA study (842 adolescents aged 14–15 years), completed a questionnaire assessing personality traits of the Five Factor Model, smoking behaviours and parental education. Multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age and sex were used to determine the independent associations and interactions of personality traits and parental education with risk of ever trying smoking, as well as with being a regular smoker in adolescence. Higher conscientiousness was related to a lower chance of trying smoking at least once (OR = 0.57, 95% CIs = 0.46, 0.71) as well as being a regular smoker (OR = 0.39, 95% CIs = 0.27, 0.55). Higher emotional instability (neuroticism) was associated with higher risk of being in either smoking category (OR = 1.33, 95% CIs = 1.10, 1.60 and OR = 1.76, 95% CIs = 1.31, 2.35, respectively). Higher extraversion was also associated with a higher risk of both types of smoking behaviour (OR = 1.38, 95% CIs = 1.12, 1.70 and OR = 2.43 (1.67, 3.55, respectively). Higher parental education was significantly related to lower risk of being a regular smoker (OR = 0.70, 95% CIs = 0.54, 0.89), but not with trying smoking in the past. Finally, we found no evidence of the interactions between adolescents’ personality and parental education in predicting adolescent smoking behaviours. We conclude that personality factors and parental education are important and independent factors associated with smoking behaviour in adolescents. PMID:28333969

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in China: 1981–2010

    PubMed Central

    Han, Juan; Chen, Xinguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Systematic data regarding adolescent smoking are needed at the national level to support evidence-based tobacco control in China. The goal of this study was to estimate smoking prevalence among Chinese adolescents using published data. Methods: Published studies were located electronically from the commonly used databases in Chinese and English, complemented by manual searching. Forty-five studies were selected of the 9771 retrieved from the databases. These studies targeted adolescents aged 12–17 or middle/high school students, were conducted during the 1981–2010, and had adequate data for meta-analysis. The 45 selected studies covered 52 sites in different parts of China. Smoking rates were estimated using the sample-weighted and random effect method. Results: The estimated prevalence rate of lifetime smoking (ever smoked) varied within a narrow range (39.04%–46.03%) for males and progressively increased from 2.47% in 1981–1985 to 19.72% in 2001–2005 for females. The prevalence rate of current (30-day) smoking for males declined from 26.62% in 1981–1985 to 10.86% in 1996–2000 before increasing again. The prevalence of current smoking for females increased from 0.29% in 1981–1985 to 3.26% in 2006–2010. Conclusions: The high levels of male smoking and the rapid increase in female smoking indicate growing burdens from tobacco-related diseases, underscoring the urgent need to strengthen adolescent tobacco control in China. PMID:25922989

  13. Using Social Identity to Explore the Link between a Decline in Adolescent Smoking and an Increase in Mobile Phone Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Purpose--The study seeks to further explore the hypothesised link between the increase in mobile phone ownership and use and the reported decline in adolescent smoking. Evidence for the link was gathered by examining perceptions of mobile phone use in the context of social identity and adolescent smoking. Design/methodology/approach--The study…

  14. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  15. Gender differences in adolescents' responses to themes of relaxation in cigarette advertising: Relationship to intentions to smoke.

    PubMed

    Dirocco, Danae N; Shadel, William G

    2007-02-01

    Studies have shown that increased exposure to cigarette advertising increases adolescents' risk of smoking and moreover, that gender may play an important role in moderating how cigarette advertisements are viewed and processed. However, information about the particular features of cigarette advertising that interact with gender to promote smoking among adolescents is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine if gender moderates the degree to which the relaxation valence (i.e., degree to which relaxing themes are emphasized) of cigarette advertisements is related to smoking intentions in a sample of never smoking adolescents. Regardless of brand type (of the seven brands studied), cigarette advertisements that displayed highly relaxing images were associated with increased intentions to smoke among female adolescents only. These results have implications for understanding what features of cigarette advertisements have the most influence among different groups of adolescents.

  16. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  17. Confirming the Structure of the "Why Do You Smoke?" Questionnaire: A Community Resource for Adolescent Tobacco Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dennis W.; Lee, Jay T.; Colwell, Brian; Stevens-Manser, Stacey

    2008-01-01

    In response to the problem of adolescent smoking and limited appropriate cessation resources, this study examined the pattern and structure of the American Lung Association, Why Do You Smoke? (WDS) to determine its appropriateness for use in youth smoking cessation programs. The WDS is used to help smokers identify primary motivations for using…

  18. Randomized trial outcomes of a TTM-tailored condom use and smoking intervention in urban adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females were recruited and randomized within four urban family planning clinics. Participants received TTM or standard care (SC) computerized feedback and stage-targeted or SC counseling at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. Blinded follow-up telephone surveys were conducted at 12 and 18 months. Analyses revealed significantly more consistent condom use in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. In baseline consistent condom users (40%), significantly less relapse was found in the TTM compared with the SC group at 6 and 12, but not at 18 months. No significant effects for smoking prevention or cessation were found, although cessation rates matched those found previously. This TTM-tailored intervention demonstrated effectiveness for increasing consistent condom use at 6 and 12 months, but not at 18 months, in urban adolescent females. This intervention, if replicated, could be disseminated to promote consistent condom use and additional health behaviors in youth at risk. PMID:24794584

  19. Use of Internet Viral Marketing to Promote Smoke-Free Lifestyles among Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR  = 0.95, p-value <0.01). Conclusions Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010

  20. Association of Retail Tobacco Marketing With Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Wang, Yun; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of 2125 middle-school students in central California examined adolescents’ exposure to tobacco marketing in stores and its association with self-reported smoking. Two thirds of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students reported at least weekly visits to small grocery, convenience, or liquor stores. Such visits were associated with a 50% increase in the odds of ever smoking, even after control for social influences to smoke. Youth smoking rates may benefit from efforts to reduce adolescents’ exposure to tobacco marketing in stores. PMID:15569957

  1. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  2. Smoking and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Adolescents: Does Anxiety Sensitivity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Feldner, Matthew T.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Trainor, Casey; Blanchard, Leslie; Monson, Candice M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesized moderating role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the relationship between lifetime smoking history and posttraumatic stress symptoms among 64 traumatic event-exposed adolescents. As predicted, the relationship between smoking status and posttraumatic stress symptom levels was moderated by AS. Specific facets of AS also were examined. Disease concerns, but not unsteady, mental illness, or social concerns, moderated the association between smoking and symptom level. These findings are generally consistent with findings from adult samples, but importantly extend this area of research to another phase of the lifespan. PMID:18353563

  3. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    PubMed

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.

  4. Association of Various Components of Media Literacy and Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Brian A.; Hobbs, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine which specific aspects of media literacy were most strongly associated with smoking outcomes. Methods: Students at a public high school responded to cross-sectional survey items measuring smoking outcomes, components of media literacy, and other variables. Results: Of the 1211 participants, 19% were current smokers (N =…

  5. Adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Land, Stephanie R.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objective To assess the association between adolescent smoking and volume of exposure to various forms of media after controlling for multiple relevant covariates. Methods A survey of all adolescents at a large suburban high school assessed: (1) current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking; (2) volume of exposure to various media; and (3) covariates related to smoking. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed relationships between each of the independent variables (media exposures) and the two smoking outcomes after controlling for covariates. Results Of the 1138 respondents, 19% (n = 216) reported current smoking. Forty percent (n = 342) of the non-smokers (n = 922) were susceptible to future smoking. Students reported exposure to an average of 8.6 (standard deviation 5.1) h of media daily, including 2.6 h of music. Those with high exposure to films and music were more likely to be smokers (Ptrend = 0.036 and Ptrend<0.001, respectively), and those with high exposure to books were less likely to be smokers (Ptrend<0.001). After controlling for all relevant covariates, those with high exposure to music had greater odds of being smokers than those with low exposure [odds ratio (OR) 1.90, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.10–3.30], and those with high exposure to books had lower odds of being current smokers (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33–0.94). Conclusion Exposure to films and music are associated with smoking, but only the relationship between music exposure and smoking persists after rigorous covariate control. Exposure to books is associated with lower odds of smoking. PMID:18206196

  6. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  7. Efficacy of a text messaging (SMS) based smoking cessation intervention for adolescents and young adults: Study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Particularly in groups of adolescents with lower educational level the smoking prevalence is still high and constitutes a serious public health problem. There is limited evidence of effective smoking cessation interventions in this group. Individualised text messaging (SMS) based interventions are promising to support smoking cessation and could be provided to adolescents irrespective of their motivation to quit. The aim of the current paper is to outline the study protocol of a trial testing the efficacy of an SMS based intervention for smoking cessation in apprentices. Methods/Design A two-arm cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted to test the efficacy of an SMS intervention for smoking cessation in adolescents and young adults compared to an assessment only control group. A total of 910 daily or occasional (≥ 4 cigarettes in the preceding month and ≥ 1 cigarette in the preceding week) smoking apprentices will be proactively recruited in vocational school classes and, using school class as a randomisation unit, randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 455) receiving the SMS based intervention or an assessment only control group (n = 455). Individualised text messages taking into account demographic data and the individuals' smoking behaviours will be sent to the participants of the intervention group over a period of 3 months. Participants will receive two text messages promoting smoking cessation per week. Program participants who intend to quit smoking have the opportunity to use a more intensive SMS program to prepare for their quit day and to prevent a subsequent relapse. The primary outcome measure will be the proportion of participants with 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence assessed at 6-months follow-up. The research assistants conducting the baseline and the follow-up assessments will be blinded regarding group assignment. Discussion It is expected that the program offers an effective and inexpensive way to

  8. Smoking Control. Smoking Behavior among Adolescents in the City, Suburbs, and Rural Areas of Shanghai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Wei Yue; Ling, Tan

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated differences in predisposing factors, enabling factors, reinforcing factors, and smoking behavior among middle school students in rural, urban, and suburban areas of Shanghai (China). Surveys in 11 schools indicated that students' smoking behavior was affected strongly by enabling factors and reinforcing factors related to…

  9. Seasonal variations in the initiation of smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Brian; Ramirez, Nicolas; Koehly, Laura; Stevens, Stacey; Smith, Dennis W; Creekmur, Shannon

    2006-04-01

    Numerous studies have identified a variety of reasons that youths give for starting smoking. Few efforts have been made, however, to identify seasonal variations in initiation. This study was an attempt to fill that void. We examined data from 342 youths participating in a mandated smoking education and cessation program in Texas. Data were collected based on responses to questions in participant workbooks, including an item asking participants about the month in which they started smoking. A total of 47% of the participants indicated that they started smoking in May through August (chi2 = 91.42, df = 3). Post-hoc analyses indicated that significantly more youths than expected began smoking in May and June, whereas significantly fewer youths than expected began smoking in September and November. Unsupervised time out of school during the first months of summer vacation is a period of increased danger for smoking initiation. The significantly lower rates during September seem to be related to the beginning of school.

  10. The Unique Roles of Intrapersonal and Social Factors in Adolescent Smoking Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defoe, Ivy N.; Semon Dubas, Judith; Somerville, Leah H.; Lugtig, Peter; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation and peak of many harmful risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, which is among the most addictive and deadliest behaviors. Generic metatheories like the theory of triadic influence (TTI) suggest that interrelated risk factors across multiple domains (i.e., intrapersonal and…

  11. Testing a Conceptual Model Related to Weight Perceptions, Physical Activity and Smoking in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a conceptual model based on theoretical and empirically supported relationships related to the influences of weight perceptions, weight concerns, desires to change weight, friends, age and location in relation to physical activity (PA) and smoking in adolescents. A total of 1242 males and 1446 females (mean…

  12. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  13. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Current Smoking among Adolescent Students in Thailand, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…

  14. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  15. Examining Ethnic Differences in Predictors of Female Adolescent Smoking in Rural Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Angela J.; Shettler, Lauren; Matheson, Jennifer L.; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Piercy, Fred P.; Davis, Sean D.

    2006-01-01

    We examined the salience of multiple ecological factors (individual, family, peer, school, and community) as differential predictors of smoking for adolescent African-Americans and Whites in a sample of 2,029 7th-12th grade girls from a Mid-Atlantic southeastern state. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that significant predictors of…

  16. Different Forms of Bullying and Their Association to Smoking and Drinking Behavior in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Gini, Gianluca; Santinello, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Background: Using data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey, the prevalence of 6 forms of bullying (physical, verbal, relational, sexual, cyber, and racist), and the role of smoking and drinking in bullying was examined among Italian adolescents for this study. Methods: The sample was composed of 2667 Italian middle…

  17. Social Influences, Social Norms, Social Support, and Smoking Behavior among Adolescent Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Pebbles; Eisenberg, Marla; Stoddard, Anne M.; Frazier, Lindsay; Sorensen, Glorian

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationships between worksite influences and smoking and quitting behavior among adolescent grocery employees. Surveys on interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational factors indicated that regular smokers were 30 percent more likely to receive co-worker encouragement to quit than occasional and experimental smokers. Compared to…

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Indicators of Psychosocial Distress in Southeast Asian and Central-Eastern European Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Zarco, Emilia Patricia T.; Ihasz, Ferenc; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Uvacsek, Martina; Mei-Lee, Ching; Miao, Nae-Fang; Simonek, Jaromir; Klarova, Renata; Hantiu, Iacob; Kalabiska, Iren

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of cigarette smoking and 2 indicators of psychosocial distress (hopelessness and loneliness) among adolescents from 2 distinctly different regions of the world: Central-Eastern Europe (Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Romania, Poland) and Southeast Asia (Thailand, Taiwan, and the…

  19. Adolescent Attributes and Young Adult Smoking Cessation Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Marcus, Stephen E.; Zhang, Chenshu; Stimmel, Matthew A.; Balka, Elinor B.; Brook, David W.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected data five times between 1983–2002 from 400 participants who originally came from upstate New York. These participants completed structured interviews as did their mothers three times. LISREL analysis generally supported the hypothesized model. The results indicated that having parents who smoked and having low educational aspirations and expectations were associated with being unconventional, which, in turn, was related to having low emotional control and reporting more internalizing behaviors. Internalizing behaviors were directly associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation, as was parental smoking. Research and clinical implications are discussed and the limitations noted. PMID:20482339

  20. Tobacco Industry Youth Smoking Prevention Programs: Protecting the Industry and Hurting Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Landman, Anne; Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This report describes the history, true goals, and effects of tobacco industry–sponsored youth smoking prevention programs. Methods. We analyzed previously-secret tobacco industry documents. Results. The industry started these programs in the 1980s to forestall legislation that would restrict industry activities. Industry programs portray smoking as an adult choice and fail to discuss how tobacco advertising promotes smoking or the health dangers of smoking. The industry has used these programs to fight taxes, clean-indoor-air laws, and marketing restrictions worldwide. There is no evidence that these programs decrease smoking among youths. Conclusions. Tobacco industry youth programs do more harm than good for tobacco control. The tobacco industry should not be allowed to run or directly fund youth smoking prevention programs. PMID:12036777

  1. [Assesment of the Spanish law 28/2005 for smoking prevention].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R

    2009-01-01

    The implementation in 2006 of the law 28/2006 for smoking prevention was a milestone for modern public health in Spain. This law regulated three aspects: it banned the direct and indirect tobacco publicity and sponsorship, it reduced points of sale, and it banned smoking in enclosed workplaces and public spaces, with exemptions concentrating in the restaurant and hospitality sector. As it was implemented, other changes with preventive capacity were adopted: taxes on cigarettes were raised, and there were more resources for prevention and treatment, besides information campaigns and an intensive social debate on smoking. To evaluate the isolated effect of the law is complex, but in this paper we make an attempt by reviewing all the available information, despite its heterogeneity. More than three years after its implementation there are elements suggesting a positive impact on smoking prevalence among teens, in the general consumption of cigarettes and in acute myocardial infarction morbidity. Public policies are important for smoking prevention and to improve population s health, as they create a context conducive to smoking cessation. To reach further progress in smoking prevention in Spain, the current exemption for bars and restaurants in the smoking ban should be removed, and the taxation of tobacco products should be increased.

  2. Constructing a Short Form of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire With Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; McCarthy, Denis M.; MacPherson, Laura; Brown, Sandra A.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present studies was to construct and validate a short form of the 50-item Smoking Consequences Questionnaire (SCQ; T. H. Brandon & T. B. Baker, 1991), a measure of smoking outcome expectancies. In Study 1, a 21-item short form (S-SCQ) was derived from a sample of 107 young adults previously treated for substance abuse. In Study 2, the measure was cross-validated on 125 adolescents in treatment for substance abuse. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed good model fit and factorial invariance for the 4 S-SCQ subscales across both samples. Validation analyses on each sample found that subscale scores generally correlated significantly with smoking-related variables. The present studies provide initial evidence for the utility of the S-SCQ when used with young adults and adolescents. PMID:12847776

  3. Exposure of Secondary School Adolescents from Argentina and Mexico to Smoking Scenes in Movies: a Population-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    SALGADO, MARÍA V.; PÉREZ, ADRIANA; ABAD-VIVERO, ERIKA N.; THRASHER, JAMES F.; SARGENT, JAMES D.; MEJÍA, RAÚL

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking scenes in movies promote adolescent smoking onset; thus, the analysis of the number of images of smoking in movies really reaching adolescents has become a subject of increasing interest. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the level of exposure to images of smoking in movies watched by adolescents in Argentina and Mexico. Methods First-year secondary school students from Argentina and Mexico were surveyed. One hundred highest-grossing films from each year of the period 2009-2013 (Argentina) and 2010-2014 (Mexico) were analyzed. Each participant was assigned a random sample of 50 of these movies and was asked if he/she had watched them. The total number of adolescents who had watched each movie in each country was estimated and was multiplied by the number of smoking scenes (occurrences) in each movie to obtain the number of gross smoking impressions seen by secondary school adolescents from each country. Results Four-hundred and twenty-two movies were analyzed in Argentina and 433 in Mexico. Exposure to more than 500 million smoking impressions was estimated for adolescents in each country, averaging 128 and 121 minutes of smoking scenes seen by each Argentine and Mexican adolescent, respectively. Although 15, 16 and 18-rated movies had more smoking scenes in average, movies rated for younger teenagers were responsible for the highest number of smoking scenes watched by the students (67.3% in Argentina and 54.4% in Mexico) due to their larger audience. Conclusion At the population level, movies aimed at children are responsible for the highest tobacco burden seen by adolescents. PMID:27354756

  4. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2008-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…

  5. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking. PMID:26247384

  6. Tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L T; Anthony, J C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study builds on previous observations about a suspected causal association linking tobacco smoking with depression. With prospective data, the study sheds new light on the temporal sequencing of tobacco smoking and depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence. METHODS: The epidemiologic sample that was studied consisted of 1731 youths (aged 8-9 to 13-14 years) attending public schools in a mid-Atlantic metropolitan area, who were assessed at least twice from 1989 to 1994. A survival analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship from antecedent tobacco smoking to subsequent onset of depressed mood, as well as from antecedent depressed mood to subsequent initiation of tobacco use. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking signaled a modestly increased risk for the subsequent onset of depressed mood, but antecedent depressed mood was not associated with a later risk of starting to smoke tobacco cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence is consistent with a possible causal link from tobacco smoking to later depressed mood in late childhood and early adolescence, but not vice versa. PMID:10589312

  7. Targeting early antecedents to prevent tobacco smoking: findings from an epidemiologically based randomized field trial.

    PubMed Central

    Kellam, S G; Anthony, J C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether interventions aimed at aggressive/disruptive classroom behavior and poor academic achievement would reduce the incidence of initiation of smoking. METHODS: An epidemiologically based, universal randomized preventive trial involved 2311 children in 2 classroom-based preventive interventions or controls. Each intervention was directed at 1 of the aforementioned 2 antecedents over first and second grades in 19 urban schools. RESULTS: Smoking initiation was reduced in both cohorts for boys assigned to the behavioral intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting early risk antecedents such as aggressive behavior appears to be an important smoking prevention strategy. PMID:9772850

  8. Coevolution of adolescent friendship networks and smoking and drinking behaviors with consideration of parental influence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M

    2016-05-01

    Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention: Adolescents' Perceptions of Possible Side Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furby, Lita; Ochs, Linda M.; Thomas, Catherine W.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on interviews of 48 sexually active adolescents concerning the possible secondary consequences of taking measures to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents generated 134 consequences, suggesting that considering all the relevant consequences for a rational decision about STD prevention is not…

  10. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  11. Viewing movie smoking undermines antismoking parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that viewing depictions of smoking in movies makes adolescents less responsive to parenting factors that prevent smoking. Cross-sectional survey of 4807 students (grades 5-8) through which we ascertained exposure to smoking in movies, parent smoking, and adolescents' perception of parental responsiveness (support), and parental demandingness (behavioral control). Adolescents attending randomly selected middle schools in the Northeastern U.S. ever tried smoking a cigarette. Exposure to movie smoking was ascertained by counting occurrences of tobacco use in 601 recent popular motion pictures; surveying students to identify films they had seen from a random subset of 50 films; and summing tobacco use occurrences for the films each adolescent reported seeing. We also measured adolescents' perceptions of parent smoking, parental responsiveness and demandingness. The overall prevalence of adolescent smoking was 17.4 percent. The prevalence of smoking increased with exposure to movie smoking (low vs. high exposure 8.8 vs. 25.8%, p < 0.0001). Parenting factors associated with lower rates of adolescent smoking were parent non smoking status (11.0% vs. 27.7% for parents who smoke, p < 0.0001), higher levels of demandingness (13.7% vs. 20.7% for low demandingness, p < 0.0001) and higher levels of parental responsiveness (12.4% vs. 23.1% for low parental responsiveness, p < 0.0001). Parenting factors were not strongly associated with exposure to movie smoking. For adolescents with low exposure to movie smoking the adjusted odds (95% confidence interval) of smoking were 0.31 (0.23, 0.42) if parents did not smoke, 0.57 (0.42, 0.78) if parents exerted high demandingness, and 0.52 (0.38, 0.71) if parents were highly responsive. Parents had significantly less influence for adolescents with high exposure to movie smoking, for whom the adjusted odds of smoking were only 0.50 if parents did not smoke (p = 0.014 for the interaction effect), 0.97 if parents

  12. Associations Between Initial Water Pipe Tobacco Smoking and Snus Use and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Results From a Longitudinal Study of US Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many adolescents and young adults use alternative tobacco products, such as water pipes and snus, instead of cigarettes. OBJECTIVE To assess whether prior water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use among never smokers are risk factors for subsequent cigarette smoking. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a 2-wave national longitudinal study in the United States among 2541 individuals aged 15 to 23 years old. At baseline (October 25, 2010, through June 11, 2011), we ascertained whether respondents had smoked cigarettes, smoked water pipe tobacco, or used snus. At the 2-year follow-up (October 27, 2012, through March 31, 2013), we determined whether baseline non–cigarette smokers had subsequently tried cigarette smoking, were current (past 30 days) cigarette smokers, or were high-intensity cigarette smokers. We fit multivariable logistic regression models among baseline non–cigarette smokers to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with subsequent cigarette smoking initiation and current cigarette smoking, accounting for established sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors. We fit similarly specified multivariable ordinal logistic regression models to assess whether baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and baseline snus use were associated with high-intensity cigarette smoking at follow-up. EXPOSURES Water pipe tobacco smoking and the use of snus at baseline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Among baseline non–cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation, current (past 30 days) cigarette smoking at follow-up, and the intensity of cigarette smoking at follow-up. RESULTS Among 1596 respondents, 1048 had never smoked cigarettes at baseline, of whom 71 had smoked water pipe tobacco and 20 had used snus at baseline. At follow-up, accounting for behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors, baseline water pipe tobacco smoking and snus use were independently associated with cigarette smoking

  13. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  14. HIV and smoking: associated risks and prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Wanjiku; Manuel, Jennifer I; Kariuki, Ngaruiya; Tuchman, Ellen; O’Neal, Johnnie; Lalanne, Genevieve A

    2016-01-01

    High rates of smoking among persons living with HIV (PLWH) may reduce the effectiveness of HIV treatment and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. Factors associated with smoking in PLWH include mental health comorbidity, alcohol and drug use, health-related quality of life, smoking among social networks and supports, and lack of access to care. PLWH smokers are at a higher risk of numerous HIV-associated infections and non-HIV related morbidity, including a decreased response to antiretroviral treatment, impaired immune functioning, reduced cognitive functioning, decreased lung functioning, and cardiovascular disease. Seventeen smoking cessation interventions were identified, of which seven were randomized controlled trials. The most effective studies combined behavioral and pharmacotherapy treatments that incorporated comprehensive assessments, multiple sessions, and cognitive-behavioral and motivational strategies. Smoking cessation interventions that are tailored to the unique needs of diverse samples and incorporate strategies to reduce the risk of relapse are essential to advancing health outcomes in PLWH. PMID:26766919

  15. Collectivism in Smoking Prevention Programs for Hispanic Preadolescents: Raising the Ante on Cultural Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.; Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines collectivist influences in preventing smoking among Hispanic youths. Using a pretest/posttest design, sixth-graders received a collectivist or standard curriculum. Both curricula contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent perspective. Compared to the standard…

  16. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  17. Evaluation of the 1990 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Smoke-Free Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emont, Seth L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone surveys of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employees investigated the impact of an agencywide smoking policy that initially restricted, then banned, smoking. Nearly all of the employees and 56 percent of the smokers supported the policy. One quarter of the smokers reported increased interest in quitting following policy…

  18. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game.

  19. A Medical Student–Delivered Smoking Prevention Program, Education Against Tobacco, for Secondary Schools in Brazil: Study Protocol for a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Luiz Eduardo De Freitas; Bernardes-Souza, Breno; Lisboa, Oscar Campos; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Tran, Thien-An; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Corrêa, Paulo César Rodrigues Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Background Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a large network of medical students in 13 countries who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting. A recent quasi-experimental EAT study conducted in Germany showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11- to 15-year-old adolescents. Objective The aim of this study is both to describe and to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the EAT intervention involving a photoaging app for its effectiveness to reduce the smoking prevalence among 12- to 17-year-old pupils in Brazilian public schools. Methods A randomized controlled trial will be conducted among approximately 1500 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in grades 7-11 of public secondary schools in Brazil. The prospective experimental study design includes measurements at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postintervention. The study groups will consist of randomized classes receiving the standardized EAT intervention (90 minutes of mentoring in a classroom setting) and control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The questionnaire measures smoking status, gender, social, and cultural aspects as well as predictors of smoking. Biochemical validation of smoking status is conducted via random carbon monoxide measurements. The primary end point is the difference of the change in smoking prevalence in the intervention group versus the difference in the control group at 12 months of follow-up. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the 2 groups as well as effects on the different genders will be studied as secondary outcomes. Results The recruitment of schools, participating adolescents, and medical students was conducted from August 2016 until January 2017. The planned period of data collection is February 2017 until June 2018. Data analysis will follow in July 2018 and data presentation/publication will

  20. A Randomized Crossover Study of Web-Based Media Literacy to Prevent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML…

  1. Smoking Trajectories Among Monoracial and Biracial Black Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Coman, Emanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking trajectories were assessed among monorace Blacks, Black-American Indians, Black-Asians, Black-Hispanics, and Black-Whites. Method We used a subsample of nationally representative data obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample consisted of adolescents who were in Grades 7 – 12 in 1994, and followed across four waves of data collection into adulthood. Wave 4 data were collected in 2007–2008 when most respondents were between 24 and 32 years old. Respondents could report more than one race/ethnicity. Poisson regression was used to analyze the data. Results We found distinct smoking trajectories among monorace and biracial/ethnic Blacks, with all groups eventually equaling or surpassing trajectories of Whites. The age of cross-over varied by gender for some subgroups, with Black-American Indian males catching up earlier than Black-American Indian females. Black-White females smoked on more days than monorace Black females until age 26 and also smoked more than Black-White males between ages 11 and 29 years. Black-Hispanic males smoked on more days than Black-Hispanic females from ages 11 to 14. The results of the interaction tests also indicated different smoking trajectories across SES levels among White, Black, and Black-White respondents. Conclusion Significant heterogeneity was observed regarding smoking trajectories between monoracel and biracial/ethnic Blacks. Knowledge of cigarette smoking patterns among monorace and biracial/ethnic Black youth and young adults extends our understanding of the etiology of tobacco use and may inform interventions. PMID:28344360

  2. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  3. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID

  4. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352).

  5. The influence of tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking intentions via normative beliefs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Abraham; Moodie, Crawford

    2009-08-01

    Using cross-sectional data from three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Study, which examines the impact of the UK's Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) on adolescent smoking behaviour, we examined normative pathways between tobacco marketing awareness and smoking intentions. The sample comprised 1121 adolescents in Wave 2 (pre-ban), 1123 in Wave 3 (mid-ban) and 1159 in Wave 4 (post-ban). Structural equation modelling was used to assess the direct effect of tobacco advertising and promotion on intentions at each wave, and also the indirect effect, mediated through normative influences. Pre-ban, higher levels of awareness of advertising and promotion were independently associated with higher levels of perceived sibling approval which, in turn, was positively related to intentions. Independent paths from perceived prevalence and benefits fully mediated the effects of advertising and promotion awareness on intentions mid- and post-ban. Advertising awareness indirectly affected intentions via the interaction between perceived prevalence and benefits pre-ban, whereas the indirect effect on intentions of advertising and promotion awareness was mediated by the interaction of perceived prevalence and benefits mid-ban. Our findings indicate that policy measures such as the TAPA can significantly reduce adolescents' smoking intentions by signifying smoking to be less normative and socially unacceptable.

  6. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  7. HIV preventive interventions for adolescents: a look back and ahead.

    PubMed

    Malow, Robert M; Kershaw, Trace; Sipsma, Heather; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Dévieux, Jessy G

    2007-12-01

    HIV and sexual risk continue to be central threats to the health and well-being of adolescents in the United States and abroad. Great strides have been made in creating interventions that reduce contracting and transmitting the deadly virus among adolescents. Numerous interventions have been designed and evaluated, with many having positive results in reducing adolescents' HIV risk behavior. However, the complexity of adolescents as well as limited effects on many sexual risk outcomes indicate that much more work needs to be done. This article provides a review of the literature on interventions among adolescents, summarizing why adolescents provide a unique challenge for HIV prevention, the intervention approaches that have been taken, and the challenges and recommendations for the future as the field confronts the neurobiologic dimension of risk.

  8. Sport and scholastic factors in relation to smoking and smoking initiation in older adolescents: a prospective cohort study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Terzic, Admir; Jasarevic, Indira; Ostojic, Ljerka; Pojskic, Haris; Zenic, Natasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective Sport and scholastic factors are known to be associated with cigarette smoking in adolescence, but little is known about the causality of this association. The aim of this study was to prospectively explore the relationships of different sport and scholastic factors with smoking prevalence initiation in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods In this 2-year prospective cohort study, there were 872 adolescent participants (16 years at baseline; 46% females). The study consisted of baseline tests at the beginning of the third year (September 2013) and follow-up at the end of the fourth year of high school (late May to early June 2015). The independent variables were scholastic and sport-related factors. The dependent variables were (1) smoking at baseline, (2) smoking at follow-up and (3) smoking initiation over the course of the study. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender and socioeconomic status were applied to define the relationships between independent and dependent variables. Results School absence at the baseline study was a significant predictor of smoking initiation during the course of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8). Those who reported quitting sports at baseline showed an increased risk of smoking at the end of the study (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0) and of smoking initiation (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 2.0). Adolescents who reported lower competitive achievements in sport were at a higher risk of (1) smoking at baseline (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1), (2) smoking at follow-up (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.1) and (3) smoking initiation (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.6). Conclusions In developing accurate antismoking public health policies for older adolescents, the most vulnerable groups should be targeted. The results showed that most participants initiated smoking before 16 years of age. Therefore, further investigations should evaluate the predictors of smoking in younger ages. PMID:28336745

  9. Cigarette Smoking and the Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Adolescent Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking, or alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than non-smokers who drink comparable quantities. We sought to address this issue using data from a nationally representative U.S. sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and alcohol use disorders. Methods: Data were from the aggregated 2002 through 2004 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants were randomly selected, household-dwelling adolescents and young adults (ages 12-20) from the non-institutionalized, civilian population of the United States (N=74,836). Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past 30-days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than 100 cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. Results: Past-year smokers, (prevalence=16.0%) drank in higher quantities than never-smokers, but were also at elevated risk for AUD when compared to never-smokers who drank equivalent quantities. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4.5-fold higher odds of AUD than never-smokers (95% CI: 3.1-6.6). Youths who reported smoking but did not cross the 100-cigarette threshold were at intermediate risk (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3). Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a higher vulnerability to alcohol use disorders among smokers, compared to non-smokers who drink equivalent quantities. PMID:17117970

  10. Family interventions to prevent substance abuse: children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loveland-Cherry, C J

    2000-01-01

    Substance abuse often begins in adolescence and is a major factor determining health outcomes for adolescents and adults; thus, it is an important focus for prevention strategies. The use of drugs, especially alcohol, can lead to chronic addiction to substances as well as contribute to a number of common chronic conditions. These conditions include cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability from accidents or violence, and unplanned pregnancy and are major causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. As the major social unit responsible for socialization of children and stabilization of adult personalities, the family has been the target of prevention efforts. In this chapter the empirical literature on family interventions to prevent substance use in adolescents is critically reviewed, generalizations and implications for practice identified, and directions for future research projected.

  11. Adolescent smoking and tertiary education: opposing pathways linking socio‐economic background to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Alastair H.; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims If socio‐economic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting United Kingdom. Participants Participants were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; n = 15 672), the British birth cohort study (BCS70; n = 12 735) and the West of Scotland Twenty‐07 1970s cohort (T07; n = 1515). Measurements Participants self‐reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16 years) and heavy drinking (> 14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22–26 years). Parental occupational class (manual versus non‐manual) indicated socio‐economic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58, probit coefficients were 0.201 and –0.765, respectively; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents from a non‐manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; P < 0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; P < 0.001) than adolescent non‐smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; P < 0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college

  12. Determinants of Smoking Status of Black Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fick, Ana Correa; Thomas, Sarah Moody

    This study investigated the relationship between locus of control orientation and adoption of cigarette smoking among ninth grade urban black Southern students. It sought to identify this relationship and determine if school-setting (junior or senior high school) or gender-related differences exist. The following information was used to assess…

  13. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention, Postvention and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Peggy

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…

  14. Neural Correlates of Response Inhibition in Adolescents Prospectively Predict Regular Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory deficits have been widely reported and substance abuse, however, it remains unclear whether such deficits represent a determinant or a consequence of substance use. Here we show, using a prospective longitudinal design, that developmental abnormalities in the neural correlates of response inhibition in adolescents increase the risk for subsequent cigarette smoking. Reduced No-Go P3 amplitude, delayed latency of Go P3 peak, and reduced synchrony of neuronal oscillations at age 14 prospectively predicted regular smoking at age 18. The present findings suggest that functional brain correlates of response inhibition represent a developmental marker of risk for future substance abuse. PMID:27392089

  15. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among Korean Adolescents: JS High School Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Hyun; Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests that secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) may affect not only physical health, but also mental health. Therefore, we evaluated the association between SHSE and depressive symptoms among Korean adolescents. Methods The JS High School Study enrolled 1071 high school freshmen from a rural community of South Korea. The current analysis was limited to 989 adolescents (495 male and 494 female adolescents), after excluding 48 ever-smokers, 3 students with physician-diagnosed depression, and 31 students who did not complete the depression questionnaire. SHSE was assessed using a self-reported questionnaire and was classified into three groups: none, occasional exposure, and regular exposure. Depressive symptoms were assessed according to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score, ranging from 0 to 63, and the presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a BDI score ≥10. Results Overall, adolescents with SHSE were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those without SHSE (p = 0.042).In a sex-specific analysis treating the BDI score as a continuous variable, regular SHSE was independently associated with higher BDI scores in male adolescents (β = 2.25, p = 0.026), but not in female adolescents (β = 1.11, p = 0.253). Compared to no SHSE, the odds ratio for having depressive symptoms among male adolescents with regular SHSE was 2.17 (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.25) after adjusting for age, body mass index, and study year, and 3.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 8.73) after adjusting for age, body mass index, study year, exercise, and household income. Conclusion Regular exposure to secondhand smoke was associated with having depressive symptoms among Korean male adolescents. PMID:28036385

  16. Educational Differences in Smoking among Adolescents in Germany: What is the Role of Parental and Adolescent Education Levels and Intergenerational Educational Mobility?

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Benjamin; Lampert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is the period in which smoking onset usually occurs and the course for future socioeconomic status (SES) is set. However, because of the transitional nature of adolescence, it is questionable whether health inequalities are best measured by indicators of parental SES or rather by indicators of the adolescents’ own developing SES. We examine the independent effects of parental and adolescent education and intergenerational educational mobility on adolescent smoking behaviour while controlling for differences in parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Methods: The study is based on data from a subsample (12–17 years, n = 5,053) of the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Participants reported their education level as well as their personal and close friends’ smoking behaviour. Information on parental education and smoking behaviour was obtained via parent interviews. Adolescent and parental education data were dichotomized (low/high), leading to four categories of intergenerational educational mobility: stable high, potentially upwardly mobile, potentially downwardly mobile, and stable low. Results: After adjustment for parental and close friends’ smoking behaviour, adolescent smoking habits were strongly related to their personal education level, but not that of their parents. Among boys, both stable low and downwardly mobile adolescents had a 2.7-fold increased risk of being a smoker compared with peers with a stable high education. Among girls, only those with a stable low education had a 2.2-fold increased risk of smoking. Among both genders, educational upward mobility was associated with significantly lower smoking rates compared with peers with a stable low education (boys: OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.20–0.53; girls: OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). Conclusions: Our results show that the risk of an adolescent smoking is influenced by their own education

  17. Psychological and Familial Factors of Depression in Relation to Adolescent Smoking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Omidi, Razieh; Alinia, Tahereh; Heidari, Kamal; Farshad, Marziyeh; Davari, Hossein; Abtin, Zahra; Shahriari, Ezat; Taslimi, Mahshid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several common factors have been identified for smoking and depression. The The present study explores the relation of psychological and familial factors with depression, by student smoking behavior. Materials and Methods: A total of 5500 middle- and high-school students were selected in Isfahan province in 2010. A self-administered questionnaire collected data on background characteristics, smoking status, depression, and risk factors. Univariate analysis multiple logistic regressions were conducted to compare between depressed and nondepressed people by adolescent smoking status. Odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Results: Fathers lower education attainment was accompanied adolescents higher depression prevalence. Parental smoking and sibling smoking increased the depression likelihood by 1.41 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.68) and 1.43 folds (95% CI: 1.04–1.94) for never-smokers. Positive attitude toward smoking increased the probability of depression by 1.18 among never-smokers. Never-smokers lacking refusal skill had 1.23 (1.03–1.47) higher chance of depression. A higher level of self-efficacy related to lower chance of depression. Taking risky behavior, increased the depression likelihood by 1.56 (95% CI: 1.29–1.89) in never-smokers, by 1.85 (95% CI: 1.37–2.44) in experimental smokers, and by 1.14 times (95% CI: 1.01–1.72) in current smokers. Family conflict increased depression chance by 2.25 times (95% CI: 1.89–2.66) in never-smokers, by 1.95 (95% CI: 1.46–2.61) in experimental smokers, and by 2.06 times (95% CI: 1.38–3.08) in current smokers. Conclusions: Targeting self-efficacy level, risky behavior, and family conflict can drop the comorbidity of smoking and depression simultaneously. This may help public health practitioners and policymakers to develop common strategies in reducing adolescents smoking and depression comorbidity. PMID:28217648

  18. Associations Between Household Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Health Problems Among Non-Smoking Adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee

    2017-03-25

    This study examined the association between household secondhand smoke exposure (HSHSE) and health status among non-smoking adolescents in Korea using two subsamples obtained from nationally representative cross-sectional secondary data: males (n = 25,653) and females (n = 31,187). Two self-reported HSHSE measures included exposure to household secondhand smoke during the week before the survey (yes or no) and number of days of HSHSE (1-7 days); and five self-reported health problems included asthma, perceived stress, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-rated health. For each subsample, this study performed (1) multivariate logistic regressions to examine HSHSE effects on asthma, depression, and suicidal ideation; and (2) multiple linear regressions to examine HSHSE effects on perceived stress and self-rated health. The rate and number of days of HSHSE were significantly higher among females (30.1% and 3.4 days) than among males (25.9% and 3.1 days). In both subsamples, HSHSE was associated with all five health problems (ORs 1.15-1.32; βs: 0.04-0.14). An increase in the number of days of HSHSE was positively associated with (1) greater perceived stress and poorer self-rated health in both subsamples (βs: 0.01-0.04), and (2) greater odds of asthma, depression, and suicidal ideation in the female subsample (ORs 1.03-1.12). Given the findings related to the strong associations (1) between HSHSE and physical, mental, and general health problems; and (2) between days of HSHSE and a greater number of health problems in females, health professionals should actively implement interventions that encourage adult smokers to stop smoking in their homes.

  19. Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    ... harms nearly every organ of the body. Cigarette smoking causes 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. It is also responsible for many other cancers ... or having a baby die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Your smoke is ... are battery-operated smoking devices. Not much is known about the health ...

  20. Randomized Trial Outcomes of a TTM-Tailored Condom Use and Smoking Intervention in Urban Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.; Armstrong, Kay; Rossi, Joseph S.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Sun, Xiaowu; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Yin, Hui-Qing; Coviello, Donna; Evers, Kerry; Velicer, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and sexual risk behaviors in urban adolescent females are prevalent and problematic. Family planning clinics reach those who are at most risk. This randomized effectiveness trial evaluated a transtheoretical model (TTM)-tailored intervention to increase condom use and decrease smoking. At baseline, a total of 828 14- to 17-year-old females…

  1. How to Design Tobacco Prevention and Control Games for Youth and Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of Expert Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Mercado, Rebeccah; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Darville, Gabrielle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Games for health, including digital videogames and gaming-based approaches, are increasingly being used in health promotion research and practice. Recently published research has shown that videogames have significant potential to promote healthy behaviors among youth and adolescents. Yet, there is a lack of available evidence-based resources to guide practitioners on the integration of games into tobacco prevention and smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap, expert researchers and game developers were interviewed to further define games for health, explore the current research, and provide recommendations for developing, evaluating, and promoting effective anti-tobacco games. Materials and Methods: Nationally recognized experts on game development, games for health, tobacco, and health behavior were asked to participate. A qualitative analysis of 25 in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Results: Main themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: (1) the current state of games for health research to facilitate health behavior change, (2) strategies for how to develop and evaluate games for quality and impact, and (3) recommendations for how to effectively design tobacco prevention and smoking cessation educational videogames that engage youth and adolescents. Conclusions: The synthesized findings identified through these expert interviews offer stakeholders strategies for how to incorporate games for health within their current and future work. Specific recommendations are presented for developers and researchers to consider when developing and evaluating videogames for tobacco prevention and smoking cessation targeted at youth and adolescents. PMID:26230046

  2. Counselors Can Make a Difference in Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry; Reddick, Thomas L.

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that school counselors can play vital role in the prevention of adolescent suicide. Lists warning signs of suicide risk and characteristics of at-risk students. Presents set of guidelines for helping potential suicide victims. Sees key to teenage suicide prevention to be communication skills. Identifies components for suicide prevention…

  3. Advances in Preventing Childhood and Adolescent Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of prevention have led to a deeper understanding of the causes of adolescent problem behavior and to the identification of efficacious strategies to prevent delinquency, drug use, and other antisocial conduct. This 2009 Aaron Rosen lecture to members of the "Society for Social Work and Research" traces the evolution of…

  4. A Developmental Approach to Pregnancy Prevention with Early Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Susan E.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with older teens and adults do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with the developmental needs of the young teen provide the best approaches to teen pregnancy prevention.…

  5. The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Lynch, Diane; Lattimore, Barbara; Graham, Ashlee

    2008-01-01

    The Juvenile and Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Program (JASAP) is a curriculum-based prevention and health promotion program for youth between the ages of 13 to 18 years in Fulton County, Georgia. The program was established in 2007 to promote healthy decision-making skills that would eventually lead to informed choices and decisions…

  6. Vitamin C prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice and provides pulmonary restoration.

    PubMed

    Koike, Kengo; Ishigami, Akihito; Sato, Yasunori; Hirai, Toyohiro; Yuan, Yiming; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Tobino, Kazunori; Sato, Tadashi; Sekiya, Mitsuaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke; Maruyama, Naoki; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2014-02-01

    Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant and is essential for collagen synthesis. We investigated whether VC treatment prevents and cures smoke-induced emphysema in senescence marker protein-30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice, which cannot synthesize VC. Two smoke-exposure experiments using SMP30-KO mice were conducted. In the first one (a preventive study), 4-month-old mice received minimal VC (0.0375 g/l) [VC(L)] or physiologically sufficient VC (1.5 g/l) [VC(S)] and exposed to cigarette smoke or smoke-free air for 2 months. Pulmonary evaluations followed when the mice were 6 months of age. The second study began after the establishment of smoke-induced emphysema (a treatment study). These mice no longer underwent smoke exposure but received VC(S) or VC(L) treatment for 2 months. Morphometric analysis was performed, and measurements of oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and vascular endothelial growth factor in the lungs were evaluated. Chronic smoke exposure caused emphysema (29.6% increases of mean linear intercepts [MLI] and 106.5% increases of destructive index compared with the air-only group) in 6-month-old SMP30-KO mice, and this emphysema closely resembled human chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Smoke-induced emphysema persisted in the VC(L) group after smoking cessation, whereas VC treatment provided pulmonary restoration (18.5% decrease of MLI and 41.3% decrease of destructive index compared with VC(L) group). VC treatment diminished oxidative stress, increased collagen synthesis, and improved vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the lungs. Our results suggest that VC not only prevents smoke-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice but also restores emphysematous lungs. Therefore, VC may provide a new therapeutic strategy for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in humans.

  7. Anxiety in adolescence. Can we prevent it?

    PubMed Central

    Malonda, Elisabeth; Samper, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background Emotions are potent modulators and motivators of the behaviour that the individual displays in the different situations they have to live and they can act as a protection factor or vulnerability of the adapted or maladaptive behaviour. This study focuses on anxiety in adolescence. Objectives. The objective is, through a longitudinal study, to analyse the psychological processes and emotions that facilitate the symptoms of anxiety and those which protect the adolescent from these symptoms. Material and Methods 417 adolescents (192 boys and 225 girls) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school (81 boys and 85 girls) or the fourth year of secondary school (111 boys and 140 girls). The mean age was 14.70 (SD = 0.68; range = 13-17 years). This study monitored participating adolescents for three years. Results The results indicate a differential profile in the evaluated emotions according to sex, with the girls being the ones to experiment more anxiety and more empathy, while the boys show more emotional instability and aggression. Conclusions It is concluded that the best predictors for anxiety are anger state, aggressive behaviour, empathic concern together with the lack of coping mechanisms focused on problem solving and the perception of stress as a threat. Key words:Adolescence, anxiety, emotions, coping, stress. PMID:27988785

  8. The Association between Exposure to "Tips" and Smoking-Related Outcomes among Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaoquan; Cai, Xiaomei

    2016-01-01

    The Tips From Former Smokers ("Tips") campaign in the United States primarily targets adult smokers, but considers adolescents an important secondary audience. This study examines the association between exposure to Tips and smoking outcomes in the adolescent population in the United States. We analyzed data from the 2013 National Youth…

  9. Culture Circles in adolescent empowerment for the prevention of violence.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Neto, Waldemar Brandão; de Lima, Luciane Soares; de Aquino, Jael Maria; Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira

    2015-04-03

    An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities; changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance; expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks.

  10. Culture Circles in adolescent empowerment for the prevention of violence

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Estela Maria Leite Meirelles; Neto, Waldemar Brandão; de Lima, Luciane Soares; de Aquino, Jael Maria; Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; Pereira, Beatriz Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    An action research based on Paulo Freire's Culture Circles was developed to implement a health education intervention involving adolescents, in collective knowledge construction about strategies for the prevention of violence. The data collection in the Culture Circles involved 11 adolescents and included observation and field diary, photographic records and recording. The educational action aroused a critical socio-political and cultural position in the adolescents towards the situations of vulnerability to violence, including the guarantee of human rights, justice and the combat of inequities; changes in the social relations, combat against discrimination and intolerance; expansion of access and reorientation of health services through intersectoral public policies. The intervention empowered the group of adolescents for the prevention of violence and permitted the inclusion of health professionals in the school context, from an interdisciplinary perspective, contributing to the establishment of social support and protection networks. PMID:25931647

  11. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence.

  12. Adolescent sexual health behavior in Thailand: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee

    2006-01-01

    Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior.

  13. The Spatial Distribution of Smoking Violations on a No-Smoking Campus: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Stephen F.; Block, Steven; Belance, Ronald; Marteache, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study extends research on campus smoking bans by examining where smokers are violating the policy at a large university in the southeastern region of the United States. Participants: The data collection was conducted by one graduate student from the university in August of 2014. Methods: A global positioning system device…

  14. Association of smokeless tobacco use and smoking in adolescents in the US: Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance

    2014-01-01

    Background Using smokeless tobacco and smoking are risk behaviors for oral cancer, soft tissue lesions, caries, periodontal disease and other oral conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine adolescent smokeless tobacco use and smoking. Methods The study was a cross-sectional analysis of participants with complete data on smoking, smokeless tobacco use, and other variables of interest in the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n=9655). Descriptive analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results The unadjusted odds ratio for smokeless tobacco use and smoking was 9.68 (95% CI: 7.72, 12.13, p<.0001); the adjusted odds ratio was 3.92 (95%CI: 2.89, 5.31, p<.0001). Adolescents using smokeless tobacco were more likely to be male, to smoke, and to have engaged in binge drinking. Conclusions Adolescents who are using smokeless tobacco are more likely to also be engaging in concomitant smoking and are participating in other risk-taking behaviors. Practice implications Dentists are involved in helping patients in tobacco cessation. The strong association of smoking with smokeless tobacco needs to be considered in designing cessation programs for adolescents. PMID:23904581

  15. [Environmental dependence of cigarette smoking among adolescents of upper-secondary schools in Poland in 2005. Initial results].

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Małkowska, Agnieszka; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the current smoking status among adolescents of upper-secondary schools in Poland and to examine potential relationships between environmental factors (place of living and school type) and current cigarette smoking, smoking experimentation and age of first cigarette. Questionnaire survey was conducted in February - March 2005 as a project: "Health perception, life satisfaction and health behavior of upper-secondary school pupils in Poland in psychosocial and economical determinants' context". The data was collected from representative sample of pupils in Poland (N=3123), Ist and IIIrd grade students at upper-secondary schools of different school types. Almost 3/4 adolescents had reported the attempts of smoking, 1/4 declared current smoking. The smoking prevalence among boys was higher than among girls, among older pupils (18 y.) than younger (16y.) and among students living in towns. Especially there was a significant difference of rate of smoking among young women from towns than from rural areas. Special risk group of cigarette smoking were pupils of basic vocational schools. Risk of current smoking was more than 4 times higher among them, than among pupils from general secondary schools. Strategies aimed at influencing smoking behavior need to be directed especially to basic vocational schools students and girls in towns.

  16. Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: ethnic, gender, and SES differences.

    PubMed

    Radziszewska, B; Richardson, J L; Dent, C W; Flay, B R

    1996-06-01

    This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.

  17. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.

  18. Could zinc prevent reproductive alterations caused by cigarette smoke in male rats?

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patrícia Carvalho; Piffer, Renata Carolina; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Cecatto; Sankako, Michele Kimie; Alves de Lima, Rodrigo Otávio; Pereira, Oduvaldo Câmara Marques

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of zinc on fertility through semen parameters, testosterone level and oxidative DNA damage to spermatozoa of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Male Wistar rats (60 days old) were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group): control, cigarette-smoking (20 cigarettes per day), zinc (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹) and zinc plus cigarette-smoking (zinc chloride 20 mg kg⁻¹ day⁻¹; 20 cigarettes per day). The treatment was applied for nine weeks and the following parameters were analysed: bodyweight, wet weights of the reproductive organs and the adrenal gland, plasma testosterone concentration, testicular function (seminal analysis and daily sperm production) and sperm DNA oxidative damage. The exposure to cigarette smoke decreased testosterone concentration, the percentage of normal morphology and the motility of spermatozoa. In addition, this exposure increased sperm DNA oxidative damage. Zinc treatment protected against the toxic damage that smoking caused to spermatozoa. This study showed a correlation between smoking and possible male infertility and subfertility, and also that the majority of smoking-induced changes in spermatozoa were prevented by zinc treatment. In conclusion, zinc, an antioxidant and stimulant of cell division, can be indicated as a promising treatment in men with infertility caused by the toxic components of cigarette smoke.

  19. Susceptibility to Smoking among Adolescents and Its Implications for Mexico’s Tobacco Control Programs. Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003–2004 and 2006–2007

    PubMed Central

    Valdés-Salgado, Raydel; Reynales-Shiguematsu, Luz Myriam; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo C; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    Smoking prevention efforts should either prevent target groups from becoming susceptible to smoking or prevent susceptible adolescents from progressing to becoming regular smokers. To describe the prevalence of susceptibility to smoking among never smoker students from cities that applied the GYTS in 2003 and 2006. The GYTS uses a two-stage cluster sample survey design that produces representative samples of students aged 12–15 years enrolled in public, private, and technical schools. The survey was undertaken at 399 schools in 9 cities. The GYTS surveyed 33,297 students during the academic years 2003–04 and 2006–07. Among never smokers, about 25% are likely to initiate smoking in the next 12 months. There are no differences in susceptibility to smoking by gender. When comparing results from 2003 and 2006, the susceptibility index has not changed, but for one city. The GYTS results are useful for monitoring susceptibility to smoking among adolescents and provide evidence for strengthening the efforts of tobacco control programs in Mexico. PMID:19440444

  20. The effects of second-hand and direct exposure to tobacco smoke on asthma and lung function in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tager, Ira B

    2008-03-01

    Cigarette smoking still is quite common in many parts of the world. In parallel, exposure to second-hand smoke continues to be common despite declines in smoking in developed countries and despite evidence of serious health effects in infants and children. This paper focuses on the effects of second-hand and direct exposure (personal smoking) on the respiratory health of adolescents, in particular effects on the occurrence of asthma and on lung function. Published data indicate that, in addition to whatever effects direct and postnatal second-hand tobacco smoke exposure have on the occurrence of asthma and impaired levels and growth of lung function in adolescents, there is an underlying alteration in the prenatal and early postnatal development of the structural and mechanical characteristics of the lung that contribute substantially to these deficits. These developmental effects may be important contributors to the future risks for impaired pulmonary function.

  1. Smoking Cessation/Prevention in the Air Force: How Adequate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    FNP , Com. Member Approval DaW APPROVED: F.G. Abdellah, EdD, ScD, RN, FAAN Date Dean CURRICULUM VITAE Name: Cheryl Anita Udensi Permanent Address...sample of charts and client interview was employed to compare providers’ documented practice protocols with established guidelines set by the Department of...validity in smoking cessation practices was utilized. A pilot study was done to determine intercoder reliability. Descriptive statistics were utilized to

  2. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  3. Adolescent Suicide: Can We Help Prevent It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Annabelle; Jones, Rosemary

    1986-01-01

    Presents lesson plans that have students explore and discuss various aspects of adolescent suicide as a means of coping with their depressive or suicidal feelings and as a preparation for them to help their peers. Each plan contains goals, objectives, activities, and suggested evaluation. Teacher information is included. (CT)

  4. Prevention of smoking in Middle School Students: psychometric assessment of the Temptations to Try Smoking Scale.

    PubMed

    McGee, Heather A; Babbin, Steven F; Redding, Colleen; Paiva, Andrea; Oatley, Karin; Meier, Kathryn S; Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F

    2012-04-01

    Establishment of psychometrically sound measures is critical to the development of effective interventions. The current study examined the psychometric properties, including factorial invariance, of a six item Temptations to Try Smoking Scale on a sample of middle school students. The sample of 6th grade students (N=3527) was from 20 Rhode Island middle schools and was 52% male and 84% white. The Temptations to Try Smoking Scale consisted of two correlated subscales: Positive Social and Curiosity/Stress. Structural equation modeling was implemented to evaluate the factorial invariance across four different subgroups defined by gender (male/female), race (white/black), ethnicity (Hispanic/Non-Hispanic), and school size (<200/ >200 6th graders). A model is factorially invariant when the measurement model is the same in each of the subgroups. Three levels of invariance were examined in sequential order: 1) Configural Invariance (unconstrained nonzero factor loadings); 2) Pattern Identity Invariance (equal factor loadings); and 3) Strong Factorial Invariance (equal factor loadings and measurement errors). Strong Factorial Invariance provided a good fit to the model across gender (CFI=.96), race (CFI=.96), ethnicity (CFI=.94), and school size (CFI=.97). Coefficient Alphas for the two subscales, Positive Social and Curiosity/Stress, were .87 and .86, respectively. These findings provide empirical support for the construct validity of the Temptations to Try Smoking Scale in middle school students.

  5. Racial differences in heritability of cigarette smoking in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Maes, Hermine H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic studies suggest low levels of cigarette use among African American adolescents relative to White U.S. adolescents, it is not known whether this may be due to racial differences in the relative contribution of genes and environment to cigarette use initiation and progression to regular use. Methods Using data from White (n=2,665) and African American (n=809) twins and full siblings sampled in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent, we fitted age-, sex- and race-specific variance decomposition models to estimate the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects on cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantity in Whites and African Americans across adolescence and adulthood. We employ a causal-contingent-common pathway model to estimate the amount of variance explained in quantity of cigarettes smoked contingent on cigarette use initiation. Results African Americans had lower cigarette use prevalence from adolescence through adulthood, and used cigarettes less heavily than Whites. Race-specific causal-contingent-common pathway models indicate that racial differences in genetic and environmental contributions to cigarette use initiation and cigarette use quantities are not present in adolescence but appear in young adulthood. Additive genetic factors were an important risk factor for cigarette use initiation for White but less so for African American young adults and adults. Conclusions Genetic and environmental contributions for cigarette use are similar by race in adolescence. In adulthood, genes have a stronger influence for cigarette use among White adolescents while the influence of the environment is minimal. For African Americans, both genetic and environmental influences are important in young adulthood and adulthood. PMID:27427414

  6. Adolescent gender differences in the determinants of tobacco smoking: a cross sectional survey among high school students in São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diverse psychosocial factors have been associated with the use of cigarettes by adolescents. We investigated gender differences in tobacco smoking, and factors correlated with smoking among boys and girls. Methods Data was collected on recent cigarette smoking (CS) and related factors, with a focus on religious beliefs, leisure activities, family structure, relationships and parental monitoring from 2,691 private school-attending youths from 28 schools in São Paulo, Brazil, selected via probability sampling. Estimates were derived via weighted hierarchical logistic regression models. Results There was no difference in the prevalence of recent cigarette smoking between boys and girls (14.2%). Older age (aORboys = 1.71[1.33-2.21]; aORgirls = 1.73[1.35-2.23]), second-hand smoke exposure at home (aORboys = 1.52[1.00-2.29]; aORgirls = 1.74[1.13-2.68]) and not having a religion (aORboys = 1.99[1.41-2.81]; aORgirls = 1.78[1.14-2.78]) were associated with CS in boys and girls. Adolescents who went out often at night were more likely to be tobacco smokers (aORboys = 8.82[3.96-19.67]; aORgirls = 14.20[6.64-30.37]). For girls, data suggest that CS was also associated with a lack of parental attention and care (aORgirls = 4.37[1.19-16.04]) and no participation in youth religious activities (aORgirls = 2.76[1.49-5.12]). For boys, CS was additionally associated with the loss of one or both parents (aORboys = 3.75[1.78-7.85]). Conclusions Although older age, living with smokers at home and lack of religion were common contributing factors to cigarette smoking among all adolescents, girls were influenced to a greater degree by family relationships and religiosity than boys. The study results may be materially important to the development of prevention programs that influence determinants connected to gender and the implementation of single-core models of prevention; gender differences must be considered in order to reduce adolescent CS. PMID:21129177

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  8. Association of passive and active smoking with self-rated health and life satisfaction in Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN IV study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Safiri, Saeid; Eslami-Shahr Babaki, Amir; Matin, Nassim; Motamed-Gorji, Nazgol; Motlagh, Mohammad-Esmaeil; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Mansourian, Morteza; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    status could affect LS and SRH in adolescents. Therefore, smoking prevention strategies should be considered as a health priority in school health services for promoting psychological well-being in children and adolescents. PMID:28196944

  9. A comprehensive study of smoking in primary school children in Hong Kong: implications for prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J; Hedley, A J; Lam, T H; Betson, C L; Wong, C M

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with smoking behaviour in primary school children in Hong Kong. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey in which both children and parents completed questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the smoking status of the children; and risk factors (knowledge of and attitude to smoking and demographic and socioeconomic background) were identified as predictors of ever/never smoking. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Altogether 9598 primary school children, aged 8-13 years, and attending 27 schools from two districts in Hong Kong participated. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of ever-smoking was 12% (1119)-15% (760) in boys and 7% (359) in girls. It ranged from 3% in 8 year old girls to 52% in 13 year old boys. The factors associated with ever-smoking included the following: being a boy (adjusted odds ratio 2.21; 95% confidence interval 1.89, 2.59), increasing age per year (1.48; 1.40, 1.57), living in Kwai Tsing district (1.29; 1.10, 1.50), having one or more smokers at home (2.07; 1.78, 2.39), and having a father who was not working (1.41; 1.19, 1.67). Children who were ever-smokers had both seen and approved of their friends' smoking (8.79; 5.33, 14.50), had a more positive attitude towards smoking (3.35; 2.21, 5.09), and were more successful in recognising cigarette brand names and logos (1.67; 1.42, 1.96), but they lacked confidence (1.78; 1.32, 2.39). CONCLUSIONS: The influences on child smoking are multifactorial and programmes in Hong Kong are falling to curb them. The control of these risk factors must be incorporated in the smoking prevention policy of Hong Kong and supported by future enforced legislation. PMID:9229051

  10. [Strategies for the prevention and treatment of allergies in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Schröter, C

    2004-12-09

    Over and beyond the avoidance of allergies, prophylactic measures can also prevent the development of lower airway disease from upper airway disease, for example, bronchial asthma from allergic rhinitis. A further protective effect can be achieved by reducing both prenatal and postnatal allergens. A major concept of prevention--not merely of pulmonary function changes and the development of allergies--is the avoidance of exposure to passive smoking. With regard to pharmacotherapeutic agents, both official approval for their use by the respective age group, and the dearth of study-based data need to be taken into account. To ensure the successful application of inhalative agents, the use of appropriate inhalation aids as also ensuring the correct inhalation technique are urgently recommended, particularly in the case of children and adolescents.

  11. Predictors of nicotine dependence symptoms among never-smoking adolescents: A longitudinal analysis from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study

    PubMed Central

    Racicot, Simon; McGrath, Jennifer J.; Karp, Igor; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies suggest some adolescents who have never smoked cigarettes experience nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms and that exposure to second-hand smoke, social exposure to smoking, and alcohol use are plausible correlates. The aim of this study was to replicate and extend these findings by investigating possible predictors of ND symptoms longitudinally. Method Participants included 847 secondary school students who had never smoked cigarettes enrolled in the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study. Adolescents completed self-report questionnaires measuring smoking status, ND symptoms, and risk factors for ND in smokers (i.e., socio-demographic indicators, social exposure to smoking, psychosocial indicators, and substance use) in 20 survey cycles from 7 to 11th grade. Generalized estimating equations, which account for repeated measures within individuals, were used to test the predictors of ND symptoms. Results Consistent with previous research, 7.8% of never-smokers across all cycles endorsed at least one ND symptom. Younger age (p ≤ .001), country of birth (p ≤ .05), peer smoking (p ≤ .001), teacher smoking (p ≤ .05), depression (p ≤ .05), stress (p ≤ .001), lower self-esteem (p ≤ .05), impulsivity (p ≤ .05), and alcohol use (p ≤ .001) predicted greater ND symptoms in multivariable modeling. Conclusions Replicating previous cross-sectional findings, peer smoking and alcohol use predicted ND symptoms among never-smoking adolescents. Extending these findings, previous predictors only observed among ever-smokers, including socio-demographic and psychosocial indicators, also predicted ND symptoms. This longitudinal investigation demonstrated the temporal relation of the predictors preceding ND symptoms. Future research should consider longer prospective studies with younger children to capture early onset of ND symptoms and with longer follow-up to detect eventual smoking uptake. PMID:23195923

  12. Exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation among New York City adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Sacks, Rachel; Rane, Madhura; Kansagra, Susan M

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to estimate the relationship between exposure to tobacco retail outlets and smoking initiation in a racially diverse urban setting. Using data from the 2011 NYC Youth Risk Behavior Survey, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure-initiation relationship and test for effect modification, while controlling for covariates. The predicted probability of smoking initiation from the multivariable model increased from 7.7 % for zero times a week exposed to tobacco retailers to 16.0 % for exposure seven times or more per week. The odds of initiation were significantly higher among adolescents exposed to tobacco retail outlets two times or more a week compared with those exposed less often (AOR = 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.08, 1.84). Risk-taking behavior modified the relationship between exposure and initiation, with the odds of initiation highest among those low in risk-taking (AOR = 1.78; 95 % CI: 1.14, 1.56). These results are consistent with past research, showing that frequent exposure to tobacco marketing in retail settings is associated with increased odds of initiation. Reducing exposure to tobacco retail marketing could play an important role in curtailing smoking among adolescents, especially those less prone to risk-taking.

  13. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 papers found 12 studies eligible for inclusion. It can be concluded that injury prevention strategies that focus on preseason conditioning, functional training, education, balance and sport‐specific skills, which should be continued throughout the sporting season, are effective. The evidence for the effectiveness of protective equipment in injury prevention is inconclusive and requires further assessment. PMID:17496070

  14. Injury prevention and the attainment of child and adolescent health

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Alison; Peden, Margie; Soori, Hamid; Bartolomeos, Kidist

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Urgent attention is required to tackle the problem of child and adolescent injury across the world. There have been considerable shifts in the epidemiological patterns of child deaths; while great progress has been made in preventing infectious diseases, the exposure of children and adolescents to the risks of injury appear to be increasing and will continue to do so in the future. The issue of injuries is too often absent from child and adolescent health agendas. In December 2008, WHO and the United Nations Children’s Fund published the World report on child injury prevention, calling global attention to the problem of child injuries. This article expands on the report’s arguments that child injuries must be integrated into child health initiatives and proposes initial steps for achieving this integration. PMID:19551258

  15. Preventing the sexual transmission of AIDS during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G J

    1988-03-01

    In order to be effective, the national effort to contain the spread of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) must include a youth focus. Knowledge of adolescent sexual behavior, drug use, and sexually transmitted diseases suggests that many adolescents are in jeopardy of acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections; and they are among those most likely to benefit from preventative efforts as they explore adult roles and lifestyles. Preventative education should particularly target gay and other homosexually active young men. Effective teaching uses a variety of approaches and media, both inside and outside the classroom. Learning about AIDS is most likely to effect behavioral change when accompanied by other programs to build social supports, self-esteem, and positive identity. The ethical and rational use of HIV antibody testing may be a helpful adjunct to education for certain adolescents. Ultimately, our society's ability to address complex, associated social issues will determine our ability to control AIDS.

  16. Development of a Targeted Smoking Relapse-Prevention Intervention for Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Lauren R; Meade, Cathy D; Diaz, Diana B; Carrington, Monica S; Brandon, Thomas H; Jacobsen, Paul B; McCaffrey, Judith C; Haura, Eric B; Simmons, Vani N

    2016-08-01

    We describe the series of iterative steps used to develop a smoking relapse-prevention intervention customized to the needs of cancer patients. Informed by relevant literature and a series of preliminary studies, an educational tool (DVD) was developed to target the unique smoking relapse risk factors among cancer patients. Learner verification interviews were conducted with 10 cancer patients who recently quit smoking to elicit feedback and inform the development of the DVD. The DVD was then refined using iterative processes and feedback from the learner verification interviews. Major changes focused on visual appeal, and the inclusion of additional testimonials and graphics to increase comprehension of key points and further emphasize the message that the patient is in control of their ability to maintain their smoking abstinence. Together, these steps resulted in the creation of a DVD titled Surviving Smokefree®, which represents the first smoking relapse-prevention intervention for cancer patients. If found effective, the Surviving Smokefree® DVD is an easily disseminable and low-cost portable intervention which can assist cancer patients in maintaining smoking abstinence.

  17. Partners in Prevention: Whole School Approaches to Prevent Adolescent Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Marcia A., Ed.; Wooley, Susan F., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This resource describes how pregnancy prevention efforts can be integrated into the various components of a school health program (the linkages between classroom instruction to prevent adolescent pregnancy and the school's health and mental health services, the necessary administrative policies, the type and extent of faculty and staff…

  18. The soundtrack of substance use: music preference and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2009-01-01

    A connection between preferences for heavy metal, rap, reggae, electronic dance music, and substance use has previously been established. However, evidence as to the gender-specific links between substance use and a wider range of music genres in a nationally representative sample of adolescents has to date been missing. In 2003, the Dutch government funded the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use (DNSSSU), a self-report questionnaire among a representative school-based sample of 7,324 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years, assessed music preference, tobacco, and alcohol use and a set of relevant covariates related to both substance use and music preference. Overall, when all other factors were controlled, punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse, and reggae were associated with more substance use, while pop and classical music marked less substance use. While prior research showed that liking heavy metal and rap predicts substance use, in this study a preference for rap/hip-hop only indicated elevated smoking among girls, whereas heavy metal was associated with less smoking among boys and less drinking among girls. The types of music that mark increased substance use may vary historically and cross-culturally, but, in general, preferences for nonmainstream music are associated positively with substance use, and preferences for mainstream pop and types of music preferred by adults (classical music) mark less substance use among adolescents. As this is a correlational study no valid conclusions in the direction of causation of the music-substance use link can be drawn.

  19. Say It Straight: Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Patterns of drug use among teenagers indicate they are highly influenced by peers. To examine the influence of Say It Straight, an alcohol/drug abuse prevention program aimed at teaching adolescents to deal with peer pressure, sixth, seventh and eighth graders (N=509) created and role played situations in which they wanted to say "no" to…

  20. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  1. Adolescent Sexuality: Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelli, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…

  2. Adolescent Use of Two Types of HIV Prevention Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Shillington, Audrey M.; Min, Jong Won; Clapp, John D.; Mueller, Kristin; Hovell, Melbourne

    2008-01-01

    This study compared two groups of adolescents seeking help at HIV prevention drop-in agencies. The first group attended agencies in low-income Hispanic neighborhoods which recruited within the locale. The second group of youth attended agencies that recruited based upon a specific population--they targeted homeless and LGBQ youth. We explored the…

  3. Prospects for Preventing Drug Use among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.; Bell, Robert M.

    This report describes an experimental program developed by the RAND Corporation to prevent or reduce the use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana by adolescents. Section 1 introduces Project ALERT and presents major findings and conclusions from a study which assessed the program's effects at several points over a period of 15 months in 30…

  4. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  5. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  6. Prevention of injuries to children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rivara, F P; Aitken, M

    1998-01-01

    Injury prevention is one of the most important preventive health challenges for pediatricians worldwide. A science of injury control has developed. Matching a child's skill and development age is needed for anticipatory guidance. Poor children living in rural areas are at greatest risk and require continuous reinforcement. Family function relates closely to injuries and recovery from injury. Prevention involves education, legislation, environmental modification, and engineering techniques.

  7. Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16 years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

  8. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity

    PubMed Central

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Methods: Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Results: Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. Conclusion: The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation. PMID:15564218

  9. Preventing the Spread of Suicide among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, William

    1985-01-01

    Communities across the country are having to deal with teenage suicide--a tragedy because it is preventable in many situations. Characteristics of a suicidal person are discussed. Recommendations for intervening with students after the suicide death of a peer in order to help prevent subsequent suicide deaths are made. (RM)

  10. Preventive adolescent health care in family practice: a program summary.

    PubMed

    Knishkowy, Barry; Schein, Moshe; Kiderman, Alexander; Velber, Aliza; Edman, Richard; Yaphe, John

    2006-06-07

    The AMA Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) has been the cornerstone of preventive care for teenagers since its publication in 1994. Despite this, there has been little documentation of their implementation in the family medicine literature. This article gives an overview of a family practice-based adolescent preventive health program based on GAPS recommendations, and reports on compliance, feasibility and health issues. A Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC) program targeted all adolescent patients aged 12-18 years in two Israeli family practices. 321 teenagers were invited to participate. Every 7th and 10th grader was invited for a preventive health visit with the family physician and nurse. The visits included a medical evaluation, screening and counseling regarding health issues recommended by GAPS, and counseling regarding personal health concerns. Parents were also invited to meet with the staff. 184 (57%) of the adolescents invited for health visits attended. The overall visit time was 47 minutes, including 12 minutes for a questionnaire and 35 minutes with providers. Common biomedical problems included overweight, acne and dysmenorrhea. Health risk behaviors and psychosocial problems included cigarette or alcohol use, dieting, infrequent/never seat belt use, and feeling depressed. 78% wanted to discuss at least one personal health issue. 27% were invited for follow-up visits. Only 3% of the parents came for visits. A community-oriented approach facilitates bringing adolescents for preventive health visits. Many previously undetected health issues, particularly psychosocial and behavioral, are revealed during these visits. A concerns checklist aids in addressing personal health concerns.

  11. Smoking prevention and cessation programme in Cystic Fibrosis: integrating an environmental health approach

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, Juan Antonio; López-Fernández, María Trinidad; Llano, Rayden; Pastor-Vivero, María Dolores; Mondéjar-López, Pedro; Sánchez-Sauco, MF; Sánchez-Solís, M

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been several studies assessing the epidemiology and effects of tobacco smoke in the cystic fibrosis (CF) population, but few address the efforts of smoking cessation interventions. Our objective is to present one tobacco prevention and cessation programme targeting patients with CF in the Mediterranean region of Murcia (Spain). Methods All registered patients in the Regional CF unit (n=105) in 2008 were included in a cross-sectional and prospective uncontrolled study of tobacco use and exposure in CF patients using a baseline and one-year follow-up. Target population includes both patients and other family members living at home. The study included an initial telephone questionnaire, measurement of lung function, urinary cotinine levels, and several telephone counselling calls and/or personalized smoking cessation services. Results Of the 97 contacted patients, 59.8% (n=58) were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), 12.4% (n=12) had smoked at one time, and 14.3% (n=8) of patients over the age of 15 actively smoked. The mean age was 31.13 (range: 19-45). Of the non-smokers (n=89), 56.2% reported ETS and 26.9% live with at least one smoker at home. 49.2% had urinary cotinine levels >10 ng/ml. The correlation found between patients’ cotinine levels and their reported tobacco exposure was (0.77, p<0.0001). Active smoking by mothers during pregnancy was associated with significantly lower lung function in young CF patients (-0,385, p= 0.04). At the one-year follow-up, 13 individuals made attempts to stop smoking, 6 of which are now ex-smokers (12.5% of all smokers). Conclusions Smoking during pregnancy adversely affects lung function in individuals with CF. Tobacco he targeted tobacco prevention and cessation programmes are an effective and vital component for CF disease management. The trained professionals in prevention and smoking cessation services could provide patients with adequate follow-up, integrating an environmental health

  12. Effects of In-School and Tailored Out-of-School Smoking Prevention among Dutch Vocational School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, Marlein; Mesters, Ilse; van Breukelen, Gerard; De Vries, Hein

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates a smoking prevention intervention aimed at vocational school students, consisting of an existing Dutch in-school program (three lessons each lasting 50 min) and a computer-based tailored out-of-school program (three tailored letters with smoking prevention messages mailed to students' homes). Nineteen schools that already…

  13. Developing Comprehensive Smoking Control Programs in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brink, Susan G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    To counteract influences which encourage children and adolescents to smoke, schools can provide smoking prevention and cessation education and a supportive nonsmoking environment. This article suggests resources to develop such programs through student education, school and district policy, and/or governmental regulation. (Author/JL)

  14. Planning an effective anti-smoking mass media campaign targeting adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pechmann, C; Reibling, E T

    2000-05-01

    This article addresses the following issues: Can an anti-smoking campaign that depends largely on mass media vehicles effectively reduce adolescent tobacco use? Why is an integrated campaign recommended and what are the steps in designing such a campaign? How should the campaign be evaluated? Specific topics include recommended campaign expenditures, target audience identification, selection of persuasive message content, executional (stylistic) considerations, media buying decisions, the use of focus group research and advertising copy-testing research, and outcome evaluations. It is concluded that comprehensive strategic planning and extensive research at all phases of the campaign are essential to success.

  15. Nearly 800,000 deaths prevented due to declines in smoking

    Cancer.gov

    Twentieth-century tobacco control programs and policies were responsible for preventing more than 795,000 lung cancer deaths in the United States from 1975 through 2000. If all cigarette smoking in this country had ceased following the release of the firs

  16. School-Based Smoking Prevention with Media Literacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy

    2011-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…

  17. Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Through an Evidence-Based Program: Effects of the Italian Adaptation of Life Skills Training.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Veronica; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2017-03-28

    Evidence-based preventive interventions for adolescent substance use, violence, and mental health issues are increasingly being adapted and disseminated internationally. In the present paper, we report the results of an effectiveness study that was part of a comprehensive initiative by a coalition of health promotion organizations in the Lombardy region of Italy to select, culturally adapt, implement, evaluate, and sustain an evidence-based drug abuse prevention program developed in the USA. Findings are presented from a large-scale effectiveness study of the Life Skills Training prevention program among over 3000 students attending 55 middle schools in Italy. The prevention program taught drug refusal skills, antidrug norms, personal self-management skills, and general social skills. Relative to comparison group students, students who received the prevention program were less likely to initiate smoking at the post-test and 2-year follow-up, and less likely to initiate weekly drunkenness at the 1-year follow-up. The program had direct positive effects on several cognitive, attitudinal, and skill variables believed to play a protective role in adolescent substance use. The findings from this study show that a drug abuse prevention program originally designed for adolescents in the USA is effective in a sample of Italian youth when a rigorous and systematic approach to cultural adaptation is followed that incorporates the input of multiple stakeholders.

  18. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Promotions Among Young Adolescents as a Predictor of Established Smoking in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A.; White, Martha M.; Messer, Karen; Pierce, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions during young adolescence predicts young adult smoking 6 years later. Methods. Two longitudinal cohorts of adolescents drawn from the 1993 and 1996 versions of the California Tobacco Surveys were followed 3 and 6 years later. At baseline, adolescents were aged 12 to 15 years and were not established smokers. The outcome measure was established smoking at final follow-up. Receptivity to cigarette advertising and promotions was included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis along with demographic and other variables. Results. The rate of established smoking at follow-up was significantly greater among members of the 1993 through 1999 cohort (21.0%) than among members of the 1996 through 2002 cohort (15.6%). However, in both cohorts, having a favorite cigarette advertisement and owning or being willing to use a tobacco promotional item showed nearly identical adjusted odds of future adult smoking (1.46 and 1.84, respectively). Conclusions. Despite the success of tobacco control efforts in reducing youth smoking, tobacco marketing remains a potent influence on whether young adolescents become established smokers in young adulthood (18–21 years of age). PMID:17600271

  19. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.

  20. Erythromycin prevents the pulmonary inflammation induced by exposure to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Mikura, Shinichiro; Wada, Hiroo; Higaki, Manabu; Yasutake, Tetsuo; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kamiya, Shigeru; Goto, Hajime

    2011-07-01

    The effect of erythromycin on the inflammation caused by exposure to cigarette smoke was investigated in this study. Mice were exposed either to cigarette smoke or to environmental air (control), and some mice exposed to cigarette smoke were treated with oral erythromycin (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days). Pulmonary inflammation was assessed by determining the cellular content of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of various mediators, including keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, surfactant protein (SP)-D, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 in lung tissue were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. The exposure to cigarette smoke increased significantly the numbers of neutrophils (P = 0.029), macrophages (P = 0.029), and lymphocytes (P = 0.029) recovered in BAL fluid. Moreover, mRNA levels of KC (P = 0.029), MIP-2 (P = 0.029), SP-D (P = 0.029), and GM-CSF (P = 0.057) in the lung tissue were higher in mice exposed to cigarette smoke than in mice exposed to environmental air. In the erythromycin-treated mice that were exposed also to cigarette smoke, both neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were significantly lower in the BAL fluid than those in the vehicle-treated mice (P = 0.029). Erythromycin-treated mice exposed to cigarette smoke showed a trend of lower mRNA levels of KC and TNF-α in the lung tissue than those in the vehicle-treated mice, although the statistical significance was not achieved (P = 0.057). Our data demonstrated that erythromycin prevented lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke, in parallel to the reduced mRNA levels of KC and TNF-α.

  1. Translating primary into 'positive' prevention for adolescents in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Jasna, Loos; Sabrina, Bakeera-Kitaka; Obong'o, Christopher; Eric, Wobudeya; Buvé, Anne

    2016-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop positive prevention interventions for adolescents living with HIV in high endemic regions. Adapting existing evidence-based interventions for resource-constrained settings is effective when the intervention's theoretical core elements are preserved while achieving cultural relevance. We describe the process of adapting a primary prevention to a secondary/positive prevention programme for adolescents living with HIV in Kenya and Uganda. The systematic adaptation was guided by the Centers for Diseases Control's map for the adaptation process, describing an iterative process. The procedure included: assessing the target positive prevention group's needs (safer sex; fertility-related issues), identifying the potential interventions through a literature review, conducting qualitative adaptation research to identify areas for adaptation by ensuring cultural relevance (revising the intervention logic by adding topics such as adherence; HIV-related stigma; HIV-disclosure; safer sex), pilot-testing the adapted programme and conducting a process evaluation of its first implementation. Areas added onto the original intervention's logic framework, based on social cognitive theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour were information and skills building on sexual relationships and protection behaviour, prevention of vertical HIV transmission, contraception, HIV-disclosure, HIV-related stigma, HIV-treatment and adherence. The process evaluation using mixed methods showed that we delivered a feasible and acceptable intervention for HIV-positive adolescents aged 13-17 years. The systematic approach adopted facilitated the development of a contextualized and developmentally appropriate (i.e. age-specific) intervention for adolescents living with HIV.

  2. Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Interventions and Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; And Others

    Widespread concern about teenage childbearing led to the establishment of numerous intervention programs throughout the United States during the 1980s. Nevertheless, between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s, the teen birth rate rose in every state. This volume examines numerous prevention programs and makes recommendations for establishing…

  3. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  4. Effect of tobacco smoke exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on growth from birth to adolescence: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non

  5. Factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and after release from jail: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of cigarette smoking among incarcerated adult men and women is three-four times higher than in the general population, ranging from 70-80%. However, little is known about factors associated with smoking among incarcerated adolescents, especially upon their re-entry into communities after release from jail. The current study explores factors associated with smoking among adolescent males prior to incarceration and one year after their release from jail. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Returning Educated African-American and Latino Men to Enriched Neighborhoods (REAL MEN) study, which was designed to reduce HIV risk, substance use, and recidivism among 16–18 year old males leaving jail. We examined differences between smokers and non-smokers at the time of their incarceration (N = 552) and one year after their release from jail (N = 397) using t-tests and chi-square tests. Using logistic and linear regression we examined factors associated with current smoking status, frequency of smoking, and quantity of cigarettes smoked per day both prior to the young men’s incarceration and one year after their release from jail. Results Prior to incarceration, 62% of the young men reported smoking, and one-year after jail release, 69% reported smoking. Prior to incarceration, foster care history, not living with parents, not attending school, drug sales, number of sex partners, gang involvement, current drug charges, and number of prior arrests were positively associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. Having violent charges was inversely associated with smoking indicators prior to incarceration. One-year after release from jail, foster care history and number of prior arrests before the index incarceration were associated with smoking indicators. Conclusions Several problem behaviors may be associated with adolescent males’ smoking behaviors prior to incarceration. However, the young men

  6. [Smoking and orthodontics].

    PubMed

    Kuitert, R B

    2006-12-01

    In view of the severe adverse effects that smoking has on health, much energy is being invested especially to prevent adolescents from starting to smoke or to get them to stop. Since orthodontists have regular contact with a rather large group of young people during the period when they begin to smoke, a study was conducted to determine whether these specialists could be engaged in an organized anti-smoking programme. One of the relevant considerations was that orthodontists are succesful in motivating adolescents to wear braces. Research has shown that dentists in an organized programme in the United States were able to achieve a significant reduction in the percentage of adult smokers. The research findings revealed, however, that the orthodontists nevertheless lacked sufficient training and motivation to be effectively employed in an anti-smoking programme. The results of some clinical trials with adolescent patients were disappointing, but they did make clear what needs to be done to achieve improvements. Well organized involvement in a sound anti-smoking programme in The Netherlands will require very careful preparation and will only be able to start after well designed and successful clinical trials.

  7. A framework to prevent and control tobacco among adolescents and children: introducing the IMPACT model.

    PubMed

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Neha

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children.

  8. Smoking Cessation

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  9. Secondhand Smoke

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2017 ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010 [accessed 2017 ...

  10. [Health promotion in Germany 10 years after the Ottawa Charter--exemplified by prevention of smoking].

    PubMed

    Luber, E

    1997-06-01

    In Germany, there is no national preventive policy defining health problems, priorities and development of adequate intervention strategies including the factors of change. Thus, preventive potential remains unused. This is most evident for societal strategies, whereas individual strategies have been promoted when the responsibility for health promotion (h.p.) was resting with the sickness funds. In 1996, financing of h.p. through sickness funds was stopped. Redefining structures for preventive measures is overdue. Health authorities should play an active role in focussing on the coordination of health promotion. These arguments are discussed using the example of non-smoking campaign policies.

  11. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents.

  12. Epidemiology, risk factors, intervention, and prevention of adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Rosewater, K M; Burr, B H

    1998-08-01

    Increasing rates of adolescent suicide are a significant health concern and the third leading cause of death for this age group. Recent research into psychiatric, gender-related, family, cultural and neurobiologic risk factors is reviewed. The effects of suicide exposure and media influences are also examined. Although many risk factors have been identified, the application of this knowledge to clinical practice requires further study. The limited number of studies on prevention and intervention strategies are discussed. High rates of nonadherence to follow-up remain problematic. More research is needed to develop appropriate treatments, prevention programs and outcome measures.

  13. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    PubMed

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  14. FOXJ1 prevents cilia growth inhibition by cigarette smoke in human airway epithelium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brekman, Angelika; Walters, Matthew S; Tilley, Ann E; Crystal, Ronald G

    2014-11-01

    Airway epithelium ciliated cells play a central role in clearing the lung of inhaled pathogens and xenobiotics, and cilia length and coordinated beating are important for airway clearance. Based on in vivo studies showing that the airway epithelium of healthy smokers has shorter cilia than that of healthy nonsmokers, we investigated the mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke-mediated inhibition of ciliogenesis by assessing normal human airway basal cell differentiation in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures in the presence of nontoxic concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Measurements of cilia length from Day 28 ALI cultures demonstrated that CSE exposure was associated with shorter cilia (P < 0.05), reproducing the effect of cigarette smoking on cilia length observed in vivo. This phenotype correlated with a broad CSE-mediated suppression of genes involved in cilia-related transcriptional regulation, intraflagellar transport, cilia motility, structural integrity, and basal body development but not of control genes or epithelial barrier integrity. The CSE-mediated inhibition of cilia growth could be prevented by lentivirus-mediated overexpression of FOXJ1, the major cilia-related transcription factor, which led to partial reversal of expression of cilia-related genes suppressed by CSE. Together, the data suggest that components of cigarette smoke are responsible for a broad suppression of genes involved in cilia growth, but, by stimulating ciliogenesis with the transcription factor FOXJ1, it may be possible to maintain close to normal cilia length despite the stress of cigarette smoking.

  15. Commentary on the special issue on the adolescent brain: Adolescence, trajectories, and the importance of prevention.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Susan L

    2016-11-01

    Adolescence as highlighted in this special issue is a period of tremendous growth, synaptic exuberance, and plasticity, but also a period for the emergence of mental illness and addiction. This commentary aims to stimulate research on prevention science to reduce the impact of early life events that often manifest during adolescence. By promoting a better understanding of what creates a normal and abnormal trajectory, the reviews by van Duijvenvoorde et al., Kilford et al., Lichenstein et al., and Tottenham and Galvan in this special issue comprehensively describe how the adolescent brain develops under typical conditions and how this process can go awry in humans. Preclinical reviews also within this issue describe how adolescents have prolonged extinction periods to maximize learning about their environment (Baker et al.), whereas Schulz and Sisk focus on the importance of puberty and how it interacts with stress (Romeo). Caballero and Tseng then set the stage of describing the neural circuitry that is often central to these changes and psychopathology. Factors that affect the mis-wiring of the brain for illness, including prenatal exposure to anti-mitotic agents (Gomes et al.) and early life stress and inflammation (Schwarz and Brenhouse), are included as examples of how exposure to early adversity manifests. These reviews are synthesized and show how information from the maturational stages that precede or occur during adolescence is likely to hold the key towards optimizing development to produce an adolescent and adult that is resilient and well adapted to their environment.

  16. Commentary on the special issue on the adolescent brain: Adolescence, trajectories, and the importance of prevention

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adolescence as highlighted in this special issue is a period of tremendous growth, synaptic exuberance, and plasticity, but also a period for the emergence of mental illness and addiction. This commentary aims to stimulate research on prevention science to reduce the impact of early life events that often manifest during adolescence. By promoting a better understanding of what creates a normal and abnormal trajectory, the reviews by van Duijvenvoorde et al., Kilford et al., Lichenstein et al., and Tottenham and Galvan in this special issue comprehensively describe how the adolescent brain develops under typical conditions and how this process can go awry in humans. Preclinical reviews also within this issue describe how adolescents have prolonged extinction periods to maximize learning about their environment (Baker et al.), whereas Schulz and Sisk focus on the importance of puberty and how it interacts with stress (Romeo). Caballero and Tseng then set the stage of describing the neural circuitry that is often central to these changes and psychopathology. Factors that affect the mis-wiring of the brain for illness, including prenatal exposure to anti-mitotic agents (Gomes et al.) and early life stress and inflammation (Schwarz and Brenhouse), are included as examples of how exposure to early adversity manifests. These reviews are synthesized and show how information from the maturational stages that precede or occur during adolescence is likely to hold the key towards optimizing development to produce an adolescent and adult that is resilient and well adapted to their environment. PMID:27423540

  17. Salient Environmental and Perceptual Correlates of Current and Established Smoking for 2 Representative Cohorts of Indiana Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Bodde, Amy E.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A secondary analysis of 2000 and 2004 Indiana Youth Tobacco Survey (IYTS) data was conducted to investigate salient environmental and perceptual correlates of adolescents' current and established smoking while controlling for demographic variables such as gender, grade, and race/ethnicity and to compare the pattern of significant…

  18. [The assesment of health status of adolescents exposed to tobacco smoke with cotinine as an exposure biomarker].

    PubMed

    Dziuda-Gorzkowska, Maria R; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Nowacka, Ewa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of the health status of adolescents exposed to tobacco smoke. The questionnaire and internal examination covered 202 of Lodz high school students. The tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by cotinine measurement in urine with the HPLC method. The results indicate intensive passive and active exposure to tobacco smoke among the examined adolescents, which was reflected in the cotinine levels in urine, 30-40 times higher in smokers than in the remaining subjects. The active smokers more frequently manifested problems of respiratory nad neurovegetative systems, however there were no differences in the subjective study results as well as in the frequency rate of using health care services by the active smokers and the remaining subjects.

  19. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e

  20. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. Methods. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. Results. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. Conclusions. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use. PMID:27689502

  1. Perspective: Physician education: a promising strategy to prevent adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2011-03-01

    Many young people who present to primary care providers (PCPs) have high levels of emotional distress and/or suicidal ideation. Therefore, PCPs are in an ideal position to recognize and respond to early symptoms and distress signals that accompany suicide warning signs, yet they underrecognize mood disorders and suicidality among youth. Medical school and residency programs typically provide inadequate training on pediatric mental health and adolescent suicide prevention. Thus, PCPs lack complete knowledge of risk factors and feel unprepared to handle mental health problems among youth. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and describe risk factors, protective factors, and warning signs. They propose that physician education represents a promising strategy to prevent adolescent suicide, and they establish the need for improved educational opportunities that would provide PCPs with the necessary skills and supports to identify and respond to psychosocial concerns that may increase suicide risk among youth. They recommend strategies, methods, and content areas for addressing educational gaps, as well as organizational approaches to support enhanced physician education. They also suggest areas for future research.

  2. Parenting practices and adolescent risk behavior: rules on smoking and drinking also predict cannabis use and early sexual debut.

    PubMed

    de Looze, Margaretha; van den Eijnden, Regina; Verdurmen, Jacqueline; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Schulten, Ingrid; Vollebergh, Wilma; ter Bogt, Tom

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has provided considerable support for idea that increased parental support and control are strong determinants of lower prevalence levels of adolescent risk behavior. Much less is known on the association between specific parenting practices, such as concrete rules with respect to smoking and drinking and adolescent risk behavior. The present paper examined whether such concrete parental rules (1) have an effect on the targeted behaviors and (2) predict other, frequently co-occurring, risk behaviors (i.e., cannabis use and early sexual intercourse). These hypotheses were tested in a nationally representative sample of 12- to 16-year-old adolescents in the Netherlands. We found that both types of rules were associated with a lower prevalence of the targeted behaviors (i.e., smoking and drinking). In addition, independent of adolescent smoking and drinking behaviors, parental rules on smoking predicted a lower prevalence of cannabis use and early sexual intercourse, and parental rules on alcohol use also predicted a lower prevalence of early sexual intercourse. This study showed that concrete parental rule setting is more strongly related to lower levels of risk behaviors in adolescents compared to the more general parenting practices (i.e., support and control). Additionally, the effects of such rules do not only apply to the targeted behavior but extend to related behaviors as well. These findings are relevant to the public health domain and suggest that a single intervention program that addresses a limited number of concrete parenting practices, in combination with traditional support and control practices, may be effective in reducing risk behaviors in adolescence.

  3. [A proposal for monitoring smoking prevention programs with the use of indicators].

    PubMed

    Focarile, F; Ferro, S; Monti, C; Donato, F; Gambi, A; Gentilini, F

    1997-01-01

    Health administrators are aware that the adoption of prevention programs of proven efficacy does not, by itself, guarantee good results as several factors can reduce effectiveness in a specific contest. Outcome evaluation and performance monitoring is thus growing, also with the aim of a more efficient resource use. On these premises, we describe a proposal for performance monitoring of smoking prevention programs, developed from literature and original data from the authors. The system is made of three components: a) five questions to assess smoking behavior (internal coherence, (Cronbach alpha = 0.731; k ranging from 0.39 to 0.76): b) two indicators (smoking prevalence and precentage of students reached): c) theorical and practical (number to sample according to population size) information for homogeneous and efficient cluster sampling. Performance is evaluated on account of three possible determinants of the results and explicit criteria are given to reach five possible decisions. The system was tested in five Health Districts of the Emilia Romagna Region with a population of 6370 8th class students and guided further planning and implementation. Further implementation and use of the system will give us information about the utility of this proposal, that could also be adopted as a model for the evaluation of other school prevention programs.

  4. Self-Help Booklets for Preventing Postpartum Smoking Relapse: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Meade, Cathy D.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Lopez Khoury, Elena N.; Sutton, Steven K.; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We tested a series of self-help booklets designed to prevent postpartum smoking relapse. Methods. We recruited 700 women in months 4 through 8 of pregnancy, who quit smoking for their pregnancy. We randomized the women to receive either (1) 10 Forever Free for Baby and Me (FFB) relapse prevention booklets, mailed until 8 months postpartum, or (2) 2 existing smoking cessation materials, as a usual care control (UCC). Assessments were completed at baseline and at 1, 8, and 12 months postpartum. Results. We received baseline questionnaires from 504 women meeting inclusion criteria. We found a main effect for treatment at 8 months, with FFB yielding higher abstinence rates (69.6%) than UCC (58.5%). Treatment effect was moderated by annual household income and age. Among lower income women (< $30 000), treatment effects were found at 8 and 12 months postpartum, with respective abstinence rates of 72.2% and 72.1% for FFB and 53.6% and 50.5% for UCC. No effects were found for higher income women. Conclusions. Self-help booklets appeared to be efficacious and offered a low-cost modality for providing relapse-prevention assistance to low-income pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22994170

  5. Temporal associations of cigarette smoking with social influences, academic performance, and delinquency: a four-wave longitudinal study from ages 13-23.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Martínez, José Felipe; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Edelen, Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the temporal associations of cigarette smoking with prosmoking social influences, academic performance, and delinquency in a cohort of 6,527 adolescents surveyed at ages 13, 16, 18, and 23 years. Prosmoking peer and family influences were risk factors for future smoking throughout adolescence, with family influences perhaps also operating indirectly through the adolescent's exposure to prosmoking peers. There were reciprocal associations of youth smoking with parental approval, peer smoking, and poor grades (but not delinquency), with youth smoking emerging as a stronger antecedent than consequence of these psychosocial factors. Few gender differences in these associations were observed. Implications of these findings for efforts to prevent youth smoking are discussed.

  6. The influence of smoking on von Willebrand factor is already manifest in healthy adolescent females: the Floren-teen (Florence Teenager) Study.

    PubMed

    Prisco, D; Fedi, S; Brunelli, T; Chiarugi, L; Lombardi, A; Gianni, R; Santoro, E; Cappelletti, C; Pepe, G; Gensini, G F; Abbate, R

    1999-01-01

    The early onset of atherosclerosis and the involvement of physiological biochemical, and environmental factors in its pathogenesis is well documented. Few data are available on the role of risk factors related to hemostasis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the young and, in particular, little information is available on adolescent populations. In the Study of Preventive Medicine and Education Program (Floren-teen Study), von Willebrand factor, a risk factor for cardiovascular disorder, was studied, together with classical cardiovascular risk factors, in apparently healthy students from two high schools in Florence. Familial and personal history, physical examination, and cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated in 144 students (aged 17-19 years). Blood was withdrawn to assess von Willebrand factor (ELISA) and lipid parameters. Levels of von Willebrand factor were significantly higher (P<0.044) in smokers than in nonsmokers and were correlated with the number of cigarettes per day in the whole group (P=0.01) and in females (P=0.006). In females a positive correlation was observed between von Willebrand factor and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.0365). There was no significant correlation between von Willebrand factor and blood pressure or between von Willebrand factor and physical activity. In conclusion, this study shows an association between levels of von Willebrand factor and smoking habits and is the first show that even a brief period of smoking affects levels of von Willebrand factor in healthy adolescent females independently of other risk factors. These results stress the relevance of extending prevention programs to reduce smoking in high school students.

  7. A developmental approach to pregnancy prevention with early adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Proctor, S E

    1986-10-01

    Traditional pregnancy prevention strategies employed with adults and older teens do not recognize significant developmental differences between early adolescents and other age groups. Methods that compliment, reflect, and are consistent with developmental needs of the young teen provide cogent approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. Particular emphasis should be placed on interpersonal relationships and their importance in the young woman's life, especially the relationship between the young teen and her parents. Developing and improving all relationships instrumental in positively affecting teen decision-making represent potent approaches to pregnancy prevention. The axioms of Piaget, Erikson, and Mercer are examined in regard to cognitive, social, emotional, and psychosexual development in the 12-14 year old. Young teens' responses to sex education as well as their use of contraception are reviewed in relation to developmental theory.

  8. Witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pabayo, Roman; Molnar, Beth E; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Witnessing violence has been linked to maladaptive coping behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. However, more research is required to identify mechanisms in which witnessing violence leads to these behaviors. The objectives of this investigation were to examine the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among adolescents, to identify whether exhibiting depressive symptoms was a mediator within this relationship, and to determine if those who had adult support in school were less likely to engage in risky health behaviors. Data were collected from a sample of 1,878 urban students, from 18 public high schools participating in the 2008 Boston Youth Survey. In 2012, we used multilevel log-binomial regression models and propensity score matching to estimate the association between witnessing a violent death and smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use. Analyses indicated that girls who witnessed a violent death were more likely to use marijuana (relative risk (RR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02, 1.17), and tended towards a higher likelihood to smoke (RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.13) and consume alcohol (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.97, 1.18). Among boys, those who witnessed a violent death were significantly more likely to smoke (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.29), consume alcohol (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.17, 1.45) and use marijuana (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21, 1.46). When exhibiting depressive symptoms was included, estimates were not attenuated. However, among girls who witnessed a violent death, having an adult at school for support was protective against alcohol consumption. When we used propensity score matching, findings were consistent with the main analyses among boys only. This study adds insight into how witnessing violence can lead to adoption of adverse health behaviors.

  9. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined the association between trajectories of cigarette smoking and unemployment across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Methods: Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 upstate New York counties. Data were collected at 7 timepoints. Results: Using growth mixture modeling, 5 trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. The trajectory groups were as follows: heavy/continuous smokers, occasional smokers, late-starting smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s trajectory group membership and unemployment in the fifth decade of life. The association was determined with controls for age, gender, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, current marijuana use, physical diseases, occupation, educational level, past unemployment experience, socioeconomic status measures of family of origin, depressive mood, and self-control from adolescence through the early 40s. The findings indicate that patterns of adolescent and young adult cigarette smoking have implications for later unemployment. Overall, the results showed that people who fell into the categories of heavy/continuous smokers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84) and occasional smokers (AOR = 4.03) were more likely to be unemployed at mean age 43 when compared with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between the quitters/decreasers and the nonsmokers with respect to unemployment. Conclusions: Intervention programs designed to deal with unemployment should consider focusing on heavy/continuous and occasional cigarette smokers as risk factors for unemployment. PMID:24997307

  10. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward

    PubMed Central

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review. PMID:26941908

  11. Health Promotion Methods for Smoking Prevention and Cessation: A Comprehensive Review of Effectiveness and the Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Golechha, Mahaveer

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of mortality in the world, responsible for over 5 million deaths per annum. The prevalence of smoking is over 1 billion people, with the majority coming from low or middle income countries. Yet, the incidence of smoking varies vastly between many countries. Some countries have been able to decline the smoking and tobacco related morbidity and mortality through the introduction of health promotion initiatives and effective policies in order to combat tobacco usage. However, on the other hand, in some countries, the incidence of smoking is increasing still further. With the growing body of evidence of detriment of tobacco to health, many control policies have been implemented as health promotion actions. Such methods include taxation of smoking, mass advertising campaigns in the media, peer education programs, community mobilization, motivational interviewing, health warnings on tobacco products, marketing restrictions, and banning smoking in public places. However, the review of the effectiveness of various health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify and critically review the effectiveness of health promotion methods used for smoking prevention and cessation. All available studies and reports published were considered. Searches were conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid, Karger, ProQuest, Sage Journals, Science Direct, Springer, Taylor and Francis, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane and Wiley Online Library. Various relevant search terms and keywords were used. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 23 articles for the present review.

  12. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Smoking Behavior across Adolescence and Young Adulthood in the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development and the Transitions to Substance Abuse Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Do, Elizabeth K; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C; Eaves, Lindon J; Silberg, Judy L; Miles, Donna R; Maes, Hermine H

    2015-02-01

    Little is known regarding the underlying relationship between smoking initiation and current quantity smoked during adolescence into young adulthood. It is possible that the influences of genetic and environmental factors on this relationship vary across sex and age. To investigate this further, the current study applied a common causal contingency model to data from a Virginia-based twin study to determine: (1) if the same genetic and environmental factors are contributing to smoking initiation and current quantity smoked; (2) whether the magnitude of genetic and environmental factor contributions are the same across adolescence and young adulthood; and (3) if qualitative and quantitative differences in the sources of variance between males and females exist. Study results found no qualitative or quantitative sex differences in the relationship between smoking initiation and current quantity smoked, though relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors changed across adolescence and young adulthood. More specifically, smoking initiation and current quantity smoked remain separate constructs until young adulthood, when liabilities are correlated. Smoking initiation is explained by genetic, shared, and unique environmental factors in early adolescence and by genetic and unique environmental factors in young adulthood; while current quantity smoked is explained by shared environmental and unique environmental factors until young adulthood, when genetic and unique environmental factors play a larger role.

  13. Dual growth of adolescent smoking and drinking: evidence for an interaction between the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism and sex.

    PubMed

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien A; Engels, Rutger C M E; Verhagen, Maaike

    2013-11-01

    Smoking and alcohol use often co-occur during adolescence, but little is known about the codevelopment of these substances. In the search for etiological factors that help to explain the development of adolescent substance use patterns, studies have revealed substantial heritability for both alcohol use and smoking. In this regard, the µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, chromosome 6q24-q25) has been linked to both substances. This study examined the predictive relationships between initial level and growth of smoking and drinking in 311 early adolescents (13-15 years old) over a 4-year period. In addition, the effects of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene on the initial values and the development over time of alcohol use and smoking were assessed. Finally, as prevalence and heritability estimates for both alcohol- and smoking-related behaviors differ between males and females, OPRM1 by sex interactions were tested. We found that high initial levels of early adolescent alcohol consumption were related to a stronger increase in smoking levels over time. In contrast, high initial levels of smoking were not related to growth of alcohol use. No main OPRM1 effects were found, but sex-specificity of the gene was found for smoking development. Male A-allele carriers showed a faster development in smoking behavior, whereas in females, the G-allele led to a faster development in smoking. Thus, in addition to high levels of alcohol as a risk factor for the development of smoking behavior, sex-specific effects exist for OPRM1, which may additionally have consequences for the development of adolescent smoking.

  14. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    PubMed

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-05-27

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  15. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Andrea B.; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency. PMID:24871258

  16. A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Smoking: Using Smoking Status to Differentiate the Influence of Body Weight Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Traci; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research has reported mixed results on the association between body weight measures (ie, perception of weight and weight loss goal) and cigarette smoking prevalence--and how these associations vary by sex and race. This longitudinal study assessed the relationship between these 2 body weight measures and smoking prevalence by…

  17. Gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms. the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway, 1995-1997.

    PubMed

    Holmen, T L; Barrett-Connor, E; Clausen, J; Langhammer, A; Holmen, J; Bjermer, L

    2002-10-01

    Girls take up smoking at least as frequently as boys. Few studies have focused on gender differences in the impact of adolescent smoking. We evaluated the sex-specific effect of adolescent smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function. All students in junior high and high schools in Nord-Trøndelag County Norway, 1995-97, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Information on smoking habits and respiratory symptoms was obtained by self-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed in accordance with ATS standards. Eight-thousand-three-hundred and five students (83%) completed both questionnaire and spirometry. Among 6811 students aged 13-18 years (50.3% girls) with no history of asthma, 2993 (43.9%) reported never smoking, 665 (98%) reported occasional smoking, and 667 (9.9%) reported daily smoking (mean initiation age: 13.9 years). More boys than girls were heavy smokers. In all smoking categories, smokers reported a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than nonsmokers; symptoms increased with smoke burden. Girls reported more symptoms compared to boys with comparable smoke burden. A dose-response relation between smoking and reduced lung function was found only in girls. Girls were more vulnerable than boys to the impact of smoking on respiratory symptoms and lung function.

  18. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  19. Efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: An Indicated Preventive Intervention for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: Indicated interventions for adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms may help decrease rates of depression. The current study reports on the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group indicated preventive intervention. Methods: Forty-one adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were…

  20. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  1. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  2. Teaching medical professionals and trainees about adolescent suicide prevention: five key problems.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

  3. Smoking initiation among Gambian adolescents: social cognitive influences and the effect of cigarette sampling.

    PubMed

    Maassen, I T H M; Kremers, S P J; Mudde, A N; Joof, B M

    2004-10-01

    In this study, determinants of tobacco use among Gambian youths were examined. A cross-sectional school-based survey was conducted among 282 students, aged 14-18. The potential determinants were derived from the core constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the ASE model. Moreover, various measures of knowledge and media influence were added to the research model. The results show that free cigarette offers by representatives of tobacco companies were mostly responsible for the difference between smokers and non-smokers. Other variables associated with smoking behavior were greater intention to smoke in the future, lower self-efficacy expectations regarding emotional situations, smoking behavior of the respondent's best friend, the mother having a job and the absence of other family members living in the house. Our study supports current efforts to prohibit tobacco advertising and promotions in The Gambia, especially the distribution of free samples. Additionally, we recommend prevention activities in schools and communities to aim at making children less vulnerable to 'sampling', increasing their self-efficacy expectations regarding emotional situations and making them aware of the influence of their best friend.

  4. The cost-effectiveness of a school-based smoking prevention program in India

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Stigler, Melissa; Perry, Cheryl; Dhavan, Poonam; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2013-01-01

    Intervention programs aimed at preventing tobacco use among youth have been shown to be effective in curbing tobacco use onset and progression. However, the effects of even very successful tobacco prevention programs may not always impress policy-makers and lay audiences. Economic analysis potentially strengthens the case. In this paper, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a youth tobacco use prevention program which has been translated and implemented in India, a developing country. Although programs like these are inexpensive to implement in the USA, they are even less expensive in India due to low labor costs. Our results show that the costs per quality-adjusted life-year added, due to averted smoking, was $2057, even without including averted medical costs. If we ignore student time, cost-effectiveness improves by roughly 10%. To put the cost-effectiveness of this smoking prevention program into context, it is over 24 times more cost-effective than dialysis in the USA, which costs $50 000 for a life-year. PMID:22271928

  5. Sustainability of the prevention of passive infant smoking within well-baby clinics.

    PubMed

    Crone, M R; Verlaan, M; Willemsen, M C; van Soelen, P; Reijneveld, S A; Sing, R A Hira; Paulussen, T G W M

    2006-04-01

    This study assessed the antecedents of continued use of an education program to prevent passive smoking in infants. It consists of a booklet for parents and a manual for health professionals describing a five-step procedure for discussing passive smoking. A questionnaire was sent to 67 managers, 670 nurses, and 335 physicians working in well-baby clinics (response rate: 70%, 53%, 47% respectively). Questions concerned the completeness of use, level of institutionalization, and characteristics of the organization, the user, and the dissemination strategy. Seventy-one percent of nurses and 42% of physicians worked with the program. They foremost provided the first three steps of the five-step procedure. Physicians' completeness of use was related to their perceived responsibility in providing this education, and nurses' use was related to their perceived self-efficacy, responsibility, training attendance, participation in the adoption decision, and level of institutionalization. Diffusion efforts should focus on improving the completeness of use and level of institutionalization.

  6. What Predicts Early Smoking Milestones?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Megan E.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: As many cigarette smokers begin experimenting before age 16, prevention efforts require a comprehensive understanding of smoking predictors during adolescence. Research has made many advances in understanding the predictors of smoking initiation, yet more precision is still needed to determine whether the patterns of prediction differ across early smoking milestones. The purpose of this study was to use a sample of young adolescents to examine the predictors of two key milestones in smoking initiation: first puff and first cigarette. Method: Data came from an ongoing, prospective project examining psychosocial factors related to adolescent substance use. At Time 1 (T1), the sample was 1,023 Rhode Island middle school students (ages 10–15 years; M = 12.2). T1 measures included empirically supported risk and protective factors, as well as current smoking. Follow-up surveys assessed smoking behavior over the ensuing year (T2 smoking). Results: Cigarette availability was the most robust predictor of smoking milestones, increasing the likelihood of both first puff and first cigarette in cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Multivariable analyses also showed specificity, where some factors were only associated with one time point (e.g., age and T1 puff and cigarette), whereas others were only associated with one milestone (e.g., parental monitoring and whole cigarette at both time points). Conclusions: This study found different patterns of predictors for two early smoking milestones. Such findings are the first to suggest that puff and whole cigarette are distinct smoking milestones and reaffirm arguments that researchers should distinguish the various stages of smoking initiation when examining the broader period of onset/initiation. PMID:25785801

  7. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells prevent cigarette smoke and Chlamydophila pneumoniae-induced Th2 inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Gray, Pearl; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2010-10-01

    Smoking promotes the development of allergic asthma and pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumoniae lung infection is associated with an increased risk for asthma, inducing an immune response regulated by dendritic cells (DCs). This study sought to determine whether exposure to cigarette smoke modulates the functional activity of CD11c-positive DCs in the lung, with and without concomitant C. pneumoniae infection. Bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and/or live C. pneumoniae (Cpn), and then adoptively transferred intratracheally into wild-type mice. Although CSE plus Cpn appeared to exert an additive effect on the production of Th2 cytokines in vitro, we did not see this effect in vivo. However, the adoptive transfer of DCs pulsed with both CSE and C. pneumoniae into the lungs of naive mice led to an influx of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) that suppressed the Th2 skewing ability of the transferred BMDCs. The depletion of pDCs by antibody restored the Th2 skewing ability of the BMDCs. The expression of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the lung was reduced after the depletion of pDCs, and blocking IFN-α in vitro prevented the ability of pDCs to inhibit the Th2 responses induced by myeloid DCs (mDCs), suggesting their potential involvement in the mechanism of altered polarization. In conclusion, exposure to cigarette smoke skews C. pneumoniae-induced mDCs responses toward a Th2 bias in the lung, which is prevented by pDCs. We propose that pDCs may play a major role in the immunosuppressive lung environment in smokers with C. pneumoniae infection.

  8. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  9. School-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Programs for Pre-Adolescents and Adolescents: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Erica S.

    This paper presents a review of 25 sources on school-based eating disorder prevention programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The sources used to collect the information include Search ERIC database, PsycINFO, InterScience, and Expanded Academic. A review of the literature concluded that the most effective method of implementing a…

  10. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  11. A randomized crossover study of web-based media literacy to prevent smoking.

    PubMed

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A

    2016-02-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML program based on health behavior theory and implemented using a two-group two-period crossover design. Students were randomly assigned by classroom to receive media literacy or control interventions in different sequences. They were assessed three times, at baseline (T0), an initial follow-up after the first intervention (T1) and a second follow-up after the second intervention (T2). Crossover analysis using analysis of variance demonstrated significant intervention coefficients, indicating that the SML condition was superior to control for the primary outcome of total SML (F = 11.99; P < 0.001) and for seven of the nine individual SML items. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses conducted using non-parametric methods. There were changes in some exploratory theory-based outcomes including attitudes and normative beliefs but not others. In conclusion, while strength of the design of this study supports and extends prior findings around effectiveness of SML programs, influences on theory-based mediators of smoking should be further explored.

  12. A randomized crossover study of web-based media literacy to prevent smoking

    PubMed Central

    Shensa, Ariel; Phelps-Tschang, Jane; Miller, Elizabeth; Primack, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Feasibly implemented Web-based smoking media literacy (SML) programs have been associated with improving SML skills among adolescents. However, prior evaluations have generally had weak experimental designs. We aimed to examine program efficacy using a more rigorous crossover design. Seventy-two ninth grade students completed a Web-based SML program based on health behavior theory and implemented using a two-group two-period crossover design. Students were randomly assigned by classroom to receive media literacy or control interventions in different sequences. They were assessed three times, at baseline (T0), an initial follow-up after the first intervention (T1) and a second follow-up after the second intervention (T2). Crossover analysis using analysis of variance demonstrated significant intervention coefficients, indicating that the SML condition was superior to control for the primary outcome of total SML (F = 11.99; P < 0.001) and for seven of the nine individual SML items. Results were consistent in sensitivity analyses conducted using non-parametric methods. There were changes in some exploratory theory-based outcomes including attitudes and normative beliefs but not others. In conclusion, while strength of the design of this study supports and extends prior findings around effectiveness of SML programs, influences on theory-based mediators of smoking should be further explored. PMID:26675176

  13. Smoking among Dutch Elementary Schoolchildren: Gender-Specific Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausems, M.; Mesters, I.; van Breukelen, G.; De Vries, H.

    2009-01-01

    Higher rates of smoking initiation and continuation by female compared with male adolescents, as found in many developed countries, may call for gender-specific prevention programs. Risk factors of smoking initiation and continuation were examined prospectively (1997-2002) among 3205 Dutch elementary schoolchildren (mean age 11.64) in an…

  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Proliferation of Lung Cells and Prevention by Vitamin C

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Neekkan; Chattopadhyay, Dhruba J.; Chatterjee, Indu B.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer dearth. Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for developing lung cancer, which is conceivably initiated by proliferation. Here, we show that low concentration of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke (AECS) causes excessive proliferation of human lung epithelial cells (A549) without any apoptotic cell death. The causative factor responsible for AECS-induced proliferation has been identified as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ). Coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblot experiments indicate that p-BQ binds with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, in contrast to EGF, it causes aberrant phosphorylation of EGFR that lacks c-Cbl-mediated ubiquitination and degradation resulting in persistent activation of EGFR. This is followed by activation of Hras + Kras and the downstream survival and proliferative signaling molecules Akt and ERK1/2, as well as the nuclear transcription factors c-Myc and c-Fos. Vitamin C and/or antibody to p-BQ prevents AECS/p-BQ-induced proliferation of lung cells apparently by inactivating p-BQ and thereby preventing activation of EGFR and the downstream signaling molecules. The results suggest that vitamin C and/or antibody to p-BQ may provide a novel intervention for preventing initiation of lung cancer in smokers. PMID:21772844

  15. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  16. Legislation on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention. Wisconsin Legislative Council Report No. 13 to the 1991 Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; And Others

    Wisconsin legislation on adolescent pregnancy prevention is discussed in this document. The 1991 Senate Bill 324 and Assembly Bill 630, identical bills which relate to adolescent pregnancy prevention, school district instruction in human growth and development, medical assistance services, and making appropriations, are discussed. Part I notes…

  17. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  18. Serving the Future: An Update on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Gary; And Others

    This survey analyzed the nature and level of services in adolescent pregnancy prevention in the developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia. While focusing on programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy, many of the groups surveyed were also responding to the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in their work with youth.…

  19. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  20. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  1. Combined Effects of in Utero and Adolescent Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Lung Function in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, David; Baravalle-Einaudi, Mélissa; Lezmi, Guillaume; Vibhushan, Shamila; Franco-Montoya, Marie-Laure; Hadchouel, Alice; Boczkowski, Jorge; Delacourt, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal determinants of airway function, such as in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoke (CS), may create a predisposition to adult airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adulthood. It has been suggested that active smoking in adolescence and preexisting airflow obstruction have synergistic deleterious effects. Objective: We used a mouse model to investigate whether there is a synergistic effect of exposure to CS in utero and during adolescence on lung function. Methods: Female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to CS or to filtered room air during pregnancy. Exposure to CS began 2 weeks before mating and continued until delivery. After birth, the pups were not exposed to CS until day 21 (D21). Between D21 and D49, corresponding to “adolescence,” litters were randomized for an additional 4 weeks of exposure to CS. Lung morphometry, lung mechanics, and the expression of genes involved in senescence were evaluated in different subsets of mice on D21 and D49. Results: In utero exposure to CS induced significant lung function impairment by D21. CS exposure between D21 and D49 induced significant functional impairment only in mice exposed to CS prenatally. On D49, no difference was observed between subgroups in terms of lung p53, p16, p21, and Bax mRNA levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that prenatal and adolescent CS exposure have a synergistic effect on lung function in mice. The combined effect did not appear to be a consequence of early pulmonary senescence. Citation: Drummond D, Baravalle-Einaudi M, Lezmi G, Vibhushan S, Franco-Montoya ML, Hadchouel A, Boczkowski J, Delacourt C. 2017. Combined effects of in utero and adolescent tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in C57Bl/6J mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:392–399; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP54 PMID:27814244

  2. Explaining adolescents' smoking and drinking behavior: the concept of smoker and drinker prototypes in relation to variables of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vitale, Salvatore; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2004-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that social image factors play an important role in the course of adolescent's substance use, that is, smoking and drinking. The concept of social images or prototypes is embedded into a theoretical model called the prototype/willingness model. The present study addresses the relative value of the prototype/willingness model in relation to the theory of planned behavior. To study relations between prototypes and adolescents' willingness and intention to engage in smoking and drinking behavior, cross-sectional data among 2814 adolescents (12-16 years) were gathered. Results show that adolescents describe daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers generally as slightly well adjusted, slightly rebellious, not really cool, and not really attractive. Positive relations were observed between smoker and drinker prototypes and adolescents' intention and willingness to smoke and drink in the future. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that prototypes of daily-smoking and weekly-drinking peers explained a significant part of the variance in intention and willingness to smoke and drink, and added significantly to the variance explained by the variables of the theory of planned behavior.

  3. Adolescents' Willingness to Seek Psychological Help: Promoting and Preventing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Jeanie K.; Fiorenza, Erika; Sofronoff, Kate

    2004-01-01

    Although a relatively high percentage of Australian adolescents experience mental health problems, many disturbed adolescents do not receive the help they require, and only a small proportion of adolescents seek professional psychological help. The present study examined adolescents' willingness to seek help and investigated factors that promote…

  4. Mistrusting Companies, Mistrusting the Tobacco Industry: Clarifying the Context of Tobacco Prevention Efforts that Focus on the Tobacco Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Jackson, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Campaigns to prevent adolescent smoking increasingly depict the tobacco industry as deceitful and exploitative. This study was undertaken to determine how adolescents' expectations about the trustworthiness of companies, in general, influence the pathway through which anti-tobacco industry campaigns prevent smoking. Structural equation modeling…

  5. Lessons learned from the tobacco industry's efforts to prevent the passage of a workplace smoking regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Mangurian, C V; Bero, L A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the implementation of tobacco industry strategies to prevent a workplace smoking regulation. METHODS: Tobacco industry internal documents were identified; hearing transcripts for the affiliations, arguments, and positions regarding the regulation of testifiers were coded; and media coverage was analyzed. RESULTS: Tobacco industry strategies sought to increase business participation and economic discussions at public hearings and to promote unfavorable media coverage of the regulation. The percentage of business representatives opposing the regulation grew from 18% (5 to 28) to 57% (13 of 23) between the hearings. Economic arguments opposing the regulation rose from 25% (7 of 28) to 70% (16 of 23). Press coverage was neutral and did not increase during the period of the regulatory hearings. CONCLUSIONS: The tobacco industry was successful in implementing 2 of its 3 strategies but was not able to prevent passage of the comprehensive workplace regulation. PMID:11111269

  6. Reducing substance use during adolescence: a translational framework for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Stanis, Jessica J.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Most substance use is initiated during adolescence when substantial development of relevant brain circuitry is still rapidly maturing. Developmental differences in reward processing, behavioral flexibility, and self-regulation lead to changes in resilience or vulnerability to drugs of abuse depending on exposure to risk factors. Intervention and prevention approaches to reducing addiction in teens may be able to capitalize on malleable brain systems in a predictable manner. Objective To review what is known about how factors that increase vulnerability to addiction, including developmental stage, exposure to early life adversity (ranging from abuse, neglect, and bullying), drug exposure, and genetic predisposition, impact the development of relevant systems. Results and Conclusions Appropriate, early intervention may restore the normal course of an abnormal trajectory and reduce the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder (SUD) later in life. A considerable amount is known about the functional neuroanatomy and/or pharmacology of risky behaviors based on clinical and preclinical studies, but relatively little has been directly translated to reduce their impact on addiction in high-risk children or teenagers. An opportunity exists to effectively intervene before adolescence when substance use is likely to emerge. PMID:24464527

  7. Social Mediation of Persuasive Media in Adolescent Substance Prevention.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T

    2017-03-16

    Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p < .02). Further analyses revealed significant indirect effects of language extremity on attitudes and intentions through perceived control with adult, but not peer sources (both p < .05). These perceptions were associated with more negative marijuana attitudes and diminished usage intentions when adults used moderate (vs. extreme) language in their favorable ad commentaries (both p < .05). The findings may facilitate development of more effective prevention methods that emphasize the importance of the role of perceived control in persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita

    2005-01-01

    Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach – ‘prevention is better than cure’ – would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would

  9. Exposure to Hookah and Cigarette Smoke in Children and Adolescents According to Their Socio-Economic Status: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Shahsanai, Armindokht; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure to smoking or passive smoking is one of serious health problems especially in the pediatric age group. Objectives To compare the prevalence and determinants of passive smoking in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents according to their socioeconomic status (SES). Materials and Methods This nationwide study was conducted in 2011 - 2012 among 14880 students aged 6 - 18 years, living in 30 provinces in Iran. Exposure to the smoke of hookah or cigarette was documented by using validated questionnaires. Possible influencing factors were determined and the frequency of passive smoking was compared according to the regional and familial SES. Results Participants consisted of 13,486 children and adolescents including 49.2% girls and 75.6% urban inhabitants (90.6% participation rate). The mean age of participants was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. Overall, 43.87% of them (44.07% of boys and 43.66% of girls) were exposed to second hand smoke at home. Exposures to hookah or cigarette smoke at home were respectively reported in 21.46% and 34.49% of participants. The prevalence of passive smoking was lower in children of families with higher SES level, but higher in high SES regions of the country than in low SES ones, and ranged from 39.2% in the region with lowest SES to 49.05% in the highest SES region. Higher education levels of fathers and mothers were significantly associated with lower frequency of passive smoking. Conclusions Exposure to second hand smoke is a major problem among Iranian children and adolescents. Low family SES and low parental education increased the frequency of passive smoking. Appropriate public health education and legislation for smoke free home as well as family-centered counseling should be strengthened. PMID:27781078

  10. Comparison of problematic behaviours of 10th and 11th year Southern English adolescents. Part 2: Current drink, drug and sexual activity of children with smoking parents.

    PubMed

    Cox, Malcolm; Pritchard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    To determine parental and school influences upon the behaviour and attitudes of adolescents of smoking versus non-smoking parents and of those "liking and disliking" school. Utilising a self-administered confidential standardised questionnaire, a representative sample of Southern English 10th and 11th year secondary school pupils was obtained. Current drink, drug and sexual behaviour were explored and data on adolescents whose parents smoked was extrapolated and compared against adolescents of non-smoking parents. Pupils reporting "liking school" were compared against those "not liking school" and all results statistically analysed. There were 17% smoking mothers [SM] and 23% smoking fathers [SF]. The focus is upon students of SF whose adolescents are significantly more often engaged in substance misuse (38-18%), drinking in pubs (31%-15%), binge drinking (32%-18%), and under-age sexual activity (27%-14%) plus smoking (51%-32%), truanting (43%-23%), vandalism (32%-22%) and stealing (19%-11%). SM students had higher incidence of sexual behaviour (33%-13%) and unprotected sex (21%-6%). Students of smoking parents were less well informed and had significantly more negative attitudes about social behaviour and responsibility. "Liking school" was associated to significantly lower rates of problematic behaviour, which predominately was not related to the social background of the pupils. The smoking father criteria carries a social class bias, nonetheless these parents need to be aware of the particular behaviour of their children and their increased risk. SF do not "cause" the behaviour rather it reflects something of the nature of the adolescent's relationship to parents, school and society.

  11. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  12. [The consequences of parental smoking in children: pediatricians must act].

    PubMed

    Juchet, A; Micheau, P; Brémont, F; Dutau, G

    2001-05-01

    Prenatal and childhood passive tobacco smoke exposure resulting from parental smoking may have severe side effects, such as low birth weight, prematurity, sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory tract infections and asthma. By giving information to parents, and particularly by emphasizing the dangers of passive smoke exposure for their children, pediatricians have a critical role to play in their prevention. This may also be helpful for adolescents who are starting to smoke actively by trying to understand the needs that they express by this behavior, and encouraging them to go to a stop smoking counseling center.

  13. Effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess effectiveness of school-based smoking prevention curricula keeping children never-smokers. Design Systematic review, meta-analysis. Data: MEDLINE (1966+), EMBASE (1974+), Cinahl, PsycINFO (1967+), ERIC (1982+), Cochrane CENTRAL, Health Star, Dissertation Abstracts, conference proceedings. Data synthesis: pooled analyses, fixed-effects models, adjusted ORs. Risk of bias assessed with Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Setting 50 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of school-based smoking curricula. Participants Never-smokers age 5–18 (n=143 495); follow-up ≥6 months; all countries; no date/language limitations. Interventions Information, social influences, social competence, combined social influences/competence and multimodal curricula. Outcome measure Remaining a never-smoker at follow-up. Results Pooling all curricula, trials with follow-up ≤1 year showed no statistically significant differences compared with controls (OR 0.91 (0.82 to 1.01)), though trials of combined social competence/social influences curricula had a significant effect on smoking prevention (7 trials, OR 0.59 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.85)). Pooling all trials with longest follow-up showed an overall significant effect in favour of the interventions (OR 0.88 (0.82 to 0.95)), as did the social competence (OR 0.65 (0.43 to 0.96)) and combined social competence/social influences curricula (OR 0.60 (0.43 to 0.83)). No effect for information, social influences or multimodal curricula. Principal findings were not sensitive to inclusion of booster sessions in curricula or to whether they were peer-led or adult-led. Differentiation into tobacco-only or multifocal curricula had a similar effect on the primary findings. Few trials assessed outcomes by gender: there were significant effects for females at both follow-up periods, but not for males. Conclusions RCTs of baseline never-smokers at longest follow-up found an overall significant effect with average 12% reduction in starting

  14. The Intergenerational Transmission of Smoking Across Three Cohabitant Generations: A Count Data Approach.

    PubMed

    Escario, José-Julián; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the extent to which parent and grandparent smoking influences adolescent smoking and its quantitative implications for tobacco control. It extends similar prior studies by investigating the effects on the probability of becoming a smoker and on the number of cigarettes smoked. Count regressions were used to assess the intergenerational transmission of smoking across three cohabitant generations, simultaneously, using data from the 2010 survey "Encuesta Estatal Sobre Uso De Drogas en Estudiantes de Enseñanzas Secundarias". This survey, of 32,234 students, constitutes a representative sample of Spanish students between 14 and 18 years of age. Living with a mother who smokes, a father who smokes, or a grandparent who smokes reduces the odds of being a non-smoker by 36.1% (OR 0.639), 26.1% (OR 0.739) and 20.3% (OR 0.797), respectively. Parental smoking increases cigarette consumption levels among adolescents. Having a cohabitant mother who smokes increases the number of cigarettes smoked by children by around 18.7% (IRR 1.187), while having a cohabitant father who smokes increases the number by around 12.1% (IRR 1.121). Estimates support the hypothesis that visibility of smoking among parents and grandparents is a strong predictor of smoking among adolescents. Accordingly, quitting smoking by parents and grandparents before children become adolescents appears to be a powerful means to both reduce smoking rates among adolescents and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers; such decisions appear to exert a stronger influence on the prevalence of smoking and consumption levels than exposure to smoking prevention campaigns at school.

  15. A ten fold reduction of nicotine yield in tobacco smoke does not spare the central cholinergic system in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Correa-Santos, Monique; Dutra-Tavares, Ana C; Paes-Branco, Danielle; Nunes-Freitas, Andre; Manhães, Alex C; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson

    2016-08-01

    The tobacco industry has gradually decreased nicotine content in cigarette smoke but the impact of this reduction on health is still controversial. Since the central cholinergic system is the primary site of action of nicotine, here, we investigated the effects of exposure of adolescent mice to tobacco smoke containing either high or low levels of nicotine on the central cholinergic system and the effects associated with cessation of exposure. From postnatal day (PN) 30 to 45, male and female Swiss mice were exposed to tobacco smoke (whole body exposure, 8h/day, 7 days/week) generated from 2R1F (HighNic group: 1.74mg nicotine/cigarette) or 4A1 (LowNic group: 0.14mg nicotine/cigarette) research cigarettes, whereas control mice were exposed to ambient air. Cholinergic biomarkers were assessed in the cerebral cortex and midbrain by the end of exposure (PN45), at short- (PN50) and long-term (PN75) deprivation. In the cortex, nicotinic cholinergic receptor upregulation was observed with either type of cigarette. In the midbrain, upregulation was detected only in HighNic mice and remained significant in females at short-term deprivation. The high-affinity choline transporter was reduced in the cortex: of HighNic mice by the end of exposure; of both HighNic and LowNic females at short-term deprivation; of LowNic mice at long-term deprivation. These decrements were separable from effects on choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, suggesting cholinergic synaptic impairment. Here, we demonstrated central cholinergic alterations in an animal model of tobacco smoke exposure during adolescence. This system was sensitive even to tobacco smoke with very low nicotine content.

  16. Quitting Smoking

    MedlinePlus

    Tobacco use is the most common preventable cause of death. About half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you quit, ... In the long term, giving up tobacco can help you live longer. Your risk of ...

  17. Amelioration strategies fail to prevent tobacco smoke effects on neurodifferentiation: Nicotinic receptor blockade, antioxidants, methyl donors.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-07-03

    Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, N-acetyl-l-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury by interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation.

  18. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  19. Topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Faith Y; Campus, Guglielmo; Giuliana, Giovanna; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied fluoride has been widely researched as a means to reduce the risk of dental caries in conjunction with other treatment modalities (mechanical oral hygiene, dietary control, antimicrobial intervention, pit and fissure sealants). There is overwhelming evidence that reports not only the significance and importance of the use of fluoride as a caries-preventive agent, but also how safe fluoride application is when used appropriately, particularly in higher risk individuals and populations. This paper reviews the caries-protective benefits of topical fluoride application in children and adolescents, with an emphasis on the clinical efficacy and safety of the vehicles by which fluoride is topically delivered. Fluoride toothpaste represents today the most cost-effective fluoride-delivery system in the oral cavity and its use should be the centerpiece in all caries-preventive strategies. On the other hand, mouthrinses, gels and varnishes currently represent adjuncts to toothpaste use and should be targeted towards individuals and groups at high risk of caries.

  20. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  1. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services among Colombian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pinto, Tatiana A; Blanco-Gómez, Argénida; Díaz-Martínez, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Seventy percent of adolescent morbidity and mortality is related to six risky behaviors. The Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services is a screening questionnaire consisting of 21 questions but there is not a validated Spanish-language version. The obj ective of this study was to validate the Spanish-language version of the Rapid Assessment for Adolescent Preventive Services in two Colombian cities: Bucaramanga and Medellin. The questionnaire was administered to 270 randomly selected adolescent students aged between 11 and 19 years old. Its internal consistency measured using Cronbach's alpha was 0.7207. The factor analysis showed that two factors accounted for 84.5% of variance, but factor loading indicates that only one of these is valid in Colombia: substance use (tobacco, alcohol, narcotics, and psychoactive substances).

  2. Communitywide smoking prevention: long-term outcomes of the Minnesota Heart Health Program and the Class of 1989 Study.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H; Murray, D M; Klepp, K I

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Class of 1989 Study is part of the Minnesota Heart Health Program (MHHP), a populationwide research and demonstration project designed to reduce cardiovascular disease in three educated communities from 1980 to 1993. This paper describes an intensive, school-based behavioral intervention on cigarette smoking, comparing long-term outcomes in one of the intervention communities with those in a matched reference community. METHODS. Beginning in sixth grade (1983), seven annual waves of cohort and cross-sectional behavioral measurements were taken from one MHHP intervention community and its matched pair. All students in each community were eligible to participate (baseline n = 2401). Self-reported data collected at each period described prevalence and intensity of cigarette smoking. RESULTS. There were no differences at baseline for either weekly smoking prevalence or intensity of smoking. Throughout the follow-up period, however, smoking rates as determined by these measures were significantly lower in the intervention community: 14.6% of students were weekly smokers at the end of high school compared with 24.1% in the reference community. CONCLUSIONS. These results suggest that multiple intervention components such as behavioral education in schools, booster programs to sustain training, and complementary communitywide strategies may all be needed for lasting reductions in adolescent tobacco use. PMID:1503159

  3. Image, Context and Transition: Smoking in Mid-to-Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Susan; Amos, Amanda; Haw, Sally; McNeill, Ann

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 16--19-year-old Scottish smokers' experiences and attitudes towards smoking and their understandings of the ways in which this transitional period impacts on their smoking behaviour. The study involved 49 qualitative interviews conducted mostly in friendship pairs. Interviewees also completed a brief smoking questionnaire. The…

  4. Interventions for waterpipe tobacco smoking prevention and cessation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Waziry, Reem K.; Ballout, Rami A.; Akl, Elie A.

    2016-01-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is growing in popularity despite adverse health effects among users. We systematically reviewed the literature, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science, for interventions targeting prevention and cessation of waterpipe tobacco smoking. We assessed the evidence quality using the Cochrane (randomised studies), GRADE (non-randomised studies) and CASP (qualitative studies) frameworks. Data were synthesised narratively due to heterogeneity. We included four individual-level, five group-level, and six legislative interventions. Of five randomised controlled studies, two showed significantly higher quit rates in intervention groups (bupropion/behavioural support versus placebo in Pakistan; 6 month abstinence relative risk (RR): 2.3, 95% CI 1.4–3.8); group behavioural support versus no intervention in Egypt, 12 month abstinence RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4–8.9). Non-randomised studies showed mixed results for cessation, behavioural, and knowledge outcomes. One high quality modelling study from Lebanon calculated that a 10% increase in waterpipe tobacco taxation would reduce waterpipe tobacco demand by 14.5% (price elasticity of demand −1.45). In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence of effectiveness for most waterpipe interventions. While few show promising results, higher quality interventions are needed. Meanwhile, tobacco policies should place waterpipe on par with cigarettes. PMID:27167891

  5. Aggression in Adolescent Dating Relationships: Predictors and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of romantic relationships is one of the most striking features of adolescence. By the late adolescent years, most teenagers have been in a romantic relationship at least once and roughly half of teens are dating currently. Alarmingly though, in many of these relationships adolescents act aggressively toward each other and this…

  6. Promising practices in the prevention of intimate partner violence among adolescents.

    PubMed

    De Grace, Alyssa; Clarke, Angela

    2012-01-01

    To inform practitioners and researchers interested in the prevention of intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents, 9 principles of effective prevention programs (Nation et al., 2003) were described and examples of how these principles have been incorporated into existing teen dating violence prevention programs were provided. An investigation of current prevention practices for adolescent IPV resulted in one noteworthy program that has successfully incorporated all 9 principles of effective prevention programming-Safe Dates (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices [SAMHSA-NREPP], 2006). Although Safe Dates serves as a model teen dating violence prevention program, it may not be equally effective across contexts and diverse groups. Therefore, as researchers and practitioners continue to develop and refine programs to reduce adolescent IPV, the principles of effective prevention programs should serve as a guiding framework.

  7. Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

  8. Behavioral intervention to promote smoking cessation and prevent weight gain: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Howe, Dorothea; Berendsen, Mark; McFadden, H. Gene; Hitchcock, Kristin; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Hitsman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Aims The prospect of weight gain discourages many cigarette smokers from quitting. Practice guidelines offer varied advice about managing weight gain after quitting smoking, but no systematic review and meta-analysis have been available. We reviewed evidence to determine whether behavioral weight control intervention compromises smoking cessation attempts, and if it offers an effective way to reduce post-cessation weight gain. Methods We identified randomized controlled trials that compared combined smoking treatment and behavioral weight control to smoking treatment alone for adult smokers. English-language studies were identified through searches of PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Of 779 articles identified and 35 potentially relevant RCTs screened, 10 met criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results Patients who received both smoking treatment and weight treatment showed increased abstinence (OR=1.29, 95% CI=1.01,1.64) and reduced weight gain (g = -0.30, 95% CI=-0.63, -0.04) in the short term (<3 months) compared with patients who received smoking treatment alone. Differences in abstinence (OR=1.23, 95% CI=0.85, 1.79) and weight control (g= -0.17, 95% CI=-0.42, 0.07) were no longer significant in the long term (>6 months). Conclusions Findings provide no evidence that combining smoking treatment and behavioral weight control produces any harm and significant evidence of short-term benefit for both abstinence and weight control. However, the absence of long-term enhancement of either smoking cessation or weight control by the time-limited interventions studied to date provides insufficient basis to recommend societal expenditures on weight gain prevention treatment for patients who are quitting smoking. PMID:19549058

  9. Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; El Ansari, Walid; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Stock, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working. PMID:21139870

  10. Municipalities collaborating in public health: the Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; El Ansari, Walid; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Stock, Christiane

    2010-11-01

    This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP's stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working.

  11. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  12. Preventing Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents: The Signs of Self-Injury Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Walsh, Barent W.; McDade, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) continues to be a problem among youth and there is a great need for programming aimed at reducing NSSI in adolescents. The signs of self-injury program is the first known NSSI school-based prevention program for adolescents that attempts to increase knowledge, improve help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, and…

  13. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  14. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  15. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.; Millsap, Roger E.; Gottschall, Amanda; McClain, Darya B.; Wong, Jessie J.; German, Miguelina; Mauricio, Anne M.; Wheeler, Lorey; Carpentier, Francesca D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, 1 year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined…

  16. Preventing Depression among Adolescent Girls: Pathways toward Effective and Sustainable Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne

    2008-01-01

    Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…

  17. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  18. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early adolescents…

  19. Adolescents' Attitudes about Obesity and What They Want in Obesity Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Louise F.

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major pediatric public health problem. Adolescents are a priority population for intervention strategies. School nurses are in key positions to design intervention strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent adolescent obesity in the students they serve. To design effective programs, school nurses need to know what components…

  20. Toward Teen Health. The Ounce of Prevention Fund School-Based Adolescent Health Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Rebecca

    Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…

  1. Prevention in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: The Reduction of Risk for Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David, Ed.; And Others

    The book describes Project Prevention, an interdisciplinary project developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, to identify risk factors for mental disorders and preventive interventions. After an introductory chapter, the following eight chapters cover: the scope of Project Prevention; children at high risk (e.g.,…

  2. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-08-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry's goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  3. Use of Technology for HIV Prevention among Adolescent and Adult Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Viraj V.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.

    2015-01-01

    Although the proportion of new HIV infections in the United States among women has decreased over the last few years, still, approximately 20% of new infections occur annually among adolescent and adult women. The development of effective evidence-based prevention interventions remains an important approach to further decreasing these numbers. Technology-delivered prevention interventions hold tremendous potential due, in part, to their ability to reach beyond the walls of brick-and-mortar intervention sites to engage individuals where they are. While most technology-delivered interventions have focused on adolescents and men who have sex with men, much fewer have specifically targeted adolescent or adult women despite evidence showing interventions tailored to specific target populations are most effective. We summarize the recently published literature on technology-delivered HIV prevention interventions for U.S. adolescent and adult women and provide suggestions for next steps in this nascent but emergent area of prevention research. PMID:26412086

  4. Prevention of type 2 DM: implications for adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Karam, Jocelyne G; McFarlane, Samy I

    2008-08-01

    Type 2 Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions among adults in the USA and worldwide. With the rising epidemic of obesity among children and adolescents, a parallel epidemic of type 2 diabetes is also observed in this patient population. Control of diabetes and its complications, mainly cardiovascular disease has been sub-optimal at best. Therefore, effort trials have been conducted and others are ongoing to assess various modalities for diabetes prevention among adults, ranging from diet and exercise to pharmacological agents of various classes. Recently, concerted efforts have been made for prevention of type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents. In this paper we discuss the diabetes prevention rationale and methods among adults and the implications of these efforts for children and adolescents. We also highlight the ongoing efforts for diabetes prevention in trials specifically designed to address the adolescent population.

  5. Substance Abuse Prevention Program for Children and Adolescents in a Community-Based Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Andrea; Harvin, Sheila; White, Janeana

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a community-based substance abuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.

  6. Fifteen-Month Follow-Up Results of a School-Based Life-Skills Approach to Smoking Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Abhauer, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The life-kills approach to smoking prevention was tested in this study. In total, 1024 pupils (mean age 11.4 years, SD = 0.90) from Austria, Denmark, Luxembourg and Germany were recruited as an experimental group, and a sample of 834 matched pupils served as a control group. While the pupils from the control group received no specific…

  7. Setting the Record Straight: Secondhand Smoke is a Preventable Health Risk

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report concludes that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), commonly known as secondhand smoke, is responsible for approximately 3,000 lung cancer deaths each year in nonsmoking adults and impairs respiratory health.

  8. Prevention of and Interventions for Dating and Sexual Violence in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention.

  9. Assessment of a sexual coercion prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J

    2012-07-01

    This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.

  10. Gender Differences in HIV/AIDS Preventive Self-Efficacy Among Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to understand gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Self-administered questionnaires were used to measure HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy and covariates (age, substance use, and sexual experiences). Data were collected from 734 Taiwanese high school adolescents aged 16 to 18 years. Descriptive statistic analyses, t-test, and ANCOVA were utilized to analyze data. The results indicate significant differences exist between genders in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy among Taiwanese adolescents. Compared to the males, female adolescents were found having significantly higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy related to refusing sexual intercourse, condom use, and questioning potential sexual partners than those who are males. While controlling age, sexual experience, and substance use, female Taiwanese adolescents also had higher HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy than those who are males. The findings suggest the importance of addressing gender differences in HIV/AIDS preventive self-efficacy when developing HIV reduction programs for Taiwanese adolescents.

  11. Smoking in young adulthood among African Americans: Interconnected effects of supportive parenting in early adolescence, proinflammatory epitype, and young adult stress.

    PubMed

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A

    2016-10-20

    We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.

  12. Risk of Cigarette Smoking Initiation During Adolescence Among US-Born and Non–US-Born Hispanics/Latinos: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Parrinello, Christina M.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Xue, Xiaonan; Bandiera, Frank C.; Cai, Jianwen; Lee, David J.; Navas-Nacher, Elena L.; Perreira, Krista M.; Salgado, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed risk of cigarette smoking initiation among Hispanics/Latinos during adolescence by migration status and gender. Methods. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) surveyed persons aged 18 to 74 years in 2008 to 2011. Our cohort analysis (n = 2801 US-born, 13 200 non–US-born) reconstructed participants’ adolescence from 10 to 18 years of age. We assessed the association between migration status and length of US residence and risk of cigarette smoking initiation during adolescence, along with effects of gender and Hispanic/Latino background. Results. Among individuals who migrated by 18 years of age, median age and year of arrival were 13 years and 1980, respectively. Among women, but not men, risk of smoking initiation during adolescence was higher among the US-born (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.73, 2.57; P < .001), and those who had resided in the United States for 2 or more years (HR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.96; P = .01) than among persons who lived outside the United States. Conclusions. Research examining why some adolescents begin smoking after moving to the United States could inform targeted interventions. PMID:25322293

  13. Substance Use among Asian American Adolescents: Perceptions of Use and Preferences for Prevention Programming

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lin; Barnes-Ceeney, Kevin; Lee, Rebecca A.; Tao, John

    2011-01-01

    Rarely has substance use prevention programming targeted Asian American adolescents. Using a focus group methodology, we explored perceptions of substance use and preferences for prevention programming among 31 Asian American adolescents in New York City. Participants considered substance use common in the community. Factors contributing to substance use among Asian American adolescents (e.g., peer pressure, pressure to achieve, family factors, and community influence) were identified, and the need for prevention programs tailored for the Asian American community was highlighted. Participants discussed preferred program content, delivery settings, and recruitment and retention strategies. Despite the favorable attitude for family-based prevention programming, participants raised potential issues concerning the feasibility of such a program. Study findings facilitate understanding of Asian American adolescents’ substance use behavior and shed light on prevention program development for this underserved population. PMID:21919640

  14. [Skills development: strategy for health promotion and prevention of pregnancy in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Maria Glêdes Ibiapina; Alves, Maria Dalva Santos; Moura, Escolástica Rejane Ferreira; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa; Rego, Rita Maria Viana

    2010-12-01

    Working with the development of skills in sexual and reproductive health of adolescents from the perspective of health promotion for the prevention of the precocious pregnancy is a challenge to the nurse. To attend the group on psychosocial and biological transformation, we must consider their particular demands and growth for the protagonists: nurse and adolescent. The study aims to analyze the practice of the nurse in the prevention of the precocious pregnancy in view of skills development. This is a descriptive and exploratory research, with a qualitative approach, developed in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, using the technique of the focal group, whose analysis was performed by means of discursive practices and maps of association of ideas. The results revealed that the promotion of adolescent health is worked out in the nursing consultation and adolescents groups, being this a creative, appropriate interactive space for the development of skills regarding sexuality and the prevention of precocious pregnancy.

  15. Preventing Smoking Initiation or Relapse following 8.5 Weeks of Involuntary Smoking Abstinence in Basic Military Training: Trial Design, Interventions, and Baseline Data

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Thomas H.; Klesges, Robert C.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Talcott, Gerald W.; Thomas, Fridtjof; Leroy, Karen; Richey, Phyllis A.; Colvin, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is a primary method of reducing excess mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cessation attempts end in eventual relapse. Relapse-prevention interventions have shown some success at improving the long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence among individuals motivated to abstain. However, involuntary tobacco abstinence (e.g., military training, hospitalization, incarceration) presents another opportunity for intervention to prevent relapse. During basic military training (BMT), tobacco use is strictly forbidden in all service branches, but tobacco relapse (and initiation) following BMT is extremely high. This paper reports on the design, intervention development, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing minimal interventions designed to prevent tobacco relapse among United States Air Force (USAF) personnel following BMT. Participants are randomized by squadron to receive either a standard smoking-cessation booklet, a new motivation-based booklet designed specifically for USAF personal, or the latter booklet combined with a brief, face-to-face motivational session. Primary outcomes will be self-reported tobacco use at 12 and 24 month follow-up. Given that the Department of Defense is the world’s largest employer, the potential of leveraging involuntary tobacco abstinence during BMT into extended abstinence has substantial public health significance. PMID:24637237

  16. Preventing smoking initiation or relapse following 8.5 weeks of involuntary smoking abstinence in basic military training: trial design, interventions, and baseline data.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Thomas H; Klesges, Robert C; Ebbert, Jon O; Talcott, Gerald W; Thomas, Fridtjof; Leroy, Karen; Richey, Phyllis A; Colvin, Lauren

    2014-05-01

    Smoking cessation is a primary method of reducing excess mortality and morbidity. Unfortunately, the vast majority of cessation attempts end in eventual relapse. Relapse-prevention interventions have shown some success at improving the long-term maintenance of tobacco abstinence among individuals motivated to abstain. However, involuntary tobacco abstinence (e.g., military training, hospitalization, incarceration) presents another opportunity for intervention to prevent relapse. During basic military training (BMT), tobacco use is strictly forbidden in all service branches, but tobacco relapse (and initiation) following BMT is extremely high. This paper reports on the design, intervention development, and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial testing minimal interventions designed to prevent tobacco relapse among United States Air Force (USAF) personnel following BMT. Participants are randomized by squadron to receive either a standard smoking-cessation booklet, a new motivation-based booklet designed specifically for USAF personal, or the latter booklet combined with a brief, face-to-face motivational session. Primary outcomes will be self-reported tobacco use at 12 and 24month follow-up. Given that the Department of Defense is the world's largest employer, the potential of leveraging involuntary tobacco abstinence during BMT into extended abstinence has substantial public health significance.

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent-Centered Intervention in Preventing Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors in Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Pantin, Hilda; Briones, Ervin; Schwartz, Seth J.; Feaster, Daniel; Huang, Shi; Sullivan, Summer; Tapia, Maria I.; Sabillon, Eduardo; Lopez, Barbara; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of Familias Unidas + Parent–Preadolescent Training for HIV Prevention (PATH), a Hispanic-specific, parent-centered intervention, in preventing adolescent substance use and unsafe sexual behavior. Two hundred sixty-six 8th-grade Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: Familias Unidas + PATH, English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) + PATH, and ESOL + HeartPower! for Hispanics (HEART). Participants were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months postbaseline. Results showed that (a) Familias Unidas + PATH was efficacious in preventing and reducing cigarette use relative to both control conditions; (b) Familias Unidas + PATH was efficacious, relative to ESOL + HEART, in reducing illicit drug use; and (c) Familias Unidas + PATH was efficacious, relative to ESOL + PATH, in reducing unsafe sexual behavior. The effects of Familias Unidas + PATH on these distal outcomes were partially mediated by improvements in family functioning. These findings suggest that strengthening the family system, rather than targeting specific health behaviors, may be most efficacious in preventing and/or reducing cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and unsafe sex in Hispanic adolescents. PMID:18085908

  18. Adolescence Behaviour Problems: How to Tackle or Prevent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…

  19. Next Steps and Best Bets: Approaches to Preventing Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin A.; Sugland, Barbara W.

    Rates of adolescent childbearing in the United States are two to ten times higher than in comparable industrialized democracies. Some programs and service options that show promise for reducing the incidence of adolescent pregnancy are identified in this paper. It begins by outlining 11 principles derived from available research and from program…

  20. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…