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Sample records for adolescent social anxiety

  1. Socialization of Social Anxiety in Adolescent Crowds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we looked at whether social anxiety is socialized, or influenced by peers' social anxiety, more in some peer crowds than others. Adolescents in crowds with eye-catching appearances such as Goths and Punks (here termed "Radical"), were compared with three comparison groups. Using data from 796 adolescents (353 girls and 443 boys; M…

  2. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  3. Social Anxiety and Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Social Withdrawal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Wu, Yelena P.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates social anxiety is associated with lower friendship quality, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This 2-month longitudinal study examined social withdrawal as a mediator of the social anxiety-friendship quality link in a sample of 214 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.1 years, SD = 0.73) that included an…

  4. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M; Niemi, Päivi M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the SAS-A. In a subsample (n = 563; Study 2) concurrent and discriminant validity of the SAS-A were examined relative to the Social Phobia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Test-retest stability was examined over a 30-month period by repeated measures every 6 months in another subsample (n = 377; Study 3). Results mostly revealed no gender differences in social anxiety, except that boys reported more general social avoidance and distress than girls. Older adolescents (14-16-year-olds) reported higher social anxiety than younger adolescents (12-13-year-olds). Internal consistency for the SAS-A was acceptable for both genders and for all three SAS-A subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original 18-item three-factor structure of the SAS-A, accounting for 61% of the variance between items. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity was found. Test-retest stability over 6 months was satisfactory. Results support the reliability and validity of the Finnish adaptation of the SAS-A, and further indicate that gender differences in adolescents' social anxiety may vary across Western countries.

  5. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  6. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions.

  7. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  8. Treating Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Ten Group Therapy Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…

  9. Social Support Seeking and Early Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; McKinnon, Allison; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how social support seeking and rumination interacted to predict depression and anxiety symptoms 6 months later in early adolescents (N = 118; 11-14 years at baseline). We expected social support seeking would be more helpful for adolescents engaging in low rather than high levels of rumination. Adolescents self-reported on all…

  10. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  11. Considering Comorbidity in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Natalia; Muela-Martinez, Jose-Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder, with elevated comorbidity rates with other mental health disorders and may cause severe negative consequences. In adolescence, there is a lack of research on how comorbid disorders to social anxiety tends to form particular associations. With a large sample of adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of social anxiety disorder, data have revealed that certain disorders are more frequent and tend to dwell on concrete aggregates. Thus, it may be particularly useful and efficient for mental health providers, pediatricians and school counselors to screen for generalized anxiety disorder and specific phobia when assessing SAD in youth. Overall, findings stress the presence of comorbidity being the rule rather than the exception in adolescents with social anxiety disorder, and the need for further examination of its impact on assessment and differential diagnosis on this psychiatric disorder.

  12. Relationship of Social Skills, Depression, and Anxiety in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Georgiana Shick; Soffer, Alison; Winograd, Greta

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between self-reported social skills, anxiety, and depression in adolescents. Participants were 97 students from a private high school in New York City. They were administered the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), the Social Skills Rating System-Study Form (SSRS-S), and the Revised…

  13. Social Physique Anxiety and Physical Activity among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eklund, Robert C.; Bianco, Theresa

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the potential impact of adolescent social physique anxiety on behavior and physical activity settings. Offers that an awareness and consideration of the self-presentational sensitivities that adolescents may experience in physical activity settings provide important avenues for understanding and addressing certain types of…

  14. Sociodemographic Variables in Relation to Social Appearance Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gender, age, grade level, and the educational level of the mother and father on social appearance anxiety in Turkish adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which a simple random sampling method was used. Participants were 2,219 adolescents (1089 boys, 1130 girls) with a mean age of 12.76 years old (SD =…

  15. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  16. [Comorbidity of specific and generalized social anxiety in Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Zubeidat, Ihab; Fernández-Parra, Antonio; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Salinas, José María

    2007-11-01

    The comorbidity of the social anxiety disorder, including the specific and generalized subtypes, and other psychopathological problems in adolescents is explored. For this purpose, 961 Spanish young people were evaluated (mean age = 15.63 years) by means of various self-reports that measure sociodemographical variables, competences and clinical indexes. Those with social anxiety were divided into two groups: specific and generalized. The results indicated that the adolescents with social anxiety had a higher percentage of comorbidity in the indexes that refer to anxiety and avoidance in social situations, than did the young people with other psychopathologies. The group of generalized social anxiety had a higher percentage of comorbidity than the specific social anxiety group in the majority of the clinical problems measured by the YSR/11-18 and MMPI-A. Only in eleven of the evaluated clinical indexes was the difference in comorbidity between the two groups of social anxiety significant, and the percentage of comorbidity was lower in the first group.

  17. Feasibility of Virtual Reality Environments for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Oxhandler, Holly K.; Duron, Jacuelynn F.; Swank, Paul; Bordnick, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the feasibility of virtual reality (VR) exposure as an assessment and treatment modality for youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Methods: Forty-one adolescents, 20 of which were identified as having SAD, were recruited from a community sample. Youth with and without SAD were exposed to two social virtual…

  18. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  19. Social anxiety as a basis for friendship selection and socialization in adolescents' social networks.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2011-06-01

    Socially anxious children and adolescents have previously been found to have friends with similarly socially anxious, withdrawn behavioral characteristics. How peers might socialize social anxiety over time has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. We examined this in a sample of 834 youths (339 girls and 495 boys; M=14.29), followed for 3 years. We used the social network analysis software SIENA to analyze the data. The results showed that youths who were socially anxious were less popular and chose fewer friends in the network. They also tended to choose friends who were socially anxious, and over time they influenced each other into becoming more socially anxious--over and above other effects. Finally, girls' social anxiety was more influenced than boys' by their friends' social anxiety levels. The results showed the significance of looking at socially anxious youths' friendships over time and embedded in social networks.

  20. Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: the role of social anxiety and negative cognition.

    PubMed

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Heyne, David A; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that the adolescent onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be partly attributable to an increase in avoidance of social situations across this period. The current cohort-sequential study investigated developmental pathways of social avoidance in adolescence and examined the explanatory role of social anxiety and negative cognitive processes. A community sample of youth (9-21 years, N=331) participated in a four-wave study. Trajectory analyses revealed two pathways: an increased avoidance pathway and a low avoidance pathway. The pathways were hardly distinguishable at age 9 and they steadily diverged across adolescence. Logistic regression analyses showed that social anxiety and post-event rumination were significantly related to the increased avoidance pathway; anticipatory processing and self-focused attention were not. The findings suggest that adolescence is a key developmental period for the progression of social avoidance among youth who show relatively high levels of social anxiety and post-event rumination.

  1. An Examination of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in a Non-referred sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Emily R.; Jordan, Judith A.; Smith, Ashley J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia is prevalent during adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes. Two self-report instruments are empirically-validated to specifically assess social phobia symptomatology in youth: the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children and the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children is a broad-band measure of anxiety containing a scale assessing the social phobia construct. The present study investigated the MASC Social Anxiety Scale in relation to other well-established measures of social phobia and depression in a non-referred sample of adolescents. Results support the convergent validity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale and provide some support for its discriminant validity, suggesting its utility in the initial assessment of social phobia. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROCs) calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Binary logistic regression analyses determined the predictive utility of the MASC Social Anxiety Scale. Implications for assessment are discussed. PMID:19643571

  2. An Evaluation of the Applicability of the Tripartite Constructs to Social Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…

  3. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration.

  4. Social Anxiety and the Severity and Typography of Stuttering in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…

  5. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  6. Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Murray; Ooi, Laura L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Shy children display wariness in unfamiliar social situations and often experience feelings of social anxiety. This study explored the potential mediating role of cognitive biases in the link between shyness and social anxiety in early adolescence. In particular, we focused on judgments of the probability and cost of negative social situations…

  7. Social Anxiety and Peer Relations in Early Adolescence: Behavioral and Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with social anxiety during early adolescence using multiple informants, including self and peer perspectives, teacher ratings, and direct observations. Negative social performance expectations, maladaptive coping strategies, and social skill deficits were examined as correlates of social anxiety and…

  8. Paranoid Thoughts in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pisano, S; Catone, G; Pascotto, A; Iuliano, R; Tiano, C; Milone, A; Masi, G; Gritti, A

    2016-10-01

    Recently, social anxiety disorder (SAD) and paranoia have been demonstrated to be closely related. However, data were primarily drawn from adult community samples or patients with schizophrenia. The present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate a sample of adolescents with SAD (n = 30, mean age 15.3 ± 0.9 years) compared with an age- and sex-matched group of healthy controls (n = 26, mean age 15.9 ± 1.6 years). The SAD group displayed more frequent and intense paranoid thoughts than the control group (t = 4.16, p < 0.001). The level of paranoid thoughts was significantly predicted by the degree of social phobia, even after adjusting for sex and other anxiety disorders, although adjusting for depression slightly reduced the extent and significance of the prediction. A lack of awareness about the association between SAD and paranoia may lead to incorrect diagnoses (e.g. misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders), or it may negatively influence the (psycho)therapeutic process and patient outcomes.

  9. Paranoid Thoughts in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pisano, S; Catone, G; Pascotto, A; Iuliano, R; Tiano, C; Milone, A; Masi, G; Gritti, A

    2016-10-01

    Recently, social anxiety disorder (SAD) and paranoia have been demonstrated to be closely related. However, data were primarily drawn from adult community samples or patients with schizophrenia. The present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate a sample of adolescents with SAD (n = 30, mean age 15.3 ± 0.9 years) compared with an age- and sex-matched group of healthy controls (n = 26, mean age 15.9 ± 1.6 years). The SAD group displayed more frequent and intense paranoid thoughts than the control group (t = 4.16, p < 0.001). The level of paranoid thoughts was significantly predicted by the degree of social phobia, even after adjusting for sex and other anxiety disorders, although adjusting for depression slightly reduced the extent and significance of the prediction. A lack of awareness about the association between SAD and paranoia may lead to incorrect diagnoses (e.g. misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders), or it may negatively influence the (psycho)therapeutic process and patient outcomes. PMID:26658937

  10. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  11. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  12. The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten

    2015-06-01

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time. PMID:24957362

  13. The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten

    2015-06-01

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time.

  14. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  15. Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multi-method BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25522059

  16. Gaining insight into adolescent vulnerability for social anxiety from developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Caouette, Justin D; Guyer, Amanda E

    2014-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers' opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach.

  17. Gaining Insight into Adolescent Vulnerability for Social Anxiety from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Caouette, Justin D.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach. PMID:24239049

  18. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  19. Familial correlates of social anxiety in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bögels, S M; van Oosten, A; Muris, P; Smulders, D

    2001-03-01

    Retrospective studies suggest a relationship between parental rearing practices and social phobia. The present study investigated whether socially anxious children perceive their current parental rearing as rejecting, overprotective, and lacking emotional warmth, and as emphasizing the importance of other's opinion, and de-emphasizing social initiatives and family sociability. Furthermore, we examined whether parents of socially anxious children report to rely on such rearing practices, and suffer themselves from social fears. A regression analysis as well as extreme group comparisons were applied. Little support was found for the presumed role of the assessed family rearing aspects in the development of social anxiety in children. Solely family sociability (children's and mothers' report) and children's perception of overprotection of the mother predicted social anxiety in the regression analysis. Given the influence of the mentioned rearing practices, social anxiety of the mother still significantly predicted social anxiety of the child. In the extreme group comparisons, differences in the expected direction were found between socially anxious and normal children on parental rejection, emotional warmth, and family sociability. However, the lack of differences between socially anxious and clinical control children suggests that these variables do not form a specific pathway to social fears. PMID:11227809

  20. Social anxiety, acute social stress, and reward parameters interact to predict risky decision-making among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jessica M; Patel, Nilam; Daniele-Zegarelli, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Ernst, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15-18yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a study over two separate days, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group's RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884

  1. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  2. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  3. Screening utility of the social anxiety screening scale in Spanish speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, José Antonio; Olivares, José; Hidalgo, María Dolores

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the screening utility of the Social Anxiety Screening Scale (SASS/EDAS) in a sample of 227 adolescents with social anxiety disorder and 156 Without it (14-17 years). Results showed that the EDAS subscales (Avoidance, Distress and Interference) scores were reliable in terms of internal consistency (alpha > .80). All the subscales discriminated between adolescents with and without the disorder. They also showed a positive and significant correlation with other empirically validated measures of social anxiety. The three subscales indicated relevant sensitivity (69.16-84.14%), specificity (63.46-66.03%) and areas under the curve (.74-.81%). Binary logistic regression analyses indicated the adequate predictive utility of EDAS subscales, with the Distress subscale as the best diagnostic predictor. The data provide empirical evidence of the usefulness of EDAS as a screener for adolescent social anxiety disorder in terms of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, diagnostic accuracy and clinical usefulness.

  4. An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this

  5. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  6. Interpretation bias modification for youth and their parents: a novel treatment for early adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reuland, Meg M; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-12-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents' maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents' intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10-15; N=18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents' cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents' biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents' biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial.

  7. Factor Structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Fisher, Paige H.; Pincus, Donna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the…

  8. Adolescent Peer Relations, Friendships, and Romantic Relationships: Do They Predict Social Anxiety and Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah Moore

    2005-01-01

    This study examined multiple levels of adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including general peer relations (peer crowd affiliations, peer victimization), and qualities of best friendships and romantic relationships as predictors of symptoms of depression and social anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 421 adolescents (57% girls; 14 to 19…

  9. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  10. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  11. Social Physique Anxiety in Adolescence: An Exploration of Influences, Coping Strategies, and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabiston, C. M.; Sedgwick, W. A.; Crocker, P. R. E.; Kowalski, K. C.; Mack, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored adolescent females' experiences of social physique anxiety (SPA) and related coping strategies. A final sample of 31 adolescent females ages 13 to 18 years discussed dealing with SPA during individual semistructured interviews. Resultant themes pertaining to the transactional experiences of SPA were coded using content…

  12. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  13. The impact of puberty and social anxiety on amygdala activation to faces in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Jamie; Bress, Jennifer N.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with the onset of puberty, shifts in social and emotional behavior, and an increased vulnerability to social anxiety disorder. These transitions coincide with changes in amygdala response to social and affective stimuli. Utilizing an emotional face-matching task, we examined amygdala response to peer-aged neutral and fearful faces in relation to puberty and social anxiety in a sample of 60 adolescent females between the ages of 8 and 15. We observed amygdala activation in response to both neutral and fearful faces compared to the control condition, but did not observe differential amygdala activation between fearful and neutral faces. Right amygdala activity in response to neutral faces was negatively correlated with puberty and positively correlated with social anxiety, and these effects were statistically independent. Puberty and social anxiety did not relate to amygdala activation in response to fearful faces. These findings suggest that emotional differentiation between fearful and neutral faces may arise during later pubertal development and may result from decreasing sensitivity to neutral faces, rather than increasing sensitivity to threatening faces. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences in social anxiety when examining the neural response to social stimuli in adolescents. PMID:25034314

  14. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing.

  15. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing. PMID:27294324

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xu, Qian; Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in a sample of 296 adolescents (49% boys) in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 with a mean age of 15.52 years. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor structure of the SAS-A in the Chinese sample: Fear of Negative…

  17. Social Anxiety among Arab Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities in Various Educational Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to examine differences in social anxiety between learning disabled (LD) and non-learning disabled (non-LD) students, taking into account educational placement. The present research is the first to consider the above relations among Christian Arab adolescents living in Israel as an Eastern collectivist minority. On…

  18. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  19. Psychophysiological arousal and biased perception of bodily anxiety symptoms in socially anxious children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Siess, Julia; Blechert, Jens; Schmitz, Julian

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety [Clark and Wells, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment, Guilford Press, New York, 1995], diagnostic criteria and studies on adult samples suggest that both an overestimation of bodily anxiety symptoms and psychophysiological abnormalities play an important role in social anxiety. To date, less is known about such a perception bias and physiological characteristics in children and adolescents with social anxiety. We performed a systematic review of the literature in the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, and PSYNDEX. Additional studies were identified by hand search using the ancestry approach. We identified 1,461 studies, screened their titles and abstracts, viewed 94 papers, and included 28 of these. Study samples were heterogeneous and consisted of socially phobic, high socially anxious, shy and test anxious children and adolescents. Regarding a biased perception, most studies in the review suggest that bodily symptoms of anxiety were overestimated by children and adolescents across the social anxiety spectrum when compared with control groups. An elevated psychophysiological reactivity to social stress was present in samples of high social anxiety, shyness, and test anxiety. In clinical samples with social phobia, by contrast, no differences or an even lower physiological responding compared with healthy control groups were reported. In addition, some evidence for a chronic psychophysiological hyperarousal was found across all sample types. The results are discussed with regard to current models of social anxiety, psychophysiological theories, and treatment implications. PMID:23812865

  20. The relationship of loneliness and social anxiety with children's and adolescents' online communication.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Luigi; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Gilmore, Linda

    2010-06-01

    Children and adolescents now communicate online to form and/or maintain relationships with friends, family, and strangers. Relationships in "real life" are important for children's and adolescents' psychosocial development; however, they can be difficult for those who experience feelings of loneliness and/or social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in usage of online communication patterns between children and adolescents with and without self-reported loneliness and social anxiety. Six hundred twenty-six students ages 10 to 16 years completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with, and their purposes for communicating over the Internet. Participants were administered a shortened version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and an abbreviated subscale of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A). Additionally, age and gender differences in usage of the online communication patterns were examined across the entire sample. Findings revealed that children and adolescents who self-reported being lonely communicated online significantly more frequently about personal and intimate topics than did those who did not self-report being lonely. The former were motivated to use online communication significantly more frequently to compensate for their weaker social skills to meet new people. Results suggest that Internet usage allows them to fulfill critical needs of social interactions, self-disclosure, and identity exploration. Future research, however, should explore whether or not the benefits derived from online communication may also facilitate lonely children's and adolescents' offline social relationships. PMID:20557247

  1. Interpretation Bias Modification for Youth and their Parents: A Novel Treatment for Early Adolescent Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents’ intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10–15; N = 18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents’ cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents’ biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents’ biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. PMID:25445075

  2. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the demographic, psychological, and social moderators in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the moderators in 5,027 Taiwanese adolescents. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) were examined using logistic regression analysis. The moderating effects of demographic (gender and age), psychological (problematic alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem), and social factors (bullying victimization, and low family function) on the associations were examined. Adolescents who had anxiety symptoms were more likely to have suicidal ideation and attempt than those who did not have anxiety symptoms. Bullying victimization had a moderating effect on the association between suicidal ideation and anxiety symptoms. Assessment of suicidal ideation and attempt should be routine practice among adolescents who present with anxiety symptoms. PMID:24354459

  3. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Moitra, Ethan; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Brandsma, Lynn L.

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is critical to prevent development of a chronic course of symptoms, persistent functional impairment, and progressive psychiatric comorbidity. A small but growing literature supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, including SAD, in adolescence. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of group vs. individual CBT for adolescents with generalized SAD in relation to an educational/supportive psychotherapy that did not contain specific CBT elements. All three treatments were associated with significant reductions in symptoms and functional impairment, and in improved social skills. No differences between treatments emerged on measures of symptoms, but the CBT conditions demonstrated greater gains on behavioral measures. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:18653310

  4. The relation between social anxiety and audience perception: Examining Clark and Wells’ (1995) model among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blöte, Anke W.; Miers, Anne C.; Heyne, David A.; Clark, David M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clark and Wells’ (1995; Clark, 2001) cognitive model of social anxiety proposes that socially anxious individuals have negative expectations of performance prior to a social event, focus their attention predominantly on themselves and on their negative self-evaluations during an event, and use this negative self processing to infer that other people are judging them harshly. Aims The present study tested these propositions. Method The study used a community sample of 161 adolescents aged 14-18 years. The participants gave a speech in front of a pre-recorded audience acting neutrally, and participants were aware that the projected audience was pre-recorded. Results As expected, participants with higher levels of social anxiety had more negative performance expectations, higher self-focused attention, and more negative perceptions of the audience. Negative performance expectations and self-focused attention were found to mediate the relationship between social anxiety and audience perception. Conclusion The findings support Clark and Wells’ cognitive model of social anxiety which poses that socially anxious individuals have distorted perceptions of the responses of other people because their perceptions are colored by their negative thoughts and feelings. PMID:23635882

  5. The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollocks, Matthew J; Jones, Catherine R G; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

    2014-04-01

    While high levels of anxiety and depression are now recognized as major co-occurring problems in children and young people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research examining possible associations with individual differences in neurocognitive functioning has been limited. This study included 90 adolescents with an ASD aged 14-16 years with a full-scale IQ > 50. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the independent relationships between multiple measures of executive functioning and social cognition on severity of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Results indicated a significant association between poorer executive functioning and higher levels of anxiety, but not depression. In contrast, social cognition ability was not associated with either anxiety or depression. This study is the first to report significant associations between executive functions and anxiety in ASD. This may suggest that poor executive functioning is one factor associated with the high prevalence of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents with ASD. PMID:24737743

  6. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  7. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  8. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.

  9. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

  10. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  11. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the ...

  12. Trajectories of Social Anxiety during Adolescence and Relations with Cognition, Social Competence, and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…

  13. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Early Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Roles of Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Guided by a social information processing perspective, this study examined the unique and interactive contributions of social anxiety and two distinct components of empathy, empathic concern and perspective taking, to subsequent relational and overt aggression in early adolescents. Participants were 485 10- to 14-year old middle school students…

  14. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence. PMID:23421697

  15. An Examination of Social Anxiety in Marijuana and Cigarette Use Motives Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Renee M; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713

  16. Exploration of the psychometric characteristics of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Spanish adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Zubeidat, Ihab; Salinas, José María; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Social phobia is an excessive concern about scrutiny by other people in situations the person considers embarrassing or humiliating. The purpose of this study is to explore the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the social fear and social avoidance subscales of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and to analyze the score distribution of both subscales. To this end, we assessed a sample of 1,012 Spanish adolescents attending school. The results of a first-order factor analysis indicate the existence of a dominant factor in both subscales of the LSAS--as well as three other less relevant factors--and explain most of the variance of the subscales. The internal consistency of the first factor was quite high in both subscales. The LSAS and its two subscales showed adequate theoretical validity with different variables related to social interaction. Finally, the different scores obtained in both subscales make it possible to group adolescents into three clusters with different characteristics. A study of the sociodemographic variables of the components of the clusters showed a significant relation only with sex.

  17. Course of Alcohol Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jessica J.; Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.; Kim, Kevin H.; Blaze, Thomas J.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Chung, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge of the course of social anxiety disorder (SAD) from adolescence into adulthood, and how SAD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms change together over time. The current study examined how persistent and adolescent-limited SAD relate to alcohol symptom trajectories across adolescence and into adulthood, as well as gender differences in the course of SAD and AUD symptoms. Methods Participants were 788 youth (ages 12 to 18 at the baseline assessment; 46.2% female; 80.5% White) recruited from the community (n = 220) and from clinical programs (n = 568). Youth completed clinical interviews on their lifetime history of AUD symptoms and SAD at baseline and were followed through age 25. Multivariate polynomial growth mixture modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories for SAD and AUD symptoms separately, then together in a dual trajectory model. Gender differences were examined using a classify–analyze approach. Results Three SAD trajectory classes were identified: adolescent-limited (15%), persistent (6%), and no SAD (79%). For AUD symptoms, 5 trajectories were identified: severe (10%), moderate (22%), remitting (18%), young adult onset (22%), and stable low (28%). Those with a history of SAD were about twice as likely to be in the severe AUD symptom class compared to those without a history of SAD. Compared to those with persisting SAD, those in the adolescent-limited SAD class were more likely to belong to the stable low AUD trajectory. Compared to males with SAD, females with SAD were less likely to be in the moderate AUD symptom class and were more likely to be in stable low and young adult onset AUD symptom classes. Conclusions A history of SAD was associated with membership in the severe AUD trajectory group. The association of gender with SAD and AUD differed depending on developmental period. Future research should examine whether treating SAD in early adolescence may prevent subsequent AUD symptoms. PMID

  18. Brief Report: A Pilot Summer Robotics Camp to Reduce Social Anxiety and Improve Social/Vocational Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaboski, Juhi R.; Diehl, Joshua John; Beriont, Jane; Crowell, Charles R.; Villano, Michael; Wier, Kristin; Tang, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated a novel intervention designed to reduce social anxiety and improve social/vocational skills for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention utilized a shared interest in robotics among participants to facilitate natural social interaction between individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD)…

  19. Implementing Psychophysiology in Clinical Assessments of Adolescent Social Anxiety: Use of Rater Judgments Based on Graphical Representations of Psychophysiology

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Augenstein, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia; Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha; Kline, Kathryn; Regan, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social stressor tasks induce adolescents’ social distress as indexed by low-cost psychophysiological methods. Unknown is how to incorporate these methods within clinical assessments. Having assessors judge graphical depictions of psychophysiological data may facilitate detections of data patterns that may be difficult to identify using judgments about numerical depictions of psychophysiological data. Specifically, the Chernoff Face method involves graphically representing data using features on the human face (eyes, nose, mouth, and face shape). This method capitalizes on humans’ abilities to discern subtle variations in facial features. Using adolescent heart rate norms and Chernoff Faces, we illustrated a method for implementing psychophysiology within clinical assessments of adolescent social anxiety. METHOD Twenty-two clinic-referred adolescents completed a social anxiety self-report and provided psychophysiological data using wireless heart rate monitors during a social stressor task. We graphically represented participants’ psychophysiological data and normative adolescent heart rates. For each participant, two undergraduate coders made comparative judgments between the dimensions (eyes, nose, mouth, and face shape) of two Chernoff Faces. One Chernoff Face represented a participant’s heart rate within a context (baseline, speech preparation, or speech-giving). The second Chernoff Face represented normative heart rate data matched to the participant’s age. RESULTS Using Chernoff faces, coders reliably and accurately identified contextual variation in participants’ heart rate responses to social stress. Further, adolescents’ self-reported social anxiety symptoms predicted Chernoff Face judgments, and judgments could be differentiated by social stress context. CONCLUSIONS Our findings have important implications for implementing psychophysiology within clinical assessments of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:24320027

  20. Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

  1. Social Anxiety in High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-01-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…

  2. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17–5.19, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial. PMID:26929726

  3. Dominance as part of self-concept mediates the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety among adolescents under residential care.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Yaakov; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-07-01

    According to Rapee (1997), maternal social anxiety (SA) is directly associated with adolescent SA because maternal SA causes overprotective and controlling parental behavior. A total of 127 adolescents who were in the process of transitioning to a boarding school for at-risk youth as well as their mothers participated in the current study, 30% of the adolescents had experienced at least one depressive episode; 17.5% had been diagnosed with SA. We analyzed an expanding model of mediation, of maternal SA and depression in which specifically, adolescent self-perception was constructed as a latent factor that was formed by self-reported dominance and self-criticism. The results supported our hypotheses that maternal SA is not directly associated with adolescent SA. Rather, these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-perception (i.e., dominance and self-criticism). The results call into question Rapee's theoretical arguments and support Gilbert's evolutionary theory. PMID:24931560

  4. Dominance as part of self-concept mediates the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety among adolescents under residential care.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Yaakov; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-07-01

    According to Rapee (1997), maternal social anxiety (SA) is directly associated with adolescent SA because maternal SA causes overprotective and controlling parental behavior. A total of 127 adolescents who were in the process of transitioning to a boarding school for at-risk youth as well as their mothers participated in the current study, 30% of the adolescents had experienced at least one depressive episode; 17.5% had been diagnosed with SA. We analyzed an expanding model of mediation, of maternal SA and depression in which specifically, adolescent self-perception was constructed as a latent factor that was formed by self-reported dominance and self-criticism. The results supported our hypotheses that maternal SA is not directly associated with adolescent SA. Rather, these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-perception (i.e., dominance and self-criticism). The results call into question Rapee's theoretical arguments and support Gilbert's evolutionary theory.

  5. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as…

  6. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  7. Using the Subtle Avoidance Frequency Examination in Adolescent Social Anxiety Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Goepel, Katherine A.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individuals with social anxiety use safety behaviors to directly or indirectly avoid social situations (e.g., remaining quiet in a social setting to avoid saying anything embarrassing). Safety behaviors have been hypothesized to prevent the disconfirmation of feared occurrences while in social situations. Further, research indicates…

  8. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  9. Relations among weight control behaviors and eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baş, Murat; Kiziltan, Gül

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among dieting, eating attitudes, social physique anxiety, and fruit and vegetable consumption among Turkish adolescents. Abnormal eating behavior (EAT-26 > or =20) was found in 32.8% of the total sample; this included 26.4% of the males and 38.7% of the females. Weight-control and weight-related behaviors are associated with high fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescents. Dieting was significantly associated with types of consumption in female adolescents. In addition, EAT-26 scores were significantly positively correlated with high fruit and vegetable consumption, but this association was not observed in SPAS scores among adolescents. Adolescents who engage in dieting behaviors seem to consume more fruit and vegetables than do other adolescents. Female adolescents may be more likely to display abnormal eating attitudes and dieting behaviors than do males. Although some weight-control behaviors may be risky, adolescents who were practicing dieting behaviors engaged in the positive dietary behavior of consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables than did non-dieters.

  10. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  11. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  12. The Relationship of Peer Victimization to Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Brassard, Marla R.; Masia-Warner, Carrie L.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the relations among overt and relational victimization, social anxiety, loneliness, and prosocial behaviors from peers in ninth- and tenth-graders. Found that boys reported higher overt victimization rates and fewer peer prosocial behaviors compared to girls. Found support for the hypothesis that overt and relational victimization were…

  13. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  14. Brief Report: A Pilot Summer Robotics Camp to Reduce Social Anxiety and Improve Social/Vocational Skills in Adolescents with ASD.

    PubMed

    Kaboski, Juhi R; Diehl, Joshua John; Beriont, Jane; Crowell, Charles R; Villano, Michael; Wier, Kristin; Tang, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study evaluated a novel intervention designed to reduce social anxiety and improve social/vocational skills for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention utilized a shared interest in robotics among participants to facilitate natural social interaction between individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) peers. Eight individuals with ASD and eight TD peers ages 12-17 participated in a weeklong robotics camp, during which they learned robotic facts, actively programmed an interactive robot, and learned "career" skills. The ASD group showed a significant decrease in social anxiety and both groups showed an increase in robotics knowledge, although neither group showed a significant increase in social skills. These initial findings suggest that this approach is promising and warrants further study.

  15. Self-Schemas, Anxiety, Somatic and Depressive Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Kim B.; Younger, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that negative self-schemas and a range of internalizing problems may be associated with social withdrawal in late childhood and early adolescence. Using in-school peer nominations from the Revised Class Play, 132 eleven- to thirteen-year-olds were classified as withdrawn (n = 40; 22 girls, 18 boys),…

  16. Anxiety and Substance Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between anxiety symptomatology and substance use (alcohol use and drug use) during adolescence, systematically by gender and race/ethnicity. Methods : Self-report surveys were administered to 905 15-17 year old adolescents (54% girls) in the spring of 2007. Results Results from multiple group analyses indicated that the relations between anxiety and substance use differs by gender and race/ethnicity. For Caucasian and African American boys, higher levels of social anxiety and separation anxiety were related to less substance use. In contrast, higher levels of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder were associated with more substance use for African American boys. The pattern was much less striking for girls. For Caucasian girls, higher levels of significant school avoidance were linked to more substance use and consistent with the results for boys, higher levels of separation anxiety were associated with less substance use. None of the anxiety disorders were related to substance use for African American girls or Hispanic girls or boys. Conclusions Findings from this study highlight the need to distinguish between different anxiety disorders. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering both gender and race/ethnicity when examining the relationship between anxiety and substance use during adolescence. PMID:25148293

  17. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed

    MedlinePlus

    ... phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order ... If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety ...

  18. A comprehensive meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral interventions for social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Simona; Belotti, Raffaella; Ogliari, Anna; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of different types of CBT for children and adolescents suffering from Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is generally supported. However, no systematic efforts have been made to quantitatively summarize and analyse the impact of specific variables on therapeutic outcome. Here, we assessed the magnitude and duration of CBT effectiveness in children and adolescents with SAD. The effectiveness of CBT was supported by the effect sizes of studies that had examined pre-post (g=0.99), between-group (g=0.71), and follow-up responses (follow-up vs. pre-test mean g=1.18, follow-up vs. post-test mean g=0.25). A significant moderating effect was found for the variable "number of treatment sessions". In addition, larger effect sizes were found in studies that included "Social Skills Training" sessions in the intervention package. Data support the effectiveness of CBT interventions and its durability for SAD in children and adolescents. Adding social skills training to the intervention package can further enhance the impact of treatment. PMID:27399932

  19. The Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: Scale Development and Associations with Adolescent Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Alissa R.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2004-01-01

    Given the importance of romantic and dating relationships during adolescence, the purpose of the study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dating Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (DAS-A). Participants were 757 high school students (56% girls, ages 15 to 18 years). Adolescents completed the DAS-A, the Social Anxiety Scale…

  20. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  1. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  2. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress.

  3. The effects of social anxiety on alcohol and cigarette use across adolescence: Results from a longitudinal twin study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jeanne E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Verhulst, Brad; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting reports exist on the direction of the relationship between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol/cigarette use (AU/CU) and alcohol/nicotine dependence (AD/ND), with both positive and negative associations reported. A prospective, longitudinal sample of Finnish twins (n = 1,906) was used to test potential explanations for these discrepancies. Specifically, this study used peer, parent, and teacher ratings of SA, and a clinical interview screening item for social anxiety disorder (SAD-Sc) to examine associations between SA and AU/CU and AD/ND from early adolescence into young adulthood. Peer-rated SA was negatively associated with AU, CU, and AD from age 14 through age 22, implying a protective effect (β = -0.01 to -.03). Teacher- and parent-rated SA associations were in the same directions but weaker or nonsignificant, indicating that aspects of SA that are recognizable by peers may be most relevant to AU/CU. Self-reported SAD-Sc was also negatively associated with AU, but positively associated with AD symptoms in young adulthood (β = 0.38). Our findings partially support the existence of different associations between SA and AU versus AD, but only in the context of SAD-Sc rather than trait SA. Neither trait SA nor SAD-Sc significantly predicted ND symptoms, although SAD-Sc was associated with both cigarette abstinence and daily smoking. These findings suggest that adolescent SA is modestly associated with lower AU/CU, although there may be some individuals with more severe SA who develop alcohol problems later in life. There was little evidence of a common underlying liability contributing to both SA and alcohol/cigarette use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322804

  4. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  5. Social crowding in the night-time reduces an anxiety-like behavior and increases social interaction in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Ago, Yukio; Tanaka, Tatsunori; Ota, Yuki; Kitamoto, Mari; Imoto, Emina; Takuma, Kazuhiro; Matsuda, Toshio

    2014-08-15

    Rearing in crowded conditions is a psychosocial stressor that affects biological functions. The effects of continuous crowding for many days have been studied, but those of crowding over a limited time have not. In this study, we examined the effects of night-time or daytime crowding over 2 weeks on behavior in adolescent and adult mice. Crowding (20 mice/cage) in either the night-time or daytime did not affect locomotor activity in the open field test or cognitive function in the fear conditioning test. In contrast, night-time crowding, but not daytime crowding, had an anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze test and increased social interaction in adolescent mice, but not in adult mice. The first night-time, but not daytime, crowding increased plasma corticosterone levels in adolescent mice, although night-time crowding over 2 weeks did not affect the corticosterone levels. Furthermore, no significant effects of the first crowding were observed in adult mice. In a second crowding condition (six mice/small cage), the anxiolytic-like effects of night-time crowding and the change in plasma corticosterone levels were not observed, suggesting that the density of mice is not important for the behavioral consequences of crowding. Night-time crowding did not affect neurotrophic/growth factor levels and hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent mice. These findings suggest that night-time crowding leads to anxiolytic-like behaviors in adolescent mice, and imply that night-time crowding stress in adolescence may be beneficial to brain functions.

  6. Social Anxiety in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subasi, Guzin

    2005-01-01

    Social anxiety occurs when people feel doubtful about their particular impressions, real or imaginary, on others. Social anxiety, as denoted by its name, is a situation that arises in social settings as an outcome of interpersonal relationships. What lies in the basis of social anxiety is the fear of being evaluated by others as inadequate. Social…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; King, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety, social phobia, GAD, and physical anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in physical, social, and GAD symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in separation anxiety and GAD symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  8. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  9. The many faces of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, H U

    2000-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, affecting 7-13% of subjects in the community at some time in their lives. Despite being eminently treatable, it remains largely under-recognised and, therefore, undertreated. The disorder is characterized by a fear of scrutiny by others, with sufferers experiencing excessive anxiety in social and performance situations. This excessive anxiety usually leads to avoidance behaviour that can severely affect normal daily living. With onset commonly occurring during childhood or adolescence, social anxiety disorder may disrupt normal patterns of development of social and personal relationships, often having a long-term impact on emotional stability in social or working life. If left untreated, the course of social anxiety disorder is frequently complicated with comorbid conditions, particularly major depression or substance abuse. This review assesses the size of the clinical problem by evaluating current and lifetime prevalence estimates, age of onset, risk factors and evolution of the clinical course; thereby providing the rationale for early recognition and prompt treatment. PMID:10994677

  10. Social Anxiety among Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an "other concerned anxiety" factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor-other concerned anxiety-functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  11. Consultants' perceptions of school counselors' ability to implement an empirically-based intervention for adolescent social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Masia Warner, Carrie; Brice, Chad; Esseling, Petra G; Stewart, Catherine E; Mufson, Laura; Herzig, Kathleen

    2013-11-01

    Social anxiety is highly prevalent but goes untreated. Although school-based CBT programs are efficacious when delivered by specialized psychologists, it is unclear whether school counselors can implement these interventions effectively, which is essential to promote sustainable school programs. We present an initial consultation strategy to support school counselor implementation of group CBT for social anxiety and an evaluation of counselors' treatment fidelity. Counselors were highly adherent to the treatment, but competence varied based on measurement. Counselors and consultants demonstrated good agreement for adherence, but relatively modest correspondence in competence ratings. We discuss future directions for school-based implementation efforts informed by these initial findings.

  12. Consultants’ Perceptions of School Counselors’ Ability to Implement an Empirically-Based Intervention for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Carrie Masia; Brice, Chad; Esseling, Petra G.; Stewart, Catherine E.; Mufson, Laura; Herzig, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety is highly prevalent but goes untreated. Although school-based CBT programs are efficacious when delivered by specialized psychologists, it is unclear whether school counselors can implement these interventions effectively, which is essential to promote sustainable school programs. We present an initial consultation strategy to support school counselor implementation of group CBT for social anxiety and an evaluation of counselors’ treatment fidelity. Counselors were highly adherent to the treatment, but competence varied based on measurement. Counselors and consultants demonstrated good agreement for adherence, but relatively modest correspondence in competence ratings. We discuss future directions for school-based implementation efforts informed by these initial findings. PMID:23716144

  13. The anxieties of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levine, S V

    1981-12-01

    The Canadian nationally syndicated newspaper column entitled "Youth Clinic" during a four-year period received over 4,000 letters from young people. This article highlights the prominent themes of these letters and points out the recurrent concerns of those youth who are predisposed to writing. The most common themes have to do with the adolescents' sense of isolation from peers and adults. The difficulties in adequately responding to genuine but anonymous letters, the problems inherent in only publishing a small proportion of the letters received, and the potential uses of such a column, are discussed.

  14. Correlates of Appearance Anxiety in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood among Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keelan, J. Patrick R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Findings from female undergraduates (n=106) who completed questionnaires assessing appearance anxiety and childhood and early adolescent experiences suggest that appearance anxiety in women is related to reported negative social experiences in childhood and early adolescence. Appearance anxiety was also found to be related to current social…

  15. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  16. Rages and refusals. Managing the many faces of adolescent anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with a practical approach to recognition, assessment, and treatment of adolescent anxiety disorders complicated by avoidance or oppositional behaviour. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Current literature was searched via MEDLINE using the MeSH headings Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders, focusing on epidemiology, clinical presentations in adolescence, and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment. In addition, internationally accepted diagnostic criteria, current practice guidelines, and recent textbooks by recognized experts were reviewed. Research evidence and consensus recommendations were integrated with a practical approach developed in a provincial mood and anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN FINDINGS: Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents, with estimated prevalence of at least 10%. Substance abuse and avoiding school are common complications, and irritability with behavioural and rage problems can interfere with effective management. Current controlled research is examining the effectiveness of serotonergic medications known to benefit panic disorder, social phobia, and generalized anxiety in adults. While cognitive and behavioural treatments are effective for some child and adolescent anxiety disorders, they can be difficult to administer, and a supportive and psychoeducational approach could be as effective for those who refuse to go to school. CONCLUSION: Family physicians' awareness of the role of anxiety in adolescent school avoidance and in intense, oppositional emotional reactions at home can lead to more specific assessment and therapeutic intervention. Practical management strategies are recommended. PMID:11398717

  17. Self-Concept and Social Anxiety as Predictor Variables of Academic Performance of Spanish Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…

  18. Loneliness and Shyness in Adolescent Problematic Internet Users: The Role of Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Vivien S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chye, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Davis' ("Comput Hum Behav" 17:187-195, 2001) cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposed and theorized that certain psychopathological characteristics present within an individual, predispose him to PIU. Objective: This study extended Davis' model in hypothesizing that social anxiety…

  19. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  20. Threat Perception Bias and Anxiety among Chinese School Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous…

  1. Exploring a model linking social physique anxiety, drive for muscularity, drive for thinness and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Dorsch, Kim D; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-03-01

    This study examined gender differences on body image measures, and tested a model where self-esteem influences social physique anxiety (SPA), which in turn influences drive for muscularity and drive for thinness in a sample of adolescents (N=329; 58% boys). Multi-group invariance analyses indicated that the measurement and structural models were partially invariant for boys and girls, allowing for gender comparisons. Results indicated that boys reported significantly lower drive for thinness and SPA, and higher drive for muscularity and self-esteem compared to girls. The measurement and structural models were an adequate fit for the total sample. Findings supported the proposed sequence in which self-esteem significantly influenced SPA, and SPA significantly influenced the drives for muscularity and thinness. Interventions aimed at decreasing SPA, by promoting self-esteem, may be helpful in decreasing adolescent boys' and girls' drive for muscularity and thinness. PMID:20096657

  2. Exploring a model linking social physique anxiety, drive for muscularity, drive for thinness and self-esteem among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Dorsch, Kim D; McCreary, Donald R

    2010-03-01

    This study examined gender differences on body image measures, and tested a model where self-esteem influences social physique anxiety (SPA), which in turn influences drive for muscularity and drive for thinness in a sample of adolescents (N=329; 58% boys). Multi-group invariance analyses indicated that the measurement and structural models were partially invariant for boys and girls, allowing for gender comparisons. Results indicated that boys reported significantly lower drive for thinness and SPA, and higher drive for muscularity and self-esteem compared to girls. The measurement and structural models were an adequate fit for the total sample. Findings supported the proposed sequence in which self-esteem significantly influenced SPA, and SPA significantly influenced the drives for muscularity and thinness. Interventions aimed at decreasing SPA, by promoting self-esteem, may be helpful in decreasing adolescent boys' and girls' drive for muscularity and thinness.

  3. Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: contributions to the development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E

    2014-04-01

    The schema therapy model posits that maltreatment generates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that lead to the development of emotional disorders throughout the life span. The model also stipulates that temperament moderates the influence of maltreatment on EMSs. This study examines (a) whether emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and peers, both alone and interactively with temperament, predicts the worsening of EMSs; and (b) whether EMSs in turn predict an increase in depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A total of 1,052 adolescents (Mage=13.43; SD=1.29) were assessed at three time points, each of which was separated by 6 months. The subjects completed measures of emotional abuse by parents and peers, neuroticism, extraversion, EMSs, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. The findings indicate that emotional bullying victimization and neuroticism predict a worsening of all schema domains over time. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant interaction between temperament dimensions and emotional abuse. The results confirmed the mediational hypothesis that changes in EMSs mediated the predictive association between bullying victimization and emotional symptoms. This study provides partial support for the schema therapy model by demonstrating the role of emotional abuse and temperament in the genesis of EMSs. PMID:24252743

  4. Can Autism Spectrum Disorders and Social Anxiety Disorders Be Differentiated by the Social Responsiveness Scale in Children and Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Mojica, Laura; Rohrmann, Sonja; Gensthaler, Angelika; Freitag, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as social phobia (SP), and selective mutism (SM) are characterised by impaired social interaction. We assessed the validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to differentiate between ASD, and SP/SM. Raw scores were compared in 6-18 year old individuals with ASD (N = 60), SP (N = 38), SM (N = 43), and…

  5. A Cross-sectional Study of Correlation of Body Image Anxiety with Social Phobia and Their Association with Depression in the Adolescents from a Rural Area of Sangli District in India

    PubMed Central

    Waghachavare, Vivek Baliram; Quraishi, Sanjay R.; Dhumale, Girish B.; Gore, Alka D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevailing socio-cultural influences lead females to desire a thin body and males a muscular body, especially in adolescents. This results in body image anxiety which may lead to social phobia. Together they can develop depression. The aim was to study the correlation of body image anxiety with social phobia and their association with depression, among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in randomly selected colleges from a rural area of Sangli district Maharashtra, India. Stratified random sampling technique used with sample size 805. Pretested self-administered questionnaire used. Percentage, Chi-square test, binary logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence intervals. Results: Of 997 study subjects body image anxiety, social phobia and depression were observed in 232 (23.3%), 193 (19.4%) and 326 (32.7%) participants, respectively. Binary logistic regression showed that body image anxiety (OR = 1.849 [1.22, 2.804]; P = 0.004) and social phobia (OR = 4.575 [2.952-7.09]; P < 0.001) were significant predictors for depression. Conclusions: Body image anxiety and social phobia are linked with the development of depression. This impresses the need for timely counseling and education among adolescents. PMID:25709801

  6. Can autism spectrum disorders and social anxiety disorders be differentiated by the social responsiveness scale in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Mojica, Laura; Rohrmann, Sonja; Gensthaler, Angelika; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as social phobia (SP), and selective mutism (SM) are characterised by impaired social interaction. We assessed the validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to differentiate between ASD, and SP/SM. Raw scores were compared in 6-18 year old individuals with ASD (N = 60), SP (N = 38), SM (N = 43), and typically developed (N = 42). Sensitivity and specificity were examined. The three disorders showed overlapping SRS scores. Especially in boys with SM (ROC-AUC = .81), presence of ASD was overestimated by the SRS. A combination of three disorder specific questionnaires resulted in marginally improved diagnostic accuracy. For the clinically very relevant differential diagnosis of SP/SM, SRS results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:24682652

  7. Interpersonal consequences of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Heerey, Erin A; Kring, Ann M

    2007-02-01

    The behavioral manifestations of social anxiety may have implications for social outcomes. Unfortunately, little is known about how anxiety shapes social interaction. The present study examined social interactions in dyads consisting of either 2 nonsocially anxious (NSA) individuals or 1 socially anxious (SA) and 1 NSA individual. Behavior, self-reported affect, and perceptions were examined. In comparison with the interactions of NSA pairs, high levels of fidgeting, poor reciprocity of smiling behavior, more self-talk, and more frequent reassurance seeking and giving characterized interactions between SA and NSA participants. Both SA participants and their NSA partners rated their interactions as being less smooth and coordinated than did participants in NSA-NSA dyads. In addition, SA participants' reassurance seeking and self-talk correlated negatively with partner positive affect and perceptions of interaction quality. The authors discuss self-focused attention and the interpersonal consequences of social anxiety.

  8. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  9. Development of Social Anxiety: Social Interaction Predictors of Implicit and Explicit Fear of Negative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Bethany A.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about how to predict which individuals with known temperament vulnerabilities will go on to develop social anxiety problems. Adolescents (N = 185) were followed from age 13 to 18 to evaluate psychosocial, prospective predictors of social anxiety symptoms and fears of negative evaluation (FNE), after accounting for pre-existing…

  10. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  11. Anxiety in Medically Ill Children/Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Maryland; Bosk, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are thought to be one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses in children/adolescents. Chronic medical illness is a significant risk factor for the development of an anxiety disorder and the prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among youths with chronic medical illnesses is higher compared to their healthy counterparts. Anxiety disorders may develop secondary to predisposing biological mechanisms related to a child’s specific medical illness, as a response to being ill or in the hospital, a threatening environment, as a result of other genetic and psychological factors, or as a combination of all these factors. Additionally, exposure to physical pain early in one’s life and or frequent painful medical procedures are correlated with fear and anxiety during subsequent procedures and treatments and may lead to medical nonadherence and other comorbidities. Anxiety disorders can have serious consequences in children/adolescents with chronic and or life limiting medical illnesses. Therefore, proper identification and treatment of anxiety disorders is necessary and may improve not only psychiatric symptoms but also physical symptoms. Behavioral and cognitive methods as well as psychotropic medications are used to treat anxiety disorders in pediatric patients. We will review current treatments for anxiety in children/adolescents with medical illnesses and propose future research directions. PMID:20721908

  12. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  13. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer Consultation Professional Opportunities: Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia ...

  14. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  15. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  16. Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wehry, Anna M.; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M.; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are efficacious in the treatment of these conditions in youth and that combination of CBT + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy. PMID:25980507

  17. Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wehry, Anna M; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M; Connolly, Sucheta D; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social, and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity, and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of these conditions in youth and suggest that the combination of psychotherapy + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy.

  18. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schohl, Kirsten A.; Van Hecke, Amy V.; Carson, Audrey Meyer; Dolan, Bridget; Karst, Jeffrey; Stevens, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(4):596-606, 2009). PEERS focuses on improving friendship quality and social skills among adolescents with higher-functioning ASD. 58 participants aged 11-16 years-old were randomly assigned to…

  19. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search words autism, asperger(s), or pervasive developmental disorder and anxiety or anxious to find reports published between 1990 and 2008, this review identified 40 papers. The results of the review suggest that anxiety, whether measured categorically or dimensionally, is indeed common in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and may be a source of additional morbidity. The assessment of anxiety disorders in ASD should be conducted using multiple informants and modalities, as children with ASD often do not display age-typical symptoms of anxiety. To date, relatively few controlled intervention studies using well-characterized samples have been conducted despite preliminary evidence for efficacy of select pharmacological and psychosocial approaches. Recommendations for future applied research are presented and clinical implications are explored. PMID:19223098

  20. Social Anxiety in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowden, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…

  1. Hiding anxiety versus acknowledgment of anxiety in social interaction: relationship with social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Voncken, Marisol J; Alden, Lynn E; Bögels, Susan M

    2006-11-01

    According to cognitive and interpersonal models, safety behaviors in social phobia (e.g., avoiding eye contact, hiding blushing) erroneously induce negative evaluation by interaction partners. Presumably, a bias about the social outcome of safety behaviors causes this negative interaction cycle. Such a bias might be subject to double standard in social phobia (i.e., having more stringent rules for oneself than for others). Female students (n=81) predicted more negative social outcomes for a prominent type of safety behavior, hiding anxiety, than for the opposite behavior, acknowledgment of anxiety and ongoing behavior (control condition) in scripts of self- and other-target persons. The relation between social anxiety and double standard was robust. Social anxiety did not relate to a cognitive bias regarding hiding ones anxiety, as we expected, but was associated with the belief that acknowledgment of anxiety has negative social outcomes specifically for them. These results are evaluated in light of the interpersonal consequences anxiety-related behaviors have in social interactions. PMID:16376295

  2. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  3. Anxiety in adolescents: Update on its diagnosis and treatment for primary care providers

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rebecca S; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health concern facing adolescents today, yet they are largely undertreated. This is especially concerning given that there are fairly good data to support an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety, and also that untreated, these problems can continue into adulthood, growing in severity. Thus, knowing how to recognize and respond to anxiety in adolescents is of the utmost importance in primary care settings. To that end, this article provides an up-to-date review of the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders geared towards professionals in primary care settings. Topics covered include subtypes, clinical presentation, the etiology and biology, effective screening instruments, evidence-based treatments (both medication and therapy), and the long-term prognosis for adolescents with anxiety. Importantly, we focus on the most common types of anxiety disorders, often known as phobias, which include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety/social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias. In summary, anxiety is a common psychiatric problem for adolescents, but armed with the right tools, primary care providers can make a major impact. PMID:24600282

  4. Anxiety in adolescents: Update on its diagnosis and treatment for primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Rebecca S; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health concern facing adolescents today, yet they are largely undertreated. This is especially concerning given that there are fairly good data to support an evidence-based approach to the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety, and also that untreated, these problems can continue into adulthood, growing in severity. Thus, knowing how to recognize and respond to anxiety in adolescents is of the utmost importance in primary care settings. To that end, this article provides an up-to-date review of the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders geared towards professionals in primary care settings. Topics covered include subtypes, clinical presentation, the etiology and biology, effective screening instruments, evidence-based treatments (both medication and therapy), and the long-term prognosis for adolescents with anxiety. Importantly, we focus on the most common types of anxiety disorders, often known as phobias, which include generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety/social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias. In summary, anxiety is a common psychiatric problem for adolescents, but armed with the right tools, primary care providers can make a major impact. PMID:24600282

  5. Attachment, Self-Esteem and Test Anxiety in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…

  6. Social Anxiety and Friendship Quality over Time.

    PubMed

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Lim, Michelle H; Shumaker, Erik A; Levinson, Cheri A; Thompson, Tess

    2015-01-01

    High social anxiety in adults is associated with self-report of impaired friendship quality, but not necessarily with impairment reported by friends. Further, prospective prediction of social anxiety and friendship quality over time has not been tested among adults. We therefore examined friendship quality and social anxiety prospectively in 126 young adults (67 primary participants and 59 friends, aged 17-22 years); the primary participants were screened to be extreme groups to increase power and relevance to clinical samples (i.e., they were recruited based on having very high or very low social interaction anxiety). The prospective relationships between friendship quality and social anxiety were then tested using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Friendship quality prospectively predicted social anxiety over time within each individual in the friendship, such that higher friendship quality at Time 1 predicted lower social anxiety approximately 6 months later at Time 2. Social anxiety did not predict friendship quality. Although the results support the view that social anxiety and friendship quality have an important causal relationship, the results run counter to the assumption that high social anxiety causes poor friendship quality. Interventions to increase friendship quality merit further consideration.

  7. Self-concept and anxiety of adolescent and adult fathers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B E; Barret, R L

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the age of unmarried fathers and their self-concept and anxiety level. A total of 24 unmarried fathers (12 adolescents and 12 adults) comprised the sample. No significant differences were found between adolescent and adult fathers on self-concept or anxiety level. Findings are discussed with regard to the current status of research on adolescent fathers.

  8. How is recovery from social anxiety disorder defined?

    PubMed

    Bobes, J

    1998-01-01

    Recovery in social anxiety disorder (social phobia) is a poorly defined concept. Since the onset of social anxiety disorder typically occurs during adolescence, a time when social skills and academic attainment are of particular importance, recovery is difficult to assess. Assessment of global improvement over 3 domains--symptoms, functionality, and well-being or overall severity of illness--is needed. This article describes currently available rating scales for social anxiety and uses data from clinical studies to assess whether improvement can be defined quantitatively in terms of scores on these rating scales. The main criteria have changed little over the past few years, with most investigators looking for a prespecified response on a single generic or specific rating scale for clinical severity. A better approach may be to employ a multiaxial system that uses a number of rating scales to measure both global and specific symptoms, disability, and quality of life.

  9. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  10. High anxieties: the social construction of anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Dowbiggin, Ian R

    2009-07-01

    Anxiety has always been part of the human condition, with accounts of its various manifestations, including acute shyness and stage fright, dating back to classical antiquity. Nonetheless, since the end of the Second World War, reported levels of anxiety have risen alarmingly. At the beginning of the 21st century, anxiety disorders constitute the most prevalent mental health problem around the globe, afflicting millions of people. What social factors account for this stunning development in the mental health field during the past half century? Some observers target the ever increasing pace and demands of modern life. Nonetheless, a larger body of evidence suggests that the prevalence of anxiety is due less to these pressures themselves than to a prevailing social ethos that teaches people that anxiety-related symptoms are a socially and medically legitimate response to life in the modern age.

  11. Cognitive Correlates of Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined different cognitive phenomena in relation to social phobia among children (aged 7 to 11) and adolescents (aged 12-16) separately. Fifty socially phobic youths were compared to 30 normal control children on measures of social anxiety, social expectation as well as self-and observer-rated performance during two social tasks involving a…

  12. Development of Social Anxiety: Social Interaction Predictors of Implicit and Explicit Fear of Negative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how to predict which individuals with known temperament vulnerabilities will go on to develop social anxiety problems. Adolescents (N = 185) were followed from age 13 to 18 to evaluate psychosocial, prospective predictors of social anxiety symptoms and fears of negative evaluation (FNE), after accounting for pre-existing social withdrawal symptoms. Results from structural equation modeling suggest that lack of perceived social acceptance predicts subsequent explicit social anxiety and FNE, whereas the emotional intensity of close peer interactions predicts subsequent implicit FNE. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of peer interaction in the development of social anxiety, and the value of measuring both implicit and explicit FNE. PMID:17171538

  13. Universal-Based Prevention of Syndromal and Subsyndromal Social Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results from a universal preventive program aimed at (a) reducing social anxiety and (b) preventing the development of syndromal social anxiety among a population-based sample of older children and young adolescents during a 1-year period. Pupils (N = 1,748) from 2 counties were cluster randomized to either an intervention or…

  14. Impact of social isolation and enriched environment during adolescence on voluntary ethanol intake and anxiety in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Laber, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the impact of an enriched environment in a previously established stress model of isolation during early development that induces high alcohol (ethanol) self-administration. The study was conducted with male and female C57BL/6J mice housed in isolation or in groups that were either provided or withheld enrichment during adolescence. The impact of these housing conditions was assessed during adulthood by measuring weight gain, quantifying voluntary ethanol intake, measuring plasma corticosterone levels, and assessing anxiety-like behavior. Results showed that, regardless of sex, mice that were single-housed during adolescence showed a significant increase in voluntary ethanol intake, which was not observed in isolated mice that were provided with nesting material during adolescence (compared to group-housed non-enriched control group). Basal corticosterone was not affected by housing, enrichment conditions, or sex. Corticosterone levels did not relate to levels of voluntary ethanol intake. However, corticosterone levels were higher after three weeks of ethanol intake. Surprisingly, mice that were group-housed during adolescence showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark test. Overall, these results indicate that housing conditions during a critical developmental period can significantly modulate voluntary ethanol intake later in life.

  15. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor.

  16. Social anxiety in orthognathic patients.

    PubMed

    Ryan, F S; Moles, D R; Shute, J T; Clarke, A; Cunningham, S J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that patients seeking orthognathic treatment may be motivated by social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of this study was to investigate SAD in orthognathic patients using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNES) and to compare these findings with those of the general population. This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire study conducted in two parts. Firstly, a national survey was conducted to yield data for the BFNES from a large, random sample of the UK general population. Secondly, orthognathic patients completed the BFNES. The BFNES scores are reported in two formats: the original 12-item scale (O-BFNES) and a shorter eight-item version (S-BFNES). With regards to the national survey, 1196 individuals participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 29.72 (standard deviation (SD) 9.39) and S-BFNES score was 15.59 (SD 7.67). With regards to the orthognathic sample, 61 patients participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 39.56 (SD 10.35) and the mean S-BFNES score was 24.21 (SD 8.41). Orthognathic patients had significantly higher scores than the general UK population (P<0.001), and multiple linear regression revealed that age, gender, and patient status were all independent predictors of BFNES scores. From the results of this study, orthognathic patients experience significantly higher levels of social anxiety than the general population.

  17. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies.

  18. Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Referred Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Poli, Paola; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There are insufficient data on generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms and comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder are described as a function of age, gender, and comorbidity in a consecutive series of referred children and adolescents. Method: One hundred fifty-seven outpatients (97 males and 60 females,…

  19. Social Anxiety and Sociometric Nomination in Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Beatriz; Inglés, Cándido J; Aparisi, David; García-Fernández, José M

    2016-07-18

    Adolescents with social anxiety can manifest great interference in their relationship with classmates and other peers, as well as in their school performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociometric nominations and assessment of students with high social anxiety by their peers and teachers, and to determine whether these assessments differ significantly between evaluators (peers vs. teachers), in a sample of 2022 (51.1% male) Spanish adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. Sociometric identification and assessment of various educational aspects of the students was performed through the Socio program and Teacher assessment scales, respectively. Results show that students with high social anxiety were nominated by peers as popular, rejected and neglected with the same frequency and proportionately less nominated as leaders, friendly, cooperative, and quarrelsome students than those without high social anxiety (d .97). Finally, peers significantly nominated students with high social anxiety more as leaders, cooperative, quarrelsome, obedient and good students than their teachers (d < .42). In conclusion, this study shows that adolescents with high social anxiety are valued and nominated by their peers and teachers differently.

  20. Social Anxiety and Sociometric Nomination in Spanish Students of Compulsory Secondary Education.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Beatriz; Inglés, Cándido J; Aparisi, David; García-Fernández, José M

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with social anxiety can manifest great interference in their relationship with classmates and other peers, as well as in their school performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociometric nominations and assessment of students with high social anxiety by their peers and teachers, and to determine whether these assessments differ significantly between evaluators (peers vs. teachers), in a sample of 2022 (51.1% male) Spanish adolescents aged between 12 and 16 years. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. Sociometric identification and assessment of various educational aspects of the students was performed through the Socio program and Teacher assessment scales, respectively. Results show that students with high social anxiety were nominated by peers as popular, rejected and neglected with the same frequency and proportionately less nominated as leaders, friendly, cooperative, and quarrelsome students than those without high social anxiety (d .97). Finally, peers significantly nominated students with high social anxiety more as leaders, cooperative, quarrelsome, obedient and good students than their teachers (d < .42). In conclusion, this study shows that adolescents with high social anxiety are valued and nominated by their peers and teachers differently. PMID:27426039

  1. Death anxiety in adolescents: the contributions of bereavement and religiosity.

    PubMed

    Ens, Carla; Bond, John B

    2007-01-01

    Possible relationships between bereavement and religiosity to death anxiety levels of adolescents were investigated. Scales measuring religiosity, bereavement, and death anxiety were incorporated into one questionnaire. Two hundred and twenty-six adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 participated in the study based in urban and rural private schools within Manitoba. Females exhibited significantly higher death anxiety levels than did males; differences between the death anxiety levels of adolescents having a no-previous-death-experience death and those who had experienced a familial death were not significant; while religiosity levels were significantly higher for students attending religion-based schools, the relationships between measurements of religiosity and death anxiety were weak. Grief due to bereavement was the major factor in determining death anxiety for the adolescent.

  2. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Methods Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire – Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Results Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), Reciprocal Social Interaction (t(351)=4.73, p<.001, d=.55, r=.27), communication (t(344)=3.62, p<.001, d=.43, r=.21) and repetitive, restrictive and stereotyped behaviors subscales (t(353)=3.15, p=.002, d=.37, r=.18). Furthermore, children with Social Anxiety Disorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. Limitations The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Conclusions Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. PMID:25451393

  3. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety.

  4. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713

  5. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  6. The Relationship Between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use Among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13–17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance use being examined, as well as by gender. Social phobia was associated with cigarette smoking among boys only. For girls, social phobia appeared to be negatively associated with drug use. For the other anxiety disorders, the associations with substance use tended to be stronger among girls. These findings highlight the need to improve clinical recognition of the anxiety disorders and to improve treatment access for afflicted adolescents. Future studies based on longitudinal data could further elucidate the relationships among anxiety disorders, gender, and substance use. PMID:20084563

  7. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  8. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  9. Threat-related automatic associations in socially anxious adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J; Sportel, B Esther; Nauta, Maaike H

    2011-08-01

    Threat-related automatic associations are assumed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. We tested whether threat-related automatic associations are already evident in high socially anxious adolescents, by comparing a group of adolescents (age 12-15) with subclinical levels of social anxiety (n=170) to a group of low socially anxious adolescents (n=193). We used a single-target implicit association test to measure threat-related automatic associations to social cues. Results showed that indeed in high socially anxious adolescents social cues automatically elicited relatively strong threat-related associations. Supporting the relevance of differentiating between automatic and more explicit measures, both automatic and explicit associations were independently associated with adolescents' level of self-reported social anxiety. The present pattern of findings is not only consistent with the view that automatic and more deliberate threat-related associations are both involved in the etiology of social-anxiety symptoms, but also suggest that both types of associations are proper targets for early intervention programs. PMID:21652030

  10. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed.

  11. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24779421

  12. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Evaluating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Rynn, Moira A.; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Shen, Sa; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A.; Keeton, Courtney; Waslick, Bruce; Chrisman, Allan; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs) across four treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the frequency of AEs between children and adolescents. Method Participants ages 7-17 years (M=10.7) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for one or more of the following disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n=139), sertraline (SRT, n=133), combination of both (COMB, n=140), or pill placebo (PBO, n=76). AEs were collected via a standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC). Results There were no differences between the double-blinded conditions (SRT vs. PBO) for total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when compared to CBT (p<.01) and COMB (p<.01). Moreover, those who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years) across all arms (31.7% vs. 23.1%, p<.05). Total PSC scores decreased over time with no significant differences between treatment groups. Conclusion The results support the tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities leading to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years). PMID:25721183

  13. Intolerance of uncertainty, fear of anxiety, and adolescent worry.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Michel J; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M

    2012-08-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable partially explained change in the other. Fear of anxiety and worry also showed evidence of a bidirectional relation, although change in fear of anxiety had a much weaker mediational effect on change in worry than vice versa. The findings show that relative to fear of anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty may play a greater role in the etiology of worry in adolescents.

  14. Relationship between social anxiety and perceived trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ruth; Doehrmann, Oliver; Fang, Angela; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hoijtink, Herbert J A; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    Four different patterns of biased ratings of facial expressions of emotions have been found in socially anxious participants: higher negative ratings of (1) negative, (2) neutral, and (3) positive facial expressions than nonanxious controls. As a fourth pattern, some studies have found no group differences in ratings of facial expressions of emotion. However, these studies usually employed valence and arousal ratings that arguably may be less able to reflect processing of social information. We examined the relationship between social anxiety and face ratings for perceived trustworthiness given that trustworthiness is an inherently socially relevant construct. Improving on earlier analytical strategies, we evaluated the four previously found result patterns using a Bayesian approach. Ninety-eight undergraduates rated 198 face stimuli on perceived trustworthiness. Subsequently, participants completed social anxiety questionnaires to assess the severity of social fears. Bayesian modeling indicated that the probability that social anxiety did not influence judgments of trustworthiness had at least three times more empirical support in our sample than assuming any kind of negative interpretation bias in social anxiety. We concluded that the deviant interpretation of facial trustworthiness is not a relevant aspect in social anxiety.

  15. Anxiety in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Majidi, Shideh; Driscoll, Kimberly A; Raymond, Jennifer K

    2015-08-01

    Although anxiety is a normal and developmentally appropriate experience of childhood and anxiety disorders are among the most commonly diagnosed disorders, the prevalence of anxiety symptomatology and anxiety disorders in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is not well documented. Most studies have focused on anxiety-related syndromes associated with T1D including fear of hypoglycemia, specific phobia of needles (i.e., needle anxiety), and anxiety related to uptake of new and sophisticated diabetes technology (e.g., continuous glucose monitors, continuous subcutaneous infusion therapy), but the extant literature is sparse, and more research is greatly needed. Identification, prevention, and treatment of anxiety are critical to providing comprehensive diabetes care and management. This review provides a summary of the literature focused on anxiety in children and adolescents with T1D with suggestions for future research and clinical implications.

  16. Social Anxiety in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Caroline; Moss, Jo; O'Farrell, Laura; Kaur, Gurmeash; Oliver, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the behavioral presentation of social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) using a contrast group of Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS). Behaviors indicative of social anxiety were recorded in twelve children with CdLS (mean age = 11.00; SD = 5.15) and twelve children with CdCS (8.20; SD = 2.86) during social…

  17. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites.

  18. Homotypic versus Heterotypic Continuity of Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adolescents: Evidence for Distinctions between DSM-IV Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Robert F.; Dieleman, Gwen; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population. Method: 2,067 individuals (51.4% girls) from a…

  19. Brain activation during anticipatory anxiety in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, Viktoria; Tefikow, Susan; Stangier, Ulrich; Strauss, Bernhard; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Straube, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Exaggerated anticipatory anxiety during expectation of performance-related situations is an important feature of the psychopathology of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The neural basis of anticipatory anxiety in SAD has not been investigated in controlled studies. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates during the anticipation of public and evaluated speaking vs a control condition in 17 SAD patients and 17 healthy control subjects. FMRI results show increased activation of the insula and decreased activation of the ventral striatum in SAD patients, compared to control subjects during anticipation of a speech vs the control condition. In addition, an activation of the amygdala in SAD patients during the first half of the anticipation phase in the speech condition was observed. Finally, the amount of anticipatory anxiety of SAD patients was negatively correlated to the activation of the ventral striatum. This suggests an association between incentive function, motivation and anticipatory anxiety when SAD patients expect a performance situation. PMID:23938870

  20. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  1. The pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nash, Lawrence T; Hack, Sabine

    2002-05-01

    As the recognition of paediatric and adolescent anxiety disorders improves, so does the number of recommended treatments. Newer medications (chiefly serotonergic antidepressants) have emerged as the pharmacological treatment of choice and have largely replaced benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) for these disorders. This review will focus on placebo-controlled and open-label studies concerning the treatment of anxiety in children and adolescents, comparing data from newer antidepressant medications (plus buspirone) with data on TCAs and benzodiazepines in this population. There are few randomised, placebo-controlled trials of medications for anxiety in children and adolescents, with most data coming from open-label trials and case series. Moreover, there are no studies comparing pharmacological versus behavioural treatments. Most recent data concerning the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors suggests that these agents will be effective and safe in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders. The potential side effect profiles of these newer agents also makes them an attractive first choice for anxiety when compared to the benzodiazepines or TCAs, each of which poses its own potentially serious adverse effects. More research is needed in the area of psychopharmacological treatments for paediatric and adolescent anxiety, not only to substantiate the current beliefs that serotonergic agents are effective and safe but to pinpoint the factors that might predict responses to particular agents or classes of medications. Future investigations should focus on treatments which have already proven effective for adult anxiety disorders (both medications and psychotherapies), given the apparent links between paediatric and adult anxiety disorders.

  2. Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Riddle, Mark A.; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of somatic symptoms (SSs) in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders; the relationship between SSs and anxiety severity, impairment, and child global functioning; and the impact of fluvoxamine (FLV) versus pill placebo (PBO) on reducing SSs. Method: As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,…

  3. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  4. Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, Zahira; Calvete, Esther; Riskind, John H; Orue, Izaskun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether social looming cognitive style accounts for the predictive association between early maladaptive schema domains and social anxiety. We predicted that early maladaptive schema domains would predict the increase of social anxiety over time and that social looming would act as a mediator between schema domains and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used. The participants (N=471, 56.95% women) were Spanish adolescents and young adults aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage=17.81, SD age=3.19). The results showed that three schema domains (impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, and other-directedness) predicted the increase in social anxiety and that LCS for social threat acted as a mediator between other-directedness and social anxiety at T3. These results are important to improve the knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that are involved in the occurrence and development of social anxiety. PMID:25602785

  5. Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, Zahira; Calvete, Esther; Riskind, John H; Orue, Izaskun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether social looming cognitive style accounts for the predictive association between early maladaptive schema domains and social anxiety. We predicted that early maladaptive schema domains would predict the increase of social anxiety over time and that social looming would act as a mediator between schema domains and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used. The participants (N=471, 56.95% women) were Spanish adolescents and young adults aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage=17.81, SD age=3.19). The results showed that three schema domains (impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, and other-directedness) predicted the increase in social anxiety and that LCS for social threat acted as a mediator between other-directedness and social anxiety at T3. These results are important to improve the knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that are involved in the occurrence and development of social anxiety.

  6. Temperament, Attentional Processes, and Anxiety: Diverging Links between Adolescents with and without Anxiety Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Prins, Pier J.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study first examined the links between reactive temperament (negative affectivity), regulative temperament (effortful control [EC]) and internalizing problems in adolescents (12-18 years) with anxiety disorders (ANX; N = 39) and without anxiety disorders (nANX; N = 35). Links differed between ANX and nANX participants. Negative…

  7. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  8. Pharmacological Treatment of Depression and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterman, G. Scott; Ryan, Neal D.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that studies examining efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial treatments of depressive and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents are relatively rare; that current clinical practice bases pharmacological treatment decisions on few existing studies, open clinical data on children and adolescents, and extrapolation from adult…

  9. Adolescents' social strategies: patterns and correlates.

    PubMed

    Sondaite, Jolanta; Zukauskiene, Rita

    2005-08-01

    An unselected sample of adolescents (n= 504) was given a test measuring their social strategies in affiliative context, and emotional and behavioral problems. Four groups of adolescents were identified according to the certain patterns of the social strategies they deployed: Active optimistic group (n= 107), Defensive functional group (n= 159), Avoiders group (n= 89), and Learned helplessness group (n= 140). The degree of stability of a cluster solution was studied when the method for cluster analysis was changed, showing that the four-cluster solution captures the essential relationships between the variables. The membership of the strategy groups was associated in theoretically meaningful ways to the anxiety/depression, withdrawal, and social problems. PMID:16014081

  10. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed.

  11. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. PMID:24411119

  12. Interoceptive exposure exercises for social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura J; Kemp, Joshua J; Farrell, Nicholas R; Blakey, Shannon M; Deacon, Brett J

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly experience panic attacks and evidence increased anxiety sensitivity (AS) specific to noticeable anxiety sensations. Interoceptive exposure (IE) is an effective treatment for reducing AS, but few IE tasks target fears of blushing, sweating, or trembling, which are incorporated within AS social concerns and especially feared by individuals with SAD. The primary study aims were trifold: (1) identify novel IE tasks that produce blushing, sweating, and/or trembling; (2) assess the intensity of sensations and anxiety produced by a series of novel and validated IE tasks; and (3) evaluate the incremental validity of combining an IE task and a speech task. Individuals (N = 55) with heightened fear of noticeably blushing, sweating, and/or trembling completed a control task and 8 IE tasks (e.g., hot sauce, hyperventilation). All tasks produced greater intensity of anxiety and sensations compared to the control task (ps < .001; range of η(p)(2) = .20-.50). Responses to the combination of an IE task and social task compared to a social task alone did not differ significantly. Future directions for research and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Functional impairment in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Nickerson, Angela; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Marom, Sofi

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined functional impairment among treatment seekers with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated the effects of diagnostic subtypes of SAD and comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders on impairment. In addition, we used cluster analysis procedures to empirically identify subgroups of individuals with distinct patterns of impairment. Participants were 216 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD. Clinical interviews were undertaken to determine diagnoses of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder, and a battery of self-report measures was administered to index symptoms of social anxiety, depression and extent of impairment. Results indicated that individuals with the generalized subtype of SAD had greater impairment in all three life domains compared to individuals with the nongeneralized subtype. Comorbidity with mood disorders was associated with greater impairment than SAD alone, but comorbidity with anxiety disorders was not. Four distinct impairment profiles emerged from the cluster analysis: primary work/studies impairment, primary social life impairment, both work/studies and social impairment, and impairment in all domains. Findings from this study suggest that SAD is associated with substantial impairment across multiple domains, and that individuals with SAD present diverse impairment profiles. These profiles may inform subtyping of the disorder as well as therapeutic interventions.

  14. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: Associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763

  15. Social anxiety and eating disorder comorbidity: the role of negative social evaluation fears.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. However, it is unknown how specific domains of social anxiety relate to disordered eating. We provide data on these relationships and investigate social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation as potential vulnerabilities linking social anxiety with disordered eating. Specifically, we examined five domains of social anxiety: Social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation, and social appearance anxiety. Results indicated that social appearance anxiety predicted body dissatisfaction, bulimic symptoms, shape concern, weight concern, and eating concern over and above fear of scrutiny, social interaction anxiety, and fear of positive evaluation. Fear of negative evaluation uniquely predicted drive for thinness and restraint. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation are vulnerabilities for both social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Interventions that target these negative social evaluation fears may help prevent development of eating disorders. PMID:22177392

  16. CBT for Adolescents With Anxiety: Mature Yet Still Developing.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Philip C; Peterman, Jeremy S

    2015-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents (ages 12 to 18) and contribute to a range of impairments. There has been speculation that adolescents with anxiety are at risk for being treatment nonresponders. In this review, the authors examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescents with anxiety. Outcomes from mixed child and adolescent samples and from adolescent-only samples indicate that approximately two-thirds of youths respond favorably to CBT. CBT produces moderate to large effects and shows superiority over control/comparison conditions. The literature does not support differential outcomes by age: adolescents do not consistently manifest poorer outcomes relative to children. Although extinction paradigms find prolonged fear extinction in adolescent samples, basic research does not fully align with the processes and goals of real-life exposure. Furthermore, CBT is flexible and allows for tailored application in adolescents, and it may be delivered in alternative formats (i.e., brief, computer/Internet, school-based, and transdiagnostic CBT).

  17. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  18. Social anxiety and training in neurolinguistic programming.

    PubMed

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C

    1998-12-01

    The Liebowitz Social Phobia Scale measured the effect of training on social anxiety responses of 28 adults prior to and following a 21-day residential training, and at 6 mo. follow-up. Significant reductions posttraining and at follow-up were evident in the mean self-reported global scale scores on fear and avoidance behavior in social situations. The item scores, aggregated to reflect the situational domains of formal and informal speaking, being observed by others, and assertion, showed significant and continuing reduction from posttraining through follow-up. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may be associated with reduced responses to social anxiety, but as there was no formal control group, pretest scores from another study were used. Interpretation is limited. PMID:9923190

  19. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  20. Perception of control over anxiety mediates the relation between catastrophic thinking and social anxiety in social phobia.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G

    2005-07-01

    Cognitive models of social phobia (social anxiety disorder) assume that individuals with social phobia experience anxiety in social situations in part because they overestimate the social cost associated with a potentially negative outcome of a social interaction. Some emotion theorists, on the other hand, point to the perception of control over anxiety-related symptoms as a determinant of social anxiety. In order to examine the relationship between perceived emotional control (PEC), estimated social cost (ESC), and subjective anxiety, we compared three alternative structural equation models: Model 1 assumes that PEC and ESC independently predict social anxiety; Model 2 assumes that ESC partially mediates the relationship between PEC and anxiety, and Model 3 assumes that PEC partially mediates the relationship between ESC and anxiety. We recruited 144 participants with social phobia and administered self-report measures of estimated social cost, perceived anxiety control, and social anxiety. The results support Model 3 and suggest that "costly" social situations are anxiety provoking in part because social phobic individuals perceive their anxiety symptoms as being out of control.

  1. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J

    2015-09-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, often established early in development through the interaction between biological and psychological factors (eg, genetic predisposition x early trauma), predispose to socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. However, whereas gene variants and histories of trauma persist, hormonal systems can be remodeled over the course of life. Hormones play a key role during the periods of all sensitive developmental windows (ie, prenatal, neonatal, puberty, aging), and are capable of opening up new developmental windows in adulthood. Indeed, the developmental plasticity of our social brain, and thus of social behavior in adulthood, critically depends on steroid hormones such as testosterone and peptide hormones such as oxytocin. These steroid and peptide hormones in interaction with social experiences may have potential for reprogramming the socially anxious brain. Certainly, single administrations of oxytocin and testosterone in humans reduce socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. Such work may ultimately lead to new approaches to the treatment of SAD.

  2. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, often established early in development through the interaction between biological and psychological factors (eg, genetic predisposition x early trauma), predispose to socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. However, whereas gene variants and histories of trauma persist, hormonal systems can be remodeled over the course of life. Hormones play a key role during the periods of all sensitive developmental windows (ie, prenatal, neonatal, puberty, aging), and are capable of opening up new developmental windows in adulthood. Indeed, the developmental plasticity of our social brain, and thus of social behavior in adulthood, critically depends on steroid hormones such as testosterone and peptide hormones such as oxytocin. These steroid and peptide hormones in interaction with social experiences may have potential for reprogramming the socially anxious brain. Certainly, single administrations of oxytocin and testosterone in humans reduce socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. Such work may ultimately lead to new approaches to the treatment of SAD. PMID:26487809

  3. Beyond Behaviour: Is Social Anxiety Low in Williams Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Helen F.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals…

  4. Schizophrenia, Obsessive Covert Mental Rituals and Social Anxiety: Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…

  5. Anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese Adolescents in Comparison with the American Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Ang, Rebecca P.; Lee, Jiyoon

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing literature base on child and adolescent anxiety. Cross-cultural research on child and adolescent anxiety, however, has been relatively limited. This study examined whether there were similarities and differences in the self reported anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese adolescents (12-17 years of age), and whether…

  6. Interpersonal predictors of early therapeutic alliance in a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura; Henderson, Heather A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of therapeutic alliance in predicting treatment success is well established, but less is known about client characteristics that predict alliance. This study examined alliance predictors in adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders (n=31) who received a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth (Ehrenreich, Buzzella, Trosper, Bennett, & Barlow, 2008) in the context of a larger randomized controlled trial. Alliance was assessed at session three by therapists, clients, and independent observers. Results indicated that alliance ratings across the three informant perspectives were significantly associated with one another, but that pretreatment interpersonal variables (e.g., social support, attachment security, and social functioning in current family and peer relationships) were differentially associated with varying informant perspectives. Adolescent and observer ratings of alliance were both predicted by adolescent self-reports on measures reflecting how they perceive their interpersonal relationships. In addition, adolescent-reported symptom severity at pretreatment predicted observer ratings of alliance such that adolescents who indicated greater anxiety and depressive symptoms were rated as having stronger early alliances by independent observers. Therapists perceived having weaker early alliances with adolescents evidencing clinically significant depression at intake as compared with adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders alone. Future research is needed to examine whether identification of relevant interpersonal factors at intake can help improve initial therapeutic engagement and resulting outcomes for the psychosocial treatment of adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. PMID:22642525

  7. Parenting and Social Anxiety: Fathers' versus Mothers' Influence on Their Children's Anxiety in Ambiguous Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogels, Susan; Stevens, Juliette; Majdandzic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of parenting in child social anxiety was examined in an information processing experiment. We tested the relative weight that children in general, and high versus low socially anxious children in particular, put on fathers' versus mothers' signal about whether a social situation is safe or a threat. Method: Children aged 8-12…

  8. Relations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for Kuwaiti adolescents.

    PubMed

    Baroun, Khader A

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated correlations among religiosity, health, happiness, and anxiety for 941 Kuwaiti adolescents. A convenience sample of male (n=408) and female (n=533) students (M age = 16.5, SD = 1.2 yr.) was randomly selected from secondary school students of different districts of the State of Kuwait. The Intrinsic Religious Motivation scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and six self-rating scales assessing religiosity, strength of religious belief, physical health, mental health, happiness, and life satisfaction were applied to assess correlations among Kuwaiti adolescents. Analysis showed boys had significantly higher mean scores than girls on all measures except anxiety, on which girls scored significantly higher than boys. There also were significant and positive correlations among the variables, except for anxiety, which was significant and negative.

  9. Exploring linguistic correlates of social anxiety in romantic stories.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Katya C; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    The current study used computerized linguistic analysis of stories about either going on a date or taking a walk down a street to examine linguistic correlates of social anxiety in a sample of undergraduate students. In general, linguistic analysis revealed associations of social anxiety with several linguistic variables, including negative emotion, affect, and anxiety words. Participants higher in social anxiety wrote fewer affect words. The relationship between social anxiety and anxiety words depended on gender, whereas the relationship between social anxiety and negative emotion words depended on both gender and the nature of primes (supraliminal vs. subliminal) received. Overall, our findings highlight the potential utility and benefits of using linguistic analysis as another source of information about how individuals higher in social anxiety process romantic stimuli. PMID:27216791

  10. Anxiety Disorders and Sleep in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Willis, Thomas A; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in children and adolescents. A growing body of research has explored the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety in youth. When reviewing the literature, methodologic inconsistencies need to be considered, such as variation in conceptualization of sleep problems, measurement of sleep, and the classification of anxiety. Despite this, there seems to be good evidence of concurrent and longitudinal associations between sleep difficulties and anxiety in community and clinical samples of young people. Potential mechanisms are proposed. There is a need for further exploration of these relationships, with the hope of aiding preventive capability and developing useful treatments.

  11. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: Associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood☆

    PubMed Central

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. Method The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7–12 years). Results Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. Limitations This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. Conclusion The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:24120086

  12. Girls' and Mothers' Social Anxiety, Social Skills, and Loneliness: Associations after Accounting for Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stednitz, Jayme N.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined, in 102 mother-daughter dyads, whether (a) girls' social skills and loneliness are related to girls' social anxiety, after adjusting for girls' depressive symptoms, and (b) mothers' social functioning (social anxiety, social skills, and loneliness) is related to girls' social anxiety, after accounting for girls' social…

  13. Threat perception bias and anxiety among Chinese school children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous context. The story content included topics such as upset stomach, teacher-student interaction, and parents who are late to return home. Multiple threat perception indices were derived from children's responses. Children's level of anxiety was assessed by means of self-report questionnaires and parental reports. Higher levels of anxiety were related to higher frequencies of threat perception and interpretation, lower thresholds to detect threat and more negative feelings and cognitions. Age and gender were also related to some indices of threat perception bias. Threat perception bias was related to anxious symptomatology in general and was not content specific to particular anxiety disorders. The findings were consistent with studies conducted in Western culture and suggest that cognitive processing theories of childhood anxiety may generalize beyond Western society.

  14. United States and Finnish Adolescents' Perceptions of Social Support: A Cross-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa M.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres; Ellonen, Noora; Korkiamaki, Riikka

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current preliminary study was to examine the levels of perceived social support by adolescents in the US and Finland. American research has demonstrated that high perceived levels of social support can buffer adolescents against many negative psychosocial symptoms, such as depression, anxiety and low self-esteem and is a…

  15. Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

  16. Identification of Social Anxiety in Schools: The Utility of a Two-Step Screening Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Corinne; Masia Warner, Carrie; Brice, Chad; Stewart, Catherine; Ryan, Julie; Loeb, Katharine L.; McGrath, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent yet largely undetected and untreated in adolescents despite the availability of effective treatments. Implementing interventions in schools enhances recognition and access to treatment for SAD. However, without reliable means to accurately identify youth in need of services, school-based…

  17. Self-Esteem and Social Appearance Anxiety: An Investigation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study published in "Elementary Education Online", Dogan (2011) examined the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample after his first adaptation study on undergraduate students in Turkey (Dogan, 2010). He recommended that researchers do further research to investigate the…

  18. A Parent-Child Interactional Model of Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benoit, Kristy E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and…

  19. Social anxiety disorder treatments: psychosocial therapies.

    PubMed

    Foa, Edna B

    2006-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have shown benefit with the use of medication and cognitive-behavioral therapies as well as incorporation of combined therapeutic modalities. This article briefly summarizes the literature on the outcome of group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy for SAD and concludes that individual therapy is superior to group therapy. Finally, the article discusses comorbidity of depression and SAD and its implications for cognitive-behavioral therapy.

  20. Trajectories of Change in Emotion Regulation and Social Anxiety During Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Philippe R.; Lee, Ihno; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) may decrease social anxiety by training emotion regulation skills. This randomized controlled trial of CBT for SAD examined changes in weekly frequency and success of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, as well as weekly intensity of social anxiety among patients receiving 16 weekly sessions of individual CBT. We expected these variables to (1) differ from pre-to-post-CBT vs. Waitlist, (2) have differential trajectories during CBT, and (3) covary during CBT. We also expected that weekly changes in emotion regulation would predict (4) subsequent weekly changes in social anxiety, and (5) changes in social anxiety both during and post-CBT. Compared to Waitlist, CBT increased cognitive reappraisal frequency and success, decreased social anxiety, but had no impact on expressive suppression. During CBT, weekly cognitive reappraisal frequency and success increased, whereas weekly expressive suppression frequency and social anxiety decreased. Weekly decreases in social anxiety were associated with concurrent increases in reappraisal success and decreases in suppression frequency. Granger causality analysis showed that only reappraisal success increases predicted decreases in subsequent social anxiety during CBT. Reappraisal success increases pre-to-post-CBT predicted reductions in social anxiety symptom severity post-CBT. The trajectory of weekly changes in emotion regulation strategies may help clinicians understand whether CBT is effective and predict decreases in social anxiety. PMID:24632110

  1. Self-compassion and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Werner, Kelly H; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Ziv, Michal; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2012-01-01

    Self-compassion refers to having an accepting and caring orientation towards oneself. Although self-compassion has been studied primarily in healthy populations, one particularly compelling clinical context in which to examine self-compassion is social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD is characterized by high levels of negative self-criticism as well as an abiding concern about others' evaluation of one's performance. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) people with SAD would demonstrate less self-compassion than healthy controls (HCs), (2) self-compassion would relate to severity of social anxiety and fear of evaluation among people with SAD, and (3) age would be negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, but not for HC. As expected, people with SAD reported less self-compassion than HCs on the Self-Compassion Scale and its subscales. Within the SAD group, lesser self-compassion was not generally associated with severity of social anxiety, but it was associated with greater fear of both negative and positive evaluation. Age was negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, whereas age was positively correlated with self-compassion for HC. These findings suggest that self-compassion may be a particularly important target for assessment and treatment in persons with SAD.

  2. Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Depression: Beyond Heritability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Sanja; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may be used to examine age and gender differences in…

  3. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  4. Negative Self-Focused Cognitions Mediate the Effect of Trait Social Anxiety on State Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Stefan M.; Alpers, Georg W.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive model of social anxiety predicts that negative self-focused cognitions increase anxiety when anticipating social threat. To test this prediction, 36 individuals were asked to anticipate and perform a public speaking task. During anticipation, negative self-focused cognitions or relaxation were experimentally induced while self-reported anxiety, autonomic arousal (heart rate, heart rate variability, skin conductance level), and acoustic eye-blink startle response were assessed. As predicted, negative self-focused cognitions mediated the effects of trait social anxiety on self-reported anxiety and heart rate variability during negative anticipation. Furthermore, trait social anxiety predicted increased startle amplitudes. These findings support a central assumption of the cognitive model of social anxiety. PMID:18321469

  5. Chronic Social Instability Induces Anxiety and Defective Social Interactions Across Generations

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Feig, Larry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic social instability during adolescence and early adulthood is known to produce a variety of long-lasting effects that may contribute to future psychiatric disorders. However, its potential to affect future generations has not been tested. Methods Female and male mice were exposed to chronic social stress involving social instability and disruption of social hierarchy from postnatal day 27 to 76. After treatment, a group of animals was used to evaluate long-term behavioral effects of the stress exposure, and other mice were used to generate F1, F2, and F3 offspring, to test for behavioral effects across generations. Results Chronic social instability during adolescence and early adulthood induces persistent behavioral alterations, including enhanced anxiety and social deficits that are transmitted predominantly to females across at least three generations. Both mothers and fathers can transmit all of these altered behaviors to their F1 offspring. However, only F1 fathers transmit all of them to their F2 and F3 daughters. In the F1 generation, enhanced anxiety and social deficits are associated with elevated serum corticosterone levels; however, in the F2 and F3 generations, they are not. Conclusions These findings support the idea that individual risk for psychiatric disorders that involve enhanced anxiety and/or social dysfunction may be dependent not only on the specific alleles of genes that are inherited from one’s parents and on one’s own experiences, but also on the experiences of one’s parents when they were young. PMID:22906514

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parenting Behaviours and Its Relationship to Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…

  7. Social Skills and Social Acceptance in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Beidel, Deborah C

    2015-01-01

    Whereas much is known about the deficits in social behaviors and social competence in youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD), less is known about those characteristics among youth with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This study aimed to better elucidate the social repertoire and peer acceptance of youth with SAD and youth with GAD, relative to normal control (NC) youth. The sample consisted of 58 primarily Caucasian children, ages 6 to 13 years: 20 SAD (12 female), 18 GAD (12 female), and 20 NC (9 female). Diagnoses were based on Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Children and Parent Versions interviews. A multimodal assessment strategy included parent and child reports, observer ratings of social performance, computer-based analysis of vocal qualities of speech, and peer ratings of likeability and friendship potential. Whereas self- and parental report did not differentiate the two diagnostic groups, differences on observable behaviors were apparent. Children with SAD exhibited anxious speech patterns, extended speech latencies, a paucity of speech, few spontaneous vocalizations, and ineffective social responses; they were perceived by peers as less likeable and socially desirable. Children with GAD had typical speech patterns and were well liked by their peers but displayed fewer spontaneous comments and questions than NC children. Parent and child reports are less sensitive to what could be important differences in social skill between youth with SAD and GAD. Direct observations, computer-based measures of speech quality, and peer ratings identify specific group differences, suggesting the need for a comprehensive evaluation to inform treatment planning.

  8. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of uneasiness. At other times, it develops into panic attacks and phobias. Identifying the Signs Anxiety disorders vary ... specific situations, in which case they are called panic attacks. A panic attack is an abrupt episode of ...

  9. The LAOM Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Measuring Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…

  10. Parents' State and Trait Anxiety: Relationships with Anxiety Severity and Treatment Response in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…

  11. Adolescent's perceptions of parenting behaviours and its relationship to adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hale, William W; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated symptoms of GAD. The findings of this study demonstrate that adolescent perceptions of parental alienation and rejection are strongly associated with adolescent GAD symptom scores. Additionally, mid-adolescence females perceive more parental alienation in relation to their GAD symptom scores than both early and mid-adolescent males. And early adolescent males perceive more parental rejection in relation to their GAD symptom scores than mid-adolescent males.

  12. Precursors and correlates of anxiety trajectories from late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed young people's psychosocial adjustment from infancy to adulthood. The present research analyzes data collected from the first 12 waves of data, from 4-8 months to 17 years. Parents, primary school teachers, maternal and child health nurses, and from the age of 11 onward, the young people themselves have provided survey data. Trajectory analyses revealed three distinct patterns of self-reported anxiety from late childhood to late adolescence, comprising low, moderate, and high (increasing) trajectories, which differed somewhat between boys and girls. A range of parent- and teacher-reported factors was found to be associated with these trajectories, including temperament style, behavior problems, social skills, parenting, negative family events, and peer relationships. Compared with male trajectories, female trajectories were associated with a greater variety of psychosocial variables (including parenting and externalizing problems), which may partially account for the higher prevalence of anxiety in adolescent girls compared with boys. Findings shed light on gender-specific pathways to anxiety and the need for comprehensive, integrative approaches to intervention and prevention programs.

  13. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. PMID:24280015

  14. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C.; Carlisi, Christina; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2013-01-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioural phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behaviour. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behaviour, or in anxiety disorders, which is associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin- transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. PMID:24280015

  15. Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-07-13

    Essential facts Anxiety is the feeling of fear that occurs when faced with threatening or stressful situations. It is a normal response when confronted with danger, but, if it is overwhelming or the feeling persists, it could be regarded as an anxiety disorder. The Royal College of Psychiatrists says anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and social anxiety disorder, affect about one in ten. PMID:27406490

  16. Homeless but connected: the role of heterogeneous social network ties and social networking technology in the mental health outcomes of street-living adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Kurzban, Seth; Ray, Diana

    2012-12-01

    Although social integration tends to have positive effects on the mental health of housed adolescents, the role of homeless adolescents' social networks is more ambiguous. Social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Hollywood, California to examine how network ties are associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Face-to-face relationships with street-based peers were a risk factor for both anxiety and depression, while contacting home-based friends through social networking technology was found to be protective for depression. Community-based and public agencies serving homeless adolescents should consider facilitating the maintenance of these protective relationships by providing internet access.

  17. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  18. Functional communication as a predictor of depression and anxiety symptoms among adolescents seeking bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Curran, J L; Datto, G

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional communication and parent-adolescent relations prospectively predict anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery. Participants included 30 adolescents and their primary caregivers, who presented for enrolment in a study assessing the safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic adjustable gastric band. Adolescents and their caregivers completed questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression symptoms, functional communication, and parent-adolescent relations at baseline and immediately prior to having bariatric surgery. Regression analyses revealed that poorer parent reported functional communication at baseline predicted increases in adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms immediately prior to surgery (on average 8.8 months later), above and beyond baseline symptoms. Anxiety and depression symptoms did not predict functional communication over time. Parent-adolescent relations, as reported by the adolescent, were concurrently associated with adolescent reported depression symptoms at baseline, and were concurrently associated with adolescent reported anxiety and depression symptoms, as well as parent reported depression symptoms, immediately prior to surgery. Functional communication may be an important prospective risk factor for the development of anxiety and depression symptoms among severely obese adolescents seeking bariatric surgery, whereas adolescent report of the parent-adolescent relationship appears to be concurrently related to anxiety and depression symptoms. Future research should examine whether specifically targeting communication skills and family relationships within psychological treatment would improve psychosocial functioning among severely obese adolescents.

  19. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  20. Systemic Family Therapy of Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression with Epilepsy in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Meng, Huaqing; Zeng, Kebin; Quan, Fengying; Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to find if systemic family therapy (SFT) does work in anxiety and depression with epilepsy in adolescents (ADAE). Methods 104 adolescents with epilepsy, aged 13–20 years old, were included from December 2009 to December 2010, the enrolled patients were with anxiety [Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score ≥14 points] or depression [Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) score ≥20 points]. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (n=52) treated with antiepileptic drugs (AED) and the intervention group (n=52) undergone Systemic Family Therapy (SFT) as well as AED. The AED improvements, anxiety and depression scores, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Family Assessment Device (FAD) and scale of systemic family dynamics (SSFD) were observed after 3-month treatment. Results The frequencies of epileptic seizures in intervention group was decreased much more significantly than the control group (4.22±3.54 times/month vs. 6.20±5.86 times/month, p=0.04); and the scores of anxiety (9.52±6.28 points vs. 13.48±8.47 points, p=0.01) and depression (13.86±9.17 points vs. 18.89±8.73 points, p=0.02) were significantly decreased than the control group; meanwhile, the family dynamics and family functions were significantly improved, and the social support was also increased (p<0.05). Conclusion SFT combined with AEDs had better efficacies than AEDs alone, not only the frequency of epileptic seizures was decreased, but also the patients' anxiety and depression were improved, and the family dynamics, family functions and social support were improved. PMID:27247596

  1. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  2. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence.

  3. An Investigation of Short-Term Longitudinal Associations Between Social Anxiety and Victimization and Perpetration of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber)bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10-17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. An Investigation of Short-Term Longitudinal Associations Between Social Anxiety and Victimization and Perpetration of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber)bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10-17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25687265

  5. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  6. Parental and Peer Predictors of Social Anxiety in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festa, Candice C.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to extend etiological models of social anxiety in youth by examining the relative importance of parental (i.e., parental anxiety, rejection, and overcontrol) and peer factors (i.e., social acceptance, social support, and friendship quality). Sixty-three youth (ages 7-12; 52% male) and their parents participated in…

  7. Is Separation Anxiety in Adolescents and Parents Related to Parental Differentiation of Self?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora; Miller, Paul; Yitzhak, Meital

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between separation anxiety in adolescents after their transition to middle school, on the one hand, and differentiation of self and separation anxiety in their parents, on the other hand. The sample included 88 adolescents from northern Israel, together with their biological parents. Adolescents'…

  8. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  9. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  10. Perception Matters for Clinical Perfectionism and Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Shumaker, Erik A.; Menatti, Andrew R.; Weeks, Justin W.; White, Emily K.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Warren, Cortney S.; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite research documenting a relationship between social anxiety and perfectionism, very little research has examined the relationship between social anxiety and clinical perfectionism, defined as the combination of high personal standards and high maladaptive perfectionistic evaluative concern. In the current studies we examined whether clinical perfectionism predicted social anxiety in a large sample of undergraduates (N = 602), in a clinical sample of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N = 180), and by using a variance decomposition model of self-and informant-report of perfectionism (N = 134). Using self-report, we found that an interaction of personal standards and evaluative concern predicted both social interaction anxiety and fear of scrutiny, but not in the theorized direction. Specifically, we found that self-report of low standards and high evaluative concern was associated with the highest levels of social anxiety, suggesting that when individuals with SAD hold low expectations for themselves combined with high concerns about evaluation, social anxiety symptoms may increase. Alternatively, when an informants’ perspective was considered, and more consistent with the original theory, we found that the interaction of informant-only report of personal standards and shared-report (between both primary participant and informant) of concern over mistakes was associated with self-reported social anxiety, such that high concern over mistakes and high personal standards predicted the highest levels of social anxiety. Theoretical, clinical, and measurement implications for clinical perfectionism are discussed. PMID:25486087

  11. Perception matters for clinical perfectionism and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Shumaker, Erik A; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; White, Emily K; Heimberg, Richard G; Warren, Cortney S; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    Despite research documenting a relationship between social anxiety and perfectionism, very little research has examined the relationship between social anxiety and clinical perfectionism, defined as the combination of high personal standards and high maladaptive perfectionistic evaluative concern. In the current studies we examined whether clinical perfectionism predicted social anxiety in a large sample of undergraduates (N=602), in a clinical sample of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N=180), and by using a variance decomposition model of self- and informant-report of perfectionism (N=134). Using self-report, we found that an interaction of personal standards and evaluative concern predicted both social interaction anxiety and fear of scrutiny, but not in the theorized direction. Specifically, we found that self-report of low standards and high evaluative concern was associated with the highest levels of social anxiety, suggesting that when individuals with SAD hold low expectations for themselves combined with high concerns about evaluation, social anxiety symptoms may increase. Alternatively, when an informants' perspective was considered, and more consistent with the original theory, we found that the interaction of informant-only report of personal standards and shared-report (between both primary participant and informant) of concern over mistakes was associated with self-reported social anxiety, such that high concern over mistakes and high personal standards predicted the highest levels of social anxiety. Theoretical, clinical, and measurement implications for clinical perfectionism are discussed.

  12. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  13. High trait anxiety during adolescence interferes with discriminatory context learning.

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Haddad, Anneke D M; Heathcote, Lauren C; Murphy, Robin A; Pine, Daniel S; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-09-01

    Persistent adult anxiety disorders often begin in adolescence. As emphasis on early treatment grows, we need a better understanding of how adolescent anxiety develops. In the current study, we used a fear conditioning paradigm to identify disruptions in cue and context threat-learning in 19 high anxious (HA) and 24 low anxious (LA) adolescents (12-17years). We presented three neutral female faces (conditioned stimulus, CS) in three contingent relations with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS, a shrieking female scream) in three virtual room contexts. The degree of contingency between the CSs and the UCSs varied across the rooms: in the predictable scream condition, the scream followed the face on 100% of trials; in the unpredictable scream condition, the scream and face appeared randomly and independently of each other; in the no-scream condition the CS was presented in the absence of any UCS. We found that the LA adolescents showed higher levels of fear-potentiated startle to the faces relative to the rooms. This difference was independent of the contingency condition. The HA adolescents showed non-differential startle between the CSs, but, in contrast to previous adult data, across both cue types displayed lowest startle to the unpredictable condition and highest startle to the no-scream condition. Our study is the first to examine context conditioning in adolescents, and our results suggest that high trait anxiety early in development may be associated with an inability to disambiguate the signalling roles of cues and contexts, and a mislabelling of safety or ambiguous signals.

  14. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

  15. Evidence for the Discriminant Validity of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale From Social Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Krieg, Alexander; Becker, Theresa M; Kerns, John G

    2016-10-01

    Social anhedonia and social anxiety are two constructs with similar behaviors including avoidance of and withdrawal from social situations. In three studies, the current research aimed to test whether social anhedonia could be discriminated from social anxiety using the most common measure of social anhedonia, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS). In Study 1, an item-level factor analysis of the RSAS found two factors: Social Apathy/Aversion and Social Withdrawal. In Study 2, this two-factor structure was confirmed in a separate sample. In Study 3, a model with social anhedonia and anxiety scale scores loading on separate factors fit better than a model with social anhedonia and anxiety loading on a single factor. Social anhedonia and anxiety displayed differential associations with negative schizotypy and emotion processing. Findings suggest that the RSAS is successful in measuring social anhedonia distinct from social anxiety.

  16. Social anxiety and its effects on performance and perception.

    PubMed

    Strahan, E; Conger, A J

    1998-01-01

    This study examined whether the socially anxious show deficits in performance on a social task as well as how their anxiety and competence relate to judgments they make about themselves and others. Ratings from a panel of judges were used to compare men of high and low social anxiety on their performances in a simulated job interview. Participants also viewed videotapes of themselves and others and rated responses for content, fluency, nonverbal, and global competence. Contradicting predictions of a performance deficit model, high levels of social anxiety had no detrimental effect on participants' performance or on their ability to judge their own performance. In contrast, observer-rated competence was related to a number of significant effects for social judgment tasks. Implications for treatment of social anxiety and research on social anxiety are discussed.

  17. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  18. Responses to conflict and cooperation in adolescents with anxiety and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin B; Parrish, Jessica M; Nelson, Eric E; Easter, Joshua; Thorne, John F; Rilling, James K; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S

    2007-08-01

    This study examined patterns of behavioral and emotional responses to conflict and cooperation in adolescents with anxiety/mood disorders and healthy peers. We compared performance on and emotional responses to the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game, an economic exchange task involving conflict and cooperation, between adolescents with anxiety/depressive disorders (A/D) (N=21) and healthy comparisons (n = 29). Participants were deceived to believe their co-player (a pre-programmed computer algorithm) was another study participant. A/D adolescents differed significantly from comparisons in patterns of play and emotional response to the game. Specifically, A/D participants responded more cooperatively to cooperative overtures from their co-players; A/D girls also reported more anger toward co-players than did comparison girls. Our findings indicate that A/D adolescents, particularly females, respond distinctively to stressful social interchanges. These findings offer a first step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying social impairment in youth with internalizing disorders.

  19. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  20. Social Anxiety Modulates Subliminal Affective Priming

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Elizabeth S.; Pope, Stuart A. J.; Fennell, John G.; Mendl, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well established that there is anxiety-related variation between observers in the very earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual processing of images such as emotionally expressive faces, often leading to enhanced attention to threat in a variety of disorders and traits. Whether there is also variation in early-stage affective (i.e. valenced) responses resulting from such images, however, is not yet known. The present study used the subliminal affective priming paradigm to investigate whether people varying in trait social anxiety also differ in their affective responses to very briefly presented, emotionally expressive face images. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants (n = 67) completed a subliminal affective priming task, in which briefly presented and smiling, neutral and angry faces were shown for 10 ms durations (below objective and subjective thresholds for visual discrimination), and immediately followed by a randomly selected Chinese character mask (2000 ms). Ratings of participants' liking for each Chinese character indicated the degree of valenced affective response made to the unseen emotive images. Participants' ratings of their liking for the Chinese characters were significantly influenced by the type of face image preceding them, with smiling faces generating more positive ratings than neutral and angry ones (F(2,128) = 3.107, p<0.05). Self-reported social anxiety was positively correlated with ratings of smiling relative to neutral-face primed characters (Pearson's r = .323, p<0.01). Individual variation in self-reported mood awareness was not associated with ratings. Conclusions Trait social anxiety is associated with individual variation in affective responding, even in response to the earliest, pre-attentive stage of visual image processing. However, the fact that these priming effects are limited to smiling and not angry (i.e. threatening) images leads us to propose that the pre-attentive processes involved in

  1. Anger profiles in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals.

  2. Relational Victimization: The Association between Recalled Adolescent Social Experiences and Emotional Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…

  3. Beyond behaviour: is social anxiety low in Williams syndrome?

    PubMed

    Dodd, Helen F; Schniering, Carolyn A; Porter, Melanie A

    2009-12-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals with WS aged 12-28 years completed the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) and the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS). Their responses were compared to clinically anxious and community comparison groups matched on mental age. The findings suggest that WS is not associated with unusually low social anxiety but that generalised anxiety symptoms and physical threat thoughts are increased in WS, relative to typically developing children.

  4. Observing Interactions between Children and Adolescents and their Parents: The Effects of Anxiety Disorder and Age.

    PubMed

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.

  5. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Olivares, José; Sánchez-García, Raquel; López-Pina, José Antonio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana Isabel

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to adapt and analyze the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C; Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1995) in a Spanish population. The SPAI-C was applied to a sample of 1588 children and adolescents with ages ranging from 10 to 17 years. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed a four-factor structure: Public performance, Assertiveness, Fear and avoidance/escape in social encounters, and Cognitive and psychophysiological interferences. Internal consistency was high (.90) and test-retest reliability was moderate (.56). Significant differences were found in the variables sex and age, although the effect size was small in both variables and their interaction. Overall, the increase of the age value was inversely proportional to that of social anxiety measured with the SPAI-C; in participants of the same age, values were higher for girls than for boys. Results suggest that the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory For Children is a valid and reliable instrument to assess social anxiety in Spanish children and adolescents.

  6. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  7. Helpless attributions and depression in adolescents: the roles of anxiety, event valence, and demographics.

    PubMed

    Waschbusch, Daniel A; Sellers, Denise P; LeBlanc, Monique; Kelley, Mary L

    2003-04-01

    The relationship between helpless attributions and depression is well established. This study evaluated whether anxiety, event valence (positive or negative) and demographic variables (gender, age, socioeconomic status or race) influence this relationship. Results showed: (1) adolescents with anxiety and depression who were from lower socioeconomic backgrounds made less helpless attributions for negative events than did adolescents from higher socioeconomic backgrounds, (2) male adolescents with anxiety-only had helpless attribution styles that were similar to male adolescents with depression, but the same was not true for female adolescents, and (3) African-American adolescents showed less helpless attributions for negative events than did Caucasian adolescents. Results replicate past research showing that a helpless attribution style is associated with depression in adolescence, but suggest that this pattern may be influenced by demographic factors. Results also suggest that helpless attributions may be related to both anxiety and depression in males. PMID:12581725

  8. Combined psychoeducation and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for youth with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Chavira, Denise A; Stein, Murray B

    2002-01-01

    Treatment outcome data for childhood social anxiety are scant. Studies that do exist support the efficacy of both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Aside from case reports, studies assessing the efficacy of combined treatment approaches are even more limited. In the current study, we present preliminary findings from a combined psychoeducational and pharmacological treatment program for children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years) with generalized social anxiety disorder. Twelve participants received 12 weeks of citalopram treatment (maximum dose 40 mg/day) and eight brief counseling sessions (15 minutes each). Counseling sessions included education about social anxiety, skills coaching, and behavioral exercises; parents were included in these sessions. Based on clinician global ratings of change, 10 of 12 (83.3%) youths reported improvement: 41.7% (n = 5) of the participants were very much improved, and 41.7% (n = 5) were much improved. Significant changes were also found on self-report ratings of social anxiety, depression, and parents' perceptions of children's social skills during the course of treatment. Findings support the need for double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of combined treatments for youth with generalized social anxiety disorder.

  9. Social Anxiety in Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, guided by developmental psychopathology and developmental science as overarching integrative theoretical frameworks, the authors define three constructs related to social anxiety in childhood (behavioral inhibition, anxious solitude/withdrawal, and social anxiety disorder) and analyze commonalities and differences in…

  10. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  11. Social Anxiety and Close Relationships: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Kate E. J.; Cairns, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    While only a few quantitative studies have looked at social anxiety and close relationships, this study uses the qualitative approach of hermeneutic phenomenology to explore the meaning of being in a close relationship for eight individuals with social anxiety. Participants completed a written questionnaire with open-ended questions about their…

  12. Social Anxiety, Reasons for Drinking, and College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Norton, Alice R.; Olivier, Jake; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that social anxiety may be associated with higher rates of alcohol problems in women, yet may be associated with lower levels of drinking in men. The current study investigated putative mechanisms that may underlie potential gender differences in the social anxiety-alcohol relationship. One hundred and eighteen college…

  13. Social Anxiety as a Predictor of Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanby, Michelle S. R.; Fales, Jessica; Nangle, Douglas W.; Serwik, Agnieszka K.; Hedrich, Uriah J.

    2012-01-01

    By far, most research on the behavior of socially anxious individuals has focused on the "flight" rather than the "fight" response described in the traditional conceptualization of anxiety. More recently, however, there has been some speculation and emerging evidence suggesting that social anxiety and aggression may be related. The present study…

  14. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety.

  15. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  16. Racial-Ethnic Differences in Social Anxiety among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSure-Lester, G. Evelyn; King, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated racial-ethnic differences in social anxiety among college students in two-year colleges. The sample consisted of 189 Asian American, African American, White American, and Hispanic American students from two colleges in the Southeast. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of social anxiety. The results…

  17. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.…

  18. PREVENTING CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS: OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Overviews of systematic reviews (OSRs) provide rapid access to high quality, consolidated research evidence about prevention intervention options, supporting evidence-informed decision-making, and the identification of fruitful areas of new research. This OSR addressed three questions about prevention strategies for child and adolescent anxiety: (1) Does the intervention prevent anxiety diagnosis and/or reduce anxiety symptoms compared to passive controls? (2) Is the intervention equal to or more effective than active controls? (3) What is the evidence quality (EQ) for the intervention? Prespecified inclusion criteria identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses (2000-2014) with an AMSTAR quality score ≥ 3/5. EQ was rated using Oxford evidence levels EQ1 (highest) to EQ5 (lowest). Three reviews met inclusion criteria. One narrative systematic review concluded school-based interventions reduce anxiety symptoms. One meta-analysis pooled 65 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; any intervention) and reported a small, statistically significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and diagnosis incidence. Neither review provided pooled effect size estimates for specific intervention options defined by type (i.e., universal/selective/indicated), intervention content, or comparison group (i.e., passive/active control), thus precluding EQ ratings. One meta-analysis pooled trials of vigorous exercise and reported small, nonstatistically significant reductions in anxiety symptoms for comparisons against passive and active controls (EQ1). Better use of primary studies in meta-analyses, including program-specific pooled effect size estimates and network meta-analysis is needed to guide evidence-informed anxiety prevention program choices. RCTs of innovative community/primary care based interventions and web-based strategies can fill knowledge gaps.

  19. Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life In Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T < 65, indicating low risk for depression (n = 65; 89.3%) and anxiety (n = 70; 93.3%). The subscale scores for the different dimensions of QOL health were a) psychosocial (73.3 ± 15.9), b) emotional (75.0 ± 20.7), c) social (80.8 ± 19.1), d) school functioning (64.0 ≥ 19.8), and e) physical (77.4 ± 17.4). Significant negative correlations were found between mean total quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p < 0.0001), b) depression (r = -0.66, p < 0.0001), c) obsessive compulsive (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001), d) panic (r = -0.60, p < 0.0001), and e) social phobia (r = -0.57, p < 0.0001). Age and gender did not have significant effects on risk for depression and anxiety or poor QOL. Pain frequency also did not have significant effects on the risk for depression and anxiety. Findings suggest that health care providers need to screen for anxiety and depression, and make referrals for early interventions to improve quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease.

  20. Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life In Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T < 65, indicating low risk for depression (n = 65; 89.3%) and anxiety (n = 70; 93.3%). The subscale scores for the different dimensions of QOL health were a) psychosocial (73.3 ± 15.9), b) emotional (75.0 ± 20.7), c) social (80.8 ± 19.1), d) school functioning (64.0 ≥ 19.8), and e) physical (77.4 ± 17.4). Significant negative correlations were found between mean total quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p < 0.0001), b) depression (r = -0.66, p < 0.0001), c) obsessive compulsive (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001), d) panic (r = -0.60, p < 0.0001), and e) social phobia (r = -0.57, p < 0.0001). Age and gender did not have significant effects on risk for depression and anxiety or poor QOL. Pain frequency also did not have significant effects on the risk for depression and anxiety. Findings suggest that health care providers need to screen for anxiety and depression, and make referrals for early interventions to improve quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease. PMID:27468512

  1. Perceived maternal and paternal psychological control: relations to adolescent anxiety through deficits in emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Luebbe, Aaron M; Bump, Kari A; Fussner, Lauren M; Rulon, Kathryn J

    2014-10-01

    The current study compared the differential effects of early adolescents' perceived maternal and paternal psychological control (as well as their discrepancy) on adolescent anxiety. It also tested whether psychological control leads to deficits in youths' ability to regulate their negative emotions, and if, in turn, such deficits lead to anxiety. Sixth- and seventh-grade students (n = 214; 59% girls; 60% Caucasian) completed measures of perceived psychological control, regulation of negative emotions, and anxiety symptoms. The discrepancy between perceived mothers' and fathers' control was also calculated. Although perceptions of mothers' control, fathers' control, and their discrepancy were each bivariately related to adolescent anxiety, when considered together, only a larger discrepancy in parents' psychological control was uniquely associated with higher self-reported anxiety. Further, adolescents' dysregulation of negative emotions partially explained the relation of both maternal psychological control and the discrepancy in parental control to anxiety. Implications for understanding family-based etiological correlates of anxiety are discussed.

  2. The interplay between anxiety and social functioning in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riby, Deborah M; Hanley, Mary; Kirk, Hannah; Clark, Fiona; Little, Katie; Fleck, Ruth; Janes, Emily; Kelso, Linzi; O'Kane, Fionnuala; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Allday, Marianne Hvistendahl; Hocking, Darren; Cornish, Kim; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-05-01

    The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with an atypical social profile of hyper-sociability and heightened social sensitivity across the developmental spectrum. In addition, previous research suggests that both children and adults with WS have a predisposition towards anxiety. The current research aimed to explore the profiles of social behaviour and anxiety across a broad age range of individuals with the disorder (n = 59, ages 6-36 years). We used insights from parental reports on two frequently used measures, the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Severity of anxiety was correlated with a greater degree of social dysfunction as measured by the SRS in this group. We split the group according to high or low anxiety as measured by the SCAS-P and explored the profile of social skills for the two groups. Individuals high and low in anxiety differed in their social abilities. The results emphasise the need to address anxiety issues in this disorder and to consider how components of anxiety might relate to other features of the disorder.

  3. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  4. Can parent training for parents with high levels of expressed emotion have a positive effect on their child's social anxiety improvement?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Díaz-Castela, Maria del Mar; Muela-Martinez, Jose Antonio; Espinosa-Fernandez, Lourdes

    2014-12-01

    The role that parents' involvement may play in improving their child's social anxiety is still under debate. This paper aimed to investigate whether training parents with high expressed emotion (EE) could improve outcomes for adolescent social anxiety intervention. Fifty-two socially anxious adolescents (aged 13-18 years), whose parents exhibited high levels of expressed emotion, were assigned to either (a) a school-based intervention with an added parent training component, or (b) a school-based program focused solely on intervening with the adolescent (no parental involvement). Post-treatment and 12-month follow-up findings showed that school-based intervention with parent training was superior to the adolescent-specific program, yielding significant reductions in diagnosis remission, social and depressive symptomatology, particularly when the EE status of parents changed. Overall, the findings suggest that high-EE parents of children with social anxiety need to be involved in their child's therapy.

  5. Impression formation and revision in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Haker, Ayala; Aderka, Idan M; Marom, Sofi; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-03-01

    Interpersonal relations are markedly impaired in social anxiety. Yet, little is known about the ways social anxiety affects social cognition. We examined impression formation and impression revision among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 26) and non-anxious individuals (n = 29). Participants read initial descriptions of protagonists depicted as dominant, neutral or submissive and rated them on social rank and affiliation dimensions. Next, participants were presented with behavioral acts that were either congruent, incongruent or irrelevant to the initial descriptions, and re-rated the protagonists. Individuals with SAD (a) rated others as more extreme on social rank dimension, (b) rated others as lower on the affiliation dimension, and (c) revised their impressions of others to a greater extent than did the non-anxious individuals. Understanding the ways social anxiety affects the formation and revision of perceptions of others can improve our understanding of maintaining processes in SAD. PMID:23774009

  6. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

  7. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  8. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  9. General and specific components of depression and anxiety in an adolescent population

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive and anxiety symptoms often co-occur resulting in a debate about common and distinct features of depression and anxiety. Methods An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a bifactor modelling approach were used to separate a general distress continuum from more specific sub-domains of depression and anxiety in an adolescent community sample (n = 1159, age 14). The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale were used. Results A three-factor confirmatory factor analysis is reported which identified a) mood and social-cognitive symptoms of depression, b) worrying symptoms, and c) somatic and information-processing symptoms as distinct yet closely related constructs. Subsequent bifactor modelling supported a general distress factor which accounted for the communality of the depression and anxiety items. Specific factors for hopelessness-suicidal thoughts and restlessness-fatigue indicated distinct psychopathological constructs which account for unique information over and above the general distress factor. The general distress factor and the hopelessness-suicidal factor were more severe in females but the restlessness-fatigue factor worse in males. Measurement precision of the general distress factor was higher and spanned a wider range of the population than any of the three first-order factors. Conclusions The general distress factor provides the most reliable target for epidemiological analysis but specific factors may help to refine valid phenotype dimensions for aetiological research and assist in prognostic modelling of future psychiatric episodes. PMID:22151586

  10. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  11. The Relationship between Language Teachers' Attitudes and the State-Trait Anxiety of Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsovili, Theodora D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role anxiety plays in the lives of adolescents with dyslexia by including a school perspective with special emphasis on the role of the teacher. The state-trait anxiety of 68 adolescents with dyslexia and their language teachers' attitudes towards them were compared with an equal number of…

  12. The Relationship between "Theory of Mind" and Attachment-Related Anxiety and Avoidance in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in Cypriot Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Munoz, Luna C.

    2011-01-01

    The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a 38-item self-report questionnaire which measures symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of SCAS in a large community sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,072), aged 12-17 years, in the…

  14. Death Anxiety and Personal Growth in Adolescents Experiencing the Death of a Grandparent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ens, Carla; Bond, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between bereavement following the death of a grandparent and adolescent death anxiety levels were examined using Hogan's Inventory of Bereavement and the revised Death Anxiety Scale within private schools. Of the 226 adolescent respondents (aged 11-18) who completed questionnaires, 124 had experienced the death of a grandparent. The…

  15. Reduced recruitment of orbitofrontal cortex to human social chemosensory cues in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Hou, Ping; Zhou, Yuxiang; Chen, Denise

    2011-04-01

    Social anxiety refers to the prevalent and debilitating experience of fear and anxiety of being scrutinized in social situations. It originates from both learned (e.g. adverse social conditioning) and innate (e.g. shyness) factors. Research on social anxiety has traditionally focused on negative emotions induced by visual and auditory social cues in socially anxious clinical populations, and posits a dysfunctional orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit as a primary etiological mechanism. Yet as a trait, social anxiety is independent of one's specific emotional state. Here we probe the neural substrate of intrinsic social anxiety by employing a unique type of social stimuli, airborne human social chemosensory cues that are inherently social, ubiquitously present, and yet operating below verbal awareness. We show that the adopted social chemosensory cues were not perceived to be human-related, did not differentially bias self-report of anxiety or autonomic nervous system responses, yet individuals with elevated social anxiety demonstrated a reduced recruitment of the orbitofrontal cortex to social chemosensory cues. No reciprocal activity in the amygdala was observed. Our findings point to an intrinsic neural substrate underlying social anxiety that is not associated with prior adverse social conditioning, thereby providing the first neural evidence for the inherent social aspect of this enigmatic phenomenon. PMID:21195189

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  17. Social anxiety, depression, and PTSD in Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Litz, Brett T; Weathers, Frank W

    2003-01-01

    Many Vietnam veterans with PTSD report a high level of social anxiety and avoidance. Many traumatized individuals also suffer from symptoms of depression, which is often associated with significant problems in social functioning. In order to explore the relationship between social anxiety, depression, and PTSD, we recruited a group of Vietnam veterans with PTSD (n = 27), veterans with other mental disorders (n = 20), and veterans with no mental disorders (n = 35). Participants were administered diagnostic interviews and some of the most commonly used social anxiety instruments. Although the groups did not differ in their rates of social phobia, veterans with PTSD scored highest in most social anxiety measures. Veterans with PTSD were also more likely to be clinically depressed than veterans without PTSD at the time of the assessment. When controlling for the level of depression, the three groups no longer differed in any of the social anxiety measures. Furthermore, level of depression was the best predictor for group membership. These findings suggest that social anxiety in Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD is closely associated with mood disturbance, social withdrawal, and isolation associated with depression.

  18. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  19. Consequences of Post-Weaning Social Isolation on Anxiety Behavior and Related Neural Circuits in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lukkes, Jodi L.; Watt, Michael J.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Forster, Gina L.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to adverse experiences in early-life is implicated in the later vulnerability to development of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders in humans. Adverse early-life experiences likely impart their long-term consequences on mental health by disrupting the normal development of neural systems involved in stress responses, emotional behavior and emotional states. Neural systems utilizing the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) are implicated in mediating emotive behaviors, and dysfunction of these neurochemical systems is associated with mood/anxiety disorders. These neural systems continue maturing until early or mid-adolescence in humans, thus alterations to their development are likely to contribute to the long-term consequences of adverse early-life experiences. A large body of literature suggests that post-weaning isolation rearing of rodents models the behavioral consequences of adverse early-life experiences in humans. Overall, the majority findings suggest that post-weaning social isolation that encompasses pre-adolescence produces long-lasting alterations to anxiety behavior, while measures of monoaminergic activity in various limbic regions during social isolation suggest alterations to dopamine and serotonin systems. The goal of this review is to evaluate and integrate findings from post-weaning social isolation studies specifically related to altered fear and anxiety behaviors and associated changes in neuroendocrine function and the activity of monoaminergic systems. PMID:19738931

  20. A longitudinal study of cannabis use initiation among high school students: Effects of social anxiety, expectancies, peers and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Schmits, Emilie; Mathys, Cécile; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-06-01

    This study identified protective and risk factors of cannabis use initiation, including expectancies and social anxiety. A questionnaire was completed twice by 877 teenagers. Logistic regressions, mediation and moderation analyses were performed. Significant risk factors were alcohol use, peer users, perceptual enhancement, and craving expectancies. Protective factors were negative behavior expectancies and social anxiety. Social anxiety protected from initiation through the mediating role of perceptual enhancement and craving expectancies, whatever the role of peer users and alcohol use. Findings are discussed in terms of risk and protection, in an overall approach including internalizing factors. Results support the identification of an internalizing profile of adolescents for prevention or treatment and the importance of social anxiety and expectancies in intervention.

  1. Social Anxiety and Interpretation Bias: Effect of Positive Priming.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoling; Qian, Mingyi; Yu, Hongyu; Sun, Yang; Li, Songwei; Yang, Peng; Lin, Muyu; Yao, Nishao; Zhang, Xilin

    2016-10-01

    This study examined how positive-scale assessment of ambiguous social stimuli affects interpretation bias in social anxiety. Participants with high and low social anxiety (N = 60) performed a facial expression discrimination task to assess interpretation bias. Participants were then randomly assigned to assess the emotion of briefly presented faces either on a negative or on a positive scale. They subsequently repeated the facial expression discrimination task. Participants with high versus low social anxiety made more negative interpretations of ambiguous facial expressions. However, those in the positive-scale assessment condition subsequently showed reduced negative interpretations of ambiguous facial expressions. These results suggest that interpretation bias in social anxiety could be mediated by positive priming rather than an outright negative bias.

  2. The relations between social anxiety and social intelligence: a latent variable analysis.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Sandra; Weis, Susanne; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Social anxiety has been associated with biases in cognitive processing and deficits in social performances. Yet, it remains unclear if these variations may be partly attributable to deficits in fundamental social abilities: for example, social intelligence (SI). Using the Magdeburg Test of Social Intelligence (MTSI) as an objective and performance based SI measure, we examined the relationship between social anxiety and SI in a general population sample (N=110) using Structural Equation Modeling. Dimensions of social anxiety as postulated by Clark and Wells (1995) and facets of SI (social understanding, social memory, and social perception), were negatively correlated. Use of safety-behavior in particular was related to deficits in social understanding (r=-0.25; p<0.05) and social perception and memory (r=-0.24; p<0.05). Results suggest small to medium sized relationships between specific facets of social anxiety and certain domains of SI. Therapeutic implications for socially anxious individuals concerning SI are discussed. PMID:21315550

  3. Anger, anxiety, and depression in early adolescents from intact and divorced families.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Noreen E; Yarcheski, Adela; Yarcheski, Thomas J

    2003-08-01

    This study examined differences in anger, anxiety, and depression between early adolescents from divorced families and early adolescents from intact families. To control for extraneous variables, 24 early adolescents from divorced families were matched with 24 early adolescents from intact families according to gender, age, race, and grade in school. All responded to measures of state anger, state anxiety, and depression. Using the t test, one of the three hypotheses was supported. Statistically significant differences were found in state anger, but not in state anxiety or depression, between the two groups. Implications for nursing are addressed.

  4. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold

  5. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  6. Oxytocin in General Anxiety and Social Fear: A Translational Approach.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Inga D; Slattery, David A

    2016-02-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been revealed as a profound anxiolytic and antistress factor of the brain, besides its many prosocial and reproductive effects. Therefore, there is substantial scientific and medical interest in its potential therapeutic use for the treatment of psychopathologies associated with anxiety, fear, and social dysfunctions, such as generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social anxiety disorder, as well as autism and schizophrenia, among others. Focusing on preclinical studies, we review the existing evidence for the regulatory capacity of OXT to fine-tune general and social anxiety-related behaviors, as well as cued and social fear conditioning from a translational perspective. The available evidence from animal and human studies substantiates the hypothesis of an imbalance of the endogenous brain OXT system in the etiology of anxiety disorders, particularly those with a social component such as social anxiety disorder. In addition, such an imbalance of the OXT system is also likely to be the consequence of chronic OXT treatment resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in OXT receptor availability and increased anxiety.

  7. Development and Examination of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Trevor A.; Flora, David B.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Fresco, David M.; Holle, Christian; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to measure anxiety about being negatively evaluated by others because of one's overall appearance, including body shape. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SAAS in three large samples of undergraduate students (respective ns = 512, 853, and 541). The SAAS demonstrated a…

  8. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  9. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college.

  10. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  11. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  12. Evaluating AIDS-Related Social Skills in Anglo and Latino Adolescents: Focus on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Werner, Cynthia A.; Kelley, Norma J.; Sipan, Carol L.; Burkham, Susan M.; Hofstetter, C. Richard

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assessment of AIDS-related social skills (measured by role play) in Anglo and Latino Adolescents (N=383) and explores ethnic and gender differences on these skills. Results indicate that anxiety and nonverbal behavior are generalized response classes that transcend specific social skills, suggesting the importance of measuring…

  13. Biased Perception and Interpretation of Bodily Anxiety Symptoms in Childhood Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Julian; Blechert, Jens; Kramer, Martina; Asbrand, Julia; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive models of social phobia (SP) and empirical evidence in adults suggest that affected individuals overestimate arousal symptoms such as heart rate (HR) during social stress and worry about their visibility in public. To date, little is known about these aspects in childhood social anxiety, an important precursor of the disorder. We…

  14. The cortisol response to social stress in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Oriana; Levitan, Robert; Ravindran, Arun

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the cortisol stress response (CSR) following the Trier Social Stress Test in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and control participants, to determine whether individual differences in CSR associate more with SAD diagnosis or dimensional characteristics [i.e. childhood trauma (CT)]. Twenty-one participants (11 with SAD) had full data available for both CT-scores and cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC). Linear regression produced significant results: predicting AUCG with study group, emotional abuse (EA) scores and their interaction (F=3.14, df=5,15; p=.039); of note, the study group by EA interaction was significant at p=.015, driven by a strong positive association between EA and cortisol AUCG in the control group, and a negative association between these variables in the SAD group (standardized-beta=1.56, t=2.75, p=.015). This suggests that EA in SAD patients is associated with altered CSR, highlighting need to measure dimensional characteristics.

  15. Anxiety trajectories in response to a speech task in social anxiety disorder: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial of CBT.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Amanda S; Brozovich, Faith A; Lee, Ihno A; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-03-01

    The subjective experience of anxiety plays a central role in cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, much remains to be learned about the temporal dynamics of anxiety elicited by feared social situations. The aims of the current study were: (1) to compare anxiety trajectories during a speech task in individuals with SAD (n=135) versus healthy controls (HCs; n=47), and (2) to compare the effects of CBT on anxiety trajectories with a waitlist control condition. SAD was associated with higher levels of anxiety and greater increases in anticipatory anxiety compared to HCs, but not differential change in anxiety from pre- to post-speech. CBT was associated with decreases in anxiety from pre- to post-speech but not with changes in absolute levels of anticipatory anxiety or rates of change in anxiety during anticipation. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences should be further incorporated into exposures.

  16. Social anxiety disorder: a critical overview of neurocognitive research.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Henk R; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Social anxiety is a common disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of one or more social or performance situations. Behavioral inhibition is one of the early indicators of social anxiety, which later in life may advance into a certain personality structure (low extraversion and high neuroticism) and the development of maladaptive cognitive biases. While there are several effective psycho- and pharmacotherapy options, a large number of patients benefit insufficiently from these therapies. Brain and neuroendocrine research can help uncover both the biological basis of social anxiety and potentially provide indicators, 'biomarkers,' that may be informative for early disease detection or treatment response, above and beyond self-report data. Several large-scale brain networks related to emotion, motivation, cognitive control, and self-referential processing have been identified, and are affected in social anxiety. Social anxiety is further characterized by increased cortisol response and lower testosterone levels. These neuroendocrine systems are also related to altered connectivity patterns, such as reduced amygdala-prefrontal coupling. Much work is needed however to further elucidate such interactions between neuroendocrine functioning and large-scale brain networks. Despite the great promise of brain research in uncovering the neurobiological basis of social anxiety, several methodological and conceptual issues also need to be considered. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:218-232. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1390 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27240280

  17. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  18. Attitudes Toward Death, Anxiety, and Social Desirability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickstein, Louis S.

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (34 males and 34 females) completed four scales of attitudes toward death including the Death Concern Scale, Templer Death Anxiety Scale, Tolor and Reznikoff Death Anxiety Scale, and Fear of Death and Dying Scale. Four scales showed moderate commonality reflecting 35 percent variance for males and females. (Author)

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online versus Clinic-Based CBT for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…

  20. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  1. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  2. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  3. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day.

  4. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  5. Psicologia social de la adolescencia (Social Psychology of the Adolescent).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  7. Social Skills Success for Students with Autism/Asperger's: Helping Adolescents on the Spectrum to Fit In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Two nationally known experts in friendship formation and anxiety management address the social challenges faced by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The book helps educators instruct youth on conversing with others, displaying appropriate body language, managing anxiety, initiating and participating in get-togethers, and more. The…

  8. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  9. Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A; Halloran, Michael J; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then measured the effect of the prime on self-stereotyping and ingroup favouritism. The findings showed significant differences in social identity across adolescent groups, in that social identity effects were relatively strong in early- and late-adolescents, particularly when peer group identity rather than gender identity was salient. While these effects were consistent with the experience of change in educational social context, differences in cognitive style were only weakly related to ingroup favouritism. The implications of the findings for theory and future research on social identity during adolescence are discussed.

  10. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  11. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129

  12. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  13. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders.

  14. The Interplay between Anxiety and Social Functioning in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hanley, Mary; Kirk, Hannah; Clark, Fiona; Little, Katie; Fleck, Ruth; Janes, Emily; Kelso, Linzi; O'Kane, Fionnuala; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Allday, Marianne Hvistendahl; Hocking, Darren; Cornish, Kim; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with an atypical social profile of hyper-sociability and heightened social sensitivity across the developmental spectrum. In addition, previous research suggests that both children and adults with WS have a predisposition towards anxiety. The current research aimed to explore…

  15. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  16. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  17. Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Qualitative Study Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, SH; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) refers to the fear of and anxiety towards going to the dentist. It exists in a considerable proportion of children and adolescents and is a major dilemma in pediatric dental practice. As an Internet social medium with increasing popularity, the video-sharing website YouTube offers a useful data source for understanding health behaviors and perceptions of the public. Objective Using YouTube as a platform, this qualitative study aimed to examine the manifestations, impacts, and origins of DFA in children and adolescents from the public’s perspective. Methods To retrieve relevant information, we searched YouTube using the keywords “dental fear”, “dental anxiety”, and “dental phobia”. Videos in English expressing a layperson’s views or experience on children’s or adolescent’s DFA were selected for this study. A video was excluded if it had poor audiovisual quality, was irrelevant, was pure advertisement or entertainment, or contained only the views of professionals. After the screen, we transcribed 27 videos involving 32 children and adolescents, which were reviewed by a panel of 3 investigators, including a layperson with no formal dental training. Inductive thematic analysis was applied for coding and interpreting the data. Results The videos revealed multiple manifestations and impacts of DFA, including immediate physical reactions (eg, crying, screaming, and shivering), psychological responses (eg, worry, upset, panic, helplessness, insecurity, resentment, and hatred), and uncooperativeness in dental treatment. Testimonials from children, adolescents, and their parents suggested diverse origins of DFA, namely personal experience (eg, irregular dental visits and influence of parents or peers), dentists and dental auxiliaries (eg, bad manner, lack of clinical skills, and improper work ethic), dental settings (eg, dental chair and sounds), and dental procedures (eg, injections, pain, discomfort, and

  18. Loneliness over time: The crucial role of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lim, Michelle H; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Zyphur, Michael J; Gleeson, John F M

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is known to be associated with multiple adverse physical outcomes, including higher mortality and morbidity risk. However, the impact of loneliness on mental health is less well researched, with most studies assessing how loneliness relates to depressive symptoms alone. We hypothesized that 2 mental health symptoms that relate to the fear of others-social anxiety and paranoia-would contribute to loneliness. We examined how loneliness relates to social anxiety, paranoia, and depression symptoms in a general community sample aged 18-87 years old (N = 1,010). We administered online measures over 3 time points across a 6-month period. In a cross-lagged structural equation model controlling for trait levels and prior states, our results indicated that earlier loneliness positively predicted future states of social anxiety, paranoia, and depression. However, in the same model, earlier social anxiety was the only predictor of future loneliness. These results suggest that loneliness may be a potential antecedent to emerging mental health symptoms and that identifying and treating co-occurring social anxiety symptoms may reduce the severity of loneliness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124713

  19. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  20. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

  1. Neuroimaging studies of pediatric social anxiety: paradigms, pitfalls and a new direction for investigating the neural mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating condition that typically manifests in adolescence. Here we describe cognitive factors engaged by brain-imaging tasks, which model the peer-based social interactions that evoke symptoms of SAD. We then present preliminary results from the Virtual School paradigm, a novel peer-based social interaction task. This paradigm is designed to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating individual differences in social response flexibility and in participants’ responses to uncertainty in social contexts. We discuss the utility of this new paradigm for research on brain function and developmental psychopathology. PMID:23849682

  2. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  3. Electrocortical Evidence of Enhanced Performance Monitoring in Social Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Judah, Matt R; Grant, DeMond M; Frosio, Kristen E; White, Evan J; Taylor, Danielle L; Mills, Adam C

    2016-03-01

    Self-focused attention is thought to be a key feature of social anxiety disorder. Yet few studies have used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether socially anxious individuals display greater monitoring of their performance and attention to their errors. Similarly, only a few studies have used ERPs to examine how social anxiety is related to processing of performance feedback. Individuals with high (n=26) and low (n=28) levels of social anxiety completed a trial-and-error learning task. Self-focus was manipulated using false heart-rate feedback during a random subset of trials. Performance feedback was given using emotional and neutral faces in a positive context (correct=happy face; incorrect=neutral face) and negative context (correct=neutral face; incorrect=disgust face) in order to investigate biased interpretation and attention to feedback. Socially anxious subjects displayed enhanced amplitude of the ERN and CRN, suggesting greater response monitoring, and enhanced Pe amplitude, suggesting greater processing of errors relative to the low social anxiety group. No group differences were observed with respect to feedback processing. Before learning stimulus-response mappings in the negative context, the FRN was larger for self-focus compared to standard trials and marginally larger for socially anxious subjects compared to controls. These findings support cognitive models and suggest avenues for future research.

  4. The trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic treatment.

    PubMed

    Queen, Alexander H; Barlow, David H; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders commonly co-occur during adolescence, share multiple vulnerability factors, and respond to similar psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. However, anxiety and depression may also be considered distinct constructs and differ on some underlying properties. Prior research efforts on evidence-based treatments for youth have been unable to examine the concurrent trajectories of primary anxiety and depressive concerns across the course of treatment. The advent of transdiagnostic approaches for these emotional disorders in youth allows for such examination. The present study examined the separate trajectories of adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms over the course of a transdiagnostic intervention, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Adolescence (UP-A; Ehrenreich et al., 2008), as well as up to six months following treatment. The sample included 59 adolescents ages 12-17 years old (M=15.42, SD=1.71) who completed at least eight sessions of the UP-A as part of an open trial or randomized, controlled trial across two treatment sites. Piecewise latent growth curve analyses found adolescent self-rated anxiety and depressive symptoms showed similar rates of improvement during treatment, but while anxiety symptoms continued to improve during follow-up, depressive symptoms showed non-significant improvement after treatment. Parent-rated symptoms also showed similar rates of improvement for anxiety and depression during the UP-A to those observed for adolescent self-report, but little improvement after treatment across either anxiety or depressive symptoms. To a certain degree, the results mirror those observed among other evidence-based treatments for youth with anxiety and depression, though results hold implications for future iterations of transdiagnostic treatments regarding optimization of outcomes for adolescents with depressive symptoms.

  5. Online Chat Dependency: The Influence of Social Anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Chang, Shu-Chen

    Recent developments in information technology have made it easy for people to “chat” online with others in real time, and many do so regularly. “Virtual” relationships can be attractive, especially for people with social interaction problems in the “real world”. This study examines the influence on online chat dependency of three dimensions of social anxiety: general social situation fear, negative evaluation fear, and novel social situation fear. Participants of this study were 454 college students. The survey results show that negative evaluation fear and general social situation fear are relative to online chat dependency, while novel social situation fear does not seem to be a relevant factor.

  6. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner.

  7. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  8. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed.

  9. Treatment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Using the Child and Adolescent Anxiety Psychodynamic Psychotherapy (CAPP) Therapy Gabrielle Silver, Theodore Shapiro, Barbara Milrod

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Gabrielle; Shapiro, Theodore; Milrod, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Information is presented here on CAPP – child and adolescent psychodynamic psychotherapy. Following a definition of anxiety, the authors present study outcomes of non-psychodynamic treatment approaches, alone and in combination with psychopharmacologic treatment, then explore psychodynamic approaches. A detailed overview of psychodynamic psychotherapy is presented, along with two cases illustrating the use of CAPP with young patients with anxiety. The authors also present tables and boxes summarizing CAPP therapeutic processes and strategies as intervention for anxious youth. PMID:23164129

  10. Anxiety, depression, and oscillatory dynamics in a social interaction model.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Bocharov, Andrey V; Rimareva, Julia M

    2016-08-01

    Although anxiety and depression frequently co-occur and share a substantial part of genetic vulnerability and other risk factors, they are distinct disorders and their effect on social functioning and accompanying cognitive and emotional processing could be different. In this study, in a nonclinical sample, we compared effects of trait anxiety and depressive symptoms on oscillatory dynamics accompanying perception of emotional facial expressions in the context of social interactions. Anxiety was associated with a longer reaction time, with preference of avoidance behavior, and with enhanced event-related alpha desynchronization and diminished theta synchronization. Depression did not show significant behavioral effects and was associated with diminished alpha desynchronization and augmented delta and theta synchronization in prefrontal cortical regions. Thus, in spite of frequent comorbidity, anxiety and depression show opposite patterns of associations with oscillatory dynamics accompanying social interactions. These patterns imply that anxiety is associated with hyper-reactive attentional system, whereas depression show signs of diminished cognitive reactivity. Depression-related enhancement of low-frequency synchronization in prefrontal cortex may reflect a compensatory mechanism of cognitive and emotional upregulation, which depression-prone individuals engage in the process of social interactions.

  11. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  12. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  13. The Relation between Anxiety Disorder and Experiential Avoidance in Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…

  14. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  15. Assessment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although assessment presents unique challenges. Many symptoms of anxiety appear to overlap with common presentations of autism. Furthermore, deficits in language and cognitive functioning make it difficult for such…

  16. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  17. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  18. Confirming the Distinctiveness of Complicated Grief from Depression and Anxiety among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillen, Let; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Verhofstadt-Deneve, Leni

    2009-01-01

    Studies in adult populations have shown that symptoms of complicated grief (CG) constitute a form of bereavement-related distress distinct from symptoms of depression and anxiety. The purpose of this article is to replicate these findings in two samples of bereaved adolescents by investigating the latent structure of symptoms of CG, anxiety, and…

  19. The Role of Sensitizing Experiences in Music Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Margaret S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2008-01-01

    Aversive performance incidents play a role in the development of some anxiety disorders. The role of sensitizing experiences in the development of music performance anxiety (MPA) in adolescent music students has not yet been explored. Two-hundred-and-ninety-eight music students were asked to provide written descriptions of their worst performance,…

  20. Examination of Relationship between Anxiety Sensitivity and Parenting Styles in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and perceived parenting styles of adolescents and the predictive role of perceived parenting styles on anxiety sensitivity. The study group was composed by 545 (255 females; 290 males) students studying in different high schools in Mugla. The data were collected using the…

  1. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Adolescents in China: Their Fears and Anxieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the fears and anxieties of Chinese deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, and the ability of parents and teachers to report the presence of these fears and anxieties. Chinese deaf youth are at risk due to a lack of trained teachers, an overemphasis on oral education in schools, negative stereotypes, and parental…

  2. Positive affect predicts avoidance goals in social interaction anxiety: testing a hierarchical model of social goals.

    PubMed

    Trew, Jennifer L; Alden, Lynn E

    2012-01-01

    Models of self-regulation suggest that social goals may contribute to interpersonal and affective difficulties, yet little research has addressed this issue in the context of social anxiety. The present studies evaluated a hierarchical model of approach and avoidance in the context of social interaction anxiety, with affect as a mediating factor in the relationship between motivational tendencies and social goals. This model was refined in one undergraduate sample (N = 186) and cross-validated in a second sample (N = 195). The findings support hierarchical relationships between motivational tendencies, social interaction anxiety, affect, and social goals, with higher positive affect predicting fewer avoidance goals in both samples. Implications for the treatment of social interaction anxiety are discussed. PMID:22489603

  3. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  4. Sociometric types and social interaction styles in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Delgado, Beatriz; García-Fernández, José M; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Díaz-Herrero, Angela

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between social interaction styles and sociometric types in a sample of 1,349 (51.7% boys, and 48.3% girls) Spanish adolescents. The results revealed that the proportion of prosocial adolescents nominated as liked by peers was significantly higher than prosocial with social anxiety, whereas the proportion of aggressive adolescents nominated by peers as rejected was significantly higher than the proportion of rejected-prosocial and rejected-with social anxiety. The percentages of sociometric types and social interaction styles varied significantly according to gender and academic grade. Logistic regression analyses showed that being prosocial was 48% more likely when adolescents are nominated by peers as liked, whereas being prosocial was 41% and 79% less likely when adolescents were nominated as rejected and neglected, respectively. Furthermore, prosocial adolescents were 67% more likely nominated by peers as liked, and were less likely nominated as rejected (42%) and neglected (78%). Finally, being neglected was 83% more likely in aggressive adolescents.

  5. Sociometric types and social interaction styles in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Delgado, Beatriz; García-Fernández, José M; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia; Díaz-Herrero, Angela

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between social interaction styles and sociometric types in a sample of 1,349 (51.7% boys, and 48.3% girls) Spanish adolescents. The results revealed that the proportion of prosocial adolescents nominated as liked by peers was significantly higher than prosocial with social anxiety, whereas the proportion of aggressive adolescents nominated by peers as rejected was significantly higher than the proportion of rejected-prosocial and rejected-with social anxiety. The percentages of sociometric types and social interaction styles varied significantly according to gender and academic grade. Logistic regression analyses showed that being prosocial was 48% more likely when adolescents are nominated by peers as liked, whereas being prosocial was 41% and 79% less likely when adolescents were nominated as rejected and neglected, respectively. Furthermore, prosocial adolescents were 67% more likely nominated by peers as liked, and were less likely nominated as rejected (42%) and neglected (78%). Finally, being neglected was 83% more likely in aggressive adolescents. PMID:20977022

  6. Mediation of Changes in Anxiety and Depression During Treatment of Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…

  7. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication. PMID:22703034

  8. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  9. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…

  10. Amygdalar volumetric correlates of social anxiety in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Garrett, Amy; Boucher, Spencer; Howe, Meghan; Sanders, Erica; Kim, Eunjoo; Singh, Manpreet; Chang, Kiki

    2015-11-30

    The prevalence of social anxiety disorder is high in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and anxiety may be a significant risk factor in these youth for developing BD. We compared social anxiety symptoms between BD offspring with mood symptoms (high-risk group for developing BD I or II: HR) and healthy controls (HC). We also explored the correlations between the amygdalar volumes and social anxiety symptoms in the HR group with high social anxiety scores (HRHSA) due to the potential involvement of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of both BD and social anxiety. Youth participating in the study included 29h and 17HC of comparable age and gender. To assess social anxiety symptoms, we used the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) social anxiety subscale. The HR group's MASC social anxiety score was significantly higher than that of the HC group. Among the 29h, 17 subjects (58.6%) showed high social anxiety and they were classified as the HRHSA group. No significant difference was observed in amygdalar volume between the HRHSA and HC groups. However, there were significant negative correlations between amydalar volumes and MASC social anxiety score in the HRHSA group. These findings have implications for the link between amygdalar structure and both anxiety and mood control. This link may serve to implicate high social anxiety as a risk marker for future BD development. PMID:26472294

  11. Amygdalar volumetric correlates of social anxiety in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Garrett, Amy; Boucher, Spencer; Howe, Meghan; Sanders, Erica; Kim, Eunjoo; Singh, Manpreet; Chang, Kiki

    2015-11-30

    The prevalence of social anxiety disorder is high in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) and anxiety may be a significant risk factor in these youth for developing BD. We compared social anxiety symptoms between BD offspring with mood symptoms (high-risk group for developing BD I or II: HR) and healthy controls (HC). We also explored the correlations between the amygdalar volumes and social anxiety symptoms in the HR group with high social anxiety scores (HRHSA) due to the potential involvement of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of both BD and social anxiety. Youth participating in the study included 29h and 17HC of comparable age and gender. To assess social anxiety symptoms, we used the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) social anxiety subscale. The HR group's MASC social anxiety score was significantly higher than that of the HC group. Among the 29h, 17 subjects (58.6%) showed high social anxiety and they were classified as the HRHSA group. No significant difference was observed in amygdalar volume between the HRHSA and HC groups. However, there were significant negative correlations between amydalar volumes and MASC social anxiety score in the HRHSA group. These findings have implications for the link between amygdalar structure and both anxiety and mood control. This link may serve to implicate high social anxiety as a risk marker for future BD development.

  12. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder.

  13. The role of life stress and social support in the adjustment of sexually victimized pregnant and parenting minority adolescents.

    PubMed

    Osborne, L N; Rhodes, J E

    2001-12-01

    Associations among sexual victimization and the psychosocial functioning of African American and Latina pregnant and parenting adolescents were examined. Forty-seven (17.7%) of the 265 participants reported histories of sexual victimization, most of which was unwanted sexual intercourse. The victimized adolescents reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and life stress and, although the two groups reported no differences in their levels of social support, support was found to be differentially related to depression and anxiety in the two groups. In particular, victims derived benefits from social support at low levels of stress, but social support provided no protection against depression and anxiety at average or high levels of stress. For nonvictims, social support provided no benefits at low levels of stress, but protected against depression and anxiety at moderate levels of stress and against depression at high levels of stress. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and intervention are discussed.

  14. Latent Variable Analysis of Coping, Anxiety/Depression, and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,…

  15. Adolescents' Anxiety in Dating Situations: The Potential Role of Friends and Romantic Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Mackey, Eleanor Race

    2007-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including the qualities of their closest friendships and romantic relationships, as predictors of dating/heterosocial anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 781 adolescents (57% girls; ages 15-19 years) completed measures that assessed the number and type of close friends, the presence…

  16. Responses to Conflict and Cooperation in Adolescents with Anxiety and Mood Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Erin B.; Parrish, Jessica M.; Nelson, Eric E.; Easter, Joshua; Thorne, John F.; Rilling, James K.; Ernst, Monique; Pine, Daniel S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined patterns of behavioral and emotional responses to conflict and cooperation in adolescents with anxiety/mood disorders and healthy peers. We compared performance on and emotional responses to the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game, an economic exchange task involving conflict and cooperation, between adolescents with…

  17. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  18. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  19. Neural correlates of self-focused attention in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Socially anxious individuals tend to shift their attention away from external socially threatening cues and instead become highly self-focused. Such heightened self-focused attention has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of self-focused attention in 16 high socially anxious (HSA) and 16 low socially anxious (LSA) individuals. Participants were instructed to focus their attention either inwardly or outwardly during a simulated social situation. Results indicate hyperactivation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and temporal pole during inward vs outward attention in HSA compared with LSA participants. Furthermore, activation of mPFC, right anterior insula, TPJ and posterior cingulate cortex was positively correlated with the trait of self-focused attention in HSA subjects. Results highlight the prominent role of the mPFC and other cortical structures in abnormal self-focused attention in social anxiety. Finally, findings for the insula suggest increased processing of bodily states that is related to the amount of habitual self-focused attention in social anxiety.

  20. [Anxiety, depression and social support in patients with psoriasis].

    PubMed

    Hawro, Tomasz; Miniszewska, Joanna; Chodkiewicz, Jan; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Zalewska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Dermatological patients present significantly more psychological disturbances of various types than the general population. The aim of the present study was to analyze anxiety and depression in relation to social support in psoriasis patients. The study was performed on a group of 32 psoriasis vulgaris in-patients of the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Lódź. The following questionnaires were employed: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Social Support Questionnaire (SOZU--Soziale Unterstützung). Psoriasis severity was evaluated by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI). Elderly psoriatic patients presented significantly higher levels of both anxiety and depression. Moreover, lower depression levels were observed in patients with positive psoriatic family history. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between anxiety level and cutaneous lesions severity, pruritus severity and longer disease duration. Additionally, there was a negative correlation between both anxiety and depression levels and social support. In conclusion, support groups should primarily be organized for elderly psoriatic patients with negative psoriatic family history.

  1. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals.

  2. Culture of honour theory and social anxiety: Cross-regional and sex differences in relationships among honour-concerns, social anxiety and reactive aggression.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Buckner, Julia D; Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Consistent with the "flight or fight" model of anxiety, social anxiety may incite withdrawal or attack; yet, it is unclear why some socially anxious individuals are vulnerable to aggress. It may be that culture impacts tendencies to "fight" or "flee" from social threat. Honour cultures, including the American South, permit or even promote aggression in response to honour-threats. Thus, social anxiety in the South may be more associated with aggression than in non-honour cultures. In the current sample, region moderated the relation between social anxiety and aggression; social anxiety related positively to reactive (but not proactive) aggression among Southerners (n = 285), but not Midwesterners (n = 258). Participant sex further moderated the relationship, such that it was significant only for Southern women. Also, for Southerners, prototypically masculine honour-concerns mediated the relationship between social anxiety and reactive aggression. Cultural factors may play key roles in aggressive behaviour among some socially anxious individuals. PMID:24862880

  3. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  4. Development of the social brain in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-01-01

    The brain has evolved to understand and interact with other people. We are increasingly learning more about the neurophysiological basis of social cognition and what is known as the social brain, that is the network of brain regions involved in understanding others. This paper focuses on how the social brain develops during adolescence. Adolescence is a time characterized by change – hormonally, physically, psychologically and socially. Yet until recently this period of life was neglected by cognitive neuroscience. In the past decade, research has shown that the brain develops both structurally and functionally during adolescence. Large-scale structural MRI studies have demonstrated development during adolescence in white matter and grey matter volumes in regions within the social brain. Activity in some of these regions, as measured using fMRI, also shows changes between adolescence and adulthood during social cognition tasks. I will also present evidence that theory of mind usage is still developing late in adolescence. Finally, I will speculate on potential implications of this research for society. PMID:22434810

  5. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena.

  6. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  7. The Relationship Between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J H; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J

    2016-07-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent and later ASD and anxiety symptoms. Greater response amplitude to fearful faces corresponded to greater social communication difficulties at age 3, and less improvement by age 14. Faster ERPs to neutral faces predicted greater ASD symptom improvement over time, lower ASD severity in adolescence, and lower anxiety in adolescence. Early individual differences in processing of emotional stimuli likely reflect a unique predictive contribution from social brain circuitry early in life. PMID:27055415

  8. Paroxetine reduces social anxiety in individuals with a co-occurring alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Book, Sarah W; Thomas, Suzanne E; Randall, Patrick K; Randall, Carrie L

    2008-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder who are seen in clinical practice commonly have additional psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol use disorders. The first line treatment for social anxiety disorder is selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. However, the efficacy of SSRIs has been determined with studies that excluded alcoholics. Forty two subjects with social anxiety and a co-occurring alcohol use disorder participated in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine the efficacy of paroxetine for social anxiety in patients with co-occurring alcohol problems. Paroxetine was superior to placebo in reducing social anxiety, as measured by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale total and subscale scores and additional measures of social anxiety. This study provides the first evidence-based recommendation for the use of an SSRI to treat social anxiety in this patient population.

  9. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  10. The relationship between 'theory of mind' and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hünefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between 'theory of mind' and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships - Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not avoidance with mother was associated with less accurate mindreading, and this effect was stronger in younger than in older adolescents. Results might be explained in terms of the inconsistency of caregiver behavior that is supposed to cause anxious strategies, and thus illustrate the need to consider not only the effects, but also the causes of different types of insecure strategies.

  11. Social Anxiety and Cannabis Use: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear especially vulnerable to cannabis-related problems, yet little is known about the antecedents of cannabis-related behaviors among this high-risk population. The present study used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the relations among social anxiety, cannabis craving, state anxiety, situational variables, and cannabis use in the natural environment during ad-lib cannabis use episodes. Participants were 49 current cannabis users. During the two-week EMA period, social anxiety significantly interacted with cannabis craving to predict cannabis use both cross-sectionally and prospectively. Specifically, individuals with higher social anxiety and craving were most likely to use cannabis. There was a significant social anxiety X state anxiety X others’ use interaction such that when others were using cannabis, those with elevations in both trait social anxiety and state anxiety were the most likely to use cannabis. PMID:22246109

  12. Biases in probabilistic category learning in relation to social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Anna; Hermann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental learning paradigms are rarely employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying acquired fear responses in social anxiety. Here, we adapted a probabilistic category learning paradigm to assess information processing biases as a function of the degree of social anxiety traits in a sample of healthy individuals without a diagnosis of social phobia. Participants were presented with three pairs of neutral faces with differing probabilistic accuracy contingencies (A/B: 80/20, C/D: 70/30, E/F: 60/40). Upon making their choice, negative and positive feedback was conveyed using angry and happy faces, respectively. The highly socially anxious group showed a strong tendency to be more accurate at learning the probability contingency associated with the most ambiguous stimulus pair (E/F: 60/40). Moreover, when pairing the most positively reinforced stimulus or the most negatively reinforced stimulus with all the other stimuli in a test phase, the highly socially anxious group avoided the most negatively reinforced stimulus significantly more than the control group. The results are discussed with reference to avoidance learning and hypersensitivity to negative socially evaluative information associated with social anxiety. PMID:26347685

  13. Biases in probabilistic category learning in relation to social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anna; Hermann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental learning paradigms are rarely employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying acquired fear responses in social anxiety. Here, we adapted a probabilistic category learning paradigm to assess information processing biases as a function of the degree of social anxiety traits in a sample of healthy individuals without a diagnosis of social phobia. Participants were presented with three pairs of neutral faces with differing probabilistic accuracy contingencies (A/B: 80/20, C/D: 70/30, E/F: 60/40). Upon making their choice, negative and positive feedback was conveyed using angry and happy faces, respectively. The highly socially anxious group showed a strong tendency to be more accurate at learning the probability contingency associated with the most ambiguous stimulus pair (E/F: 60/40). Moreover, when pairing the most positively reinforced stimulus or the most negatively reinforced stimulus with all the other stimuli in a test phase, the highly socially anxious group avoided the most negatively reinforced stimulus significantly more than the control group. The results are discussed with reference to avoidance learning and hypersensitivity to negative socially evaluative information associated with social anxiety. PMID:26347685

  14. Dysregulated Fear Predicts Social Wariness and Social Anxiety Symptoms during Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Kristin A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Beekman, Charles; Early, Martha C.

    2013-01-01

    Fearful temperament is associated with risk for the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood; however, not all fearful children become anxious. Identifying maladaptive trajectories is thus important for clarifying which fearful children are at risk. In an unselected sample of 111 two-year-olds (55% male, 95% Caucasian), Buss (2011) identified a pattern of fearful behavior, dysregulated fear, characterized by high fear in low threat situations. This pattern of behavior predicted parent- and teacher-reported withdrawn/anxious behaviors in preschool and at kindergarten entry. The current study extended original findings and examined whether dysregulated fear predicted observed social wariness with adults and peers, and social anxiety symptoms at age 6. We also examined prosocial adjustment during kindergarten as a moderator of the link between dysregulated fear and social wariness. Consistent with predictions, children with greater dysregulated fear at age 2 were more socially wary of adults and unfamiliar peers in the laboratory, were reported as having more social anxiety symptoms, and were nearly four times more likely to manifest social anxiety symptoms than other children with elevated wariness in kindergarten. Results demonstrated stability in the dysregulated fear profile and increased risk for social anxiety symptom development. Dysregulated fear predicted more social wariness with unfamiliar peers only when children became less prosocial during kindergarten. Findings are discussed in relation to the utility of the dysregulated fear construct for specifying maladaptive trajectories of risk for anxiety disorder development. PMID:23458273

  15. Getting Them Speaking: Classroom Social Factors and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effiong, Okon

    2016-01-01

    This study, which focuses on foreign language anxiety (FLA) experienced by Japanese learners of English in four universities, explores causative agents by looking into the classroom. The research questions aim to explore how FLA is influenced by classroom social factors. The study adopted qualitative data collection procedures, and the field work…

  16. Anxiety, Stress and Social Support: Prenatal Predictors of Obstetrical Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethercut, Gail; Adler, Nancy

    The role of anxiety, stress, and social support in predicting negative obstetrical outcomes was examined in a high-risk group of pregnant women. The predictor variables were assessed with separate self-report scales, including The Sarason Life Experience Survey, the Spielberger State/Trait Inventory, and a modified version of the Lazarus and Cohen…

  17. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens) on their smartphones, which can record user’s smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low) based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Results: Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p < 0.05), sent and received less number of text messages in the afternoon (Mann-Whitney U = 391.50∼411.50, p < 0.05), used health & fitness apps more frequently (Mann-Whitney U = 493.00, p < 0.05) and used camera apps less frequently (Mann-Whitney U = 472.00, p < 0.05). For loneliness, users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 305.00∼407.50, p < 0.05) and used following apps more frequently: health & fitness (Mann-Whitney U

  18. Validation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seul-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Objective The tripartite model categorizes symptoms of depression and anxiety into three groups: 1) non-specific general distress that is shared between depression and anxiety, 2) depression-specific symptoms that include low positive affect and loss of interest, and 3) anxiety-specific symptoms that include somatic arousal. The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure these three factors of depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the MASQ (K-MASQ) in adolescents. Methods Community-dwelling adolescents (n=933) were randomly assigned to two groups. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted in each group to identify the factor structure of the K-MASQ. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ were also evaluated. Results Our results support the three-factor structure of the K-MASQ in adolescents. However, we found that the specific items of each factor differed from those of the original MASQ. That is, the depression-specific factor was only related to low positive affect and not loss of interest, and the anxiety-specific factor included more items related to general somatic symptoms of anxiety. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion The K-MASQ supports the tripartite model of depression and anxiety and has satisfactory reliability and validity among Korean adolescents. The K-MASQ can be used to distinguish unique symptoms of depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents. PMID:25866523

  19. Perception of arousal in social anxiety: Effects of false feedback during a social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; McManus, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that during social interactions, socially anxious individuals direct their attention to internal cues of arousal and use this information to erroneously infer how they appear to others. High (N=36) and low (N=36) socially anxious adults had a conversation with a stooge, and were led to believe by false feedback that they were experiencing either an increase or decrease in arousal, or evaluating the comfort level of the feedback equipment. Compared to the other groups, participants who believed their arousal had increased, reported greater anxiety, poorer perceived performance, more physical cues of anxiety, and greater underestimation of their performance and overestimation of the visibility of their anxiety. The effects were not specific to participants with high social anxiety. Observers rated the behaviour of participants who believed that their arousal had decreased most favourably. The results have implications for the treatment of social phobia. PMID:17223072

  20. The Trauma of Peer Abuse: Effects of Relational Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety Disorder on Physiological and Affective Reactions to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood, and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74) were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball) were recorded. Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure. Conclusion: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats. PMID:24672491

  1. Burnout, anxiety, depression, and social skills in medical residents.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lima, K; Loureiro, S R

    2015-01-01

    The medical residency is recognized as a risk period for the development of burnout and mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which have impact on the physician and clientele alike. There is a need for studies that address conditions of risk and protection for the development of such problems. This study aimed to verify the rates of burnout, anxiety, and depression presented by resident physicians, as well as the associations of these problems with social skills, as potential protective factors. The hypothesis was defined that the problems (burnout, anxiety, and depression) would be negatively associated with social skills. A total of 305 medical residents, of both genders, of different specialties, from clinical and surgical areas of a Brazilian university hospital were evaluated using the following standardized self-report instruments: Burnout Syndrome Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. High rates of burnout and mental health problems were verified and social skills were negatively associated with burnout dimensions such as emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment, and dehumanization, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. Furthermore, residents with indicators of problems presented significantly lower social skills means than those of residents without indicators of burnout, anxiety, or depression. More studies are needed, which include other types of instruments in addition to self-report ones and evaluate not only social skills but also social competence in the professional practice. These should adopt intervention and longitudinal designs that allow the continuity or overcoming of the problems to be verified. Since social skills can be learned, the results of the study highlight the importance of developing the interpersonal skills of the professionals during the training of resident physicians in order to improve their practice.

  2. Intergroup Contact and Social Outcomes for Mainstreamed EMR Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stager, Susan Ferencz; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    The prediction of the contact hypothesis, that contact between nonretarded and educable mentally retarded (EMR) adolescents would result in the EMR adolescents being viewed as more competent, likeable, and socially acceptable, was examined with 26 mainstreamed ERM adolescents. (Author)

  3. Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

  4. Social Anxiety Mediates the Effect of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics on Hostility in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan Williams; Kreiser, Nicole L.; Pugliese, Cara; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Problems with social anxiety are frequently reported in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is possible that social anxiety, when present, exacerbates the experience of hostility and other forms of aggression in relation to ASD symptoms. This study sought to determine if social anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between features…

  5. The Distribution of and Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety in a UK Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Megan; Bullock, Tom; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Traits associated with autism and social anxiety were assessed in a UK student population (n = 1325) using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Clinically relevant levels of autistic traits were observed in 3.3% of the cohort; 10.1% of the cohort reported clinically relevant levels of social anxiety; 1.8% of the…

  6. No Fear, Just Relax and Play: Social Anxiety, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Games among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Olthuis, Janine V.; Casner, Hilary G.; Bui, Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the association between social anxiety and drinking game (DG) involvement as well as the moderating role of social anxiety-relevant alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE) in social anxiety and DG involvement among college students. Participants: Participants were 715 students (74.8% women, M[subscript age] = 19.46, SD =…

  7. Generalization of Social Anxiety to Sport: An Investigation of Elementary Aged Hispanic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Barlas, Mitchell E.; Dent, Heather C.; Masia, Carrie L.

    2002-01-01

    Used the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised and additional questions to examine the relationship of social anxiety to sport anxiety and avoidance in a sample of urban Hispanic American fifth and sixth graders. Found that, for girls, fear of negative evaluation and social avoidance of general and new situations were associated with sport…

  8. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care.

  9. Anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors: a comparison of anxious parents with and without social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Crosby Budinger, Meghan; Drazdowski, Tess K; Ginsburg, Golda S

    2013-06-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism, doubts of child competency, over-control, and granting of autonomy) in anxious parents with (n = 21) and without (n = 45) social anxiety disorder (SAD) during a 5-minute task with their non-anxious child (aged 7-12 years, M = 9.14). Parents with SAD demonstrated less warmth/positive affect and more criticism and doubts of child competency than did those without SAD. There were no group differences in over-control or granting of autonomy. Findings help clarify inconsistent results in the literature, inform models of familial transmission, and suggest intervention targets for parents with SAD. PMID:23053617

  10. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129

  11. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    PubMed

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed.

  12. [The effects of interpretation bias for social events and automatic thoughts on social anxiety].

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Naoki

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that individuals with social anxiety interpret ambiguous social situations negatively. It is, however, not clear whether the interpretation bias discriminatively contributes to social anxiety in comparison with depressive automatic thoughts. The present study investigated the effects of negative interpretation bias and automatic thoughts on social anxiety. The Social Intent Interpretation-Questionnaire, which measures the tendency to interpret ambiguous social events as implying other's rejective intents, the short Japanese version of the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised, and the Anthropophobic Tendency Scale were administered to 317 university students. Covariance structure analysis indicated that both rejective intent interpretation bias and negative automatic thoughts contributed to mental distress in social situations mediated by a sense of powerlessness and excessive concern about self and others in social situations. Positive automatic thoughts reduced mental distress. These results indicate the importance of interpretation bias and negative automatic thoughts in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Implications for understanding of the cognitive features of social anxiety were discussed.

  13. Online Social Networking: Usage in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nevil Johnson; Valsaraj, Blessy Prabha; Noronha, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) has played a significant role on the relationship among college students. It is becoming a popular medium for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. Young adults and adolescents are the most prolific users of OSN sites. The frequent use of OSN sites results in addiction toward these sites and…

  14. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. PMID:25810453

  15. Relations among Social Anxiety, Eye Contact Avoidance, State Anxiety, and Perception of Interaction Performance during a Live Conversation.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Zibulsky, Devin A; Srivastav, Akanksha; Weeks, Justin W

    2016-01-01

    There is building evidence that highly socially anxious (HSA) individuals frequently avoid making eye contact, which may contribute to less meaningful social interactions and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. However, research to date is lacking in ecological validity due to the usage of either static or pre-recorded facial stimuli or subjective coding of eye contact. The current study examined the relationships among trait social anxiety, eye contact avoidance, state anxiety, and participants' self-perceptions of interaction performance during a live, four-minute conversation with a confederate via webcam, and while being covertly eye-tracked. Participants included undergraduate women who conversed with same-sex confederates. Results indicated that trait social anxiety was inversely related to eye contact duration and frequency averaged across the four minutes, and positively related to state social anxiety and negative self-ratings. In addition, greater anticipatory state anxiety was associated with reduced eye contact throughout the first minute of the conversation. Eye contact was not related to post-task state anxiety or self-perception of poor performance; although, trends emerged in which these relations may be positive for HSA individuals. The current findings provide enhanced support for the notion that eye contact avoidance is an important feature of social anxiety.

  16. Relations among Social Anxiety, Eye Contact Avoidance, State Anxiety, and Perception of Interaction Performance during a Live Conversation.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Zibulsky, Devin A; Srivastav, Akanksha; Weeks, Justin W

    2016-01-01

    There is building evidence that highly socially anxious (HSA) individuals frequently avoid making eye contact, which may contribute to less meaningful social interactions and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. However, research to date is lacking in ecological validity due to the usage of either static or pre-recorded facial stimuli or subjective coding of eye contact. The current study examined the relationships among trait social anxiety, eye contact avoidance, state anxiety, and participants' self-perceptions of interaction performance during a live, four-minute conversation with a confederate via webcam, and while being covertly eye-tracked. Participants included undergraduate women who conversed with same-sex confederates. Results indicated that trait social anxiety was inversely related to eye contact duration and frequency averaged across the four minutes, and positively related to state social anxiety and negative self-ratings. In addition, greater anticipatory state anxiety was associated with reduced eye contact throughout the first minute of the conversation. Eye contact was not related to post-task state anxiety or self-perception of poor performance; although, trends emerged in which these relations may be positive for HSA individuals. The current findings provide enhanced support for the notion that eye contact avoidance is an important feature of social anxiety. PMID:26677735

  17. Social anxiety and functional impairment in patients seeking surgical evaluation for hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Schneier, Franklin R; Heimberg, Richard G; Liebowitz, Michael R; Blanco, Carlos; Gorenstein, Lyall A

    2012-11-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating and often accompanied by social avoidance. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations, often partly related to fears of showing signs of excessive autonomic nervous system activation, such as sweating. To clarify the relationship of hyperhidrosis and SAD, this study assessed severity of sweating, overall social anxiety and social anxiety due to sweating, and disability in 2 groups: patients seeking surgical treatment for hyperhidrosis (n = 40) and patients seeking treatment for SAD (n = 64). Hyperhidrosis and SAD patients overlapped in severity of overall social anxiety and social anxiety related to sweating. Hyperhidrosis patients reported elevated levels of social anxiety, with mean severity near the threshold for the generalized subtype of SAD, but significantly lower social anxiety than in the SAD patients. Significantly more hyperhidrosis patients than SAD patients attributed most of their social anxiety to sweating (76% vs 20%). Among hyperhidrosis patients, the pattern of correlations of sweating, social anxiety, and disability was consistent with a model of social anxiety as a mediator of sweating-related disability. The overlap of symptoms in patients presenting for treatment of SAD or hyperhidrosis suggests that both social anxiety and sweating should be assessed in these patients and considered as potential targets of treatment.

  18. Social anxiety disorder in recent onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders: The relation with symptomatology, anxiety, and social rank.

    PubMed

    Sutliff, Stephanie; Roy, Marc-André; Achim, Amélie M

    2015-05-30

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) represents a common comorbidity in schizophrenia, but questions remain regarding how this comorbidity is related to symptomatology and self-perceptions. Forty-two patients with recent-onset schizophrenia were evaluated for SAD, and assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), as well as the Social Comparison Scale (SCS), which assessed how participants perceived themselves in relation with others (i.e., social rank). Eighteen patients met criteria for SAD (SZ+) while 24 patients did not (SZ-). Analysis of symptoms using a five-factor model of the PANSS revealed that the SZ- group had more severe symptoms than SZ+ on the Cognitive/Disorganization factor. Further analyses of individual symptoms demonstrated that the SZ- group was more affected in attention, abstract thinking, and cognitive disorganization (Cognitive/Disorganization symptoms), while the SZ+ group was more severely affected in anxiety, suspiciousness/persecution, and active social avoidance. Interestingly, severity of social anxiety symptom ratings correlated with certain PANSS symptoms only in the SZ- group. Perception of social rank, which was reduced in SZ+, displayed a trend level correlation with the positive symptoms in SZ-. Overall, the results suggest that SZ+ and SZ- may have different clinical profiles that could be important to consider when tailoring treatments for these patients.

  19. Adolescent Pregnancy and Poverty: Implications for Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Clara L.

    Adolescent pregnancy is examined from 2 viewpoints: (1) the marital status of young adolescent girls who become mothers at a too young age is less relevant to the social problem of adolescent pregnancy than the attendant adverse effects, i.e., adolescent pregnancy, per se, rather than illegitimacy is the social problem; and (2) too early marriage…

  20. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n=17, 10 F, age=8.3–12.1 years), healthy children (n=13, 4 F, age=9.3–12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n=18, 6 F, age=12.3–17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age=12.5–17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  1. Investigating the Association of Mental-Social Climate and Social Anxiety With Students’ Self-Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Farideh; Nadi Ghara, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tendency and motivation to progress and achieve the ideal position have always encouraged people towards acquiring the required education. Objectives: The present research aimed to investigate the association of mental-social climate and social anxiety with self-efficiency and also predict the academic self-efficiency of first grade high school students based on social anxiety and the mental-social climate of the classroom. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects (172 girls and 178 boys) have been chosen by a random clustering sampling form the first grade high school students of Qaemshahr, Iran. The academic self-efficiency questionnaire, the social anxiety scale for teenagers and the classroom mental climate scale were used to collect the required data. For data analysis, the statistical method of correlation analysis, independent t test, and multivariate regression have been used. Results: The research findings showed that there was a significant negative relationship between mental-social climate of the classroom and students’ self-efficiency. In addition, social anxiety has been a significant negative relationship with self-efficiency. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship exists between mental-social climate and social anxiety. Conclusions: In order to develop students’ self-efficacy, there should be appropriate psychosocial climate. Therefore, teachers and administrators of education must provide all necessary arrangements to improve psychosocial climate classes. PMID:26576172

  2. Parental attitudes and social competence in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Drózdz, E; Pokorski, M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationships among perceived parental attitudes and domains of social competence in late adolescents. Forty boys and 40 girls, all aged 18, representing a population sample of high school second graders were examined. Self-report data were collected using questionnaires of parent-child relations and of social competence. Analyses detected a significant association between the maternal loving or protective attitude and competence in interpersonal relations in the combined sample of adolescents. However, gender was a moderator of this general relationship. Maternal control fostered their sons' interpersonal relations, and no such relationship was observed toward daughters. Adolescents' behavior was somehow less influenced by fatherly control. The findings are in line with the concept of familism as a dominant form of family organization, but implicate constraints in parental sentiments whose overly expression may backfire and do more harm than good in other domains of social competence of adolescents, such as assertiveness and performance during social exposure. The study may contribute to future research on how parenting style shapes adolescent social outcomes.

  3. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment and 1 year later. Total anxiety and worry and oversensitivity symptoms are found to predict later depressive symptoms more strongly for girls than for boys. There is a similar pattern of results for social concerns and concentration symptoms, although this does not reach statistical significance. Physiological anxiety predicts later depressive symptoms for both boys and girls. These findings highlight the importance of anxiety for the development of depression in adolescence, particularly worry and oversensitivity among girls. PMID:19756209

  4. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  5. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: 20 Years After

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youth are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research was needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youth have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youth with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youth with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youth with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression, and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youth with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youth with co-primary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youth with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  6. A Contextual Approach to Experiential Avoidance and Social Anxiety: Evidence from an Experimental Interaction and Daily Interactions of People with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Goodman, Fallon R.; Machell, Kyla A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Monfort, Samuel S.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Experiential avoidance, the tendency to avoid internal, unwanted thoughts and feelings, is hypothesized to be a risk factor for social anxiety. Existing studies of experiential avoidance rely on trait measures with minimal contextual consideration. In two studies, we examined the association between experiential avoidance and anxiety within real-world social interactions. In the first study, we examined the effect of experiential avoidance on social anxiety in everyday life. For two weeks, 37 participants with Social Anxiety Disorder [SAD] and 38 healthy controls provided reports of experiential avoidance and social anxiety symptoms during face-to-face social interactions. Results showed that momentary experiential avoidance was positively related to anxiety symptoms during social interactions and this effect was stronger among people with SAD. People low in EA showed greater sensitivity to the level of situational threat than high EA people. In the second study, we facilitated an initial encounter between strangers. Unlike Study 1, we experimentally created a social situation where there was either an opportunity for intimacy (self-disclosure conversation) or no such opportunity (small-talk conversation). Results showed that greater experiential avoidance during the self-disclosure conversation temporally preceded increases in social anxiety for the remainder of the interaction; no such effect was found in the small-talk conversation. Our findings provide insight into the association between experiential avoidance on social anxiety in laboratory and naturalistic settings, and demonstrate that the effect of EA depends upon level of social threat and opportunity. PMID:24749634

  7. Negative Social Evaluative Fears Produce Social Anxiety, Food Intake, and Body Dissatisfaction: Evidence of Similar Mechanisms through Different Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid, suggesting there are shared vulnerabilities that underlie the development of these disorders. Two proposed vulnerabilities are fear of negative evaluation and social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation regarding one's appearance). In the current experimental study (N=160 women) we measured these fears: (a) through a manipulation comparing fear conditions, (b) with trait fears, and (c) state fears. Results indicated that participants in the fear of negative evaluation condition increased food consumption, whereas participants in the social appearance anxiety condition and high in trait social appearance anxiety experienced the highest amounts of body dissatisfaction. Participants in the fear of evaluation and social appearance anxiety conditions experienced elevated social anxiety. These results support the idea that negative evaluation fears are shared vulnerabilities for eating and social anxiety disorders, but that the way these variables exert their effects may lead to disorder specific behaviors. PMID:26504674

  8. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  9. The context specificity of anxiety responses induced by chronic psychosocial stress in rats: a shift from anxiety to social phobia?

    PubMed

    Barsy, Boglárka; Leveleki, Csilla; Zelena, Dóra; Haller, József

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anxiety-increasing effects of chronic psychosocial stress generalize to non-social (i.e. heterotypic) stressful situations. To investigate this issue, we repeatedly exposed rats to predictable or unpredictable psychosocial stress for 5 or 12 days and examined their anxiety in two markedly different contexts: the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Psychosocial stress and the social interaction test were administered under highly similar conditions, i.e. the two situations were homotypic. Psychosocial stress did not affect anxiety in the elevated plus-maze under any condition, but markedly increased anxiety in the social interaction test. In contrast, repeated restraint-a non-social stressor heterotypic to both the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests-increased plus-maze anxiety, demonstrating that anxiety in this test was sensitive to repeated restraint, and the effects were manifested in heterotypic situations. Thus, the anxiety-related effects of chronic psychosocial stress-unlike those of the chronic non-social stressor-were context-dependent. This is reminiscent of phobic anxiety, which manifests in specific situations only. In addition, behavior in the social interaction test showed changes that went beyond simple anxiogenesis. Socially stressed rats spent nearly 40% of total time in aggressive interactions. Based on recent data showing that social phobics are prone to violence under social pressure, and also based on the situation-dependent effects of the social stressor, we suggest that chronic psychosocial stress leads to a behavioral profile akin to social phobia.

  10. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  11. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W., III.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20% of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. Objectives: We analyzed generalized…

  12. Bullying and Social Exclusion Anxiety in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics to the social processes that may lead to bullying.…

  13. Interpretation modification training reduces social anxiety in clinically anxious children.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. PMID:26580081

  14. Functional neuroimaging of mentalizing during the trust game in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Chandra Sehkar; Angstadt, Mike; Banks, Sarah; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Liberzon, Israel; Luan Phan, K.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder tend to make overly negative and distorted predictions about social events, which enhance perceptions of threat and contribute to excessive anxiety in social situations. Here, we coupled functional magnetic resonance imaging and a multiround economic exchange game (‘trust game’) to probe mentalizing, the social-cognitive ability to attribute mental states to others. Relative to interactions with a computer, those with human partners (‘mentalizing’) elicited less activation of medial prefrontal cortex in generalized social anxiety patients compared with matched healthy control participants. Diminished medial prefrontal cortex function may play a role in the social-cognitive pathophysiology of social anxiety. PMID:19521264

  15. Pathways to social anxiety: the role of reinforcement sensitivities and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Elodie J; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-12-30

    Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between threat sensitivity and social anxiety; however, the relationship between reward sensitivity and social anxiety is less clear. Further, the role that emotion regulation (ER) may play in the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is rarely considered. The current study tested whether two emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) mediated associations between threat sensitivity and reward sensitivity and social anxiety in a community sample (402 adults, 78% female; Mage=32.49, S.D.age=11.53). Path analyses indicated that low reappraisal mediated the relationship between high threat sensitivity and high social anxiety; and both low reappraisal and high suppression mediated the relationship between low reward sensitivity and high social anxiety. These results highlight the potential role that emotion regulation plays in the relationship between trait motivation and social anxiety.

  16. Association of parental self-esteem and expectations with adolescents' anxiety about career and education.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Seyed-Hossein; Mirzamani, Seyed-Mahmoud; Shahiri-Tabarestani, Mostafa

    2005-06-01

    The views of students in their last year of high school on the effects of parental expectations on students' anxiety about education and a career were studied with 214 boys and girls from six single-sex high schools. Participants were asked to reply to two questionnaires, the Educational and Career Anxiety Questionnaire and the Parent's Self-esteem and Expectancy Questionnaire as well as to respond to a personal informational form. Analysis yielded negative significance for relations between parental self-esteem and expectations and students' anxiety about education and career. Moreover, the study showed that adolescent girls had significantly higher self-esteem than boys. In addition, comparing adolescents' views by their fathers' education showed that fathers with high education were more likely to have children with high parental self-esteem and rational expectations and lower anxiety about education and careers than those whose fathers had only primary education. PMID:16050605

  17. Adolescent enrichment partially reverses the social isolation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hellemans, Kim G C; Benge, Luis C; Olmstead, Mary C

    2004-06-21

    Early environmental experience produces profound neural and behavioural effects. For example, animals reared in isolation show increased anxiety, neophobia, and poorer performance in learning and spatial memory tasks. We investigated whether later enrichment reverses some or all of the deficits induced by isolation rearing. Eighty-four male Long-Evans rats (21 days old) were reared under different conditions: enriched (group housed with toys), isolated (one rat/cage), standard (two rats/cage), isolated-enriched, enriched-isolated, isolated-standard, or enriched-standard. In the latter four conditions, animals were housed in the first environment until adolescence (66 days). Following the 90-day rearing period, all animals were assessed in a battery of behavioural tests and cortical thickness was measured postmortem. Isolation rearing led to significant differences in behavioural tests measuring anxiety, spatial learning, and locomotor activity; switching the rearing condition partially reversed these changes. Rearing condition did not affect pain thresholds in the tail flick test or aversive associative learning in the conditioned taste aversion test. Enriched rats had the thickest cortex; isolated rats the thinnest. None of the switch groups differed significantly from standard-reared rats in this measure. Taken together, these results provide novel and interesting information regarding the effects of pre- or post-adolescent enrichment experience on behavioural and neural expression of the social isolation syndrome. PMID:15158074

  18. Direct Aggression and Generalized Anxiety in Adolescence: Heterogeneity in Development and Intra-Individual Change.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Hawk, Skyler T; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan

    2016-02-01

    Co-occurrence of aggression and anxiety might change during adolescence, or stay stable. We studied change and stability of four types of co-occurrence regarding direct aggression and anxiety in adolescence: an anxious and non-aggressive type, an aggressive and non-anxious type, a comorbid aggressive-anxious type and a no problems type. We applied a person-centered approach to assess increases and decreases of these types, and tested various models of intra-individual change of the types: the stability, acting out and failure models. We used data from a five-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents (48.5 % male), thereby covering the ages of 12-20. We observed accelerated development in the older cohort: adolescents tended to grow faster out of the aggressive types in middle-to-late adolescence than in early-to-middle adolescence. We observed one other group-dependent pattern of heterogeneity in development, namely "gender differentiation": gender differences in aggression and generalized anxiety became stronger over time. We found support for two perspectives on intra-individual change of the four types, namely the stability and the acting out perspective. The no problems--and to a lesser extent the anxious--type proved to be stable across time. Acting out was found in early-to-middle adolescents, males, and adolescents with poorer-quality friendships. In all three groups, there were substantial transitions from the anxious type to the aggressive type during 4 years (between 20 and 41 %). Remarkably, acting out was most prevalent in subgroups that, generally speaking, are more vulnerable for aggressive behavior, namely early-to-middle adolescents and males. We interpret acting out as the attempt of adolescents to switch from anxiety to instrumental aggression, in order to become more visible and obtain an autonomous position in the adolescent world. Acting out contributed to the explanation of accelerated development and gender

  19. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality.

  20. Anabolic/androgenic steroid administration during adolescence and adulthood differentially modulates aggression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Thomas R; Ricci, Lesley A; Melloni, Richard H

    2015-03-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in a manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day×30days) during adolescence (P27-56) or young adulthood (P65-P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term.

  1. Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Administration During Adolescence and Adulthood Differentially Modulates Aggression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day × 30days) during adolescence (P27–56) or young adulthood (P65–P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30 days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. PMID:25655668

  2. Effectiveness of skills for academic and social success (SASS) with Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vagos, Paula; Pereira, Anabela; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2015-01-01

    Social fears are common among adolescents and may considerably impair their lives. Even so, most adolescents do not seek professional help for these difficulties, making it important to promote evidence-based and preventive interventions in community samples. This research presents the effectiveness of an intervention with a group of five female adolescents who reported serious interference of their social fears in their daily life. At post-intervention, effectiveness was noticeable by high recovery, reliable individual change, and intragroup statistical change. The intervention showed impact for measures of social anxiety, avoidance, and assertiveness, and such impact was steady at 3-month follow-up. These findings add to the cumulative and transcultural evidence on the effectiveness of Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS). PMID:25513945

  3. Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to conduct a review to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders among Iranian children and adolescents. Method: We systematically reviewed the literature up to June 2014. We searched three Persian databases (Magiran, IranMedex and SID) and three English databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. All original studies that investigated the current prevalence of anxiety in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents were entered into the study. All studies conducted on special samples or in special settings were excluded. By searching English databases, we obtained 124 original studies. After removing duplicate papers, 120 articles remained. In the next step, we screened the articles based on their title. In sum, 95 Persian and English articles had relevant titles. After screening based on the abstract and full text, 26 studies remained. After screening based on the full text, all selected studies were qualitatively assessed by two evaluators separately. Result: Twenty five studies were eligible and reported different types of anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias and panic disorder). The samples varied from 81 to 2996 among studies and their age range was 5 to 18 years. These studies were conducted in different cities of Iran. SCL-90 is a frequently used questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were mostly investigated with the prevalence rates ranging from 6.8% in Saravan to 85% in Bandar Abbas. OCD was the second common study with prevalence rates ranging from 1% in Tabriz to 11.9% in Gorgan. Conclusion: Our findings revealed considerable amount of anxiety disorder among Iranian children and adolescents. Given the fact that anxiety disorder has negative effects on the well-being and function of individuals and can lead to severe problems, this disorder should be considered in mental health programs designed for children and adolescents. PMID:26005473

  4. Social anxiety disorder and the psychobiology of self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are characterized by fear or anxiety about social situations, but also by important alterations in self-referential processing. Given advances in our understanding of the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry of SAD, the question arises of the relationship between this research and an emergent literature on the psychobiology of self and self-consciousness. A number of investigations of SAD have highlighted altered activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; involved in self-representation), insula (involved in interoceptive processing), and other structures that play a role in bodily self-consciousness, as well as the potential value of interventions such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and self-focused reappraisal in normalizing such changes. Future studies to more closely investigate associations between psychobiological alterations and changes in self-related processing in SAD, may be useful in shedding additional light on both SAD and self-consciousness. PMID:26441590

  5. Social anxiety disorder and the psychobiology of self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are characterized by fear or anxiety about social situations, but also by important alterations in self-referential processing. Given advances in our understanding of the neurocircuitry and neurochemistry of SAD, the question arises of the relationship between this research and an emergent literature on the psychobiology of self and self-consciousness. A number of investigations of SAD have highlighted altered activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; involved in self-representation), insula (involved in interoceptive processing), and other structures that play a role in bodily self-consciousness, as well as the potential value of interventions such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and self-focused reappraisal in normalizing such changes. Future studies to more closely investigate associations between psychobiological alterations and changes in self-related processing in SAD, may be useful in shedding additional light on both SAD and self-consciousness.

  6. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  7. Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism: An Investigation of Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Rachel K.; Hoffman, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) possess core social and pragmatic deficits, which interfere with normal relationship development. At a time when friendships are increasingly important, many adolescents with HFA realize they are different from their peers. Initial research has indicated that adolescence is the time when symptoms of…

  8. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  9. Statistics and mathematics anxiety in social science students: some interesting parallels.

    PubMed

    Zeidner, M

    1991-11-01

    This study illuminates some interesting parallels between statistics anxiety and mathematics anxiety in social science students. Parallel to what is confirmed for mathematics anxiety, two factors were observed to underly statistics anxiety scores, namely, statistics test anxiety and content anxiety. The study revealed modest though significant correlations between student attributes and the two confirmed dimensions of statistics anxiety. Furthermore, parallel to the inverse correlation reported for mathematics anxiety and maths course performance, statistics anxiety correlated negatively with high school matriculation scores in maths as well as self perceptions of maths abilities. These data lend support to the hypothesis that aversive prior experiences with mathematics, prior poor achievement in maths, and a low sense of maths self-efficacy are meaningful antecedent correlates of statistics anxiety and thus lend some credence to the "deficit" interpretation of statistics anxiety.

  10. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  11. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence.

  12. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  13. Predictors and characteristics of anxiety among adolescent students: a Greek sample.

    PubMed

    Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Vlassopoulos, M; Charbilas, D; Rotsika, V; Tsakanikos, E; Tzavara, Ch; Dikeos, D

    2013-01-01

    In the Greek society, there is a strong cultural tendency to overestimate the value of University studies. So students are under high emotional pressure during the long lasting period of the preparation for the university entrance exams. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of anxiety in a general adolescent population of senior high school students in Athens, Greece. Also to examine the association between the anxiety's severity with various demographic and socio-cultural factors, as well as with academic performance, extracurricular activities, sleep duration and presence of somatic problems. The sample consisted of 696 adolescent students of three Senior High Schools (SHS) (391 girls and 305 boys). Two of the schools were general education institutions (GE1 and GE2, N=450), while the third was a technical one (TE, N=246). The school sample was selected to reflect the proportion between the two different types of SHSs in Athens as well as other major urban areas in Greece. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered and personal data were also collected. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 and analyses were conducted using STATA 7.0. 567 adolescents lived with both parents and 121 with one or none of them. Father's educational level was low for 138, middle for 154, high for 195 and mother's was low for 135, middle for 417, high for 140. The average sleep duration was 7.5 hours per day (SD=1.3). The average time per week spent in school related activities was 7.94 hours (SD=7.56) and in extracurricular activities was 9.02 hours (SD=12.44). 107 adolescents reported somatic complaints in the last year The academic achievement was poor for 233, good for 264, excellent for 196 students. Adolescents with extracurricular activities for more than 11 hours per week had lower scores, both on State and Trait scales. More hours in school-related activities were associated with greater levels of Trait anxiety. Adolescents whose father had a

  14. The Reverse of Social Anxiety Is Not Always the Opposite: The Reverse-Scored Items of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale Do Not Belong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    Although well-used and empirically supported, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) has a questionable factor structure and includes reverse-scored items with questionable utility. Here, using samples of undergraduates and a sample of clients with social anxiety disorder, we extend previous work that opened the question of whether the…

  15. Online gaming in the context of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bianca W; Leeson, Peter R C

    2015-06-01

    In 2014, over 23 million individuals were playing massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). In light of the framework provided by Davis's (2001) cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use, social anxiety, expressions of true self, and perceived in-game and face-to-face social support were examined as predictors of Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale (GPIUS) scores and hours spent playing MMORPGs per week. Data were collected from adult MMORPG players via an online survey (N = 626). Using structural equation modeling, the hypothesized model was tested on 1 half of the sample (N = 313) and then retested on the other half of the sample. The results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the data well in both samples. Specifically, expressing true self in game, higher levels of social anxiety, larger numbers of in-game social supports, and fewer supportive face-to-face relationships were significant predictors of higher GPIUS scores, and the number of in-game supports was significantly associated with time spent playing. The current study provides clinicians and researchers with a deeper understanding of MMORPG use by being the first to apply, test, and replicate a theory-driven model across 2 samples of MMORPG players. In addition, the present findings suggest that a psychometric measure of MMORPG usage is more indicative of players' psychological and social well-being than is time spent playing these games. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Online gaming in the context of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bianca W; Leeson, Peter R C

    2015-06-01

    In 2014, over 23 million individuals were playing massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). In light of the framework provided by Davis's (2001) cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use, social anxiety, expressions of true self, and perceived in-game and face-to-face social support were examined as predictors of Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale (GPIUS) scores and hours spent playing MMORPGs per week. Data were collected from adult MMORPG players via an online survey (N = 626). Using structural equation modeling, the hypothesized model was tested on 1 half of the sample (N = 313) and then retested on the other half of the sample. The results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the data well in both samples. Specifically, expressing true self in game, higher levels of social anxiety, larger numbers of in-game social supports, and fewer supportive face-to-face relationships were significant predictors of higher GPIUS scores, and the number of in-game supports was significantly associated with time spent playing. The current study provides clinicians and researchers with a deeper understanding of MMORPG use by being the first to apply, test, and replicate a theory-driven model across 2 samples of MMORPG players. In addition, the present findings suggest that a psychometric measure of MMORPG usage is more indicative of players' psychological and social well-being than is time spent playing these games. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938630

  17. "Build Your Social Confidence": A Social Anxiety Group for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damer, Diana E.; Latimer, Kelsey M.; Porter, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety, a common concern among college students, carries significant negative consequences. Group therapy is an efficient and cost-effective way to provide treatment, and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT; Heimberg & Becker, 2002) is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety…

  18. Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Skills: A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelico, Antonio Paulo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a critical analysis of the research outlines used in empirical studies published between the years 2000 and March of 2007 about social anxiety disorder and its associations with social skills. Seventeen papers were identified and grouped into two classes for analysis, namely: Characterization of Social…

  19. Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Skills: A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelico, Antonio Paulo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a critical analysis of the research outlines used in empirical studies published between the years 2000 and March of 2007 about social anxiety disorder and its associations with social skills. Seventeen papers were identified and grouped into two classes for analysis, namely: Characterization of Social…

  20. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  1. Adolescent drinking, social identity, and parenting for safety: Perspectives from Australian adolescents and parents.

    PubMed

    Berends, Lynda; Jones, Sandra C; Andrews, Kelly

    2016-03-01

    We explored young people and parents' views on adolescent drinking and safety in the locations where drinking may occur. Focus groups with adolescents and parents showed that many believed adolescent drinking and drunkenness is normative. Younger adolescents had more negative views of adolescent drinkers than their older peers. Adolescent drinking occurred in private settings and parents made decisions about allowing their adolescent children to attend social events based on the level of safety attributed to the location. If adolescent drinking was likely then home was the preferred location as it provided scope for risk minimisation. Positive portrayals of non-drinking adolescents and information to assist parents' decision-making are needed.

  2. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestational day 12 elicits opposing deficits in social behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin R; Mooney, Sandra M; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2016-09-01

    Our previous research has shown that in Long Evans rats acute prenatal exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social deficits in male offspring and elicits substantial decreases in social preference relative to controls, in late adolescents and adults regardless of sex. In order to generalize the observed detrimental effects of ethanol exposure on G12, pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol or saline and their offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction (SI) test as early adolescents, late adolescents, or young adults. Anxiety-like behavior was also assessed in adults using the elevated plus maze (EPM) or the light/dark box (LDB) test. Age- and sex-dependent social alterations were evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-exposed males showed deficits in social investigation at all ages and age-dependent alterations in social preference. Play fighting was not affected in males. In contrast, ethanol-exposed early adolescent females showed no changes in social interactions, whereas older females demonstrated social deficits and social indifference. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior was decreased in males and females prenatally exposed to ethanol in the EPM, but not the LDB. These findings suggest that social alterations associated with acute exposure to ethanol on G12 are not strain-specific, although they are more pronounced in Long Evans males and Sprague Dawley females. Furthermore, given that anxiety-like behaviors were attenuated in a test-specific manner, this study indicates that early ethanol exposure can have differential effects on different forms of anxiety. PMID:27154534

  3. Goal Internalization and Outcome Expectancy in Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety has been conceptualized in terms of increased avoidance motivation and higher expectancies of undesirable outcomes. However, anxiety research has hitherto not examined an important qualitative aspect of motivation: the degree to which reasons for goal pursuit are experienced as controlling and originating outside the core self. We asked 70…

  4. Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kodish, Ian; Rockhill, Carol; Varley, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health diagnoses in youth, and carry risks for ongoing impairments and subsequent development of other psychiatric comorbidities into adulthood. This article discusses considerations for assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in youth, with a focus on the evidence base of pharmacologic treatment and important clinical considerations to optimize care. We then briefly describe the impact of anxiety on neuronal elements of fear circuitry to highlight how treatments may ameliorate impairments through enhanced plasticity Overall, pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders is effective in improving clinical symptoms, particularly in combination with psychotherapy. Response is typically seen within several weeks, yet longitudinal studies are limited. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are thought to be relatively safe and effective for acute treatment of several classes of anxiety disorders in youth, with increasing evidence supporting the role of neuronal plasticity in recovery. PMID:22275849

  5. Try to find me: social anxiety and peer first impressions.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Audrey; Human, Lauren J; Alden, Lynn E; Biesanz, Jeremy C

    2014-11-01

    Following initial interactions, some people are less willing to pursue ongoing contact with socially anxious individuals than with those who are not socially anxious. To better understand this process, we conducted two studies that examined peers' first impressions of target individuals. Unacquainted individuals (N=104 and 114) participated in round robin, unstructured interactions in groups of 3 to 10 and then rated each partner and themselves on items reflecting the Big Five personality dimensions. The ratings were analyzed according to Biesanz's (2010) social accuracy model of interpersonal perception, which distinguishes the positivity from the accuracy of social judgments. Study 1 revealed that perceivers did not view socially anxious targets more negatively or as less likable than non-socially anxious targets but were less able to recognize their unique personality features. Study 2 replicated those findings and indicated that perceivers' difficulties recognizing socially anxious targets' unique features were not due to negative biases in the socially anxious targets' self-ratings or to general psychological maladjustment. The findings are consistent with cognitive models, which underscore the role of self-concealment in social anxiety disorder.

  6. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  7. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor.

  8. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Wable, Gauri S.; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, two hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73 %, p= .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual’s food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hours following the anxiety test (R = − .75, p= .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. Additionally, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  9. Menstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls: Association with Smoking, Depressive Symptoms and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Negriff, Sonya; Huang, Bin; Pabst, Stephanie; Hillman, Jennifer; Braverman, Paula; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dysmenorrhea affects quality of life and contributes to absenteeism from school and work diminishing opportunities for successful psychosocial and cognitive development during adolescence. In adults, depression, anxiety, and smoking have an impact on menstrual cycles and dysmenorrhea. Associations between these potential problems have not been examined in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between depressive symptoms and anxiety with menstrual symptoms. Smoking was examined as a moderator of this relationship. Methods This study enrolled 154 post-menarcheal girls from a sample of 207 girls age 11, 13, 15, and 17 years [M = 15.4 years (± 1.9)]. Self-reported measures included the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and smoking behavior. Generalized linear regression modeled MSQ outcomes separately for depressive symptoms and anxiety. Results More depressive symptoms/anxiety were related to higher numbers of menstrual symptoms (r = 0.23–0.44, p < .05). Smoking status (ever) was related to higher MSQ scores. Moderating effects of smoking and depressive symptoms or anxiety on menstrual symptoms were consistent across most MSQ factors where effects were stronger in never smokers. Conclusion This is the first study in adolescents showing smoking status and depressive symptoms/anxiety are related to menstrual symptoms and that the impact of depressive symptoms/anxiety on menstrual symptoms is stronger in never smokers. The dynamic and complex nature of smoking, moods, and dysmenorrhea cannot be disentangled without longitudinal analyses. Efforts to reduce menstrual symptoms should begin at a young gynecological age and include consideration of mood and smoking status. PMID:19237109

  10. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future.

  11. Dissociation of social and nonsocial anxiety in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Hua; Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    2009-04-17

    Anxiety is a common symptom in fragile X patients. However, an anxiety-prone phenotype in mouse models of fragile X syndrome is not clear. In most studies of fmr1 knockout mice, decreased anxiety-like responses in exploratory-based models are found, but mice also exhibit abnormal social interactions. We hypothesize the coexistence of elevated social anxiety and reduced nonsocial anxiety in fmr1 knockout mice. In the present study, we applied an automated three-chambered social approach method and the elevated zero maze test to further investigate social interactions and general anxiety, respectively. Results indicate lower levels of both social approach behavior and response to social novelty in fmr1 knockout mice compared with wild-type littermates in the social interaction test. In the elevated zero maze, fmr1 knockout mice spent a greater percent time in open quadrants than wild-type mice, suggesting reduced nonsocial anxiety. These findings support the hypothesis that social and nonsocial anxiety can be dissociated and that in the fragile X mouse model, behavior consistent with hyper-social anxiety coexists with hypo-nonsocial anxiety.

  12. Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... to leave home. These people have anxiety disorders. Types include Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder Phobias Generalized anxiety disorder Treatment can involve ...

  13. Competition effects of threatening faces in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; McTeague, Lisa M; Keil, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Threatening faces involuntarily grab attention in socially anxious individuals. It is unclear, however, whether attention capture is at the expense of concurrent visual processing. The current study examined the perceptual cost effects of viewing fear-relevant stimuli (threatening faces) relative to a concurrent change-detection task. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were used to separate the neural response to 2 fully overlapping types of stimuli flickering at different frequencies: Task-irrelevant facial expressions (angry, neutral, happy) were overlaid with a task-relevant Gabor patch stream, which required a response to rare phase reversals. Groups of 17 high and 17 low socially anxious observers were recruited through online prescreening of 849 students. A prominent competition effect of threatening faces was observed solely in elevated social anxiety: When an angry face, relative to a neutral or happy face, served as a distractor, heightened ssVEP amplitudes were seen at the tagging frequency of that facial expression. Simultaneously, the ssVEP evoked by the task-relevant Gabor grating was reliably diminished compared with conditions with neutral or happy distractor faces. Thus, threatening faces capture and hold low-level perceptual resources in viewers symptomatic for social anxiety at the cost of a concurrent primary task. It is important to note that this competition in lower tier visual cortex was maintained throughout the viewing period and was unaccompanied by competition effects on behavioral performance. PMID:22390712

  14. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  15. Computer Anxiety: A Comparison of Adolescents with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who are anxious about computers may be at a disadvantage in their learning. This investigation focused on the use of home computers for educational purposes. It compared computer anxiety in adolescents with and without a history of special needs related to language difficulties. Participants were 55 17-year-olds with specific language…

  16. One Factor or Two Parallel Processes? Comorbidity and Development of Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Muris, Peter; van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates whether anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms of adolescents from the general community are best described by a model that assumes they are indicative of one general factor or by a model that assumes they are two distinct disorders with parallel growth processes. Additional analyses were conducted to explore…

  17. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  18. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  19. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

  20. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  1. The Cultural and Developmental Significance of Parenting Processes in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Cool Teens" CD-ROM Computerized Program for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This…

  3. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  4. Differential Item Functioning due to Gender between Depression and Anxiety Items among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    Although much is known about the higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among adolescent females, less is known about the differential item endorsement due to gender in items of commonly scales used to measure anxiety and depression. We conducted a study to examine if adolescent males and females from Chile differed on how they endorsed the items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) anxious/depressed problem scale. We used data from a cross-sectional sample consisting of 925 participants (Mean age = 14, SD=1.3, 49% females) of low to lower-middle socioeconomic status. A two-parameter logistic (2PL) IRT DIF model was fit. Results revealed differential item endorsement (DIF) by gender for six of the 13 items with adolescent females being more likely to endorse a depression item while males were found more likely to endorse anxiety items. Findings suggest that items found in commonly utilized measures of anxiety and depression symptoms may not equally capture true levels of these behavioral problems among adolescent males and females. Given the high levels of mental disorders in Chile and surrounding countries, further attention should be focused on increasing the number of empirical studies examining potential gender differences in the assessment of mental health problems among Latin American populations to better aid our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of these problems in the region. PMID:21628359

  5. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  6. Influence of Social Stress on Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Schreiber, Whitney M.; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group x condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Conceivable interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  7. Influence of social stress on risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schreiber, Whitney M; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group×condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  8. Terror mismanagement: evidence that mortality salience exacerbates attentional bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Finch, Emma C; Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross G; Jones, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Death anxiety is a basic fear underlying a range of psychological conditions, and has been found to increase avoidance in social anxiety. Given that attentional bias is a core feature of social anxiety, the aim of the present study was to examine the impact of mortality salience (MS) on attentional bias in social anxiety. Participants were 36 socially anxious and 37 non-socially anxious individuals, randomly allocated to a MS or control condition. An eye-tracking procedure assessed initial bias towards, and late-stage avoidance of, socially threatening facial expressions. As predicted, socially anxious participants in the MS condition demonstrated significantly more initial bias to social threat than non-socially anxious participants in the MS condition and socially anxious participants in the control condition. However, this effect was not found for late-stage avoidance of social threat. These findings suggest that reminders of death may heighten initial vigilance towards social threat.

  9. Terror mismanagement: evidence that mortality salience exacerbates attentional bias in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Emma C.; Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross G.; Jones, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Death anxiety is a basic fear underlying a range of psychological conditions, and has been found to increase avoidance in social anxiety. Given that attentional bias is a core feature of social anxiety, the aim of the present study was to examine the impact of mortality salience (MS) on attentional bias in social anxiety. Participants were 36 socially anxious and 37 non-socially anxious individuals, randomly allocated to a MS or control condition. An eye-tracking procedure assessed initial bias towards, and late-stage avoidance of, socially threatening facial expressions. As predicted, socially anxious participants in the MS condition demonstrated significantly more initial bias to social threat than non-socially anxious participants in the MS condition and socially anxious participants in the control condition. However, this effect was not found for late-stage avoidance of social threat. These findings suggest that reminders of death may heighten initial vigilance towards social threat. PMID:26211552

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues. PMID:26816292

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  12. Replication and extension of a hierarchical model of social anxiety and depression: fear of positive evaluation as a key unique factor in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Justin W

    2015-01-01

    Wang, Hsu, Chiu, and Liang (2012, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26, 215-224) recently proposed a hierarchical model of social interaction anxiety and depression to account for both the commonalities and distinctions between these conditions. In the present paper, this model was extended to more broadly encompass the symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and replicated in a large unselected, undergraduate sample (n = 585). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and hierarchical regression analyses were employed. Negative affect and positive affect were conceptualized as general factors shared by social anxiety and depression; fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and disqualification of positive social outcomes were operationalized as specific factors, and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) was operationalized as a factor unique to social anxiety. This extended hierarchical model explicates structural relationships among these factors, in which the higher-level, general factors (i.e., high negative affect and low positive affect) represent vulnerability markers of both social anxiety and depression, and the lower-level factors (i.e., FNE, disqualification of positive social outcomes, and FPE) are the dimensions of specific cognitive features. Results from SEM and hierarchical regression analyses converged in support of the extended model. FPE is further supported as a key symptom that differentiates social anxiety from depression.

  13. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  14. Differences in social anxiety between men and women across 18 countries

    PubMed Central

    Caballo, Vicente E.; Salazar, Isabel C.; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences between men and women in social anxiety are largely unexplored. This study sought to shed some light on this topic. We administered self-report measures of social anxiety to community samples of 17,672 women and 13,440 men from 16 Latin American countries, Spain and Portugal, as well as to a clinical sample of 601 patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Small but significant differences were found between men and women in the general degree of social anxiety and self-reported fears of interactions with the opposite sex, criticism and embarrassment, and speaking in public-talking to people in authority. These results point to small, but meaningful differences between men and women in social anxiety. Implications of these results for the self-report measurement of social anxiety in men and women are discussed. PMID:24976665

  15. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  16. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  17. Are Executive Functioning Deficits Concurrently and Predictively Associated with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Han, Georges; Helm, Jonathan; Iucha, Cornelia; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The central objective of the current study was to evaluate how executive functions (EF), and specifically cognitive flexibility, were concurrently and predictively associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Adolescents (N = 220) and their parents participated in this longitudinal investigation. Adolescents' EF was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) during the initial assessment, and symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders were reported by mothers and youths concurrently and 2 years later. Correlational analyses suggested that youths who made more total errors (TE), including both perseverative errors (PE) and nonperseverative errors (NPE), concurrently exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms. Adolescents who made more TE and those who made more NPE tended to have more anxiety symptoms 2 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses accounting for key explanatory variables (e.g., IQ, disruptive behavior disorders, and attention deficit hyperactive disorder) showed that TE was concurrently associated with parent reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results suggest internalizing psychopathology is associated with global (TE) and nonspecific (NPE) EF difficulties but not robustly associated with cognitive inflexibility (PE). Future research with the WCST should consider different sources of errors that are posited to reflect divergent underlying neural mechanisms, conferring differential vulnerability for emerging mental health problems. PMID:26042358

  18. The ABC's of teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the classroom: the UCLA PEERS (®) Program.

    PubMed

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon

    2014-09-01

    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all.

  19. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

    PubMed

    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other.

  20. The distribution of and relationship between autistic traits and social anxiety in a UK student population.

    PubMed

    Freeth, Megan; Bullock, Tom; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    Traits associated with autism and social anxiety were assessed in a UK student population (n = 1325) using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Clinically relevant levels of autistic traits were observed in 3.3% of the cohort; 10.1% of the cohort reported clinically relevant levels of social anxiety; 1.8% of the cohort met clinically relevant cut-offs for both conditions. There was a significant positive correlation between scores on the two scales (r = .51); students with high levels of autistic traits were more likely to report increased social anxiety than those with average or low levels of autistic traits. Level of social anxiety was best predicted by autistic traits associated with social skill, attention switching and communication, accounting for 33% of the variance in social anxiety scores. Social skill was a better predictor of social anxiety in males than females; attention switching ability was a better predictor of social anxiety in females than males. Students with high levels of autistic traits displayed heightened anxiety to situations and activities necessary for the successful completion of their degree. Implications for student well-being and attainment are discussed.