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Sample records for adolescent social anxiety

  1. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  2. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  3. Treating Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Ten Group Therapy Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…

  4. The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A; Lagle, Kristy; Kraemer, Helena C; Killen, Joel D; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:17348001

  5. Sociodemographic Variables in Relation to Social Appearance Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gender, age, grade level, and the educational level of the mother and father on social appearance anxiety in Turkish adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which a simple random sampling method was used. Participants were 2,219 adolescents (1089 boys, 1130 girls) with a mean age of 12.76 years old (SD =…

  6. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

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    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  7. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

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    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  8. Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: the role of social anxiety and negative cognition.

    PubMed

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Heyne, David A; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that the adolescent onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be partly attributable to an increase in avoidance of social situations across this period. The current cohort-sequential study investigated developmental pathways of social avoidance in adolescence and examined the explanatory role of social anxiety and negative cognitive processes. A community sample of youth (9-21 years, N=331) participated in a four-wave study. Trajectory analyses revealed two pathways: an increased avoidance pathway and a low avoidance pathway. The pathways were hardly distinguishable at age 9 and they steadily diverged across adolescence. Logistic regression analyses showed that social anxiety and post-event rumination were significantly related to the increased avoidance pathway; anticipatory processing and self-focused attention were not. The findings suggest that adolescence is a key developmental period for the progression of social avoidance among youth who show relatively high levels of social anxiety and post-event rumination. PMID:25265547

  9. An Evaluation of the Applicability of the Tripartite Constructs to Social Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…

  10. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. PMID:25680679

  11. The Development of Social Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellini, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined factors contributing to the development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular, the study examined the contribution of social skill deficits and physiological hyperarousal to the development of social anxiety in individuals with ASD. Forty-one adolescents with…

  12. Social Anxiety and the Severity and Typography of Stuttering in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…

  13. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  14. Social Anxiety and Peer Relations in Early Adolescence: Behavioral and Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with social anxiety during early adolescence using multiple informants, including self and peer perspectives, teacher ratings, and direct observations. Negative social performance expectations, maladaptive coping strategies, and social skill deficits were examined as correlates of social anxiety and…

  15. Treating Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder in School: An Attention Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Carrie Masia; Fisher, Paige H.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Rathor, Snigdha; Klein, Rachel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often undetected and untreated in adolescents. This study evaluates the relative efficacy of a school-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention compared to an educational-supportive treatment for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Methods: Thirty-six students (30 females), ages 14 to 16, were randomized to a…

  16. Paranoid Thoughts in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pisano, S; Catone, G; Pascotto, A; Iuliano, R; Tiano, C; Milone, A; Masi, G; Gritti, A

    2016-10-01

    Recently, social anxiety disorder (SAD) and paranoia have been demonstrated to be closely related. However, data were primarily drawn from adult community samples or patients with schizophrenia. The present study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate a sample of adolescents with SAD (n = 30, mean age 15.3 ± 0.9 years) compared with an age- and sex-matched group of healthy controls (n = 26, mean age 15.9 ± 1.6 years). The SAD group displayed more frequent and intense paranoid thoughts than the control group (t = 4.16, p < 0.001). The level of paranoid thoughts was significantly predicted by the degree of social phobia, even after adjusting for sex and other anxiety disorders, although adjusting for depression slightly reduced the extent and significance of the prediction. A lack of awareness about the association between SAD and paranoia may lead to incorrect diagnoses (e.g. misdiagnosis of psychotic disorders), or it may negatively influence the (psycho)therapeutic process and patient outcomes. PMID:26658937

  17. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  18. The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten

    2015-06-01

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time. PMID:24957362

  19. The Temporal Sequence of Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Following Interpersonal Stressors During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Heimberg, Richard G; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety and depressive symptoms dramatically increase and frequently co-occur during adolescence. Although research indicates that general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment predict symptoms of social anxiety and depression, it remains unclear how these stressors contribute to the sequential development of these internalizing symptoms. Thus, the present study examined the sequential development of social anxiety and depressive symptoms following the occurrence of interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment. Participants included 410 early adolescents (53% female; 51% African American; Mean age =12.84 years) who completed measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms at three time points (Times 1-3), as well as measures of general interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment at Time 2. Path analyses revealed that interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and emotional maltreatment predicted both depressive and social anxiety symptoms concurrently. However, depressive symptoms significantly mediated the pathway from interpersonal stressors, peer victimization, and familial emotional maltreatment to subsequent levels of social anxiety symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety did not mediate the relationship between these stressors and subsequent depressive symptoms. There was no evidence of sex or racial differences in these mediational pathways. Findings suggest that interpersonal stressors, including the particularly detrimental stressors of peer victimization and familial emotional maltreatment, may predict both depressive and social anxiety symptoms; however, adolescents who have more immediate depressogenic reactions may be at greater risk for later development of symptoms of social anxiety. PMID:26142495

  20. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30…

  2. Gaining Insight into Adolescent Vulnerability for Social Anxiety from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Caouette, Justin D.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach. PMID:24239049

  3. Infant Attachment Security and Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition Interact to Predict Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Insecure attachment and behavioral inhibition (BI) increase risk for internalizing problems, but few longitudinal studies have examined their interaction in predicting adolescent anxiety. This study included 165 adolescents (ages 14-17 years) selected based on their reactivity to novelty at 4 months. Infant attachment was assessed with the Strange Situation. Multi-method BI assessments were conducted across childhood. Adolescents and their parents independently reported on anxiety. The interaction of attachment and BI significantly predicted adolescent anxiety symptoms, such that BI and anxiety were only associated among adolescents with histories of insecure attachment. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was driven by insecure-resistant attachment and that the association between BI and social anxiety was significant only for insecure males. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25522059

  4. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  5. Social Anxiety, Acute Social Stress, and Reward Parameters Interact to Predict Risky Decision-Making among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a 2-day study, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group’s RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884

  6. Familial correlates of social anxiety in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bögels, S M; van Oosten, A; Muris, P; Smulders, D

    2001-03-01

    Retrospective studies suggest a relationship between parental rearing practices and social phobia. The present study investigated whether socially anxious children perceive their current parental rearing as rejecting, overprotective, and lacking emotional warmth, and as emphasizing the importance of other's opinion, and de-emphasizing social initiatives and family sociability. Furthermore, we examined whether parents of socially anxious children report to rely on such rearing practices, and suffer themselves from social fears. A regression analysis as well as extreme group comparisons were applied. Little support was found for the presumed role of the assessed family rearing aspects in the development of social anxiety in children. Solely family sociability (children's and mothers' report) and children's perception of overprotection of the mother predicted social anxiety in the regression analysis. Given the influence of the mentioned rearing practices, social anxiety of the mother still significantly predicted social anxiety of the child. In the extreme group comparisons, differences in the expected direction were found between socially anxious and normal children on parental rejection, emotional warmth, and family sociability. However, the lack of differences between socially anxious and clinical control children suggests that these variables do not form a specific pathway to social fears. PMID:11227809

  7. Social Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents in Relation to Perceived Competence and Situational Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smari, Jakob; Petursdottir, Guolaug; Porsteindottir, Vin

    2001-01-01

    Questionnaires, as well as an inventory of cost and likelihood appraisal of negative social and non-social events, were filled in by 184 adolescents. It was expected, and supported by the results, that social anxiety would be related to low perceived social competence and threat appraisal, whereas depression would be related to more general…

  8. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  9. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  10. Factor Structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Fisher, Paige H.; Pincus, Donna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the…

  11. Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Prospective and Reciprocal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a 2-month prospective research design to examine the bi-directional interplay between peer victimization and social anxiety among adolescents. Participants included 228 adolescents (58% female) in grades 10-12. Three types of peer victimization were examined: "overt" (physical aggression or verbal threats), "relational" (malicious…

  12. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  13. Linking social anxiety and adolescent romantic relationship functioning: indirect effects and the importance of peers.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Karen R; Fales, Jessica; Nangle, Douglas W; Papadakis, Alison A; Grover, Rachel L

    2013-11-01

    Peer relationships undergo dramatic shifts in form and function during adolescence, at the same time the incidence of socially evaluative fears sharply rises. Despite well-established links between social anxiety and broader interpersonal functioning, there is a dearth of research evaluating the impact of social anxiety on functioning in close relationships during this developmental stage. The present study examines the impact of social anxiety on functioning in close friendships and romantic relationships during adolescence. From a developmental psychopathology perspective, it was expected that social anxiety would influence functioning (quality, length, satisfaction) in romantic relationships through its influence on functioning in same- and other-sex friendships. Participants included 314 adolescents (60.5% female, 14-19 years of age) with a prior or current history of romantic relationship involvement. Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model positing an indirect pathway from social anxiety to romantic relationship functioning through functioning in close same- and other-sex friendships. Given known gender differences in social anxiety and relationship functioning, gender also was explored as a potential moderator. Results supported the hypothesized indirect pathway whereby social anxiety was associated with impairment in same-sex friendships; functioning in same-sex friendships was associated with functioning in other-sex friendships, which was associated, in turn, with functioning in romantic relationships. While the hypothesized indirect pathway was significant among both boys and girls, there was greater continuity of functioning between same- and other-sex friendships for girls. These findings highlight the importance of examining the multiple downstream effects of social anxiety on perceived social functioning in adolescence, and suggest that continuity may exist for maladaptive patterns of socialization, particularly across

  14. Parental Rearing, Attachment, and Social Anxiety in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothander, Pia Risholm; Wang, Mo

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between perceived parental rearing, attachment, and social anxiety. 510 Chinese middle school students, aged 12 to 20 years, completed a set of questionnaires including "Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran" for Children (EMBU-C), Inventory for Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA) and…

  15. The impact of puberty and social anxiety on amygdala activation to faces in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Jamie; Bress, Jennifer N.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with the onset of puberty, shifts in social and emotional behavior, and an increased vulnerability to social anxiety disorder. These transitions coincide with changes in amygdala response to social and affective stimuli. Utilizing an emotional face-matching task, we examined amygdala response to peer-aged neutral and fearful faces in relation to puberty and social anxiety in a sample of 60 adolescent females between the ages of 8 and 15. We observed amygdala activation in response to both neutral and fearful faces compared to the control condition, but did not observe differential amygdala activation between fearful and neutral faces. Right amygdala activity in response to neutral faces was negatively correlated with puberty and positively correlated with social anxiety, and these effects were statistically independent. Puberty and social anxiety did not relate to amygdala activation in response to fearful faces. These findings suggest that emotional differentiation between fearful and neutral faces may arise during later pubertal development and may result from decreasing sensitivity to neutral faces, rather than increasing sensitivity to threatening faces. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of considering individual differences in social anxiety when examining the neural response to social stimuli in adolescents. PMID:25034314

  16. Randomized Controlled Trial: Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skill Intervention for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas; Albano, Anne Marie; Oswald, Donald; Johnson, Cynthia; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Kim, Inyoung; Scahill, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is common among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may amplify the core social disability, thus necessitating combined treatment approaches. This pilot, randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of the Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention (MASSI) program in a sample of 30 adolescents with ASD and anxiety symptoms of moderate or greater severity. The treatment was acceptable to families, subject adherence was high, and therapist fidelity was high. A 16% improvement in ASD social impairment (within-group effect size = 1.18) was observed on a parent-reported scale. Although anxiety symptoms declined by 26%, the change was not statistically significant. These findings suggest MASSI is a feasible treatment program and further evaluation is warranted. PMID:22735897

  17. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Woods, Heather Cleland; Scott, Holly

    2016-08-01

    This study examined how social media use related to sleep quality, self-esteem, anxiety and depression in 467 Scottish adolescents. We measured overall social media use, nighttime-specific social media use, emotional investment in social media, sleep quality, self-esteem and levels of anxiety and depression. Adolescents who used social media more - both overall and at night - and those who were more emotionally invested in social media experienced poorer sleep quality, lower self-esteem and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Nighttime-specific social media use predicted poorer sleep quality after controlling for anxiety, depression and self-esteem. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence that social media use is related to various aspects of wellbeing in adolescents. In addition, our results indicate that nighttime-specific social media use and emotional investment in social media are two important factors that merit further investigation in relation to adolescent sleep and wellbeing. PMID:27294324

  18. Skills for Social and Academic Success: A School-Based Intervention for Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Paige H.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Klein, Rachel G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS), a cognitive-behavioral, school-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Clinic-based treatment studies for socially anxious youth are reviewed, and a strong rationale for transporting empirically-based interventions into schools, such as SASS, is provided.…

  19. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Social anxiety disorder is a persistent and irrational fear of situations that may involve scrutiny or judgment ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in adolescence and may have to do ...

  20. Social anxiety and peer relations among adolescents: testing a psychobiological model.

    PubMed

    Walters, K S; Inderbitzen, H M

    1998-01-01

    This study tested hypotheses derived from Trower and Gilbert's (1989) model of social anxiety. Participants were 1,179 students (594 males and 585 females) in grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11. Participants completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a sociometric nomination task. Nominations from the following behavioral descriptors: most cooperative, class leader, fights the most, and easiest to push around, were used to classify students into four peer nomination groups (i.e., cooperative, friendly dominant, hostile dominant, and submissive). Results indicated that students classified as submissive reported greater social anxiety than those classified as cooperative, friendly dominant, and hostile dominant. Implications of these results for further study of the Trower and Gilbert (1989) model of social anxiety are discussed. PMID:9653678

  1. Evolved Mechanisms in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms: The Role of the Attachment and Social Rank Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irons, C.; Gilbert, P.

    2005-01-01

    One hundred and forty adolescent students were assessed on measures of attachment, social rank (social comparison and submissive behaviour), and depression and anxiety symptoms. Secure attachment was significantly correlated with positive social comparison and inversely with submissive behaviour, depression and anxiety symptoms. In contrast,…

  2. Adolescent Social Isolation as a Model of Heightened Vulnerability to Comorbid Alcoholism and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tracy R; Karkhanis, Anushree N; Jones, Sara R; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Individuals diagnosed with anxiety-related illnesses are at increased risk of developing alcoholism, exhibit a telescoped progression of this disease and fare worse in recovery, relative to alcoholics that do not suffer from a comorbid anxiety disorder. Similarly, preclinical evidence supports the notion that stress and anxiety represent major risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite the importance of understanding the link between anxiety and alcoholism, much remains unknown about the neurobiological substrates underlying this relationship. One stumbling block has been the lack of animal models that reliably reproduce the spectrum of behaviors associated with increased vulnerability to these diseases. Here, we review the literature that has examined the behavioral and neurobiological outcomes of a simple rodent adolescent social isolation procedure and discuss its validity as a model of vulnerability to comorbid anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Recent studies have provided strong evidence that adolescent social isolation of male rats leads to the expression of a variety of behaviors linked with increased vulnerability to anxiety and/or AUD, including deficits in sensory gating and fear extinction, and increases in anxiety measures and ethanol drinking. Neurobiological studies are beginning to identify mesolimbic adaptations that may contribute to the behavioral phenotype engendered by this model. Some of these changes include increased excitability of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons and pyramidal cells in the basolateral amygdala and significant alterations in baseline and stimulated catecholamine signaling. A growing body of evidence suggests that adolescent social isolation may represent a reliable rodent model of heightened vulnerability to anxiety disorders and alcoholism in male rats. These studies provide initial support for the face, construct, and predictive validity of this model and highlight its utility in

  3. [Social anxiety].

    PubMed

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used. PMID:20623894

  4. The relationship of loneliness and social anxiety with children's and adolescents' online communication.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Luigi; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Gilmore, Linda

    2010-06-01

    Children and adolescents now communicate online to form and/or maintain relationships with friends, family, and strangers. Relationships in "real life" are important for children's and adolescents' psychosocial development; however, they can be difficult for those who experience feelings of loneliness and/or social anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in usage of online communication patterns between children and adolescents with and without self-reported loneliness and social anxiety. Six hundred twenty-six students ages 10 to 16 years completed a survey on the amount of time they spent communicating online, the topics they discussed, the partners they engaged with, and their purposes for communicating over the Internet. Participants were administered a shortened version of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and an abbreviated subscale of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A). Additionally, age and gender differences in usage of the online communication patterns were examined across the entire sample. Findings revealed that children and adolescents who self-reported being lonely communicated online significantly more frequently about personal and intimate topics than did those who did not self-report being lonely. The former were motivated to use online communication significantly more frequently to compensate for their weaker social skills to meet new people. Results suggest that Internet usage allows them to fulfill critical needs of social interactions, self-disclosure, and identity exploration. Future research, however, should explore whether or not the benefits derived from online communication may also facilitate lonely children's and adolescents' offline social relationships. PMID:20557247

  5. Social anxiety in late adolescence: the importance of early childhood language impairment.

    PubMed

    Voci, Sabrina C; Beitchman, Joseph H; Brownlie, E B; Wilson, Beth

    2006-01-01

    Social phobia is a common, highly comorbid, poorly understood and relatively understudied condition. The origins of social phobia share familial and biological features common with those of other anxiety disorders, but seldom have precursors of the fear of social communication been examined as a possible pathway to social phobia. Here we examine the role of early childhood language impairment as an antecedent to social phobia in late adolescence. Participants in a prospective longitudinal community study identified as having language impairment at age 5 and matched controls were followed up at age 19. Compared to normal language controls, individuals with a history of early language impairment had 2.7 times the odds of having a social phobia by age 19. Results suggest that early language impairment represents a distinct pathway to late adolescent social phobia. PMID:16503112

  6. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship. PMID:26254219

  7. Interpretation Bias Modification for Youth and their Parents: A Novel Treatment for Early Adolescent Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reuland, Meg M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety is the most prevalent anxiety disorder of late adolescence, yet current treatments reach only a minority of youth with the disorder. Effective and easy-to-disseminate treatments are needed. This study pilot tested the efficacy of a novel, online cognitive bias modification for interpretation (CBM-I) intervention for socially anxious youth and their parents. The CBM-I intervention targeted cognitive biases associated with early adolescents’ maladaptive beliefs regarding social situations, and with parents’ intrusive behavior, both of which have been theoretically linked with the maintenance of social anxiety in youth. To investigate the efficacy of intervening with parents and/or children, clinically diagnosed early adolescents (ages 10–15; N = 18) and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the first targeted early adolescents’ cognitive biases related to social anxiety (Child-only condition); the second targeted parents’ biases associated with intrusive behavior (Parent-only condition); and the third targeted both youth and parents’ biases in tandem (Combo condition). The use of a multiple baseline design allowed for the efficient assessment of causal links between the intervention and reduction in social anxiety symptoms in youth. Results provided converging evidence indicating modest support for the efficacy of CBM-I, with no reliable differences across conditions. Taken together, results suggest that online CBM-I with anxious youth and/or their parents holds promise as an effective and easily administered component of treatment for child social anxiety that deserves further evaluation in a larger trial. PMID:25445075

  8. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the demographic, psychological, and social moderators in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the moderators in 5,027 Taiwanese adolescents. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) were examined using logistic regression analysis. The moderating effects of demographic (gender and age), psychological (problematic alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem), and social factors (bullying victimization, and low family function) on the associations were examined. Adolescents who had anxiety symptoms were more likely to have suicidal ideation and attempt than those who did not have anxiety symptoms. Bullying victimization had a moderating effect on the association between suicidal ideation and anxiety symptoms. Assessment of suicidal ideation and attempt should be routine practice among adolescents who present with anxiety symptoms. PMID:24354459

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Moitra, Ethan; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Brandsma, Lynn L.

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is critical to prevent development of a chronic course of symptoms, persistent functional impairment, and progressive psychiatric comorbidity. A small but growing literature supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, including SAD, in adolescence. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of group vs. individual CBT for adolescents with generalized SAD in relation to an educational/supportive psychotherapy that did not contain specific CBT elements. All three treatments were associated with significant reductions in symptoms and functional impairment, and in improved social skills. No differences between treatments emerged on measures of symptoms, but the CBT conditions demonstrated greater gains on behavioral measures. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:18653310

  10. Social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence: the moderating role of perceived peer norms.

    PubMed

    Zehe, Jennifer M; Colder, Craig R; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J

    2013-04-01

    This study prospectively examines the association between social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence and how injunctive (perceived peer approval of use) and descriptive (perceived peer use) norms may moderate the association. Sex differences were also examined. Data were taken from a longitudinal study investigating problem behavior and adolescent substance use. The community sample (N=387) was assessed annually, and data from the first two waves of assessment were used for this study. Early adolescents were between the ages of 11 and 13 at the first assessment (mean age=11.05, SD=0.55, 55% female). Peer norms moderated the association between both social and generalized anxiety symptoms and the likelihood of alcohol and cigarette use for girls, but not for boys. Specifically, girls with elevated levels of generalized anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer use was low, and protected from use when perceived peer use was high. Girls with elevated levels of social anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer approval of use was high, and protected from use when perceived peer approval of use was low. Past studies have found inconsistent support for an association between anxiety and adolescent substance use, and our findings provide some clarity regarding for whom and when anxiety operates as a risk/protective factor. Social context and sex are critical for understanding the role of different forms of anxiety in the etiology of adolescent alcohol and cigarette use. PMID:23380488

  11. Social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence: The moderating role of perceived peer norms☆

    PubMed Central

    Zehe, Jennifer M.; Colder, Craig R.; Read, Jennifer P.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2013-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the association between social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence and how injunctive (perceived peer approval of use) and descriptive (perceived peer use) norms may moderate the association. Sex differences were also examined. Data were taken from a longitudinal study investigating problem behavior and adolescent substance use. The community sample (N=387) was assessed annually, and data from the first two waves of assessment were used for this study. Early adolescents were between the ages of 11 and 13 at the first assessment (mean age=11.05, SD=0.55, 55% female). Peer norms moderated the association between both social and generalized anxiety symptoms and the likelihood of alcohol and cigarette use for girls, but not for boys. Specifically, girls with elevated levels of generalized anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer use was low, and protected from use when perceived peer use was high. Girls with elevated levels of social anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer approval of use was high, and protected from use when perceived peer approval of use was low. Past studies have found inconsistent support for an association between anxiety and adolescent substance use, and our findings provide some clarity regarding for whom and when anxiety operates as a risk/protective factor. Social context and sex are critical for understanding the role of different forms of anxiety in the etiology of adolescent alcohol and cigarette use. PMID:23380488

  12. The relationship among social phobia, objective and perceived physiological reactivity, and anxiety sensitivity in an adolescent population.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily R; Hope, Debra A

    2009-01-01

    Physiological theories may be important in the development and maintenance of social phobia in youth. A limited literature base indicates that youth with social phobia experience increases in objective physiological arousal during social-evaluative situations and are more aware of such increases compared to nonanxious youth. Recent research suggests that youth with social phobia also evidence heightened levels of anxiety sensitivity, which may lead to interpretation of physiological arousal as dangerous or distressing, and, as a result, in avoidance of situations which produce increased physiological arousal. The purpose of the current study was to examine interaction among objective physiological arousal, perceived physiological arousal, and anxiety sensitivity among adolescents diagnosed with social phobia. A sample of community adolescents participated in two anxiety-provoking tasks during which objective physiological arousal was monitored, and after which perceived physiological arousal and anxiety sensitivity were evaluated. Results from this study evidenced no differences between social phobic and nonanxious adolescents with regard to objective physiological arousal during either anxiety-provoking tasks. Adolescents with social phobia, however, were more aware of measured increases in physiological arousal, as well as more afraid of the potential social implications of that arousal compared to nonanxious adolescents. Implications for theory and treatment are discussed. PMID:18436426

  13. Social Support as a Moderator between Dating Violence Victimization and Depression/Anxiety among African American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Melissa K.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Victimization in dating relationships was examined among 681 African American and Caucasian adolescents. Specifically, perceived social support was evaluated as a moderator between (a) physical dating violence victimization and anxiety/depression and (b) emotional abuse in dating relationships and anxiety/depression. Youth completed self-report…

  14. The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollocks, Matthew J; Jones, Catherine R G; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

    2014-04-01

    While high levels of anxiety and depression are now recognized as major co-occurring problems in children and young people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research examining possible associations with individual differences in neurocognitive functioning has been limited. This study included 90 adolescents with an ASD aged 14-16 years with a full-scale IQ > 50. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the independent relationships between multiple measures of executive functioning and social cognition on severity of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Results indicated a significant association between poorer executive functioning and higher levels of anxiety, but not depression. In contrast, social cognition ability was not associated with either anxiety or depression. This study is the first to report significant associations between executive functions and anxiety in ASD. This may suggest that poor executive functioning is one factor associated with the high prevalence of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents with ASD. PMID:24737743

  15. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  16. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  17. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the teens ...

  18. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

  19. Trajectories of Social Anxiety during Adolescence and Relations with Cognition, Social Competence, and Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miers, A. C.; Blote, A. W.; de Rooij, M.; Bokhorst, C. L.; Westenberg, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    This cohort-sequential study examined developmental trajectories of social anxiety in a nonclinical sample (N = 331, 161 girls) aged 9 to 17 years at initial and 12 to 21 years at final assessment. We tested whether variables assessing cognition, social competence, and temperament discriminated between the trajectories. Variables were collected…

  20. Social Anxiety and Aggression in Early Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Roles of Empathic Concern and Perspective Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batanova, Milena D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Guided by a social information processing perspective, this study examined the unique and interactive contributions of social anxiety and two distinct components of empathy, empathic concern and perspective taking, to subsequent relational and overt aggression in early adolescents. Participants were 485 10- to 14-year old middle school students…

  1. An Examination of Social Anxiety in Marijuana and Cigarette Use Motives Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Renee M; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana and nicotine are two of the most widely used substances among adolescents in the United States. Symptoms of social anxiety (SA) typically emerge during early adolescence, and elevated levels are associated with increased substance-related problems despite inconsistent links to frequency of use. Substance use motives, and in particular coping motives, have been found to play an important role in understanding the heightened risk for use problems among those with elevated SA. Importantly, work to date has been conducted almost exclusively with adult samples; thus the current study examined whether similar patterns would emerge among adolescents. The current project included 56 community-recruited adolescents (ages 12-17 years; 41% girls) with a positive history of lifetime marijuana and cigarette use. Consistent with the adult literature, SA was not positively associated with frequency of use across either substance. Further, SA was positively associated with conformity use motives and unrelated to social or enhancement motives for both substances. Unexpectedly, SA was unrelated to coping use motives for either marijuana or cigarettes. These preliminary data highlight the need for future research designed to forward developmentally sensitive models of substance use behaviors and etiology. PMID:26886713

  2. Psychophysiological responses to eye contact in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Myllyneva, Aki; Ranta, Klaus; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-07-01

    We investigated whether eye contact is aversive and negatively arousing for adolescents with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants were 17 adolescents with clinically diagnosed SAD and 17 age- and sex-matched controls. While participants viewed the stimuli, a real person with either direct gaze (eye contact), averted gaze, or closed eyes, we measured autonomic arousal (skin conductance responses) and electroencephalographic indices of approach-avoidance-motivation. Additionally, preferred viewing times, self-assessed arousal, valence, and situational self-awareness were measured. We found indications of enhanced autonomic and self-evaluated arousal, attenuated relative left-sided frontal cortical activity (associated with approach-motivation), and more negatively valenced self-evaluated feelings in adolescents with SAD compared to controls when viewing a face making eye contact. The behavioral measures and self-assessments were consistent with the physiological results. The results provide multifaceted evidence that eye contact with another person is an aversive and highly arousing situation for adolescents with SAD. PMID:26032869

  3. Brief Report: A Pilot Summer Robotics Camp to Reduce Social Anxiety and Improve Social/Vocational Skills in Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaboski, Juhi R.; Diehl, Joshua John; Beriont, Jane; Crowell, Charles R.; Villano, Michael; Wier, Kristin; Tang, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated a novel intervention designed to reduce social anxiety and improve social/vocational skills for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention utilized a shared interest in robotics among participants to facilitate natural social interaction between individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD)…

  4. Implementing Psychophysiology in Clinical Assessments of Adolescent Social Anxiety: Use of Rater Judgments Based on Graphical Representations of Psychophysiology

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Augenstein, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia; Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha; Kline, Kathryn; Regan, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Social stressor tasks induce adolescents’ social distress as indexed by low-cost psychophysiological methods. Unknown is how to incorporate these methods within clinical assessments. Having assessors judge graphical depictions of psychophysiological data may facilitate detections of data patterns that may be difficult to identify using judgments about numerical depictions of psychophysiological data. Specifically, the Chernoff Face method involves graphically representing data using features on the human face (eyes, nose, mouth, and face shape). This method capitalizes on humans’ abilities to discern subtle variations in facial features. Using adolescent heart rate norms and Chernoff Faces, we illustrated a method for implementing psychophysiology within clinical assessments of adolescent social anxiety. METHOD Twenty-two clinic-referred adolescents completed a social anxiety self-report and provided psychophysiological data using wireless heart rate monitors during a social stressor task. We graphically represented participants’ psychophysiological data and normative adolescent heart rates. For each participant, two undergraduate coders made comparative judgments between the dimensions (eyes, nose, mouth, and face shape) of two Chernoff Faces. One Chernoff Face represented a participant’s heart rate within a context (baseline, speech preparation, or speech-giving). The second Chernoff Face represented normative heart rate data matched to the participant’s age. RESULTS Using Chernoff faces, coders reliably and accurately identified contextual variation in participants’ heart rate responses to social stress. Further, adolescents’ self-reported social anxiety symptoms predicted Chernoff Face judgments, and judgments could be differentiated by social stress context. CONCLUSIONS Our findings have important implications for implementing psychophysiology within clinical assessments of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:24320027

  5. Maternal Over-Control Moderates the Association between Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition and Adolescent Social Anxiety Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis-Morrarty, Erin; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Pine, Daniel S.; Henderon, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) and maternal over-control are early risk factors for later childhood internalizing problems, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). Consistently high BI across childhood appears to confer risk for the onset of SAD by adolescence. However, no prior studies have prospectively examined observed maternal over-control as…

  6. Social Anxiety in High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-01-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…

  7. Screening for anxiety symptoms and social desirability in children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina

    2013-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. PMID:23242812

  8. Social anxiety disorder in Saudi adolescent boys: Prevalence, subtypes, and parenting style as a risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Ghazwani, Jaafar Y.; Khalil, Shamsun N.; Ahmed, Razia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Available information on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents in Saudi Arabia is limited. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, severity, and subtypes of SAD, and parenting style risk factors associated with SAD in the adolescent. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools for boys in Abha, Saudi Arabia during the Academic year 2013. To collect the data, a questionnaire eliciting information on background characteristics and parenting style as well as the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Test (LSAS), for the evaluation of SAD, were used. Results: A total of 454 students participated in the study. The age of the participants ranged between 15 and 20 years with a mean of 17.4 years. The prevalence of SAD was 11.7%. Around 36% and 11.4% of the students respectively had severe and more severe forms of SAD. Parenting style such as parental anger, criticism particularly in front of others, exaggerated protection, maltreatment and family provocation emerged as a significant risk factor for SAD. The independent predictors of SAD were a parental provocation and physical or emotional maltreatment by the parent (odds ratio [OR] = 3.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–8.31 and OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 3.17–5.19, respectively). Conclusion: The prevalence of SAD in secondary school students at Abha is high. Parenting style risk factors for SAD are modifiable. In this context, a national program to improve mental health in this age group is crucial. PMID:26929726

  9. Social anxiety symptoms and suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of early adolescents: examining loneliness and social support as longitudinal mediators.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michelle; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Simon, Valerie; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Recent research has shown that social anxiety may be related to increased risk for suicidal ideation in teens, although this research largely has been cross-sectional and has not examined potential mediators of this relationship. A clinical sample of 144 early adolescents (72 % female; 12-15 years old) was assessed during psychiatric inpatient hospitalization and followed up at 9 and 18 months post-baseline. Symptoms of social anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and perceived social support were assessed via structured interviews and self-report instruments. Structural equation modeling revealed a significant direct relationship between social anxiety symptoms at baseline and suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline, even after controlling for baseline depressive symptoms and ideation. A second multiple mediation model revealed that baseline social anxiety had a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation at 18 months post-baseline through loneliness at 9 months post-baseline. Social anxiety did not have a significant indirect effect on suicidal ideation through perceived social support from either parents or close friends. Findings suggest that loneliness may be particularly implicated in the relationship between social anxiety and suicidality in teens. Clinicians should assess and address feelings of loneliness when treating socially anxious adolescents. PMID:24390470

  10. Dominance as part of self-concept mediates the intergenerational transmission of social anxiety among adolescents under residential care.

    PubMed

    Roitman, Yaakov; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2014-07-01

    According to Rapee (1997), maternal social anxiety (SA) is directly associated with adolescent SA because maternal SA causes overprotective and controlling parental behavior. A total of 127 adolescents who were in the process of transitioning to a boarding school for at-risk youth as well as their mothers participated in the current study, 30% of the adolescents had experienced at least one depressive episode; 17.5% had been diagnosed with SA. We analyzed an expanding model of mediation, of maternal SA and depression in which specifically, adolescent self-perception was constructed as a latent factor that was formed by self-reported dominance and self-criticism. The results supported our hypotheses that maternal SA is not directly associated with adolescent SA. Rather, these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-perception (i.e., dominance and self-criticism). The results call into question Rapee's theoretical arguments and support Gilbert's evolutionary theory. PMID:24931560

  11. Differential long-term effects of social stress during adolescence on anxiety in Wistar and wild-type rats.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jose; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2011-06-01

    Severe and chronic stress may interfere with adolescent neuronal plasticity that turns the juvenile brain into an adult brain increasing the vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders. It is well-known from adult stress research that there is a large individual differentiation in stress vulnerability. The current study is aimed at the individual resilience and vulnerability to adolescent social stress. Two strains of rats that differ in social behavioral skills were subjected to social stress during adolescence. In three experiments we studied short and long term effects of adolescent social stress using a water conflict test in different contexts. Wistar rats which had been socially defeated on postnatal days 45 and 46 showed, following water deprivation, a strong decrease in the total amount of water consumed and time spent drinking when tested 2 days and 3 weeks later in the context where they received the defeat experience. Also a strong increase in drinking latency was noticed in the context of the previous defeat. No differences in these parameters were found between defeated and non-defeated wild-type rats. The results of the water conflict test in an environment where no association with the previous defeat experience was present showed that the adolescent social stress did not induce a generalized anxiety. In conclusion, the water conflict test is a useful tool to measure the influence of social defeat on the motivation to obtain resources under conditions with different stimulus properties. In addition, our data suggest the importance of the strain used in adolescent stress experiments. The fact that Wistar rats showed a strong association with the context at adulthood whereas no effect was observed in the wild-type rats shows that victim characteristics are important determining factors for the long term effects of adolescent social stress. PMID:21443935

  12. Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25818181

  13. Social Skills as a Mediator between Anxiety Symptoms and Peer Interactions among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as…

  14. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  15. Early Risk Factors and Developmental Pathways to Chronic High Inhibition and Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Slattery, Marcia J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Kalin, Ned H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Evidence suggests that chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are a precursor of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study identified the early risk factors for and developmental pathways to chronic high inhibition among school-age children and its association with SAD by adolescence. Method A community sample of 238 children was followed from birth to Grade 9. Mothers, children, and teachers reported on children's behavioral inhibition from Grades 1 to 9. Lifetime history of psychiatric disorders was available for the subset of 60 (25%) children who participated in an intensive laboratory assessment at Grade 9. Four early risk factors were assessed: female gender; exposure to maternal stress during the infancy and preschool periods and at child age 4.5 years; early manifestation of behavioral inhibition, and elevated afternoon salivary cortisol levels. Results All four risk factors predicted higher and more chronic inhibition from Grade 1 to Grade 9, and together, defined two developmental pathways. The first pathway in female children was partially mediated by early evidence of behavioral inhibition and elevated cortisol levels at age 4.5 years. The second pathway began with exposure to early maternal stress and was also partially mediated by childhood cortisol levels. By Grade 9, chronic high inhibition was associated with a lifetime history of SAD. Conclusions Chronic high levels of behavioral inhibition are associated with SAD by adolescence. The identification of two developmental pathways suggests the potential importance of considering both sets of risk factors in developing preventive interventions for SAD. PMID:19917594

  16. Using the Subtle Avoidance Frequency Examination in Adolescent Social Anxiety Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha E.; Goepel, Katherine A.; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individuals with social anxiety use safety behaviors to directly or indirectly avoid social situations (e.g., remaining quiet in a social setting to avoid saying anything embarrassing). Safety behaviors have been hypothesized to prevent the disconfirmation of feared occurrences while in social situations. Further, research indicates…

  17. Efficacy of three treatment protocols for adolescents with social anxiety disorder: a 5-year follow-up assessment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Olivares, Jose; Beidel, Deborah; Albano, Anne-Marie; Turner, Samuel; Rosa, Ana I

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have reported long-term follow-up data in adults and even fewer in adolescents. The purpose of this work is to report on the longest follow-up assessment in the literature on treatments for adolescents with social phobia. A 5-year follow-up assessment was conducted with subjects who originally received either Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents (CBGT-A), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Adolescents--Spanish version (SET-Asv), or Intervención en Adolescentes con Fobia Social--Treatment for Adolescents with Social Phobia (IAFS) in a controlled clinical trial. Twenty-three subjects completing the treatment conditions were available for the 5-year follow-up. Results demonstrate that subjects treated either with CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS continued to maintain their gains after treatments were terminated. Either the CBGT-A, SET-Asv and IAFS can provide lasting effects to the majority of adolescents with social anxiety. Issues that may contribute to future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16464703

  18. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Popular Self-Report Instruments of Depression, Social Desirability, and Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, David K.; Meyer, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    College students (n=150) completed Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire and self-report inventories of depression, hopelessness, social desirability, and anxiety. Found significant correlations between self-report instruments and suicidal behaviors. Findings may be a result of the fact that anxiety and depression are often found together in clinical…

  19. Posttraumatic stress symptoms and mental health services utilization in adolescents with social anxiety disorder and experiences of victimization.

    PubMed

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Carlsson, Elisabeth; Jones, Annica; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-03-01

    Recent findings from studies on adults show similarities between social anxiety disorder (SAD) and posttraumatic stress in the form of recurrent memories and intrusive and distressing images of earlier aversive events. Further, treatment models for SAD in adults have been successfully developed by using transdiagnostic knowledge on posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Studies on adolescents are though missing. The present study aimed at exploring the association between PTSS and SAD in Swedish adolescents. A second aim was to study mental health services utilization in relation to these conditions. A total of 5,960 high-school students participated and reported on SAD, life time victimization, PTSS and mental health service utilization. Socially anxious adolescents reported significantly higher levels of PTSS than adolescents not reporting SAD and this difference was seen in victimized as well as non-victimized subjects. Contact with a school counselor was the most common mental health service utilization in subjects with SAD and those with elevated PTSS. In the prediction of contact with a CAP-clinic, significant odds ratios were found for a condition of SAD and elevated PTSS (OR = 4.88, 95% CI = 3.53-6.73) but not for SAD only. Screening of PTSS in adolescents with SAD is recommended. The service of school counselors is important in detecting and helping young people with SAD and elevated PTSS. Clinical studies on SAD and PTSS in adolescents could aid in modifying treatment models for SAD. PMID:23099817

  20. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  1. Factor Structure of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Turkish Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel

    2015-01-01

    Although the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) is most often validated with the use of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on undergraduate students, exploratory factor analysis and multiple factor retention decision criteria necessitate the analysis of underlying factor structure to prevent over and under factoring as well as to reveal…

  2. Brief Report: A Pilot Summer Robotics Camp to Reduce Social Anxiety and Improve Social/Vocational Skills in Adolescents with ASD.

    PubMed

    Kaboski, Juhi R; Diehl, Joshua John; Beriont, Jane; Crowell, Charles R; Villano, Michael; Wier, Kristin; Tang, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This pilot study evaluated a novel intervention designed to reduce social anxiety and improve social/vocational skills for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention utilized a shared interest in robotics among participants to facilitate natural social interaction between individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) peers. Eight individuals with ASD and eight TD peers ages 12-17 participated in a weeklong robotics camp, during which they learned robotic facts, actively programmed an interactive robot, and learned "career" skills. The ASD group showed a significant decrease in social anxiety and both groups showed an increase in robotics knowledge, although neither group showed a significant increase in social skills. These initial findings suggest that this approach is promising and warrants further study. PMID:24898910

  3. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  4. Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed

    MedlinePlus

    ... phobia? For More Information Share Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder): Always Embarrassed Download PDF Download ePub Order ... If so, you may have a type of anxiety disorder called social phobia, also called social anxiety ...

  5. Self-Schemas, Anxiety, Somatic and Depressive Symptoms in Socially Withdrawn Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Kim B.; Younger, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that negative self-schemas and a range of internalizing problems may be associated with social withdrawal in late childhood and early adolescence. Using in-school peer nominations from the Revised Class Play, 132 eleven- to thirteen-year-olds were classified as withdrawn (n = 40; 22 girls, 18 boys),…

  6. A comprehensive meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral interventions for social anxiety disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Simona; Belotti, Raffaella; Ogliari, Anna; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The effectiveness of different types of CBT for children and adolescents suffering from Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is generally supported. However, no systematic efforts have been made to quantitatively summarize and analyse the impact of specific variables on therapeutic outcome. Here, we assessed the magnitude and duration of CBT effectiveness in children and adolescents with SAD. The effectiveness of CBT was supported by the effect sizes of studies that had examined pre-post (g=0.99), between-group (g=0.71), and follow-up responses (follow-up vs. pre-test mean g=1.18, follow-up vs. post-test mean g=0.25). A significant moderating effect was found for the variable "number of treatment sessions". In addition, larger effect sizes were found in studies that included "Social Skills Training" sessions in the intervention package. Data support the effectiveness of CBT interventions and its durability for SAD in children and adolescents. Adding social skills training to the intervention package can further enhance the impact of treatment. PMID:27399932

  7. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  8. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress. PMID:26044636

  9. The effects of social anxiety on alcohol and cigarette use across adolescence: Results from a longitudinal twin study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Savage, Jeanne E; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Verhulst, Brad; Dick, Danielle M

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting reports exist on the direction of the relationship between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol/cigarette use (AU/CU) and alcohol/nicotine dependence (AD/ND), with both positive and negative associations reported. A prospective, longitudinal sample of Finnish twins (n = 1,906) was used to test potential explanations for these discrepancies. Specifically, this study used peer, parent, and teacher ratings of SA, and a clinical interview screening item for social anxiety disorder (SAD-Sc) to examine associations between SA and AU/CU and AD/ND from early adolescence into young adulthood. Peer-rated SA was negatively associated with AU, CU, and AD from age 14 through age 22, implying a protective effect (β = -0.01 to -.03). Teacher- and parent-rated SA associations were in the same directions but weaker or nonsignificant, indicating that aspects of SA that are recognizable by peers may be most relevant to AU/CU. Self-reported SAD-Sc was also negatively associated with AU, but positively associated with AD symptoms in young adulthood (β = 0.38). Our findings partially support the existence of different associations between SA and AU versus AD, but only in the context of SAD-Sc rather than trait SA. Neither trait SA nor SAD-Sc significantly predicted ND symptoms, although SAD-Sc was associated with both cigarette abstinence and daily smoking. These findings suggest that adolescent SA is modestly associated with lower AU/CU, although there may be some individuals with more severe SA who develop alcohol problems later in life. There was little evidence of a common underlying liability contributing to both SA and alcohol/cigarette use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322804

  10. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean

    2007-01-01

    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety and Depression in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; King, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (separation anxiety, social phobia, GAD, and physical anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N=1065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in physical, social, and GAD symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in separation anxiety and GAD symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  12. Co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors following adolescent social isolation in male mice; possible role of nitrergic system.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Razmi, Ali; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Shirzadian, Armin; Ejtemaei Mehr, Shahram; Sianati, Hamed; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Approximately more than 50% of patients with depression have the co-occurrence of anxiety, which complicates the treatment of disease. Recently, social isolation stress (SIS) paradigm has been suggested as an animal model to investigate the underlying mechanism involved in depression-anxiety co-occurrence. In this study, applying six weeks of SIS to adolescent mice, we tested whether nitrergic system plays a role in co-occurrence of depression and anxiety. In this study, comparisons between socially and isolated conditioned (SC and IC) animals showed that SIS induces behaviors relevant to depression and anxiety in IC mice and in addition, nitrergic system is involved in mediating the negative outcomes of SIS. Administration of subeffective doses of aminoguanidine (a specific inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor or iNOS, 50mg/kg) and L-NAME (non-specific inhibitor of NOS, 10mg/kg) significantly reversed the negative effects of SIS on behavioral profile as well as nitrite levels in the cortex of IC mice, Although administration of subeffective dose of 7-nitroindazole (a specific neuronal NOS inhibitor, 25mg/kg) decreased the nitrite levels in the hippocampus, but had no effect on depressant and anxiogenic effects of SIS. Results of this study confirmed that SIS is an appropriate animal model to investigate the potential mechanisms in depression-anxiety co-occurrence. We also showed that nitrergic system has contributed to co-occurrence of depression and anxiety in IC mice as an underlying mechanism. PMID:25817356

  13. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  14. Exploring the Relevance of Expressed Emotion to the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis-Joaquin; Muela, Jose M.; Espinosa-Fernandez, Lourdes; Diaz-Castela, Mar

    2009-01-01

    The role that the involvement of parents may play in the treatment outcome of their children with anxiety disorders is still under debate. Some studies dealing with other disorders have examined the role that the expressed emotion (EE) construct (parental overinvolvement, criticism and hostility) may play in treatment outcome and relapse. Given…

  15. The many faces of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Wittchen, H U

    2000-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, affecting 7-13% of subjects in the community at some time in their lives. Despite being eminently treatable, it remains largely under-recognised and, therefore, undertreated. The disorder is characterized by a fear of scrutiny by others, with sufferers experiencing excessive anxiety in social and performance situations. This excessive anxiety usually leads to avoidance behaviour that can severely affect normal daily living. With onset commonly occurring during childhood or adolescence, social anxiety disorder may disrupt normal patterns of development of social and personal relationships, often having a long-term impact on emotional stability in social or working life. If left untreated, the course of social anxiety disorder is frequently complicated with comorbid conditions, particularly major depression or substance abuse. This review assesses the size of the clinical problem by evaluating current and lifetime prevalence estimates, age of onset, risk factors and evolution of the clinical course; thereby providing the rationale for early recognition and prompt treatment. PMID:10994677

  16. Exposure to social defeat stress in adolescence improves the working memory and anxiety-like behavior of adult female rats with intrauterine growth restriction, independently of hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Miyako; Ninomiya-Baba, Midori; Chiba, Shuichi; Funabashi, Toshiya; Akema, Tatsuo; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for memory impairment and emotional disturbance during growth and adulthood. However, this risk might be modulated by environmental factors during development. Here we examined whether exposing adolescent male and female rats with thromboxane A2-induced IUGR to social defeat stress (SDS) affected their working memory and anxiety-like behavior in adulthood. We also used BrdU staining to investigate hippocampal cellular proliferation and BrdU and NeuN double staining to investigate neural differentiation in female IUGR rats. In the absence of adolescent stress, IUGR female rats, but not male rats, scored significantly lower in the T-maze test of working memory and exhibited higher anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze test compared with controls. Adolescent exposure to SDS abolished these behavioral impairments in IUGR females. In the absence of adolescent stress, hippocampal cellular proliferation was significantly higher in IUGR females than in non-IUGR female controls and was not influenced by adolescent exposure to SDS. Hippocampal neural differentiation was equivalent in non-stressed control and IUGR females. Neural differentiation was significantly increased by adolescent exposure to SDS in controls but not in IUGR females. There was no significant difference in the serum corticosterone concentrations between non-stressed control and IUGR females; however, adolescent exposure to SDS significantly increased serum corticosterone concentration in control females but not in IUGR females. These results demonstrate that adolescent exposure to SDS improves behavioral impairment independent of hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats with IUGR. PMID:25725425

  17. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  18. Consultants’ Perceptions of School Counselors’ Ability to Implement an Empirically-Based Intervention for Adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Carrie Masia; Brice, Chad; Esseling, Petra G.; Stewart, Catherine E.; Mufson, Laura; Herzig, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety is highly prevalent but goes untreated. Although school-based CBT programs are efficacious when delivered by specialized psychologists, it is unclear whether school counselors can implement these interventions effectively, which is essential to promote sustainable school programs. We present an initial consultation strategy to support school counselor implementation of group CBT for social anxiety and an evaluation of counselors’ treatment fidelity. Counselors were highly adherent to the treatment, but competence varied based on measurement. Counselors and consultants demonstrated good agreement for adherence, but relatively modest correspondence in competence ratings. We discuss future directions for school-based implementation efforts informed by these initial findings. PMID:23716144

  19. Self-Concept and Social Anxiety as Predictor Variables of Academic Performance of Spanish Adolescents with Divorced Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgiles, Mireia; Johnson, Blair T.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: According to previous studies, when parents divorce it may increase the vulnerability of children to develop personal problems, such as lowering academic performance. This research examines the academic performance of Spanish children with divorced parents and its relation to academic self-concept and social anxiety. Method: The…

  20. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qianqian; Chang, Weining C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed. PMID:26380367

  1. Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Anu Asnaani, M A; Hinton, Devon E

    2010-12-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and SAD. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  2. Loneliness and Shyness in Adolescent Problematic Internet Users: The Role of Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huan, Vivien S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chye, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Davis' ("Comput Hum Behav" 17:187-195, 2001) cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposed and theorized that certain psychopathological characteristics present within an individual, predispose him to PIU. Objective: This study extended Davis' model in hypothesizing that social anxiety…

  3. Threat Perception Bias and Anxiety among Chinese School Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous…

  4. Developmental trajectories of anxiety and depression in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Katie A; King, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Adolescence is a period of heightened vulnerability for the onset of internalizing psychopathology. Characterizing developmental patterns of symptom stability, progression, and co-occurrence is important in order to identify adolescents most at risk for persistent problems. We use latent growth curve modeling to characterize developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms and four classes of anxiety symptoms (GAD, physical symptoms, separation anxiety, and social anxiety) across early adolescence, prospective associations of depression and anxiety trajectories with one another, and variation in trajectories by gender. A diverse sample of early adolescents (N = 1,065) was assessed at three time points across a one-year period. All classes of anxiety symptoms declined across the study period and depressive symptoms remained stable. In between-individual analysis, adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms experienced less decline over time in symptoms of physical, social, and separation anxiety. Consistent associations were observed between depression and anxiety symptom trajectories within-individuals over time, such that adolescents who experienced a higher level of a specific symptom type than would be expected given their overall symptom trajectory were more likely to experience a later deflection from their average trajectory in other symptoms. Within-individual deflections in GAD, physical, and social symptoms predicted later deflections in depressive symptoms, and deflections in depressive symptoms predicted later deflections in GAD and separation anxiety symptoms. Females had higher levels of symptoms than males, but no evidence was found for variation in symptom trajectories or their associations with one another by gender or by age. PMID:24996791

  5. Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: contributions to the development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E

    2014-04-01

    The schema therapy model posits that maltreatment generates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that lead to the development of emotional disorders throughout the life span. The model also stipulates that temperament moderates the influence of maltreatment on EMSs. This study examines (a) whether emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and peers, both alone and interactively with temperament, predicts the worsening of EMSs; and (b) whether EMSs in turn predict an increase in depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A total of 1,052 adolescents (Mage=13.43; SD=1.29) were assessed at three time points, each of which was separated by 6 months. The subjects completed measures of emotional abuse by parents and peers, neuroticism, extraversion, EMSs, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. The findings indicate that emotional bullying victimization and neuroticism predict a worsening of all schema domains over time. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant interaction between temperament dimensions and emotional abuse. The results confirmed the mediational hypothesis that changes in EMSs mediated the predictive association between bullying victimization and emotional symptoms. This study provides partial support for the schema therapy model by demonstrating the role of emotional abuse and temperament in the genesis of EMSs. PMID:24252743

  6. [Social Anxiety Disorder].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is not a rare psychiatric disorder, and the recent World Mental Health Japan Survey, Second (WMHJ2) reported the possibility that the twelve-month prevalence of SAD has increased from 0.7 to 2.3% over the last ten years. However, ten years have already passed since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) were approved for the treatment of SAD in Japan, and not only laypersons but also mental health professionals still misunderstand SAD as public speech phobia. As a result, the boundary between normal shyness and SAD and threshold to start pharmacotherapy have been debated. Participants in most double-blind studies of SSRI were limited to those with a generalized subtype of SAD. While benzodiazepine led to a significantly more favorable response and symptom improvement and the effect size of benzodiazepine was larger than those of SSRI, it did not lead to a "cure" and is sometimes deleterious for atypical SAD patients. To sum up, a psychotherapeutic approach including cognitive behavioral therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for non-generalized SAD according to the NICE guidelines. On the other hand, patients with generalized SAD and secondary depression are still misunderstood (and under-recognized) as those with "treatment-resistant depression", and they suffer from severe impairment of the psycho-social function, including absences or withdrawal from working or schooling. They need more effective combination treatment of SSRI and cognitive behavioral therapy as generalized SAD patients. PMID:26524840

  7. Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-V

    PubMed Central

    Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorders. This article critically reviews epidemiological evidence covering prevalence, incidence, course, and risk factors. The core challenge in this age span is the derivation of developmentally more sensitive assessment methods. Identification of characteristics that could serve as solid predictors for onset, course, and outcome will require prospective designs that assess a wide range of putative vulnerability and risk factors. This type of information is important for improved early recognition and differential diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment in this age span. PMID:19716988

  8. Can Autism Spectrum Disorders and Social Anxiety Disorders Be Differentiated by the Social Responsiveness Scale in Children and Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Mojica, Laura; Rohrmann, Sonja; Gensthaler, Angelika; Freitag, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as social phobia (SP), and selective mutism (SM) are characterised by impaired social interaction. We assessed the validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to differentiate between ASD, and SP/SM. Raw scores were compared in 6-18 year old individuals with ASD (N = 60), SP (N = 38), SM (N = 43), and…

  9. Can autism spectrum disorders and social anxiety disorders be differentiated by the social responsiveness scale in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Mojica, Laura; Rohrmann, Sonja; Gensthaler, Angelika; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as social phobia (SP), and selective mutism (SM) are characterised by impaired social interaction. We assessed the validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to differentiate between ASD, and SP/SM. Raw scores were compared in 6-18 year old individuals with ASD (N = 60), SP (N = 38), SM (N = 43), and typically developed (N = 42). Sensitivity and specificity were examined. The three disorders showed overlapping SRS scores. Especially in boys with SM (ROC-AUC = .81), presence of ASD was overestimated by the SRS. A combination of three disorder specific questionnaires resulted in marginally improved diagnostic accuracy. For the clinically very relevant differential diagnosis of SP/SM, SRS results must be interpreted with caution. PMID:24682652

  10. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  11. Correlates of Anxiety Sensitivity among African American Adolescents Living in Urban Public Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…

  12. Social anxiety disorder: etiology and early clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Beidel, D C

    1998-01-01

    Behavioral and biological theories addressing the etiology of social anxiety disorder are discussed. Although not often diagnosed until adolescence or adulthood, social anxiety disorder can have its onset during childhood. Early recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent both immediate and long-term detrimental outcomes and, possibly, the onset of comorbid conditions. However, special considerations are required for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood social anxiety disorder. Therapists face special challenges when treating youth with social anxiety disorder, including patient and parent considerations. Although not documented specifically for children with social anxiety disorders, data from families with anxious children suggest that familial factors may play a role in treatment outcome. PMID:9811427

  13. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer Consultation Professional Opportunities: Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia ...

  14. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  15. Assessment and management of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Cathy; Waite, Polly; Cooper, Peter J

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are extremely common and are often associated with lifelong psychiatric disturbance. Consistent with DSM-5 and the extant literature, this review concerns the assessment and treatment of specific phobias, separation anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder and agoraphobia. Evidence-based psychological treatments (cognitive behaviour therapy; CBT) for these disorders have been developed and investigated, and in recent years promising low-intensity versions of CBT interventions have been proposed that offer a means to increase access to evidence-based treatments. There is some evidence of effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders in children and young people, however, routine prescription is not recommended due to concerns about potential harm. PMID:24636957

  16. Pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Ganasen, Keith A; Stein, Dan J

    2010-01-01

    A range of medications have been shown effective for the treatment of social anxiety disorder. The largest trials to date have been with various selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Several of these agents have been registered for the treatment of social anxiety disorder with agencies such as the FDA or EMEA, meta-analyses confirm their efficacy and safety, and expert consensus guidelines have often recommended them as a first-line pharmacotherapy of choice. Despite such advances, there are many unanswered questions in the pharmacotherapy of social anxiety disorder, including the optimal pharmacotherapy of patients refractory to first-line intervention, and the optimal sequencing of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Translational research has already had an impact on concepts of treatment, and may ultimately lead to novel interventions. PMID:21309123

  17. Assessment and Treatment of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wehry, Anna M.; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M.; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Strawn, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are efficacious in the treatment of these conditions in youth and that combination of CBT + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy. PMID:25980507

  18. Assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wehry, Anna M; Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Hennelly, Meghann M; Connolly, Sucheta D; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2015-07-01

    Recent advances in the developmental epidemiology, neurobiology, and treatment of pediatric anxiety disorders have increased our understanding of these conditions and herald improved outcomes for affected children and adolescents. This article reviews the current epidemiology, longitudinal trajectory, and neurobiology of anxiety disorders in youth. Additionally, we summarize the current evidence for both psychotherapeutic and psychopharmacologic treatments of fear-based anxiety disorders (e.g., generalized, social, and separation anxiety disorders) in children and adolescents. Current data suggest that these disorders begin in childhood and adolescence, exhibit homotypic continuity, and increase the risk of secondary anxiety and mood disorders. Psychopharmacologic trials involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) are effective in pediatric patients with anxiety disorders and have generally demonstrated moderate effect sizes. Additionally, current data support cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of these conditions in youth and suggest that the combination of psychotherapy + an SSRI may be associated with greater improvement than would be expected with either treatment as monotherapy. PMID:25980507

  19. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    PubMed Central

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Van Oort, Floor V.A.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10–12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence. PMID:23483654

  20. Anxiety in adolescent epilepsy. A clinimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela; Laino, Daniela; Minna, Maria; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrotti, Alberto; Bech, Per

    2016-08-01

    Background Anxiety and depression have been considered to be neglected disorders in epilepsy. Because panic disorder is one of the most important anxiety disorders, it has been problematic to use very comprehensive anxiety questionnaires in epilepsy patients, as panic attacks and epileptic seizures, although two distinct clinical entities from a diagnostic point of view, show a significant overlap of symptoms. Aims We have focused on single items for anxiety and depression as screening candidates in adolescent epilepsy. Methods The individual panic attack item in the Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Scale (SCARED) and the single depression item in the Kellner Symptom Questionnaire were tested. Our samples consisted of adolescent patients with epilepsy and a matched control group with healthy participants, as well as two numerical groups acting as controls. Results The single panic attack item identified panic anxiety in 24.1% in the group of patients with epilepsy and 0.0% in the matched control group (p = 0.01). The single depression item identified 52.2% with depression in the epilepsy group and 6.2% in the matched control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion As screening instruments, single items of panic attack and depression are sufficient to screen for these affective states in adolescent epilepsy. The clinical implications are that it is important to be quite specific when screening for depression and panic attacks in adolescent patients with epilepsy. PMID:26906494

  1. Childhood Language Disorder and Social Anxiety in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, E B; Bao, Lin; Beitchman, Joseph

    2016-08-01

    Language disorder is associated with anxiety and with social problems in childhood and adolescence. However, the relation between language disorder and adult social anxiety is not well known. This study examines social anxiety in early adulthood in a 26-year prospective longitudinal study following individuals identified with a communication disorder at age 5 and a control group. Social anxiety diagnoses and subthreshold symptoms were examined at ages 19, 25, and 31 using a structured diagnostic interview; social anxiety symptoms related to social interaction and social performance were also assessed dimensionally at age 31. Multiple imputation was used to address attrition. Compared to controls, participants with childhood language disorder had higher rates of subthreshold social phobia at ages 19 and 25 and endorsed higher levels of social interaction anxiety symptoms at age 31, with particular difficulty talking to others and asserting their perspectives. Childhood language disorder is a specific risk factor for a circumscribed set of social anxiety symptoms in adulthood, which are likely associated with communication challenges. PMID:26530522

  2. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schohl, Kirsten A.; Van Hecke, Amy V.; Carson, Audrey Meyer; Dolan, Bridget; Karst, Jeffrey; Stevens, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(4):596-606, 2009). PEERS focuses on improving friendship quality and social skills among adolescents with higher-functioning ASD. 58 participants aged 11-16 years-old were randomly assigned to…

  3. Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    White, Susan W.; Oswald, Donald; Ollendick, Thomas; Scahill, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Anxiety and poor stress management are common concerns in clinical samples of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Anxiety may worsen during adolescence, as young people face an increasingly complex social milieu and often become more aware of their differences and interpersonal difficulties. This review summarizes the state of research on the prevalence, phenomenology, and treatment of anxiety in youth with autism and related conditions such as Asperger’s disorder. Using search words autism, asperger(s), or pervasive developmental disorder and anxiety or anxious to find reports published between 1990 and 2008, this review identified 40 papers. The results of the review suggest that anxiety, whether measured categorically or dimensionally, is indeed common in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and may be a source of additional morbidity. The assessment of anxiety disorders in ASD should be conducted using multiple informants and modalities, as children with ASD often do not display age-typical symptoms of anxiety. To date, relatively few controlled intervention studies using well-characterized samples have been conducted despite preliminary evidence for efficacy of select pharmacological and psychosocial approaches. Recommendations for future applied research are presented and clinical implications are explored. PMID:19223098

  4. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and not really knowing myself, I started attending AA meetings. For the first year I couldn’t ... social anxiety disorder symptoms through therapy. Find an AA meeting near you . Some people with social anxiety, ...

  5. Social Anxiety in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowden, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…

  6. Embarrassment: Situational Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rowland S.

    Embarrassment occurs when the social identity or "face" that one is trying to maintain is abruptly discredited. Thus, embarrassment usually assumes the presence of an audience, real or imagined, and a public predicament which changes the situation. Most people try to avoid embarrassment if they can, and if they have been embarrassed they will go…

  7. The Double Meaning of Online Social Space: Three-Way Interactions Among Social Anxiety, Online Social Behavior, and Offline Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Woo, Sungbum; Yang, Eunjoo; Kwon, Jung Hye

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how online and offline social behavior interact with each other ultimately to affect the well-being of socially anxious adolescents. Based on previous studies, it was assumed that there might be three-way interactive effects among online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety regarding the relationship with well-being. To measure social anxiety, online and offline social behavior, and mental well-being, self-report questionnaires such as the Korean-Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, Korean version of the Relational Maintenance Behavior Questionnaire, and Korean version of Mental Health Continuum Short Form were administered to 656 Korean adolescents. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the three-way interaction of online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety was indeed significant. First, online social behavior was associated with lower well-being of adolescents with higher social anxiety under conditions of low engagement in offline social behavior. In contrast, a higher level of online social behavior predicted greater well-being for individuals with high social anxiety under conditions of more engagement in offline social behavior. Second, online social behavior was not significantly related to well-being in youths with low social anxiety under conditions of both high and low engagement in offline social behavior. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed. PMID:26348811

  8. Neurocircuitry underlying risk and resilience to social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, Jacqueline A.; Avery, Suzanne N.; VanDerKlok, Ross M.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

    2015-01-01

    Background Almost half of children with an inhibited temperament will develop social anxiety disorder by late adolescence. Importantly, this means that half of children with an inhibited temperament will not develop social anxiety disorder. Studying adults with an inhibited temperament provides a unique opportunity to identify neural signatures of both risk and resilience to social anxiety disorder. Methods Functional MRI was used to measure brain activation during the anticipation of viewing fear faces in 34 young adults (17 inhibited, 17 uninhibited). To identify neural signatures of risk, we tested for group differences in functional activation and connectivity in regions implicated in social anxiety disorder, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and insula. To identify neural signatures of resilience, we tested correlations between brain activation and both emotion regulation and social anxiety scores. Results Inhibited subjects had greater activation of a prefrontal network when anticipating viewing fear faces, relative to uninhibited subjects. No group differences were identified in the amygdala. Inhibited subjects had more negative connectivity between the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral amygdala. Within the inhibited group, those with fewer social anxiety symptoms and better emotion regulation skills had greater ACC activation and greater functional connectivity between the ACC and amygdala. Conclusions These finding suggest that engaging regulatory prefrontal regions during anticipation may be a protective factor, or putative neural marker of resilience, in high-risk individuals. Cognitive training targeting prefrontal cortex function may provide protection against anxiety, especially in high-risk individuals, such as those with inhibited temperament. PMID:24753211

  9. The Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form: Psychometric Properties and Association with Social Anxiety in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Coulter, Lisa-Marie; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric characteristics and correlates of the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale--Junior Form (PSPS-JR). The PSPS-JR was designed for use with children and adolescents, but its psychometric properties and applications among early adolescents have not been investigated. The PSPS-JR has three subscales assessing the…

  10. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Lars; Renneberg, Babette; Lobmaier, Janek S.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate a pronounced fear of direct eye contact, though findings are less consistent regarding the avoidance of mutual gaze in SAD. Prospects for future research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24379776

  11. Attachment, Self-Esteem and Test Anxiety in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Bar Ilan, Omrit; Kurman, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance), self-esteem, and three subscales of test anxiety--cognitive obstruction, social derogation and tenseness are related in two age groups: adolescents and college students. Participants (N?=?327) completed relevant questionnaires. Results showed that college…

  12. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…

  13. Early Adolescent Social Networks and Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orleans, Myron; Laney, Margaret C.

    A research project was conducted to examine the interactions between the social networks of young adolescents and their computer usage. Particular attention was focused upon whether computers tend to isolate youthful users. Adult anxiety regarding the damaging effects of computers on children was assessed. Parental involvement, orientation to…

  14. Cognitive Correlates of Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined different cognitive phenomena in relation to social phobia among children (aged 7 to 11) and adolescents (aged 12-16) separately. Fifty socially phobic youths were compared to 30 normal control children on measures of social anxiety, social expectation as well as self-and observer-rated performance during two social tasks involving a…

  15. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor. PMID:24111655

  16. Social anxiety in orthognathic patients.

    PubMed

    Ryan, F S; Moles, D R; Shute, J T; Clarke, A; Cunningham, S J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that patients seeking orthognathic treatment may be motivated by social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of this study was to investigate SAD in orthognathic patients using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNES) and to compare these findings with those of the general population. This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire study conducted in two parts. Firstly, a national survey was conducted to yield data for the BFNES from a large, random sample of the UK general population. Secondly, orthognathic patients completed the BFNES. The BFNES scores are reported in two formats: the original 12-item scale (O-BFNES) and a shorter eight-item version (S-BFNES). With regards to the national survey, 1196 individuals participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 29.72 (standard deviation (SD) 9.39) and S-BFNES score was 15.59 (SD 7.67). With regards to the orthognathic sample, 61 patients participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 39.56 (SD 10.35) and the mean S-BFNES score was 24.21 (SD 8.41). Orthognathic patients had significantly higher scores than the general UK population (P<0.001), and multiple linear regression revealed that age, gender, and patient status were all independent predictors of BFNES scores. From the results of this study, orthognathic patients experience significantly higher levels of social anxiety than the general population. PMID:26304605

  17. Impact of social isolation and enriched environment during adolescence on voluntary ethanol intake and anxiety in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Laber, Kathy

    2015-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the impact of an enriched environment in a previously established stress model of isolation during early development that induces high alcohol (ethanol) self-administration. The study was conducted with male and female C57BL/6J mice housed in isolation or in groups that were either provided or withheld enrichment during adolescence. The impact of these housing conditions was assessed during adulthood by measuring weight gain, quantifying voluntary ethanol intake, measuring plasma corticosterone levels, and assessing anxiety-like behavior. Results showed that, regardless of sex, mice that were single-housed during adolescence showed a significant increase in voluntary ethanol intake, which was not observed in isolated mice that were provided with nesting material during adolescence (compared to group-housed non-enriched control group). Basal corticosterone was not affected by housing, enrichment conditions, or sex. Corticosterone levels did not relate to levels of voluntary ethanol intake. However, corticosterone levels were higher after three weeks of ethanol intake. Surprisingly, mice that were group-housed during adolescence showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark test. Overall, these results indicate that housing conditions during a critical developmental period can significantly modulate voluntary ethanol intake later in life. PMID:25446196

  18. Ethanol intake under social circumstances or alone in Sprague-Dawley rats: Impact of age, sex, social activity and social anxiety-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    Background In human adolescents, heavy drinking is often predicted by high sociability in males and high social anxiety in females. This study assessed the impact of baseline levels of social activity and social anxiety-like behavior in group-housed adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on ethanol intake when drinking alone or in a social group. Methods Social activity and anxiety-like behavior initially were assessed in a modified social interaction test, followed by six drinking sessions that occurred every other day in animals given ad libitum food and water. Sessions consisted of 30-min access to 10% ethanol in a “supersac” (3% sucrose + 0.1% saccharin) solution given alone as well as in groups of five same-sex littermates, with order of the alternating session types counterbalanced across animals. Results Adolescent males and adults of both sexes overall consumed more ethanol under social than alone circumstances, whereas adolescent females ingested more ethanol when alone. Highly socially active adolescent males demonstrated elevated levels of ethanol intake relative to their low and medium socially active counterparts when drinking in groups, but not when tested alone. Adolescent females with high levels of social anxiety-like behavior demonstrated the highest ethanol intake under social, but not alone circumstances. Among adults, baseline levels of social anxiety-like behavior did not contribute to individual differences in ethanol intake in either sex. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrate that in adolescent rats, but not their adult counterparts, responsiveness to a social peer predicts ethanol intake in a social setting – circumstances under which drinking typically occurs in human adolescents. High levels of social activity in males and high levels of social anxiety-like behavior in females were associated with elevated social drinking, suggesting that males ingest ethanol for its socially enhancing properties, whereas

  19. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  20. Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Referred Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Gabriele; Millepiedi, Stefania; Mucci, Maria; Poli, Paola; Bertini, Nicoletta; Milantoni, Luca

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There are insufficient data on generalized anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. Symptoms and comorbidity of generalized anxiety disorder are described as a function of age, gender, and comorbidity in a consecutive series of referred children and adolescents. Method: One hundred fifty-seven outpatients (97 males and 60 females,…

  1. Irrational Beliefs and Test Anxiety in Turkish School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyacioglu, Nur; Kucuk, Leyla

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive and correlational study was to determine the extent to which irrational beliefs of students in early adolescents predict test anxiety. The study sample consisted of 557 students recruited from primary schools in Turkey. The Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents (IBS-A) and the Test Anxiety scale were used as…

  2. Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van

    2016-10-01

    Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713

  3. Social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richards, Caroline; Moss, Jo; O'Farrell, Laura; Kaur, Gurmeash; Oliver, Chris

    2009-08-01

    In this study we assessed the behavioral presentation of social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) using a contrast group of Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS). Behaviors indicative of social anxiety were recorded in twelve children with CdLS (mean age = 11.00; SD = 5.15) and twelve children with CdCS (8.20; SD = 2.86) during social interaction. Lag sequential analysis revealed that participants with CdLS were significantly more likely to evidence behavior indicative of anxiety in close temporal proximity to the point at which they maintained eye contact or spoke. Individuals with CdLS demonstrate a heightened probability of anxiety related behavior during social interaction but only at the point at which social demand is high. PMID:19330433

  4. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24779421

  5. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  6. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  7. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  8. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  9. Age of Onset of Social Anxiety Disorder in Depressed Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) often precedes that of major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with this comorbidity pattern. The current study examined the association between three SAD onset groups (childhood, adolescent, adulthood) and clinical characteristics of 412 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with MDD and SAD based on a semi-structured diagnostic interview. Childhood and adolescent SAD onset groups were more likely to report an onset of MDD prior to age 18 and have made at least one prior suicide attempt compared to the adulthood onset group. The childhood SAD onset group also was more likely to have chronic MDD, poorer past social functioning, and an increased hazard of MDD onset compared to the adulthood onset group. Findings suggest that patients with an onset of SAD in childhood or adolescence may be particularly at risk for a more severe and chronic course of depressive illness. PMID:20832989

  10. Social anxiety and discomfort with friendly giving.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Katya C; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    Individuals higher in social anxiety report more impaired friendship quality, which past research suggests may stem from constrained warmth. We examined three motivations for constrained warmth in friendships and determined how these motivations related to social anxiety and friendship impairment. To do so, we assessed the psychometric properties of the Favor Scale (FS), which measures an individual's response to friendly giving. Results indicated that the FS has three subscales: negative reactions to favors (NEG), positive reactions to favors (POS), and expectation of tit-for-tat behavior (E-TFT). Structural equation modeling demonstrated that social anxiety related directly to NEG, and indirectly to POS and E-TFT through NEG. POS related directly to friendship quality, indicating that friendships may be impaired in social anxiety disorder due to the cumulative effects of responding negatively to friendly behavior. PMID:21111570

  11. Knowledge of Social Anxiety Disorder Relative to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Educational Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Crittenden, Kia; Dalrymple, Kristy L.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD), the 3rd most common psychiatric disorder in the United States, follows a chronic and unremitting course, often resulting in severe impairments in multiple areas of functioning. Despite a typical age of onset in early adolescence, the disorder is rarely recognized and treated in adolescent populations. Given its early…

  12. Social Anxiety in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Caroline; Moss, Jo; O'Farrell, Laura; Kaur, Gurmeash; Oliver, Chris

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the behavioral presentation of social anxiety in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) using a contrast group of Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS). Behaviors indicative of social anxiety were recorded in twelve children with CdLS (mean age = 11.00; SD = 5.15) and twelve children with CdCS (8.20; SD = 2.86) during social…

  13. Developmentally Sensitive Assessment of Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Tracy L.; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.; Henin, Aude; Storch, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    Social anxiety affects children across the developmental spectrum. Early-onset social phobia may be particularly impairing because of its disruptive effects on social and academic functioning during a child's formative years and because of the elevated risks of childhood adversity in anxious individuals. Unfortunately, little attention has been…

  14. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Evaluating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Rynn, Moira A.; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Shen, Sa; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A.; Keeton, Courtney; Waslick, Bruce; Chrisman, Allan; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs) across four treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the frequency of AEs between children and adolescents. Method Participants ages 7-17 years (M=10.7) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for one or more of the following disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n=139), sertraline (SRT, n=133), combination of both (COMB, n=140), or pill placebo (PBO, n=76). AEs were collected via a standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC). Results There were no differences between the double-blinded conditions (SRT vs. PBO) for total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when compared to CBT (p<.01) and COMB (p<.01). Moreover, those who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years) across all arms (31.7% vs. 23.1%, p<.05). Total PSC scores decreased over time with no significant differences between treatment groups. Conclusion The results support the tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities leading to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years). PMID:25721183

  15. Defensive startle response to emotional social cues in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Garner, Matthew; Clarke, Greg; Graystone, Hannah; Baldwin, David S

    2011-03-30

    Potentiation of fear-related defense behaviours coordinated by the amygdala in response to environmental threat characterizes several anxiety disorders. We compared eye-blink startle responses to startle probes delivered during the presentation of emotional and neutral social cues in high and low generalized social anxiety. Socially anxious individuals exhibited larger startle responses to emotional (positive and negative) relative to neutral social cues, compared to non-anxious individuals. PMID:20833435

  16. Update on Anxiety Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, Teena M; Durand, Simone C

    2016-06-01

    Despite significant progress in understanding anxiety disorders in youth, affected children are often unrecognized and never receive adequate treatment recognition. Although common among children and adolescents, many parents and health care providers do not realize anxiety disorders in youth predict anxiety disorders in adulthood. The history of anxiety disorders in childhood and their continuity into adolescence and adulthood are discussed. Treatment options and best practices for psychiatric nurses are also explored. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54 (6), 25-28.]. PMID:27245249

  17. Homotypic versus Heterotypic Continuity of Anxiety Symptoms in Young Adolescents: Evidence for Distinctions between DSM-IV Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Robert F.; Dieleman, Gwen; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate homotypic and heterotypic longitudinal patterns of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia (SoPh), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in young adolescents from the Dutch general population. Method: 2,067 individuals (51.4% girls) from a…

  18. Social anxiety and interpretation of ambiguous smiles.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Aida; Calvo, Manuel G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether social anxiety facilitates the discrimination between genuine and ambiguous smiles. Socially anxious (N=20) and nonanxious (N=20) participants categorized as "happy" or "not happy" faces with either (1) a truly happy expression (i.e., happy eyes and a smile), (2) truly nonhappy expressions (e.g., angry eyes and an angry mouth), or (3) blended expressions with a smiling mouth and nonhappy (e.g., angry, sad, etc.) eyes. Results indicated that, relative to nonanxious participants, those high in social anxiety were more likely to judge as "not happy" any blended expression with nonhappy eyes, and they were faster in judging as "not happy" the blended expressions with angry, fearful, or disgusted eyes (but not those with sad, surprised, or neutral eyes). These results suggest, respectively, that social anxiety inhibits a benign interpretation of all the ambiguous expressions with a smile, and speeds up the detection of threatening eyes in such expressions. Importantly, no differences appeared as a function of social anxiety for truly happy or nonhappy faces. This rules out a response-bias explanation, and also reveals that social anxiety does not affect sensitivity in the recognition of prototypical expressions. PMID:23662633

  19. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  20. Social anxiety disorder in genuine halitosis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who had score 2 or higher by the organoleptic test were diagnosed as genuine halitosis patients. Gas chromatography (GC) was conducted before and after oral malodor treatment for the oral malodor measurement. Based on their risk of social anxiety disorder, subjects were divided into low- and high-risk groups using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). The questions related to oral malodor and the clinical oral examination were both conducted before oral malodor treatment. The level of anxiety before and after oral malodor treatment was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale of Anxiety (VAAS). Results More than 20% of subjects had a score of 60 or more on the LSAS (high LSAS group). The mean age and the percentage of females were significantly higher in the high LSAS group compared to the low LSAS group. The high LSAS group was more likely to have problems associated with oral malodor and to adopt measures against oral malodor compared to the low LSAS group. The mean concentrations of H2S and CH3SH by GC significantly decreased after the oral malodor treatment in both LSAS groups. VAAS scores also significantly decreased after treatment in both LSAS groups. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the high LSAS group had a 2.28 times higher risk of having a post-VAAS score of 50 or more compared to the low LSAS group. Conclusions This study revealed that genuine halitosis patients with a strong trait of social anxiety disorder have difficulty overcoming their anxiety about

  1. Test of an hypothesized structural model of the relationships between cognitive style and social anxiety: a 12-month prospective study.

    PubMed

    González-Díez, Zahira; Calvete, Esther; Riskind, John H; Orue, Izaskun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether social looming cognitive style accounts for the predictive association between early maladaptive schema domains and social anxiety. We predicted that early maladaptive schema domains would predict the increase of social anxiety over time and that social looming would act as a mediator between schema domains and social anxiety. A three-wave longitudinal design was used. The participants (N=471, 56.95% women) were Spanish adolescents and young adults aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage=17.81, SD age=3.19). The results showed that three schema domains (impaired autonomy and performance, impaired limits, and other-directedness) predicted the increase in social anxiety and that LCS for social threat acted as a mediator between other-directedness and social anxiety at T3. These results are important to improve the knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that are involved in the occurrence and development of social anxiety. PMID:25602785

  2. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites. PMID:19492691

  3. Social anxiety modulates amygdala activation during social conditioning.

    PubMed

    Pejic, Tanja; Hermann, Andrea; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2013-03-01

    Aversive social learning experiences might play a significant role in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder. Therefore, we investigated emotional learning and unlearning processes in healthy humans using a social conditioning paradigm. Forty-nine healthy subjects participated in a 2-day fMRI differential conditioning protocol. Acquisition and extinction were conducted on Day 1 and extinction recall on Day 2. BOLD responses, ratings and skin conductance responses were collected. Our data indicate successful conditioning and extinction on the neural and subjective level. As a main result, we observed a positive correlation of social anxiety and conditioning responses on the subjective level (valence and fear) as well as on the neural level with significant CS(+)/CS(-) differentiation in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus. Further, significant CS(+)/CS(-) differentiation in the left amygdala was found during extinction and was associated with lower scores in social anxiety. During extinction recall, we found a tendentially negative correlation of social anxiety and CS(+)/CS(-) differentiation in the vmPFC. In sum, we were able to show that social anxiety is related to conditionability with socially threatening stimuli. This could point to an important aspect in the aetiology of social anxiety disorder. PMID:22198970

  4. Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Riddle, Mark A.; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of somatic symptoms (SSs) in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders; the relationship between SSs and anxiety severity, impairment, and child global functioning; and the impact of fluvoxamine (FLV) versus pill placebo (PBO) on reducing SSs. Method: As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,…

  5. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  6. Perfectionism, Perspective Taking, and Social Connection in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Rice, Kenneth G.; Carboni, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Although studies examining multidimensional perfectionism among adolescents have increased over the past two decades, most continue to focus on psychological outcomes such as anxiety or depression. The purpose of this study was to examine two social outcomes that may differ among perfectionistic subtypes: "social perspective taking"…

  7. Temperament, Attentional Processes, and Anxiety: Diverging Links between Adolescents with and without Anxiety Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Prins, Pier J.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study first examined the links between reactive temperament (negative affectivity), regulative temperament (effortful control [EC]) and internalizing problems in adolescents (12-18 years) with anxiety disorders (ANX; N = 39) and without anxiety disorders (nANX; N = 35). Links differed between ANX and nANX participants. Negative…

  8. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    PubMed

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. PMID:24411119

  9. Factors Predicting Rural Chinese Adolescents' Anxieties, Fears and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Zhang, Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study examined age, gender, birth order and self-perceived level of achievement and popularity, as predictors of anxieties, fears and depression in Chinese adolescents. A sample of 398 rural Chinese adolescents participated in this study. Gender, academic performance and popularity have been found to make the greatest contributions to the…

  10. Functional impairment in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G; Nickerson, Angela; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Marom, Sofi

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined functional impairment among treatment seekers with social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated the effects of diagnostic subtypes of SAD and comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders on impairment. In addition, we used cluster analysis procedures to empirically identify subgroups of individuals with distinct patterns of impairment. Participants were 216 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD. Clinical interviews were undertaken to determine diagnoses of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder, and a battery of self-report measures was administered to index symptoms of social anxiety, depression and extent of impairment. Results indicated that individuals with the generalized subtype of SAD had greater impairment in all three life domains compared to individuals with the nongeneralized subtype. Comorbidity with mood disorders was associated with greater impairment than SAD alone, but comorbidity with anxiety disorders was not. Four distinct impairment profiles emerged from the cluster analysis: primary work/studies impairment, primary social life impairment, both work/studies and social impairment, and impairment in all domains. Findings from this study suggest that SAD is associated with substantial impairment across multiple domains, and that individuals with SAD present diverse impairment profiles. These profiles may inform subtyping of the disorder as well as therapeutic interventions. PMID:22306132

  11. Interoceptive exposure exercises for social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Laura J; Kemp, Joshua J; Farrell, Nicholas R; Blakey, Shannon M; Deacon, Brett J

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) commonly experience panic attacks and evidence increased anxiety sensitivity (AS) specific to noticeable anxiety sensations. Interoceptive exposure (IE) is an effective treatment for reducing AS, but few IE tasks target fears of blushing, sweating, or trembling, which are incorporated within AS social concerns and especially feared by individuals with SAD. The primary study aims were trifold: (1) identify novel IE tasks that produce blushing, sweating, and/or trembling; (2) assess the intensity of sensations and anxiety produced by a series of novel and validated IE tasks; and (3) evaluate the incremental validity of combining an IE task and a speech task. Individuals (N = 55) with heightened fear of noticeably blushing, sweating, and/or trembling completed a control task and 8 IE tasks (e.g., hot sauce, hyperventilation). All tasks produced greater intensity of anxiety and sensations compared to the control task (ps < .001; range of η(p)(2) = .20-.50). Responses to the combination of an IE task and social task compared to a social task alone did not differ significantly. Future directions for research and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25988536

  12. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: Associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Cathy; Cooper, Peter J.; Allen, John J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The present study aimed to account for limitations of previous studies and measured respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and heart rate (HR) using Actiheart heart rate monitors and software (Version 4) during rest and in response to a social and a non-social stressor in 60 anxious (30 socially anxious and 30 ‘other’ anxious), and 30 nonanxious sex-and age-matched 7–12 year olds. In addition, the effect of state anxiety during the tasks was explored. Results No group differences at rest or in response to stress were found. Importantly, however, with increases in state anxiety, all children, regardless of their anxiety diagnoses showed less autonomic responding (i.e., less change in HR and RSA from baseline in response to task) and took longer to recover once the stressor had passed. Limitations This study focused primarily on parasympathetic arousal and lacked measures of sympathetic arousal. Conclusion The findings suggest that childhood anxiety disorders may not be characterized by inflexible autonomic responding, and that previous findings to the contrary may have been the result of differences in subjective anxiety between anxious and nonanxious groups during the tasks, rather than a function of chronic autonomic dysregulation. PMID:25590763

  13. Social anxiety and eating disorder comorbidity: The role of negative social evaluation fears

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. However, it is unknown how specific domains of social anxiety relate to disordered eating. We provide data on these relationships and investigate social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation as potential vulnerabilities linking social anxiety with eating disorders. Specifically, we examined five domains of social anxiety: Social interaction anxiety, fear of scrutiny, fear of positive evaluation, fear of negative evaluation, and social appearance anxiety. Results indicated that social appearance anxiety predicted body dissatisfaction, bulimia symptoms, shape concern, weight concern, and eating concern over and above fear of scrutiny, social interaction anxiety, and fear of positive evaluation. Fear of negative evaluation uniquely predicted drive for thinness and restraint. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which social appearance anxiety and fear of negative evaluation are vulnerabilities for both social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. Interventions that target these negative social evaluation fears may help prevent development of eating disorders. PMID:22177392

  14. Social Phobia and Social Anxiety as Components of Shyness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; Hutzel, Karen; Morrison, Erin; Weyer, Christina Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the conceptual nature of shyness by examining its relationship with social phobia and social anxiety in a non-clinical sample. The participants in the present study were 132 introductory psychology students who completed the Cheek-Buss Shyness Scale (CBSS), Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and Liebowitz…

  15. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. PMID:22024161

  16. Adolescent caffeine consumption increases adulthood anxiety-related behavior and modifies neuroendocrine signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Casey E; Newsom, Ryan J; Stafford, Jacob; Scott, Talia; Archuleta, Solana; Levis, Sophia C; Spencer, Robert L; Campeau, Serge; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2016-05-01

    Caffeine is a commonly used psychoactive substance and consumption by children and adolescents continues to rise. Here, we examine the lasting effects of adolescent caffeine consumption on anxiety-related behaviors and several neuroendocrine measures in adulthood. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats consumed caffeine (0.3g/L) for 28 consecutive days from postnatal day 28 (P28) to P55. Age-matched control rats consumed water. Behavioral testing for anxiety-related behavior began in adulthood (P62) 7 days after removal of caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption enhanced anxiety-related behavior in an open field, social interaction test, and elevated plus maze. Similar caffeine consumption in adult rats did not alter anxiety-related behavior after caffeine removal. Characterization of neuroendocrine measures was next assessed to determine whether the changes in anxiety were associated with modifications in the HPA axis. Blood plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were assessed throughout the caffeine consumption procedure in adolescent rats. Adolescent caffeine consumption elevated plasma CORT 24h after initiation of caffeine consumption that normalized over the course of the 28-day consumption procedure. CORT levels were also elevated 24h after caffeine removal and remained elevated for 7 days. Despite elevated basal CORT in adult rats that consumed caffeine during adolescence, the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and CORT response to placement on an elevated pedestal (a mild stressor) was significantly blunted. Lastly, we assessed changes in basal and stress-induced c-fos and corticotropin-releasing factor (Crf) mRNA expression in brain tissue collected at 7 days withdrawal from adolescent caffeine. Adolescent caffeine consumption increased basal c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Adolescent caffeine consumption had no other effects on the basal or stress-induced c-fos mRNA changes. Caffeine consumption during adolescence increased

  17. Social anxiety and training in neurolinguistic programming.

    PubMed

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C

    1998-12-01

    The Liebowitz Social Phobia Scale measured the effect of training on social anxiety responses of 28 adults prior to and following a 21-day residential training, and at 6 mo. follow-up. Significant reductions posttraining and at follow-up were evident in the mean self-reported global scale scores on fear and avoidance behavior in social situations. The item scores, aggregated to reflect the situational domains of formal and informal speaking, being observed by others, and assertion, showed significant and continuing reduction from posttraining through follow-up. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may be associated with reduced responses to social anxiety, but as there was no formal control group, pretest scores from another study were used. Interpretation is limited. PMID:9923190

  18. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  19. [Social anxiety in childhood and youth].

    PubMed

    Schuch, Bibiana

    2009-12-01

    Social anxiety is very common in children and leads to considerable impairment. Some of the biological and psychosocial risks are well known. The analysis of these factors may help to understand the symptomatology for planning preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:19935492

  20. CBT for Adolescents With Anxiety: Mature Yet Still Developing.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Philip C; Peterman, Jeremy S

    2015-06-01

    Anxiety disorders are common in adolescents (ages 12 to 18) and contribute to a range of impairments. There has been speculation that adolescents with anxiety are at risk for being treatment nonresponders. In this review, the authors examine the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescents with anxiety. Outcomes from mixed child and adolescent samples and from adolescent-only samples indicate that approximately two-thirds of youths respond favorably to CBT. CBT produces moderate to large effects and shows superiority over control/comparison conditions. The literature does not support differential outcomes by age: adolescents do not consistently manifest poorer outcomes relative to children. Although extinction paradigms find prolonged fear extinction in adolescent samples, basic research does not fully align with the processes and goals of real-life exposure. Furthermore, CBT is flexible and allows for tailored application in adolescents, and it may be delivered in alternative formats (i.e., brief, computer/Internet, school-based, and transdiagnostic CBT). PMID:26029805

  1. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J

    2015-09-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, often established early in development through the interaction between biological and psychological factors (eg, genetic predisposition x early trauma), predispose to socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. However, whereas gene variants and histories of trauma persist, hormonal systems can be remodeled over the course of life. Hormones play a key role during the periods of all sensitive developmental windows (ie, prenatal, neonatal, puberty, aging), and are capable of opening up new developmental windows in adulthood. Indeed, the developmental plasticity of our social brain, and thus of social behavior in adulthood, critically depends on steroid hormones such as testosterone and peptide hormones such as oxytocin. These steroid and peptide hormones in interaction with social experiences may have potential for reprogramming the socially anxious brain. Certainly, single administrations of oxytocin and testosterone in humans reduce socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. Such work may ultimately lead to new approaches to the treatment of SAD. PMID:26487809

  2. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, often established early in development through the interaction between biological and psychological factors (eg, genetic predisposition x early trauma), predispose to socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. However, whereas gene variants and histories of trauma persist, hormonal systems can be remodeled over the course of life. Hormones play a key role during the periods of all sensitive developmental windows (ie, prenatal, neonatal, puberty, aging), and are capable of opening up new developmental windows in adulthood. Indeed, the developmental plasticity of our social brain, and thus of social behavior in adulthood, critically depends on steroid hormones such as testosterone and peptide hormones such as oxytocin. These steroid and peptide hormones in interaction with social experiences may have potential for reprogramming the socially anxious brain. Certainly, single administrations of oxytocin and testosterone in humans reduce socially fearful, avoidant, and submissive behavior. Such work may ultimately lead to new approaches to the treatment of SAD. PMID:26487809

  3. Beyond Behaviour: Is Social Anxiety Low in Williams Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Helen F.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Porter, Melanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit striking social behaviour that may be indicative of abnormally low social anxiety. The present research aimed to determine whether social anxiety is unusually low in WS and to replicate previous findings of increased generalised anxiety in WS using both parent and self report. Fifteen individuals…

  4. Social anxiety and insomnia: the mediating role of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Bernert, Rebecca A; Cromer, Kiara R; Joiner, Thomas E; Schmidt, Norman B

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety is commonly associated with insomnia. Given that social anxiety disorder is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, socially anxious individuals may be particularly vulnerable to insomnia. However, there is currently very little empirical work on this relationship. This study used bivariate correlations to examine whether social anxiety was related to insomnia in an undergraduate sample (n=176) using the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Insomnia Severity Index. Further, we utilized responses from the Beck Depression Inventory to investigate the role of depressive symptoms in the association between social anxiety and insomnia. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the moderational and mediational role of depressive symptoms in the link between social anxiety and insomnia. To increase generalizability to clinical samples, analyses were repeated on a subset of the sample with clinically significant social anxiety symptoms (n=23) compared to a matched control group (n=23). Consistent with expectation, social anxiety was associated with increased insomnia symptoms. Specifically, social anxiety was correlated with sleep dissatisfaction, sleep-related functional impairment, perception of a sleep problem to others, and distress about sleep problems. Importantly, depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between social anxiety and insomnia, thereby at least partially accounting for insomnia among socially anxious individuals. Our data support the contention that social anxiety is associated with insomnia and suggest that depression may play a vital role in this co-occurrence. PMID:17340615

  5. Social Anxiety Factors: Relation to Introversion and Neuroticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Larry W.; Gilliland, Jack C.

    In order to place research on social anxiety in proper perspective, the factors actually measured by social anxiety scales must be examined. Five social anxiety scales and four personality questionnaires were administered to college undergraduates (N=78). Factor analyses of the data revealed two distinct factors. The first factor, to which…

  6. Schizophrenia, Obsessive Covert Mental Rituals and Social Anxiety: Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…

  7. Different types of Internet use, depression, and social anxiety: the role of perceived friendship quality.

    PubMed

    Selfhout, Maarten H W; Branje, Susan J T; Delsing, M; ter Bogt, Tom F M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2009-08-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations of time spent on Internet activities for communication purposes (i.e., IM-ing) versus time spent on Internet activities for non-communication purposes (i.e., surfing) with depression and social anxiety, as well as the moderating role of perceived friendship quality in these associations. Questionnaire data were gathered from 307 Dutch middle adolescents (average age 15 years) on two waves with a one-year interval. For adolescents who perceive low friendship quality, Internet use for communication purposes predicted less depression, whereas Internet use for non-communication purposes predicted more depression and more social anxiety. These results support social compensation effects of IM-ing on depression and poor-get-poorer effects of surfing on depression and social anxiety, respectively. PMID:19027940

  8. Parenting and Social Anxiety: Fathers' versus Mothers' Influence on Their Children's Anxiety in Ambiguous Social Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogels, Susan; Stevens, Juliette; Majdandzic, Mirjana

    2011-01-01

    Background: The role of parenting in child social anxiety was examined in an information processing experiment. We tested the relative weight that children in general, and high versus low socially anxious children in particular, put on fathers' versus mothers' signal about whether a social situation is safe or a threat. Method: Children aged 8-12…

  9. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  10. Interpersonal predictors of early therapeutic alliance in a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura; Henderson, Heather A; Ehrenreich-May, Jill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of therapeutic alliance in predicting treatment success is well established, but less is known about client characteristics that predict alliance. This study examined alliance predictors in adolescents with anxiety and/or depressive disorders (n=31) who received a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment, the Unified Protocol for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders in Youth (Ehrenreich, Buzzella, Trosper, Bennett, & Barlow, 2008) in the context of a larger randomized controlled trial. Alliance was assessed at session three by therapists, clients, and independent observers. Results indicated that alliance ratings across the three informant perspectives were significantly associated with one another, but that pretreatment interpersonal variables (e.g., social support, attachment security, and social functioning in current family and peer relationships) were differentially associated with varying informant perspectives. Adolescent and observer ratings of alliance were both predicted by adolescent self-reports on measures reflecting how they perceive their interpersonal relationships. In addition, adolescent-reported symptom severity at pretreatment predicted observer ratings of alliance such that adolescents who indicated greater anxiety and depressive symptoms were rated as having stronger early alliances by independent observers. Therapists perceived having weaker early alliances with adolescents evidencing clinically significant depression at intake as compared with adolescents diagnosed with anxiety disorders alone. Future research is needed to examine whether identification of relevant interpersonal factors at intake can help improve initial therapeutic engagement and resulting outcomes for the psychosocial treatment of adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders. PMID:22642525

  11. Anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese Adolescents in Comparison with the American Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Ang, Rebecca P.; Lee, Jiyoon

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing literature base on child and adolescent anxiety. Cross-cultural research on child and adolescent anxiety, however, has been relatively limited. This study examined whether there were similarities and differences in the self reported anxieties in Mainland Chinese and Singapore Chinese adolescents (12-17 years of age), and whether…

  12. Exploring linguistic correlates of social anxiety in romantic stories.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Katya C; Gordon, Elizabeth A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    The current study used computerized linguistic analysis of stories about either going on a date or taking a walk down a street to examine linguistic correlates of social anxiety in a sample of undergraduate students. In general, linguistic analysis revealed associations of social anxiety with several linguistic variables, including negative emotion, affect, and anxiety words. Participants higher in social anxiety wrote fewer affect words. The relationship between social anxiety and anxiety words depended on gender, whereas the relationship between social anxiety and negative emotion words depended on both gender and the nature of primes (supraliminal vs. subliminal) received. Overall, our findings highlight the potential utility and benefits of using linguistic analysis as another source of information about how individuals higher in social anxiety process romantic stimuli. PMID:27216791

  13. Anxiety disorders of childhood and adolescence: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, G A; Borchardt, C M

    1991-07-01

    The 1980s were a decade of advancement in the knowledge of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents; this sets the stage for research achievements in the 1990s. This review examines the anxiety disorders of childhood and adolescence (separation anxiety disorder, overanxious disorder, and avoidant disorder), including prevalence rates, demographic profiles, comparisons of clinical presentations in different developmental age groups, and comorbidity patterns. Fears and simple phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder in children and adolescents are also evaluated. The controversy of whether panic attacks occur in prepubertal children is addressed. A brief review of behavioral and pharmacological treatment studies is included. Future directions for research are suggested. PMID:1890084

  14. Girls' and Mothers' Social Anxiety, Social Skills, and Loneliness: Associations after Accounting for Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stednitz, Jayme N.; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined, in 102 mother-daughter dyads, whether (a) girls' social skills and loneliness are related to girls' social anxiety, after adjusting for girls' depressive symptoms, and (b) mothers' social functioning (social anxiety, social skills, and loneliness) is related to girls' social anxiety, after accounting for girls' social…

  15. A Parent-Child Interactional Model of Social Anxiety Disorder in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Benoit, Kristy E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, one of the most common disorders of childhood and adolescence, social anxiety disorder (SAD), is examined to illustrate the complex and delicate interplay between parent and child factors that can result in normal development gone awry. Our parent-child model of SAD posits a host of variables that converge to occasion the onset and…

  16. Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

  17. Self-Esteem and Social Appearance Anxiety: An Investigation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercümend; Kumcagiz, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study published in "Elementary Education Online", Dogan (2011) examined the psychometric properties of the social appearance anxiety scale in an adolescent sample after his first adaptation study on undergraduate students in Turkey (Dogan, 2010). He recommended that researchers do further research to investigate the…

  18. Identification of Social Anxiety in Schools: The Utility of a Two-Step Screening Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Corinne; Masia Warner, Carrie; Brice, Chad; Stewart, Catherine; Ryan, Julie; Loeb, Katharine L.; McGrath, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent yet largely undetected and untreated in adolescents despite the availability of effective treatments. Implementing interventions in schools enhances recognition and access to treatment for SAD. However, without reliable means to accurately identify youth in need of services, school-based…

  19. Negative Self-Focused Cognitions Mediate the Effect of Trait Social Anxiety on State Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Stefan M.; Alpers, Georg W.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive model of social anxiety predicts that negative self-focused cognitions increase anxiety when anticipating social threat. To test this prediction, 36 individuals were asked to anticipate and perform a public speaking task. During anticipation, negative self-focused cognitions or relaxation were experimentally induced while self-reported anxiety, autonomic arousal (heart rate, heart rate variability, skin conductance level), and acoustic eye-blink startle response were assessed. As predicted, negative self-focused cognitions mediated the effects of trait social anxiety on self-reported anxiety and heart rate variability during negative anticipation. Furthermore, trait social anxiety predicted increased startle amplitudes. These findings support a central assumption of the cognitive model of social anxiety. PMID:18321469

  20. Negative self-focused cognitions mediate the effect of trait social anxiety on state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan M; Alpers, Georg W; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2008-04-01

    The cognitive model of social anxiety predicts that negative self-focused cognitions increase anxiety when anticipating social threat. To test this prediction, 36 individuals were asked to anticipate and perform a public-speaking task. During anticipation, negative self-focused cognitions or relaxation were experimentally induced while self-reported anxiety, autonomic arousal (heart rate, heart rate variability, skin conductance level), and acoustic eye-blink startle response were assessed. As predicted, negative self-focused cognitions mediated the effects of trait social anxiety on self-reported anxiety and heart rate variability during negative anticipation. Furthermore, trait social anxiety predicted increased startle amplitudes. These findings support a central assumption of the cognitive model of social anxiety. PMID:18321469

  1. Self-Compassion and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Kelly H.; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-compassion refers to having an accepting and caring orientation towards oneself. Although self-compassion has been studied primarily in healthy populations, one particularly compelling clinical context in which to examine self-compassion is social anxiety disorder (SAD). SAD is characterized by high levels of negative self-criticism as well as an abiding concern about others’ evaluation of one’s performance. In the present study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) people with SAD would demonstrate less self-compassion than healthy controls (HCs), (2) self-compassion would relate to severity of social anxiety and fear of evaluation among people with SAD, and (3) age would be negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, but not for HC. As expected, people with SAD reported less self-compassion than HCs on the Self-Compassion Scale and its subscales (Neff, 2003b). Within the SAD group, lesser self-compassion was not generally associated with severity of social anxiety, but it was associated with greater fear of both negative and positive evaluation. Age was negatively correlated with self-compassion for people with SAD, whereas age was positively correlated with self-compassion for HC. These findings suggest that self-compassion may be a particularly important target for assessment and treatment in persons with SAD. PMID:21895450

  2. Linking social behaviour and anxiety to attention to emotional faces in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Hannah E; Hocking, Darren R; Riby, Deborah M; Cornish, Kim M

    2013-12-01

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with a social phenotype of hypersociability, non-social anxiety and an unusual attraction to faces. The current study uses eye tracking to explore attention allocation to emotionally expressive faces. Eye gaze and behavioural measures of anxiety and social reciprocity were investigated in adolescents and adults with WS when compared to typically developing individuals of comparable verbal mental age (VMA) and chronological age (CA). Results showed significant associations between high levels of behavioural anxiety and attention allocation away from the eye regions of threatening facial expressions in WS. The results challenge early claims of a unique attraction to the eyes in WS and suggest that individual differences in anxiety may mediate the allocation of attention to faces in WS. PMID:24210355

  3. Factorial Structure of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire in Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shujuan, Wang; Meihua, Qian; Jianxin, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the psychometric structure of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) in Chinese adolescents. With the data collected from 212 senior high school students (94 females, 110 males, 8 unknown), seven models are tested using confirmatory factor analyses in the framework of the multitrait-multimethod strategy. Results indicate…

  4. Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety and Depression: Beyond Heritability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franic, Sanja; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Dolan, Conor V.; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may be used to examine age and gender differences in…

  5. Intolerance of Uncertainty, Fear of Anxiety, and Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michel J.; Laugesen, Nina; Bukowski, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A 5 year, ten wave longitudinal study of 338 adolescents assessed the association between two forms of cognitive vulnerability (intolerance of uncertainty and fear of anxiety) and worry. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed a bidirectional and reciprocal relation between intolerance of uncertainty and worry in which change in one variable…

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parenting Behaviours and Its Relationship to Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…

  7. Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of uneasiness. At other times, it develops into panic attacks and phobias. Identifying the Signs Anxiety disorders vary ... specific situations, in which case they are called panic attacks. A panic attack is an abrupt episode of ...

  8. The LAOM Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Measuring Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…

  9. Parents' State and Trait Anxiety: Relationships with Anxiety Severity and Treatment Response in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…

  10. Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    2016-07-13

    Essential facts Anxiety is the feeling of fear that occurs when faced with threatening or stressful situations. It is a normal response when confronted with danger, but, if it is overwhelming or the feeling persists, it could be regarded as an anxiety disorder. The Royal College of Psychiatrists says anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and social anxiety disorder, affect about one in ten. PMID:27406490

  11. Social rank and affiliation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Ora; Aderka, Idan M; Marom, Sofi; Hermesh, Haggai; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined the interpersonal lives of individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). According to evolutionary and interpersonal theories, we construed the interpersonal world using the social rank and the affiliation psychological systems. Two studies assessed measures of social rank, affiliation, social anxiety and depression among a population of treatment-seeking individuals with SAD. In study 1, individuals with SAD without major depressive disorder (MDD; n=42) were compared to healthy controls (n=47). In study 2, individuals with SAD and MDD (n=45) were compared to individuals with other anxiety disorders and MDD (n=31). Results indicated that SAD was related to perceiving oneself as having low social rank, being inferior, and behaving submissively, as well as to low perceived intimacy and closeness among peer relations, friendships and romantic relations. SAD was distinctly associated with these perceptions above and beyond the symptomatic (study 1) and the syndrome-level (study 2) effects of depression. These findings were further supported by a path analysis of the SAD participants from both studies. Our findings highlight the need to address both social rank and affiliation issues in the assessment and treatment of SAD. PMID:21497793

  12. Precursors and correlates of anxiety trajectories from late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed young people's psychosocial adjustment from infancy to adulthood. The present research analyzes data collected from the first 12 waves of data, from 4-8 months to 17 years. Parents, primary school teachers, maternal and child health nurses, and from the age of 11 onward, the young people themselves have provided survey data. Trajectory analyses revealed three distinct patterns of self-reported anxiety from late childhood to late adolescence, comprising low, moderate, and high (increasing) trajectories, which differed somewhat between boys and girls. A range of parent- and teacher-reported factors was found to be associated with these trajectories, including temperament style, behavior problems, social skills, parenting, negative family events, and peer relationships. Compared with male trajectories, female trajectories were associated with a greater variety of psychosocial variables (including parenting and externalizing problems), which may partially account for the higher prevalence of anxiety in adolescent girls compared with boys. Findings shed light on gender-specific pathways to anxiety and the need for comprehensive, integrative approaches to intervention and prevention programs. PMID:22551395

  13. Depression and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS).

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Alice; Rizzi, Eleonora; Schneider, Maude; Debbane, Martin; Eliez, Stephan

    2012-07-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) is characterized by a high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. These disorders are a source of great impairment in everyday functioning, as well as important risk factors for the emergence of later psychotic disorders. Impairment in daily and social functioning as well as loss of IQ throughout growth are also are well-established correlates of the VCFS. This study aimed to confirm the high prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders. The second objective was to ascertain the correlation between anxious and depressive symptoms and the decline in adaptive and cognitive functioning. A total of 73 children and adolescents with VCFS (mean age 11.9 years) underwent psychiatric evaluation. Subjects were further divided into four age groups: ages 6-9, 9-12, 12-15 and 15-18 years. Assessments measuring intelligence, anxious and depressive symptoms, and adaptation skills reported by parents were submitted to a subsample of 62 children (mean age 12.2 years); 62.2 % of the sample showed an anxiety disorder, specific phobia being the most represented at all ages. Lifetime depression concerned 27 % of the sample, peaking at age 12-15 years. Anxious and depressive symptoms and low IQ were significantly associated with low adaptive functioning. Anxiety and depression are common disorders in children and adolescents with VCFS and have a great impact on adaptive functioning. Clinicians should pay great attention to diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22526976

  14. An Investigation of Short-Term Longitudinal Associations Between Social Anxiety and Victimization and Perpetration of Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Pabian, Sara; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has suggested that social anxiety is associated with victimization and perpetration of (cyber)bullying. The direction and causality of this relationship has not yet been empirically supported for both traditional and cyberbullying involvement. This study examined short-term longitudinal associations between feelings of social anxiety and involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying among 2128 adolescents aged 10-17 (56.6 % girls). A cross-lagged panel analysis provided evidence for the contribution of social anxiety to later victimization of bullying, both on- and off-line. The possibility of a reciprocal relationship was also examined, although it was not supported. Furthermore, longitudinal bidirectional relationships between social anxiety and the perpetration of bullying were investigated. Only one significant longitudinal association was found: the perpetration of traditional bullying predicted subsequent higher levels of social anxiety. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25687265

  15. Social anxiety disorder in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Heimberg, Richard G; Hofmann, Stefan G; Liebowitz, Michael R; Schneier, Franklin R; Smits, Jasper A J; Stein, Murray B; Hinton, Devon E; Craske, Michelle G

    2014-06-01

    With the publication of DSM-5, the diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia) have undergone several changes, which have important conceptual and clinical implications. In this paper, we first provide a brief history of the diagnosis. We then review a number of these changes, including (1) the primary name of the disorder, (2) the increased emphasis on fear of negative evaluation, (3) the importance of sociocultural context in determining whether an anxious response to a social situation is out of proportion to the actual threat, (4) the diagnosis of SAD in the context of a medical condition, and (5) the way in which we think about variations in the presentation of SAD (the specifier issue). We then consider the clinical implications of changes in DSM-5 related to these issues. PMID:24395386

  16. Social anxiety disorder: psychobiological and evolutionary underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J; Vythilingum, Bavanisha

    2007-11-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) also know as social phobia is increasingly recognized as a highly prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorder. SAD patients demonstrate cognitive-affective distortions in relation to social situations and abnormal activation patterns in limbic structures during functional imaging. Behavioral inhibition is an endophenotype that may be useful in understanding vulnerability to SAD, and that has specific imaging and genetic correlates. From an evolutionary perspective, it has been speculated that SAD represents a false appeasement alarm. It is notable that SAD responds to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, but not to most tricyclic antidepressants; this finding is consistent with the importance of serotonin and dopamine in mediating this disorder. PMID:17984853

  17. Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Monique; Plate, Rista C; Carlisi, Christina O; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S

    2014-04-01

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents. PMID:24280015

  18. Parental and Peer Predictors of Social Anxiety in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festa, Candice C.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to extend etiological models of social anxiety in youth by examining the relative importance of parental (i.e., parental anxiety, rejection, and overcontrol) and peer factors (i.e., social acceptance, social support, and friendship quality). Sixty-three youth (ages 7-12; 52% male) and their parents participated in…

  19. The Adolescent Mattering Experience: Gender Variations in Perceived Mattering, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Andrea L.; Scheidegger, Corey; McWhirter, J. Jeffries

    2009-01-01

    Individuals who perceive that they matter to others are likely to experience lower anxiety and depression levels. The effects of young adolescents' perceived mattering on their anxiety and depression levels were examined. Results indicated that female adolescents reported lower anxiety levels but greater depression levels than did male…

  20. Systemic Family Therapy of Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression with Epilepsy in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Meng, Huaqing; Zeng, Kebin; Quan, Fengying; Liu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to find if systemic family therapy (SFT) does work in anxiety and depression with epilepsy in adolescents (ADAE). Methods 104 adolescents with epilepsy, aged 13–20 years old, were included from December 2009 to December 2010, the enrolled patients were with anxiety [Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) score ≥14 points] or depression [Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) score ≥20 points]. The patients were randomly divided into the control group (n=52) treated with antiepileptic drugs (AED) and the intervention group (n=52) undergone Systemic Family Therapy (SFT) as well as AED. The AED improvements, anxiety and depression scores, Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Family Assessment Device (FAD) and scale of systemic family dynamics (SSFD) were observed after 3-month treatment. Results The frequencies of epileptic seizures in intervention group was decreased much more significantly than the control group (4.22±3.54 times/month vs. 6.20±5.86 times/month, p=0.04); and the scores of anxiety (9.52±6.28 points vs. 13.48±8.47 points, p=0.01) and depression (13.86±9.17 points vs. 18.89±8.73 points, p=0.02) were significantly decreased than the control group; meanwhile, the family dynamics and family functions were significantly improved, and the social support was also increased (p<0.05). Conclusion SFT combined with AEDs had better efficacies than AEDs alone, not only the frequency of epileptic seizures was decreased, but also the patients' anxiety and depression were improved, and the family dynamics, family functions and social support were improved. PMID:27247596

  1. Selective mutism: more than social anxiety?

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Robin; Beidel, Deborah C; Turner, Samuel M

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between selective mutism (SM), social phobia (SP), oppositionality, and parenting styles. Twenty-one children with SP, 21 children with SM and SP, and 21 normal children ages 7-15, and the mother of each child, participated in an assessment of psychopathological factors potentially related to SM. Children with SM did not endorse higher levels of social anxiety than did children with SP, although clinicians gave higher severity ratings to those who had both disorders. In addition, although a dimensional measure of oppositionality (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) did not reveal group differences, there were significantly more diagnoses of oppositional defiant disorder among children with SM (29%) in comparison to children with SP alone (5%). With respect to parenting styles, there were no significant differences among parents of children with SM and the other groups, except that children with SP reported significantly less warmth/acceptance from parents than normal children. These data replicate previous findings that children with SM do not report greater social anxiety than other children with a SP diagnosis. Furthermore, they suggest that oppositional behaviors may be part of the clinical presentation of a subset of children with SM. PMID:16421889

  2. Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety during Adolescence: Determinants and Outcomes. The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Robbers, Sylvana C. C.; Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; van Oort, Floor V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms for adolescent girls and boys. Trajectories were compared with regard to early-adolescent risk factors and psychiatric outcomes during adolescence and in young adulthood. Method A community sample of 2,230 adolescents was assessed three times across a six-year interval (10–17 years). Symptom scores of anxiety were analyzed with growth mixture models, stratified by gender. Results Three gender-specific anxiety trajectories were identified for both girls (93.3% low, 4.1% mid-adolescence limited, 2.6% mid-adolescence increasing) and boys (84.4% low, 9.5% mid-adolescence limited, 6.1% early-adolescence decreasing). Child, family and peer factors at baseline predicted group membership of the mid-adolescence limited anxiety trajectory and the early-adolescence decreasing anxiety trajectory in boys. Parental emotional problems predicted the early-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory in girls. Prevalence of anxiety disorders and depression during adolescence and in early adulthood was higher in both the mid-adolescence limited and the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory. Conclusions The longitudinal course of anxiety symptoms during adolescence was characterized by three distinct gender-specific developmental trajectories. The most at-risk trajectory in girls was the mid-adolescence anxiety increase trajectory, and in boys the mid-adolescence limited trajectory. None of the environmental (i.e., child, family and peer) factors distinguished the at-risk trajectories from the other trajectories. PMID:23390430

  3. Perception Matters for Clinical Perfectionism and Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Shumaker, Erik A.; Menatti, Andrew R.; Weeks, Justin W.; White, Emily K.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Warren, Cortney S.; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite research documenting a relationship between social anxiety and perfectionism, very little research has examined the relationship between social anxiety and clinical perfectionism, defined as the combination of high personal standards and high maladaptive perfectionistic evaluative concern. In the current studies we examined whether clinical perfectionism predicted social anxiety in a large sample of undergraduates (N = 602), in a clinical sample of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD; N = 180), and by using a variance decomposition model of self-and informant-report of perfectionism (N = 134). Using self-report, we found that an interaction of personal standards and evaluative concern predicted both social interaction anxiety and fear of scrutiny, but not in the theorized direction. Specifically, we found that self-report of low standards and high evaluative concern was associated with the highest levels of social anxiety, suggesting that when individuals with SAD hold low expectations for themselves combined with high concerns about evaluation, social anxiety symptoms may increase. Alternatively, when an informants’ perspective was considered, and more consistent with the original theory, we found that the interaction of informant-only report of personal standards and shared-report (between both primary participant and informant) of concern over mistakes was associated with self-reported social anxiety, such that high concern over mistakes and high personal standards predicted the highest levels of social anxiety. Theoretical, clinical, and measurement implications for clinical perfectionism are discussed. PMID:25486087

  4. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  5. The effects of media violence on anxiety in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Wright, Rex A

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to media violence is related to anxiety in youth, but the causality of the effect has not been established. This experimental study examined the effects of media violence on anxiety, blood pressure, and heart rate in late adolescents. We also examined whether these responses varied by previous exposure to media and real-life violence. College students (N = 209; M age = 18.74; 75 % female; 50 % Caucasian, 34 % African American, 9 % Asian, 3 % Hispanic, and 3 % other racial minorities) were randomized to view either violent or nonviolent high-action movie clips. Participants reported on their anxiety before and after watching the clips, as well as their previous exposure to violence. Measures of blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and during movie viewing. Participants watching violent movie clips showed a greater anxiety increase than those watching nonviolent clips. Both groups experienced increased blood pressure and reduced heart rate during movie watching compared to baseline. Prior exposure to media violence was associated with diminished heart rate response. Additionally, students previously exposed to high levels of real-life violence showed lower blood pressure increases when watching violent clips compared to nonviolent clips. Thus, relatively brief exposure to violent movie clips increased anxiety among late adolescents. Prior exposure to media and real-life violence were associated with lower physiological reactivity to high-action and violent movies, respectively, possibly indicating desensitization. Future studies should investigate long-term anxiety and physiological consequences of regular exposure to media violence in adolescence. PMID:24014349

  6. Animal models of social anxiety disorder and their validity criteria.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Quevedo, João

    2014-09-26

    Anxiety disorders pose one of the largest threats to global mental health, and they predominantly emerge early in life. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the most common of all anxiety disorders. Moreover, it has severe consequences and is a disabling disorder that can cause an individual to be unable to perform the tasks of daily life. Social anxiety disorder is associated with the subsequent development of major depression and other mental diseases, as well as increased substance abuse. Although some neurobiological alterations have been found to be associated with social anxiety disorder, little is known about this disorder. Animal models are useful tools for the investigation of this disorder, as well as for finding new pharmacological targets for treatment. Thus, this review will highlight the main animal models of anxiety associated with social phobia. PMID:25132362

  7. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  8. Is Separation Anxiety in Adolescents and Parents Related to Parental Differentiation of Self?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora; Miller, Paul; Yitzhak, Meital

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between separation anxiety in adolescents after their transition to middle school, on the one hand, and differentiation of self and separation anxiety in their parents, on the other hand. The sample included 88 adolescents from northern Israel, together with their biological parents. Adolescents'…

  9. The Influence of Dating Anxiety on Normative Experiences of Dating, Sexual Interactions, and Alcohol Consumption among Canadian Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea M.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents tend to consume alcohol and find romantic and sexual partners in mixed-group settings that are unmonitored by adults. Relatively little is known about the influence that dating anxiety may have with these social interactions. A sample of 163 high school students (aged 14-17 years) completed online surveys assessing dating, sex, and…

  10. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  11. Social Skills and Social Acceptance in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Beidel, Deborah C

    2015-01-01

    Whereas much is known about the deficits in social behaviors and social competence in youth with social anxiety disorder (SAD), less is known about those characteristics among youth with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). This study aimed to better elucidate the social repertoire and peer acceptance of youth with SAD and youth with GAD, relative to normal control (NC) youth. The sample consisted of 58 primarily Caucasian children, ages 6 to 13 years: 20 SAD (12 female), 18 GAD (12 female), and 20 NC (9 female). Diagnoses were based on Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Children and Parent Versions interviews. A multimodal assessment strategy included parent and child reports, observer ratings of social performance, computer-based analysis of vocal qualities of speech, and peer ratings of likeability and friendship potential. Whereas self- and parental report did not differentiate the two diagnostic groups, differences on observable behaviors were apparent. Children with SAD exhibited anxious speech patterns, extended speech latencies, a paucity of speech, few spontaneous vocalizations, and ineffective social responses; they were perceived by peers as less likeable and socially desirable. Children with GAD had typical speech patterns and were well liked by their peers but displayed fewer spontaneous comments and questions than NC children. Parent and child reports are less sensitive to what could be important differences in social skill between youth with SAD and GAD. Direct observations, computer-based measures of speech quality, and peer ratings identify specific group differences, suggesting the need for a comprehensive evaluation to inform treatment planning. PMID:24819443

  12. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  13. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. PMID:20977044

  14. Anger profiles in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Versella, Mark V; Piccirillo, Marilyn L; Potter, Carrie M; Olino, Thomas M; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) exhibit elevated levels of anger and anger suppression, which are both associated with increased depression, diminished quality of life, and poorer treatment outcomes. However, little is known about how anger experiences differ among individuals with SAD and whether any heterogeneity might relate to negative outcomes. This investigation sought to empirically define anger profiles among 136 treatment-seeking individuals with SAD and to assess their association with distress and impairment. A latent class analysis was conducted utilizing the trait subscales of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 as indicators of class membership. Analysis revealed four distinct anger profiles, with greatest distress and impairment generally demonstrated by individuals with elevated trait anger, a greater tendency to suppress the expression of anger, and diminished ability to adaptively control their anger expression. These results have implications for tailoring more effective interventions for socially anxious individuals. PMID:26590429

  15. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert J.; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. This article reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a…

  16. Preliminary Findings: Neural Responses to Feedback Regarding Betrayal and Cooperation in Adolescent Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Nawa, Norberto Eiji; Nelson, Eric E.; Detloff, Allison M.; Fromm, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This study examined patterns of neural response to feedback received during simulated interpersonal interactions in adolescents with anxiety disorders and healthy peers. To this aim, behavioral and neural responses during the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game, an economic exchange task, were compared between adolescents with anxiety disorders (N=12) and healthy controls (n=17). Participants were deceived to believe that their co-player (a pre-programmed computer algorithm) was another study participant. Anxious participants and controls differed significantly in patterns of neural activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ACC, precuneus, insula, and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) when receiving feedback about co-player defection or cooperation. Groups also differed significantly in post-feedback behavior; specifically anxious adolescents were more likely than controls to cooperate following trials when the co- player betrayed them. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that, in social situations, anxious adolescents may not only behave differently than healthy peers, but they may also engage neural resources in different ways. These findings constitute a first step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying social impairment in youth with internalizing disorders. PMID:21516543

  17. Specificity of Stress Generation: A Comparison of Adolescents with Depressive, Anxiety, and Comorbid Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Nicole P.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with a history of depression experience more stress that is dependent in part on their own actions. However, it is unclear whether stress generation is a unique feature of depression, or a universal process that is also present in other types of psychopathology, such as anxiety disorders. The current study addressed this issue by comparing adolescents with a history of “pure” (i.e., non-comorbid) depressive disorders, pure anxiety disorders, comorbid depression and anxiety, and no disorder, on their levels of dependent and independent stress. Results indicated that adolescents with pure depression experienced more dependent stress than adolescents with pure anxiety, and adolescents with any internalizing diagnosis experienced more dependent stress than controls. Further, adolescents with comorbid depression and anxiety reported the highest levels of stress generation. The results suggest that while stress generation may be more strongly associated with depression than anxiety in adolescence, it is not unique to depression. PMID:22724042

  18. Mediators of Change in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Philip C.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Villabø, Marianne A.; Narayanan, Martina K.; Treadwell, Kimberli; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Ginsburg, Golda; Suveg, Cindy; Albano, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. PMID:26460572

  19. Serum cytokines and anxiety in adolescent depression patients: Gender effect.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, Pooja; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju; Sharma, Subhadra; Subramanium, Arulselvi; Shamshi, Farah; Sengupta, Utpal; Pandey, Ravindra M; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2015-09-30

    The present study compares the serum cytokine levels between adolescent depression patients and healthy controls and assesses correlation between depression, anxiety scores and serum levels of eight cytokines. Study also checked the variation in serum levels with medication status (medication free/naïve vs. patients on medication). Following clinical and psychometric assessment of 77 adolescent (aged 13-18 years) depression patients (49 males and 28 females; 56 medication free/naïve) and 54 healthy controls (25 males, 29 females), eight cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and IL-17A {denoted IL-17 throughout}) were measured in serum using ELISA. Depressed adolescents had significantly high levels of IL-2 (p<0.001) and IL-6 (p=0.03) as compared to controls. The female population skewed the result of one cytokine (IL-6) in patients. Anxiety scores showed positive correlation (only in female patients) with IL-1β, IL-10 and negative correlation with TGF-β1 and IL-17. The gender effect in relationship between anxiety and cytokines was not straightforward. On comparing study groups on the medication/naïve status, IL-2 and TGF-β1 showed significant difference between the groups (p<0.001, p=0.007 higher in medicated). Depression in adolescents was associated with elevation of proinflammatory serum cytokines with a gender bias for females. Anxiety scores correlated negatively with TGF-β1 and IL-17. PMID:26163725

  20. Adolescents and social support situations.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ingrid; Hagekull, Berit; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Åhlander, Camilla

    2016-06-01

    The present study concerned adolescents' needs for social support with a focus on specific situations. The Adolescent Need for Social Support Questionnaire (ANSSQ) was developed based on qualitative interviews with typically developing adolescents about situations in which they need parent support. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 380 Swedish 15-year-olds. A 3-component structure reflecting the dimensions "Home and school", "Low mood", and "Sex and alcohol" was tested in SEM analyses. Scales based on these dimensions, measuring support from parents and peers, yielded satisfactory psychometric results. Parent support was preferred over peer support for "Home and school" situations; in the other two areas peers were more likely to be the support providers. Females turned more often to parents and friends for support than males. Seeking parental support was positively related to adolescent disclosure and negatively related to adolescent secrecy, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Further validation of the ANSSQ is discussed. The current study points to possibilities for adapting measures of social support to contexts. PMID:27038341

  1. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Olivares, José; Sánchez-García, Raquel; López-Pina, José Antonio; Rosa-Alcázar, Ana Isabel

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to adapt and analyze the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C; Beidel, Turner, & Morris, 1995) in a Spanish population. The SPAI-C was applied to a sample of 1588 children and adolescents with ages ranging from 10 to 17 years. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed a four-factor structure: Public performance, Assertiveness, Fear and avoidance/escape in social encounters, and Cognitive and psychophysiological interferences. Internal consistency was high (.90) and test-retest reliability was moderate (.56). Significant differences were found in the variables sex and age, although the effect size was small in both variables and their interaction. Overall, the increase of the age value was inversely proportional to that of social anxiety measured with the SPAI-C; in participants of the same age, values were higher for girls than for boys. Results suggest that the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory For Children is a valid and reliable instrument to assess social anxiety in Spanish children and adolescents. PMID:20977043

  2. Anxiety and depression in adolescents in urban and rural China.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Therese; Ding, Qu Jian

    2005-04-01

    The goal was to assess rates of anxiety and depression in adolescents in two areas of Zhejiang Province, China. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out using a self-report questionnaire developed for this study. Participants were middle school students (age range 13-16 years) in an urban and a rural setting. There were 1576 completed questionnaires. Symptoms of anxiety sufficient to interfere with enjoyment of life, relaxation, and sleep were common (48%, 40%, and 27%, respectively). School-related problems were the predominant sources of worry. One third reported a history of depression, 16% had at times felt life was not worth living, and 9% reported that they had attempted suicide. Girls were more likely to report symptoms of depression. Patterns of help-seeking showed reliance on friends and parents; only 1% had sought professional help. There were no significant differences in anxiety and depression between one-child and multisibling families. PMID:15941121

  3. Relational Victimization: The Association between Recalled Adolescent Social Experiences and Emotional Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…

  4. Moderators of Peer Contagion: A Longitudinal Examination of Depression Socialization between Adolescents and Their Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined peer contagion of depressive symptoms over an 18-month interval within a sample of 100 11th-grade adolescents. Three types of peer contagion moderators were examined, including characteristics of adolescents (social anxiety, global self-worth), friends (level of friends' peer-perceived popularity), and the…

  5. Combined psychoeducation and treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for youth with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Chavira, Denise A; Stein, Murray B

    2002-01-01

    Treatment outcome data for childhood social anxiety are scant. Studies that do exist support the efficacy of both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions. Aside from case reports, studies assessing the efficacy of combined treatment approaches are even more limited. In the current study, we present preliminary findings from a combined psychoeducational and pharmacological treatment program for children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years) with generalized social anxiety disorder. Twelve participants received 12 weeks of citalopram treatment (maximum dose 40 mg/day) and eight brief counseling sessions (15 minutes each). Counseling sessions included education about social anxiety, skills coaching, and behavioral exercises; parents were included in these sessions. Based on clinician global ratings of change, 10 of 12 (83.3%) youths reported improvement: 41.7% (n = 5) of the participants were very much improved, and 41.7% (n = 5) were much improved. Significant changes were also found on self-report ratings of social anxiety, depression, and parents' perceptions of children's social skills during the course of treatment. Findings support the need for double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of combined treatments for youth with generalized social anxiety disorder. PMID:12014595

  6. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    PubMed

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety. PMID:25998000

  7. Social Anxiety in Childhood: Bridging Developmental and Clinical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2010-01-01

    In this introductory chapter, guided by developmental psychopathology and developmental science as overarching integrative theoretical frameworks, the authors define three constructs related to social anxiety in childhood (behavioral inhibition, anxious solitude/withdrawal, and social anxiety disorder) and analyze commonalities and differences in…

  8. Social Anxiety as a Predictor of Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanby, Michelle S. R.; Fales, Jessica; Nangle, Douglas W.; Serwik, Agnieszka K.; Hedrich, Uriah J.

    2012-01-01

    By far, most research on the behavior of socially anxious individuals has focused on the "flight" rather than the "fight" response described in the traditional conceptualization of anxiety. More recently, however, there has been some speculation and emerging evidence suggesting that social anxiety and aggression may be related. The present study…

  9. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary…

  10. Social Anxiety, Reasons for Drinking, and College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norberg, Melissa M.; Norton, Alice R.; Olivier, Jake; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that social anxiety may be associated with higher rates of alcohol problems in women, yet may be associated with lower levels of drinking in men. The current study investigated putative mechanisms that may underlie potential gender differences in the social anxiety-alcohol relationship. One hundred and eighteen college…

  11. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  12. Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training: Anxiety Outcomes and Impact of Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jami F.; Makover, Heather B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Mufson, Laura; Gallop, Robert; Benas, Jessica S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Given the frequent comorbidity of anxiety and depression, it is important to study the effects of depression interventions on anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on depression outcomes. Method This paper reports on pooled anxiety and depression data from two randomized trials of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a depression prevention program. Ninety-eight adolescents were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Outcome and predictor analyses were performed utilizing hierarchical linear models. Results IPT-AST adolescents had significantly greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms than SC adolescents during the intervention. Baseline anxiety symptoms predicted change in depressive symptoms for adolescents in both intervention conditions, with adolescents low in baseline anxiety demonstrating more rapid change in depressive symptoms than adolescents high in baseline anxiety. Conclusions These findings indicate that IPT-AST is effective at decreasing both depressive and anxiety symptoms. For adolescents with comorbid symptoms of anxiety, there may be slower rates of change in depressive symptoms following prevention programs. PMID:22891881

  13. Psychological treatment of social anxiety disorder improves body dysmorphic concerns.

    PubMed

    Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T; Aderka, Idan M; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2013-10-01

    Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders. In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decreases in body dysmorphic symptom severity. In Study 2, we found that an attention retraining intervention for social anxiety disorder was associated with a reduction in body dysmorphic concerns, compared to a placebo control condition. These findings support the notion that psychological treatments for individuals with primary social anxiety disorder improve co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. PMID:24121100

  14. Adolescent Resilience in Northern Uganda: The Role of Social Support and Prosocial Behavior in Reducing Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Emily E.; Murray, Laura K.; Bolton, Paul; Betancourt, Theresa; Bass, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relations between prosocial behavior, perceived social support, and improvement in depression and anxiety symptoms over 6 months among 102 Acholi adolescent (14-17 years, 58% female adolescents) survivors of war and displacement in Northern Uganda. Adolescents were assessed using a locally developed screener. Regression analyses…

  15. Behavioral Inhibition and Attentional Control in Adolescents: Robust Relationships with Anxiety and Depression.

    PubMed

    Sportel, B Esther; Nauta, Maaike H; de Hullu, Eva; de Jong, Peter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2011-04-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) has been associated with the development of internalizing disorders in children and adolescents. It has further been shown that attentional control (AC) is negatively associated with internalizing problems. The combination of high BI and low AC may particularly lead to elevated symptomatology of internalizing behavior. This study broadens existing knowledge by investigating the additive and interacting effects of BI and AC on the various DSM-IV based internalizing dimensions. A sample of non-clinical adolescents (N = 1806, age M = 13.6 years), completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System Scales (BIS/BAS), the attentional control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ) and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS). As expected, BI was positively, and AC was negatively related to internalizing dimensions, with stronger associations of BI than of AC with anxiety symptoms, and a stronger association of AC than of BI with depressive symptoms. AC moderated the association between BI and all measured internalizing dimensions (i.e., symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and major depressive disorder). Since high AC may reduce the impact of high BI on the generation of internalizing symptoms, an intervention focused on changing AC may have potential for prevention and treatment of internalizing disorders. PMID:21475713

  16. The Interrelationship of Social Anxiety with Anxiety, Depression, Locus of Control, Ways of Coping and Ego Strength amongst University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Robin-Marie; Edelman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the interrelationship of social anxiety with the variables anxiety, depression, locus of control, ego strength and ways of coping in a sample of university students. There were high scores of social anxiety which were related to high scores on measures of anxiety and depression, low ego strength, external…

  17. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  18. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: Distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; White, Emily K.; Menatti, Andrew; Weeks, Justin W.; Iacovino, Juliette M.; Warren, Cortney S.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N = 236; N = 136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

  19. Social appearance anxiety, perfectionism, and fear of negative evaluation: distinct or shared risk factors for social anxiety and eating disorders?

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; White, Emily K; Menatti, Andrew R; Weeks, Justin W; Iacovino, Juliette M; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-08-01

    Social anxiety and eating disorders are highly comorbid. Social appearance anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation of one's appearance), general fear of negative evaluation, and perfectionism have each been proposed as risk factors for both social anxiety disorder and the eating disorders. However, no research to date has examined all three factors simultaneously. Using structural equation modeling in two diverse samples (N=236; N=136) we tested a model in which each of these risk factors were uniquely associated with social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms. We found support for social appearance anxiety as a shared risk factor between social anxiety and eating disorder symptoms, whereas fear of negative evaluation was a risk factor only for social anxiety symptoms. Despite significant zero-order relationships, two facets of perfectionism (high standards and maladaptive perfectionism) did not emerge as a risk factor for either disorder when all constructs were considered. These results were maintained when gender, body mass index, trait negative affect, and depression were included in the model. It is possible that treating negative appearance evaluation fears may reduce both eating disorder and social anxiety symptoms. PMID:23583741

  20. Differentiating the subtypes of social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kristy; D'Avanzato, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Since the inclusion of subtypes of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in the DSM-III-R, the most studied have been generalized versus specific subtypes. Previous research indicated that the generalized subtype was associated with greater severity, comorbidity and functional impairment compared to the specific subtype, but more recent evidence supports a dimensional conceptualization of SAD. Earlier studies also possessed limitations, such as heterogeneity in definitions of generalized SAD. Based on the more recent findings and the limitations of the earlier studies, the DSM-5 eliminated the generalized specifier. However, it also retained a categorical system by including a performance-based fear specifier, thus leaving an open debate on whether or not a dimensional or categorical system best describes SAD. Future research could examine other, more recent concepts as potential subtypes (e.g., attentional biases), or perhaps the larger question of the overall utility in subtyping SAD. PMID:24175725

  1. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid

    PubMed Central

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Smith, Joshua P.; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between subjects in two studies—one involving socially anxious individuals (n=38) seeking treatment for addictions; the other (n=41) subjects with social anxiety and an alcohol use disorder, seeking treatment for social anxiety. Baseline severity scores on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for social anxiety were compared between the groups. No significant differences were found. For both groups, social anxiety was largely in the severe range. The results suggest that clinicians should attend to social anxiety symptom severity in patients with co-occurring social anxiety and addiction, regardless of the condition for which treatment is sought. PMID:22658305

  2. Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life In Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, J Kelly; Hodge, Christopher; Jacob, Eufemia

    2016-01-01

    The relationships among depression, anxiety, and quality of life were tested, as were the effects of age, gender, and pain frequency on these variables in children (n = 44) and adolescents (n = 31) with sickle cell disease. Participants completed the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (ROADS) and the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedQL Generic Model). The mean and standard deviation for summary RCADS scores for the majority of participants were below the clinical thresholds of T < 65, indicating low risk for depression (n = 65; 89.3%) and anxiety (n = 70; 93.3%). The subscale scores for the different dimensions of QOL health were a) psychosocial (73.3 ± 15.9), b) emotional (75.0 ± 20.7), c) social (80.8 ± 19.1), d) school functioning (64.0 ≥ 19.8), and e) physical (77.4 ± 17.4). Significant negative correlations were found between mean total quality of life scores and symptoms of a) general anxiety (r = -0.51, p < 0.0001), b) depression (r = -0.66, p < 0.0001), c) obsessive compulsive (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001), d) panic (r = -0.60, p < 0.0001), and e) social phobia (r = -0.57, p < 0.0001). Age and gender did not have significant effects on risk for depression and anxiety or poor QOL. Pain frequency also did not have significant effects on the risk for depression and anxiety. Findings suggest that health care providers need to screen for anxiety and depression, and make referrals for early interventions to improve quality of life and promote school function in youth with sickle cell disease. PMID:27468512

  3. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multi-reporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents’ social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a three-year period, even after accounting for teens’ baseline level of social competence. Additionally, reciprocal relationships emerged between rejection sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. Rejection sensitivity was also linked to relative decreases in peer-reports of teens’ social competence over a three-year period. Consistent with research on gendered socialization, males reported higher levels of rejection sensitivity than females at age 16 and 17. Results are interpreted as highlighting the importance of rejection sensitivity in understanding late adolescent social and emotional development. PMID:21113326

  4. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.…

  5. Examining the Panic Attack Specifier in Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Short, Nicole A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-04-01

    Panic attacks (PAs) are characterized by overwhelming surges of fear and discomfort and are one of the most frequently occurring symptoms in psychiatric populations. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. DSM-5) allows for a panic attack (PA) specifier for all disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, there is little research examining differences between individuals diagnosed with SAD with the PA specifier versus individuals diagnosed with SAD without the PA specifier. The current study examined social anxiety, mood, anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity social concerns, a risk factor for social anxiety in SAD-diagnosed individuals without (N = 52) and with (N = 14) the PA specifier. The groups differed only in somatic symptoms of anxiety. Result of the current study provides preliminary evidence that the presence of the PA specifier in social anxiety does not result in elevated levels of comorbidity or a more severe presentation of social anxiety. PMID:26750995

  6. Relations among Perceived Control over Anxiety-Related Events, Worry, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frala, Jamie L.; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Barreto, Carolina C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among perceived control over anxiety-related events, worry, and both symptoms and diagnoses of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The sample was comprised of 140 adolescents (60 girls) between the ages of 10 and 17 years (M[subscript age] = 14.6 years; SD = 2.25) recruited from the general community. Findings…

  7. Social surrogacy and adjustment: exploring the correlates of having a "social helper" for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A social surrogate is an individual who offers help and comfort in social situations or makes social events more exciting. In this study of 157 young adolescents (55% female; Mage = 13.84 years, SD = 0.75 years), the authors examined whether the linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported social surrogate use and adjustment outcomes (social problems, loneliness, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) varied as a function of shyness and gender, after accounting for the effects of positive friendship quality. Regression analyses revealed that low and high levels of social surrogate use were related to greater social problems for all adolescents. In addition, shyness emerged as a moderator for several curvilinear effects. Specifically, results indicated that (a) high levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater anxiety for adolescents high in shyness; and (b) low levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater depressive symptoms for adolescents low in shyness. Findings highlight the developmental importance of specific types of relationship experiences during early adolescence and point to different implications of social surrogate use for shy and non-shy young adolescents. PMID:25775369

  8. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems. PMID:25219790

  9. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  10. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Langer, Julia K; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2013-09-01

    Peer victimization leads to negative outcomes such as increased anxiety and depression. The prospective relationship between peer victimization and social anxiety in children and adolescents is well established, and adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are more likely than individuals with other anxiety disorders to report a history of teasing. However, a crucial bridge between these findings (peer victimization in young adults) is missing. We manipulated perceptions of peer exclusion in a young adult sample (N=108) using the Cyberball Ostracism Task. Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicted social anxiety symptoms at a 2-month follow-up, whereas self-reported teasing during high school and current relational victimization did not. This research suggests that reactions to peer victimization may be a worthwhile target for clinical interventions in young adults. Targeting how young adults react to stressful social interactions such as exclusion may help prevent the development of SAD. Future research should test if reactivity to exclusion plays a role in the relationship between other disorders (e.g., depression) and peer victimization. PMID:23768673

  11. Adolescent girls' anxieties -- role of stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Sofat, R; Gill, P J; Soni, R K; Kaur, L

    1990-01-01

    The study aim was to examine stressful events among 300 adolescent girls 11-17 years old enrolled in school in India. 50.33% had illiterate mothers. 22.33% had mothers who had a primary education and 25.34% who had a secondary education. 82.33% (247) were from nuclear families, and 17.67% (53) were from joint families. The largest proportions reported financial problems (38.67%) followed by household moves (30.33%) and a close relative's death (27.33%). Other concerns reported were parental frequent change or loss of job (12.33%), involvement in a court case (4.67%), death of one or both parents (4.33%), and frequent parental arguments (1.33%) and serious family accidents (1.33%). No stressful events were reported by 31.69% (95 girls); 68.34% reported stressful family events. A significant correlation was found between anxiety and life in a nuclear family (p 0.001). Anxiety was also higher, but not statistically significantly so, among families with an illiterate mother and lower socioeconomic status. More anxieties were reported among girls with working mothers (68%) than non-working mothers (32%). A significant correlation was found between the score of life events and the number of girls reporting anxieties. Individual anxieties were reported for inadequate height (15.66%), fear of boys' teasing (12.33%), losing hair (11.60%), menstrual tensions (10.33%), weak eyesight (9.66%), pimples (9.33%), weakness (8.88%), lack of study time (5.67%), excessive weight (3.67%), dark complexion (2.66%), and bad teeth (2.00%); 55.34% reported these anxieties. PMID:12346030

  12. The relations between social anxiety and social intelligence: a latent variable analysis.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Sandra; Weis, Susanne; Hiller, Wolfgang; Witthöft, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Social anxiety has been associated with biases in cognitive processing and deficits in social performances. Yet, it remains unclear if these variations may be partly attributable to deficits in fundamental social abilities: for example, social intelligence (SI). Using the Magdeburg Test of Social Intelligence (MTSI) as an objective and performance based SI measure, we examined the relationship between social anxiety and SI in a general population sample (N=110) using Structural Equation Modeling. Dimensions of social anxiety as postulated by Clark and Wells (1995) and facets of SI (social understanding, social memory, and social perception), were negatively correlated. Use of safety-behavior in particular was related to deficits in social understanding (r=-0.25; p<0.05) and social perception and memory (r=-0.24; p<0.05). Results suggest small to medium sized relationships between specific facets of social anxiety and certain domains of SI. Therapeutic implications for socially anxious individuals concerning SI are discussed. PMID:21315550

  13. The Relationship between "Theory of Mind" and Attachment-Related Anxiety and Avoidance in Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunefeldt, Thomas; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Ortu, Francesca; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between "theory of mind" and attachment-related anxiety and avoidance in adolescence. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test and the "Experiences in Close Relationships--Relationship Structures" questionnaires were administered to 402 14-19 year-old adolescents. Contrary to expectations, anxiety but not…

  14. The Relationship between Language Teachers' Attitudes and the State-Trait Anxiety of Adolescents with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsovili, Theodora D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role anxiety plays in the lives of adolescents with dyslexia by including a school perspective with special emphasis on the role of the teacher. The state-trait anxiety of 68 adolescents with dyslexia and their language teachers' attitudes towards them were compared with an equal number of…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in Cypriot Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Munoz, Luna C.

    2011-01-01

    The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a 38-item self-report questionnaire which measures symptoms of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Greek translation of SCAS in a large community sample of children and adolescents (N = 1,072), aged 12-17 years, in the…

  16. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  17. CB1 receptor signaling regulates social anxiety and memory.

    PubMed

    Litvin, Y; Phan, A; Hill, M N; Pfaff, D W; McEwen, B S

    2013-07-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system regulates emotion, stress, memory and cognition through the cannabinoid type 1 (CB1 ) receptor. To test the role of CB1 signaling in social anxiety and memory, we utilized a genetic knockout (KO) and a pharmacological approach. Specifically, we assessed the effects of a constitutive KO of CB1 receptors (CB1 KOs) and systemic administration of a CB1 antagonist (AM251; 5 mg/kg) on social anxiety in a social investigation paradigm and social memory in a social discrimination test. Results showed that when compared with wild-type (WT) and vehicle-treated animals, CB1 KOs and WT animals that received an acute dose of AM251 displayed anxiety-like behaviors toward a novel male conspecific. When compared with WT animals, KOs showed both active and passive defensive coping behaviors, i.e. elevated avoidance, freezing and risk-assessment behaviors, all consistent with an anxiety-like profile. Animals that received acute doses of AM251 also showed an anxiety-like profile when compared with vehicle-treated animals, yet did not show an active coping strategy, i.e. changes in risk-assessment behaviors. In the social discrimination test, CB1 KOs and animals that received the CB1 antagonist showed enhanced levels of social memory relative to their respective controls. These results clearly implicate CB1 receptors in the regulation of social anxiety, memory and arousal. The elevated arousal/anxiety resulting from either total CB1 deletion or an acute CB1 blockade may promote enhanced social discrimination/memory. These findings may emphasize the role of the eCB system in anxiety and memory to affect social behavior. PMID:23647582

  18. The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years.

    PubMed

    Brook, Christina A; Willoughby, Teena

    2015-05-01

    Given that engagement and integration in university/college are considered key to successful academic achievement, the identifying features of social anxiety, including fear of negative evaluation and distress and avoidance of new or all social situations, may be particularly disadvantageous in the social and evaluative contexts that are integral to university/college life. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct effects of social anxiety on academic achievement, as well as investigate an indirect mechanism through which social anxiety might impact on academic achievement, namely, the formation of new social ties in university. The participants were 942 (71.7 % female; M = 19 years at Time 1) students enrolled in a mid-sized university in Southern Ontario, Canada. Students completed annual assessments of social anxiety, social ties, and academic achievement for three consecutive years. The results from an autoregressive cross-lag path analysis indicated that social anxiety had a significant and negative direct relationship with academic achievement. Moreover, the negative indirect effect of social anxiety on academic achievement through social ties was significant, as was the opposing direction of effects (i.e., the indirect effect of academic achievement on social anxiety through social ties). These findings highlight the critical role that social ties appear to play in successful academic outcomes and in alleviating the effects of social anxiety during university/college. PMID:25691148

  19. Familial and Temperamental Risk Factors for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common disorder that can lead to significant impairment. In this chapter, the author provides background on the disorder and reviews hypothesized familial and temperamental risk factors. In particular, it highlights the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk for Anxiety, now…

  20. Development and Examination of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Trevor A.; Flora, David B.; Palyo, Sarah A.; Fresco, David M.; Holle, Christian; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to measure anxiety about being negatively evaluated by others because of one's overall appearance, including body shape. This study examined the psychometric properties of the SAAS in three large samples of undergraduate students (respective ns = 512, 853, and 541). The SAAS demonstrated a…

  1. Exposure and Anxiety Management in the Treatment of Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Gillian; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of exposure treatment for social phobia, and whether anxiety management would increase the effects of exposure in 45 patients. Results showed both exposure treatments were effective, although the combination of exposure and anxiety management was even more effective. (JAC)

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Perceived Parent-Adolescent Attachment Relationship Quality and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Eijck, Fenna E. A. M.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Hale, William W., III; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the direction of effects between adolescents' generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms and perceived parent-adolescent attachment relationship quality, as well as the moderating role of gender and age. 1,313 Dutch adolescents (48.5% boys) from two age cohorts of early (n = 923, M[subscript age] = 12 at W1) and…

  3. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  4. Biased Perception and Interpretation of Bodily Anxiety Symptoms in Childhood Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Julian; Blechert, Jens; Kramer, Martina; Asbrand, Julia; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive models of social phobia (SP) and empirical evidence in adults suggest that affected individuals overestimate arousal symptoms such as heart rate (HR) during social stress and worry about their visibility in public. To date, little is known about these aspects in childhood social anxiety, an important precursor of the disorder. We…

  5. Social Literacy: A Social Skills Seminar for Young Adults with ASDs, NLDs, and Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mary Riggs

    2011-01-01

    All adults need strong social skills to find and keep a job, establish relationships, and participate fully in adult life--but building these skills can be a special challenge for people with autism, Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disorder, social anxiety, and other disorders affecting social learning. Give them the essential support they…

  6. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS): rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To present the design, methods, and rationale of the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a recently completed federally-funded, multi-site, randomized placebo-controlled trial that examined the relative efficacy of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), and their combination (COMB) against pill placebo (PBO) for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social phobia (SoP) in children and adolescents. Methods Following a brief review of the acute outcomes of the CAMS trial, as well as the psychosocial and pharmacologic treatment literature for pediatric anxiety disorders, the design and methods of the CAMS trial are described. Results CAMS was a six-year, six-site, randomized controlled trial. Four hundred eighty-eight (N = 488) children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years) with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of SAD, GAD, or SoP were randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: CBT, SRT, COMB, or PBO. Assessments of anxiety symptoms, safety, and functional outcomes, as well as putative mediators and moderators of treatment response were completed in a multi-measure, multi-informant fashion. Manual-based therapies, trained clinicians and independent evaluators were used to ensure treatment and assessment fidelity. A multi-layered administrative structure with representation from all sites facilitated cross-site coordination of the entire trial, study protocols and quality assurance. Conclusions CAMS offers a model for clinical trials methods applicable to psychosocial and psychopharmacological comparative treatment trials by using state-of-the-art methods and rigorous cross-site quality controls. CAMS also provided a large-scale examination of the relative and combined efficacy and safety of the best evidenced-based psychosocial (CBT) and pharmacologic (SSRI) treatments to date for the most commonly occurring pediatric anxiety disorders. Primary and secondary results of CAMS will hold

  7. Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Perrin, Sean

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are at increased risk of anxiety and anxiety disorders. However, it is less clear which of the specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders occur most in this population. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to help clarify this issue. A systematic…

  8. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  9. Anxiety trajectories in response to a speech task in social anxiety disorder: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial of CBT.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Amanda S; Brozovich, Faith A; Lee, Ihno A; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-03-01

    The subjective experience of anxiety plays a central role in cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, much remains to be learned about the temporal dynamics of anxiety elicited by feared social situations. The aims of the current study were: (1) to compare anxiety trajectories during a speech task in individuals with SAD (n=135) versus healthy controls (HCs; n=47), and (2) to compare the effects of CBT on anxiety trajectories with a waitlist control condition. SAD was associated with higher levels of anxiety and greater increases in anticipatory anxiety compared to HCs, but not differential change in anxiety from pre- to post-speech. CBT was associated with decreases in anxiety from pre- to post-speech but not with changes in absolute levels of anticipatory anxiety or rates of change in anxiety during anticipation. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences should be further incorporated into exposures. PMID:26760456

  10. 24- and 36-Week Outcomes for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS)

    PubMed Central

    Piacentini, John; Bennett, Shannon; Compton, Scott; Kendall, Phillip; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; March, John; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Gosch, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; McCracken, James; Walkup, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective We report active treatment group differences on response and remission rates and changes in anxiety severity at weeks 24 and 36 for the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Method CAMS youth (N=488; 74%≤12 years) with DSM-IV separation, generalized, or social anxiety disorder were randomized to 12 weeks of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), sertraline (SRT), CBT+SRT (COMB), or medication management/pill placebo (PBO). Responders attended 6 monthly booster sessions in their assigned treatment arm; youth in COMB and SRT continued on their medication throughout this period. Efficacy of COMB, SRT, and CBT (N=412) was assessed at 24 and 36 weeks postrandomization. Youth randomized to PBO (n=76) were offered active CAMS treatment if nonresponsive at week 12 or over follow-up and were not included here. Independent evaluators blind to study condition assessed anxiety severity, functioning, and treatment response. Concomitant treatments were allowed but monitored over follow-up. Results Most (>80%) acute responders maintained positive response at both weeks 24 and 36. Consistent with acute outcomes, COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT, which did not differ, on dimensional outcomes; the 3 treatments did not differ on most categorical outcomes over follow-up. Compared to COMB and CBT, youth in SRT obtained more concomitant psychosocial treatments, while those in SRT and CBT obtained more concomitant combined (medication plus psychosocial) treatment. Discussion COMB maintained advantage over CBT and SRT on some measures over follow-up, while the 2 monotherapies remained indistinguishable. The observed convergence of COMB and monotherapy may be related to greater use of concomitant treatment during follow-up among youth receiving the monotherapies, although other explanations are possible. While outcomes were variable, most CAMS-treated youth enjoyed sustained treatment benefit. Clinical trial registration information— Child and Adolescent

  11. Social anxiety disorder: a critical overview of neurocognitive research.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Henk R; Roelofs, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Social anxiety is a common disorder characterized by a persistent and excessive fear of one or more social or performance situations. Behavioral inhibition is one of the early indicators of social anxiety, which later in life may advance into a certain personality structure (low extraversion and high neuroticism) and the development of maladaptive cognitive biases. While there are several effective psycho- and pharmacotherapy options, a large number of patients benefit insufficiently from these therapies. Brain and neuroendocrine research can help uncover both the biological basis of social anxiety and potentially provide indicators, 'biomarkers,' that may be informative for early disease detection or treatment response, above and beyond self-report data. Several large-scale brain networks related to emotion, motivation, cognitive control, and self-referential processing have been identified, and are affected in social anxiety. Social anxiety is further characterized by increased cortisol response and lower testosterone levels. These neuroendocrine systems are also related to altered connectivity patterns, such as reduced amygdala-prefrontal coupling. Much work is needed however to further elucidate such interactions between neuroendocrine functioning and large-scale brain networks. Despite the great promise of brain research in uncovering the neurobiological basis of social anxiety, several methodological and conceptual issues also need to be considered. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:218-232. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1390 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27240280

  12. [Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of social anxiety disorder (SAD) have been conducted because diagnostic criteria are defined as social phobia in DSM-III in the West. In Japan, several studies have examined pathological conditions similar to SAD, known as taijin-kyofu (TK). This highly remarkable disorder involves a convincing fear of giving another person discomfort from one's physical faults (e.g. feeling that neighboring people detect an unpleasant smell from one's body, "jikoshu-kyofu", or feeling that neighboring people feel unpleasant because of one's appearance,"shukei-kyofu") termed "convinced subtype of TK" (c-TK; also known as offensive subtype of TK). In DSM-5, the definitions of feeling rejection and offense of others are added to a fear of humiliating or embarrassing oneself. Moreover, TK is a sufficient criterion for SAD. However, it is confusing that body dysmorphic disorder is not in category of somatoform disorders but in that of obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders and that the Japanese terms of "jikoshu-kyofu" and "shubo-kyofu" are categorized as other specified obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders. The efficacy and tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for the treatment of SAD has been reported in many controlled studies. Recently, SSRIs are regarded as first line pharmacotherapy for SAD. Cognitive behavioral therapy is also effective for SAD treatment. High rates of co-occurring SAD and other psychiatric disorders can be found in clinical samples and in the general population. Additional research must be conducted for these patients and for the management of treatment-refractory SAD patients. PMID:26524867

  13. [Attachment Patterns and their Relation to the Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Childhood and Adolescence].

    PubMed

    Achtergarde, Sandra; Müller, Jörg Michael; Postert, Christian; Wessing, Ida; Mayer, Andreas; Romer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of attachment theory, insecure attachment can be seen as a key risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. This systematic review addresses the current state of empirical research on the relationship between attachment status and anxiety symptoms respective anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence. 21 current international studies published between 2010 and 2014 were included in this systematic review. These studies were heterogeneous in target populations, methods and study design. The majority of studies supported the assumed correlation between insecure attachment and anxiety symptoms or anxiety disorders. These findings are more evident in studies with school-age children than with preschool children or adolescents. Furthermore, the disorganized-disoriented type of attachment seems to be a particular risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders. Results were discussed in relation to attachment theory and with reference to the results of previous relevant reviews. PMID:26562083

  14. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  15. Attention allocation in social anxiety during a speech.

    PubMed

    Lin, Muyu; Hofmann, Stefan G; Qian, Mingyi; Kind, Shelley; Yu, Hongyu

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive models assume that social anxiety is associated with and maintained by biased information processing, leading to change in attention allocation, which can be measured by examining eye movement. However, little is known about the distribution of attention among positive, neutral and negative stimuli during a social task and the relative importance of positive versus negative biases in social anxiety. In this study, eye movement, subjective state anxiety and psychophysiology of individuals with high trait social anxiety (HSA) and low trait social anxiety (LSA) were measured during a speech task with a pre-recorded audience. The HSA group showed longer total fixation on negative stimuli and shorter total fixation on positive stimuli compared to the LSA group. We observed that the LSA group shifted attention away from negative stimuli, whereas the HSA group showed no differential attention allocation. The total duration of fixation on negative stimuli predicted subjective anxiety ratings. These results point to a negative bias as well as a lack of a positive bias in HSA individuals during social threat. PMID:26222127

  16. Social anxiety and the accuracy of predicted affect.

    PubMed

    Martin, Shannon M; Quirk, Stuart W

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is theorised to arise from sustained over-activation of a mammalian evolved system for detecting and responding to social threat with corresponding diminished opportunities for attaining the pleasure of safe attachments. Emotional forecasting data from two holidays were used to test the hypothesis that greater social anxiety would be associated with decreased expectations of positive affect (PA) and greater anticipated negative affect (NA) on a holiday marked by group celebration (St. Patrick's Day) while being associated with greater predicted PA for daters on a romantic holiday (Valentine's Day). Participants completed symptom reports, made affective forecasts and provided multiple affect reports throughout each holiday. Higher levels of social anxiety were associated with greater anticipated PA for Valentine's Day daters, but lower experienced PA on the holiday; this was not found for trait anxiety and depression. Alternatively, trait anxiety, depression and social anxiety were associated with less predicted PA for St. Patrick's Day, greater anticipated NA and diminished experienced PA/greater NA during the holiday. Results are discussed in light of perceived hope for rewarding safe emotional contact for those daters in contrast to the greater possibility for social threat associated with group celebration typical of St. Patrick's Day. PMID:24611591

  17. Ego Identity, Social Anxiety, Social Support, and Self-Concealment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potoczniak, Daniel J.; Aldea, Mirela A.; DeBlaere, Cirleen

    2007-01-01

    This study examined a model in which the relationship between social anxiety and two dimensions of ego identity (commitment and exploration) was expected to be mediated by social support and self-concealment for a sample of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals (N=347). Statistically significant paths were found from social anxiety to social…

  18. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online versus Clinic-Based CBT for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…

  20. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  2. Private and public self-awareness in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    George, Lindsay; Stopa, Lusia

    2008-03-01

    Clark and Wells' [(1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R.G. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D.A. Hope, & F. Schneier (Eds.). Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment and treatment. New York: Guildford Press] cognitive model of social phobia proposes that self-focused attention and construction of the self as a social object maintain anxiety. This study examines the effect of two different self-focus manipulations (mirror and video) on public and private self-awareness, perspective taking, anxiety, and attributions. Thirty one high socially anxious participants (26 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 19.58 (SD=1.89) and 32 low socially anxious participants (21 female, 11 male) with a mean age of 20.47 (SD=3.69) took part in a conversation with a stooge. Public self-awareness increased in both groups but was higher overall in the high socially anxious group. Private self-awareness decreased for the low socially anxious group, but did not change for the high socially anxious group. High socially anxious participants were also more aware of their surroundings than low socially anxious participants. High socially anxious participants used the field perspective less, and experienced more anxiety. High socially anxious participants also made fewer internal attributions for the conversation going well and more for the conversation going badly than low socially anxious participants who did the opposite. The implications of the results for the cognitive model are discussed. PMID:17214960

  3. Aggression and Anxiety: Social Context and Neurobiological Links

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Inga D.; Veenema, Alexa H.; Beiderbeck, Daniela I.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as anxiety- and depression-related disorders are often characterized by impaired social behaviours including excessive aggression and violence. Excessive aggression and violence likely develop as a consequence of generally disturbed emotional regulation, such as abnormally high or low levels of anxiety. This suggests an overlap between brain circuitries and neurochemical systems regulating aggression and anxiety. In this review, we will discuss different forms of male aggression, rodent models of excessive aggression, and neurobiological mechanisms underlying male aggression in the context of anxiety. We will summarize our attempts to establish an animal model of high and abnormal aggression using rats selected for high (HAB) vs. low (LAB) anxiety-related behaviour. Briefly, male LAB rats and, to a lesser extent, male HAB rats show high and abnormal forms of aggression compared with non-selected (NAB) rats, making them a suitable animal model for studying excessive aggression in the context of extremes in innate anxiety. In addition, we will discuss differences in the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, brain arginine vasopressin, and the serotonin systems, among others, which contribute to the distinct behavioural phenotypes related to aggression and anxiety. Further investigation of the neurobiological systems in animals with distinct anxiety phenotypes might provide valuable information about the link between excessive aggression and disturbed emotional regulation, which is essential for understanding the social and emotional deficits that are characteristic of many human psychiatric disorders. PMID:20407578

  4. Psicologia social de la adolescencia (Social Psychology of the Adolescent).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…

  5. The Relationship between Virtual Self Similarity and Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura; Kizilcec, René F.; Bailenson, Jeremy N.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality (VR), it is possible to embody avatars that are dissimilar to the physical self. We examined whether embodying a dissimilar self in VR would decrease anxiety in a public speaking situation. We report the results of an observational pilot study and two laboratory experiments. In the pilot study (N = 252), participants chose an avatar to use in a public speaking task. Trait public speaking anxiety correlated with avatar preference, such that anxious individuals preferred dissimilar self-representations. In Study 1 (N = 82), differences in anxiety during a speech in front of a virtual audience were compared among participants embodying an assigned avatar whose face was identical to their real self, an assigned avatar whose face was other than their real face, or embodied an avatar of their choice. Anxiety differences were not significant, but there was a trend for lower anxiety with the assigned dissimilar avatar compared to the avatar looking like the real self. Study 2 (N = 105) was designed to explicate that trend, and further investigated anxiety differences with an assigned self or dissimilar avatar. The assigned dissimilar avatar reduced anxiety relative to the assigned self avatar for one measure of anxiety. We discuss implications for theories of self-representation as well as for applied uses of VR to treat social anxiety. PMID:25477810

  6. Social Skills Success for Students with Autism/Asperger's: Helping Adolescents on the Spectrum to Fit In

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Fred; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    Two nationally known experts in friendship formation and anxiety management address the social challenges faced by adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The book helps educators instruct youth on conversing with others, displaying appropriate body language, managing anxiety, initiating and participating in get-togethers, and more. The…

  7. Direct and indirect predictors of social anxiety: The role of anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition, experiential avoidance and self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Panayiotou, Margarita

    2014-11-01

    Using mediated and moderated regression, this study examined the hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity, the tendency to be concerned about anxiety symptoms, and behavioral inhibition, the tendency to withdraw from novel and potentially dangerous stimuli, predict social anxiety indirectly through experiential avoidance as measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II and self-consciousness, as measured by the Self-Consciousness Scale. Behavioral inhibition and anxiety sensitivity are operationalized as temperamental traits, while experiential avoidance and self-consciousness are seen as learned emotion regulation strategies. Study 1 included college student groups from Cyprus scoring high and low on social anxiety (N=64 and N=63) as measured by the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Study 2 examined a random community sample aged 18-65 (N=324) treating variables as continuous and using the Psychiatric Disorders Screening Questionnaire to screen for social anxiety. Results suggest that experiential avoidance, but not self-consciousness mediates the effects of anxiety sensitivity on predicting social anxiety status, but that behavioral inhibition predicts social anxiety directly and not through the proposed mediators. Moderation effects were not supported. Overall, the study finds that social anxiety symptomatology is predicted not only by behavioral inhibition, but also anxiety sensitivity, when individuals take actions to avoid anxious experiences. Modifying such avoidant coping approaches may be more beneficial for psychological treatments than attempts to change long-standing, temperamental personality traits. PMID:25214373

  8. Evolution and social anxiety. The role of attraction, social competition, and social hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P

    2001-12-01

    If human social anxiety is not predominately about the fear of physical injury or attack, as it is in other animals, then, to understand human social anxiety (i.e., fear of evaluation), it is necessary to consider why certain types of relationships are so important. Why do humans need to court the good feelings of others and fear not doing so? And why, when people wish to appear attractive to others (e.g., to make friends, date a desired sexual partner, or give a good presentation), do some people become so overwhelmed with anxiety that they behave submissively and fearfully (which can be seen as unattractive) or are avoidant? This article has suggested that humans have evolved to compete for attractiveness to make good impressions because these are related to eliciting important social resources and investments from others. These, in turn, have been linked to inclusive fitness and have physiological regulating effects. Being allocated a low social rank or ostracized carries many negative consequences for controlling social resources and physiological regulation. Social anxiety, like shame, can be adaptive to the extent that it helps people to "stay on track" with what is socially acceptable and what is not and could result in social sanction and exclusion. However, dysfunctional social anxiety is the result of activation of basic defensive mechanisms (and modules for) for threat detection and response (e.g., inhibition, eye-gaze avoidance, flight, or submission) that can be recruited rapidly for dealing with immediate threats, override conscious wishes, and interfere with being seen as a "useful associate." Second, this article has suggested that socially anxious people are highly attuned to the competitive dynamics of trying to elicit approval and investment from others but that they perceive themselves to start from an inferior (i.e., low-rank) position and, because of this, activate submissive defensives when attempting to present themselves as confident, able

  9. The moderated effects of video feedback for social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Heimberg, Richard G; Schultz, Luke T; Blackmore, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    Despite initially positive results, video feedback for social anxiety has never been shown to reduce social anxiety in a controlled experiment with diagnosed participants, and only once with undiagnosed participants. Previous studies arguably did not detect such an effect because of limited assessment of anxiety and potential moderators. We tested video feedback with cognitive preparation among treatment-seeking participants with a primary diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. In Session 1, participants gave an extemporaneous speech and either received the intervention or not. In Session 2, 6-14 days later, participants gave a second extemporaneous speech. The intervention improved self-perception of performance, particularly for those participants with the most unrealistically negative impressions of their performance (i.e., high self-observer discrepancy). In addition, the intervention reduced anticipatory anxiety for the second speech for participants with high self-observer discrepancy. These findings extend previous results regarding video feedback and suggest that the intervention may be useful for people with social anxiety disorder and higher self-observer discrepancies for a specific task. PMID:20471783

  10. Grey matter abnormalities in social anxiety disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Syal, Supriya; Hattingh, Coenraad J; Fouché, Jean-Paul; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Carey, Paul D; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J

    2012-09-01

    While a number of studies have explored the functional neuroanatomy of social anxiety disorder (SAD), data on grey matter integrity are lacking. We conducted structural MRI scans to examine the cortical thickness of grey matter in individuals with SAD. 13 unmedicated adult patients with a primary diagnosis of generalized social anxiety disorder and 13 demographically (age, gender and education) matched healthy controls underwent 3T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness and subcortical volumes were estimated using an automated algorithm (Freesurfer Version 4.5). Compared to controls, social anxiety disorder patients showed significant bilateral cortical thinning in the fusiform and post central regions. Additionally, right hemisphere specific thinning was found in the frontal, temporal, parietal and insular cortices of individuals with social anxiety disorder. Although uncorrected cortical grey matter volumes were significantly lower in individuals with SAD, we did not detect volumetric differences in corrected amygdala, hippocampal or cortical grey matter volumes across study groups. Structural differences in grey matter thickness between SAD patients and controls highlight the diffuse neuroanatomical networks involved in both social anxiety and social behavior. Additional work is needed to investigate the causal mechanisms involved in such structural abnormalities in SAD. PMID:22527992

  11. Social anxiety and information processing biases: An integrated theoretical perspective.

    PubMed

    Peschard, Virginie; Philippot, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Models of anxiety disorders posit that information processing biases towards threat may result from an imbalance between top-down attentional control processes and bottom-up attentional processes, such that anxiety could reduce the influence of the former and increase the influence of the latter. However, researchers have recently pointed to limitations of the top-down/bottom-up terminology and outlined the additional contribution of memory processes to attention guidance. The goal of this paper is to provide bridges between recent findings from cognitive psychology and anxiety disorders research. We first provide an integrative overview of the processes influencing the content of working memory, including the availability of attentional control, and the strengths of task goals, stimulus salience, selection history and long-term memory. We then illustrate the interest of this formulation to the study of information processing biases in anxiety disorders, with a specific focus on social anxiety. PMID:25864371

  12. Social Anxiety in Stuttering: Measuring Negative Social Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messenger, Michelle; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross

    2004-01-01

    Much research has suggested that those who stutter are likely to be anxious. However, to date, little research on this topic has addressed the role of expectancies of harm in anxiety, which is a central construct of anxiety in modern clinical psychology. There are good reasons to believe that the anxiety of those who stutter is related to…

  13. Discrepancies in Adolescents’ and their Mothers’ Perceptions of the Family and Adolescent Anxiety Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examines relations between adolescents’ and their mothers’ perceptions of the family and adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Design Surveys were administered to 145 15- to 18-year-old adolescents and their mothers. Results Adolescents viewed the family more negatively than did their mothers. In addition, adolescent girls’ perceptions of the family (satisfaction and communication) negatively predicted later adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Significant interactions between adolescent and mother reports of family satisfaction and communication also were found for girls, but not for boys. For girls, discrepant family perceptions with their mothers appeared to protect them from anxiety if their mothers had negative perceptions of the family. Conclusions Understanding the similarities and differences among family members’ perspectives yields useful predictive information that cannot be obtained from studying these perspectives in isolation from one another. PMID:24634608

  14. Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W

    2015-12-01

    Social anxiety symptoms are common among cognitively unimpaired youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Few studies have investigated the co-occurrence of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adults with ASD, although identification may aid access to effective treatments and inform our scientific efforts to parse heterogeneity. In this preliminary study, we examined the clinical presentation of SAD in adults with ASD (n = 28), relative to SAD uncomplicated by ASD (n = 26). A large subset (50 %) of the adults with ASD met diagnostic criteria for SAD. The adults with ASD plus SAD differed from those with ASD without SAD on several characteristics. Findings demonstrate that many adults with ASD are aware of their social difficulties and experience impairing social anxiety. PMID:26243138

  15. The Interplay between Anxiety and Social Functioning in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Hanley, Mary; Kirk, Hannah; Clark, Fiona; Little, Katie; Fleck, Ruth; Janes, Emily; Kelso, Linzi; O'Kane, Fionnuala; Cole-Fletcher, Rachel; Allday, Marianne Hvistendahl; Hocking, Darren; Cornish, Kim; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2014-01-01

    The developmental disorder Williams syndrome (WS) has been associated with an atypical social profile of hyper-sociability and heightened social sensitivity across the developmental spectrum. In addition, previous research suggests that both children and adults with WS have a predisposition towards anxiety. The current research aimed to explore…

  16. Social anxiety and narrowed attentional breadth toward faces.

    PubMed

    Yoon, K Lira; Vidaurri, Desirae N; Joormann, Jutta; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-12-01

    The amount of information that can be perceived and processed will be partly determined by attentional breadth (i.e., the scope of attention), which might be narrowed in social anxiety due to a negative attentional bias. The current study examined the effects of stimulus valence on socially anxious individuals' attentional breadth. Seventy-three undergraduate students completed a computerized dual-task experiment during which they were simultaneously presented with a facial picture at the center of the screen and a black circle (i.e., a target) at the periphery. Participants' task was to indicate the gender of the model in the picture and the location of the peripheral target. The peripheral target was presented either close to or far from the central picture. Higher levels of social anxiety were significantly associated with greater difficulties detecting the target presented far from the central facial pictures, suggesting that social anxiety is associated with narrowed attentional breadth around social cues. Narrowing of attentional breadth among socially anxious individuals might hamper their ability to process all available social cues, thereby perpetuating social anxiety. PMID:25867919

  17. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A.; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  18. Mitochondrial function in the brain links anxiety with social subordination.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Fiona; van der Kooij, Michael A; Zanoletti, Olivia; Lozano, Laura; Cantó, Carles; Sandi, Carmen

    2015-12-15

    Dominance hierarchies are integral aspects of social groups, yet whether personality traits may predispose individuals to a particular rank remains unclear. Here we show that trait anxiety directly influences social dominance in male outbred rats and identify an important mediating role for mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens. High-anxious animals that are prone to become subordinate during a social encounter with a low-anxious rat exhibit reduced mitochondrial complex I and II proteins and respiratory capacity as well as decreased ATP and increased ROS production in the nucleus accumbens. A causal link for these findings is indicated by pharmacological approaches. In a dyadic contest between anxiety-matched animals, microinfusion of specific mitochondrial complex I or II inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens reduced social rank, mimicking the low probability to become dominant observed in high-anxious animals. Conversely, intraaccumbal infusion of nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3 known to enhance brain energy metabolism, prevented the development of a subordinate status in high-anxious individuals. We conclude that mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens is crucial for social hierarchy establishment and is critically involved in the low social competitiveness associated with high anxiety. Our findings highlight a key role for brain energy metabolism in social behavior and point to mitochondrial function in the nucleus accumbens as a potential marker and avenue of treatment for anxiety-related social disorders. PMID:26621716

  19. Social anxiety disorder in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a disabling yet unrecognized condition for many individuals visiting primary care physicians. Social anxiety disorder carries a high risk of developing additional anxiety and mood disorders, including those with suicidal behaviors, as comorbidities, leading to a severe course. Screening and case-finding tools are available and can lead to the recognition of affected individuals. Once symptoms are recognized, an initial assessment will help to differentiate from other anxiety disorders and conditions that can be misdiagnosed as SAD. The primary care physician can manage treatment of SAD, which might require involving mental health professionals. Both pharmacotherapy, involving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and psychotherapy, preferably with cognitive-behavioral therapy, can be effective. Long-term support strategies to monitor relapses or the development of additional psychiatric disorders or to provide anticipatory guidance at times of significant life transitions are additional primary care-based activities that can be helpful to the patient with SAD. PMID:17092194

  20. The cortisol response to social stress in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Vaccarino, Oriana; Levitan, Robert; Ravindran, Arun

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the cortisol stress response (CSR) following the Trier Social Stress Test in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and control participants, to determine whether individual differences in CSR associate more with SAD diagnosis or dimensional characteristics [i.e. childhood trauma (CT)]. Twenty-one participants (11 with SAD) had full data available for both CT-scores and cortisol area-under-the-curve (AUC). Linear regression produced significant results: predicting AUCG with study group, emotional abuse (EA) scores and their interaction (F=3.14, df=5,15; p=.039); of note, the study group by EA interaction was significant at p=.015, driven by a strong positive association between EA and cortisol AUCG in the control group, and a negative association between these variables in the SAD group (standardized-beta=1.56, t=2.75, p=.015). This suggests that EA in SAD patients is associated with altered CSR, highlighting need to measure dimensional characteristics. PMID:25864645

  1. Social anxiety in online and real-life interaction and their associated factors.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Wang, Peng-Wei; Chang, Yi-Hsin; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety was compared between online and real-life interaction in a sample of 2,348 college students. Severity of social anxiety in both real-life and online interaction was tested for associations with depression, Internet addiction, Internet activity type (gaming versus chatting), and scores on Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scales. The results showed that social anxiety was lower when interacting online than when interacting offline. Depression, Internet addiction, and high BIS and BAS scores were associated with high social anxiety. The social anxiety decreased more in online interaction among subjects with high social anxiety, depression, BIS, and BAS. This result suggests that the Internet has good potential as an alternative medium for delivering interventions for social anxiety. Further, the effect of BIS on social anxiety is decreased in online interaction. More attention should be paid for BIS when the treatment for social anxiety is delivered online. PMID:22175853

  2. Testing the temporal relationship between maternal and adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2015-01-01

    Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257

  3. Loneliness over time: The crucial role of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lim, Michelle H; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Zyphur, Michael J; Gleeson, John F M

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is known to be associated with multiple adverse physical outcomes, including higher mortality and morbidity risk. However, the impact of loneliness on mental health is less well researched, with most studies assessing how loneliness relates to depressive symptoms alone. We hypothesized that 2 mental health symptoms that relate to the fear of others-social anxiety and paranoia-would contribute to loneliness. We examined how loneliness relates to social anxiety, paranoia, and depression symptoms in a general community sample aged 18-87 years old (N = 1,010). We administered online measures over 3 time points across a 6-month period. In a cross-lagged structural equation model controlling for trait levels and prior states, our results indicated that earlier loneliness positively predicted future states of social anxiety, paranoia, and depression. However, in the same model, earlier social anxiety was the only predictor of future loneliness. These results suggest that loneliness may be a potential antecedent to emerging mental health symptoms and that identifying and treating co-occurring social anxiety symptoms may reduce the severity of loneliness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27124713

  4. Social Anxiety Predicts Aggression in Children with ASD: Clinical Comparisons with Socially Anxious and Oppositional Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugliese, Cara E.; White, Bradley A.; White, Susan W.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which social anxiety predicts aggression in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD, n = 20) compared to children with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD, n = 20) or with Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder (ODD/CD, n = 20). As predicted, children with HFASD reported levels…

  5. Neuroimaging studies of pediatric social anxiety: paradigms, pitfalls and a new direction for investigating the neural mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating condition that typically manifests in adolescence. Here we describe cognitive factors engaged by brain-imaging tasks, which model the peer-based social interactions that evoke symptoms of SAD. We then present preliminary results from the Virtual School paradigm, a novel peer-based social interaction task. This paradigm is designed to investigate the neural mechanisms mediating individual differences in social response flexibility and in participants’ responses to uncertainty in social contexts. We discuss the utility of this new paradigm for research on brain function and developmental psychopathology. PMID:23849682

  6. The Relationship between Anxiety Disorders and Substance Use among Adolescents in the Community: Specificity and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ping; Goodwin, Renee D.; Fuller, Cordelia; Liu, Xinhua; Comer, Jonathan S.; Cohen, Patricia; Hoven, Christina W.

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 781 adolescents (ages 13-17, 52.8% male) from a community survey, this study examined gender differences in the co-occurrence of specific anxiety disorders with substance use in adolescents. The associations between anxiety disorders and substance use differed according to the particular anxiety disorders and forms of substance…

  7. Online Chat Dependency: The Influence of Social Anxiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Chang, Shu-Chen

    Recent developments in information technology have made it easy for people to “chat” online with others in real time, and many do so regularly. “Virtual” relationships can be attractive, especially for people with social interaction problems in the “real world”. This study examines the influence on online chat dependency of three dimensions of social anxiety: general social situation fear, negative evaluation fear, and novel social situation fear. Participants of this study were 454 college students. The survey results show that negative evaluation fear and general social situation fear are relative to online chat dependency, while novel social situation fear does not seem to be a relevant factor.

  8. Dental Fear and Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Qualitative Study Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Hamzah, SH; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; McGrath, Colman; King, Nigel M

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) refers to the fear of and anxiety towards going to the dentist. It exists in a considerable proportion of children and adolescents and is a major dilemma in pediatric dental practice. As an Internet social medium with increasing popularity, the video-sharing website YouTube offers a useful data source for understanding health behaviors and perceptions of the public. Objective Using YouTube as a platform, this qualitative study aimed to examine the manifestations, impacts, and origins of DFA in children and adolescents from the public’s perspective. Methods To retrieve relevant information, we searched YouTube using the keywords “dental fear”, “dental anxiety”, and “dental phobia”. Videos in English expressing a layperson’s views or experience on children’s or adolescent’s DFA were selected for this study. A video was excluded if it had poor audiovisual quality, was irrelevant, was pure advertisement or entertainment, or contained only the views of professionals. After the screen, we transcribed 27 videos involving 32 children and adolescents, which were reviewed by a panel of 3 investigators, including a layperson with no formal dental training. Inductive thematic analysis was applied for coding and interpreting the data. Results The videos revealed multiple manifestations and impacts of DFA, including immediate physical reactions (eg, crying, screaming, and shivering), psychological responses (eg, worry, upset, panic, helplessness, insecurity, resentment, and hatred), and uncooperativeness in dental treatment. Testimonials from children, adolescents, and their parents suggested diverse origins of DFA, namely personal experience (eg, irregular dental visits and influence of parents or peers), dentists and dental auxiliaries (eg, bad manner, lack of clinical skills, and improper work ethic), dental settings (eg, dental chair and sounds), and dental procedures (eg, injections, pain, discomfort, and

  9. Marijuana use motives and social anxiety among marijuana-using young adults.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2007-10-01

    Given the high rates of co-occurring marijuana use and social anxiety, the present investigation examined the relations among marijuana use motives, marijuana use and problems, and social anxiety in 159 (54.7% female) young adults (M(age)=18.74, SD=1.20). As expected, after covarying for a number of variables related to both marijuana use and social anxiety (e.g. gender, alcohol use problems, anxiety sensitivity), social anxiety predicted greater numbers of marijuana use problems. Interestingly, social anxiety was not related to marijuana use frequency. Also consistent with prediction, social anxiety was a significant predictor of coping and conformity motives for marijuana use above and beyond relevant variables. Finally, coping motives for marijuana use mediated the relation between social anxiety and marijuana use problems. These data provide novel evidence for the unique effects of coping-motivated marijuana use in the link between marijuana-related impairment and social anxiety. PMID:17478056

  10. Dimensional assessment of DSM-5 social anxiety symptoms among university students and its relationship with functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano; Carlini, Marina; Carpita, Barbara; Macchi, Elisabetta; Gorrasi, Federica; Mengali, Francesco; Tognetti, Rosalba; Massimetti, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is a common condition often associated with severe impairment in educational career. The aim of this paper was to evaluate prevalence rates and correlates of mild, moderate, and severe forms of social anxiety spectrum in a large sample of university students. Overall, 717 university students were assessed with the Social Anxiety Spectrum Self-Report questionnaire. Using two cut-off scores, 61.4% of subjects were classified as low scorers, 10% as medium scorers, and 28.6% as high scorers. Both high and medium scorers reported fears related to social situations. Interpersonal sensitivity and specific phobias were more common among women with low scores. Childhood/adolescence social anxiety features were more common among males with medium scores. Behavioral inhibition was more common among males with high scores. Functional impairment was severe among high scorers and, to a lesser extent, among medium scorers. Social anxiety spectrum is largely represented among university students. Future studies should investigate whether sufferers of social phobia underachieve or end their professional objectives prematurely. PMID:25075191

  11. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

  12. Anxiety, depression, and oscillatory dynamics in a social interaction model.

    PubMed

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Savostyanov, Alexander N; Bocharov, Andrey V; Rimareva, Julia M

    2016-08-01

    Although anxiety and depression frequently co-occur and share a substantial part of genetic vulnerability and other risk factors, they are distinct disorders and their effect on social functioning and accompanying cognitive and emotional processing could be different. In this study, in a nonclinical sample, we compared effects of trait anxiety and depressive symptoms on oscillatory dynamics accompanying perception of emotional facial expressions in the context of social interactions. Anxiety was associated with a longer reaction time, with preference of avoidance behavior, and with enhanced event-related alpha desynchronization and diminished theta synchronization. Depression did not show significant behavioral effects and was associated with diminished alpha desynchronization and augmented delta and theta synchronization in prefrontal cortical regions. Thus, in spite of frequent comorbidity, anxiety and depression show opposite patterns of associations with oscillatory dynamics accompanying social interactions. These patterns imply that anxiety is associated with hyper-reactive attentional system, whereas depression show signs of diminished cognitive reactivity. Depression-related enhancement of low-frequency synchronization in prefrontal cortex may reflect a compensatory mechanism of cognitive and emotional upregulation, which depression-prone individuals engage in the process of social interactions. PMID:27173999

  13. Development of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Program to Treat Anxiety and Social Deficits in Teens with High-Functioning Autism

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Anne Marie; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Kasari, Connie; Ollendick, Thomas; Klin, Ami; Oswald, Donald; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a common co-occurring problem among young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication problems, and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests, this group of disorders is more prevalent than previously realized. When present, anxiety may compound the social deficits of young people with ASD. Given the additional disability and common co-occurrence of anxiety in ASD, we developed a manual-based cognitive-behavioral treatment program to target anxiety symptoms as well as social skill deficits in adolescents with ASD [Multimodal Anxiety and Social Skills Intervention: MASSI]. In this paper, we describe the foundation, content, and development of MASSI. We also summarize data on treatment feasibility based on a pilot study that implemented the intervention. PMID:20091348

  14. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  15. Mediation of Changes in Anxiety and Depression During Treatment of Social Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovitch, David A.; Stefan G. Hofmann, Michael K.; Suvak, Michael K.; In-Albon, Tina

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the interactive process of changes in social anxiety and depression during treatment, the authors assessed weekly symptoms in 66 adult outpatients with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who participated in cognitive- behavioral group therapy. Multilevel mediational analyses revealed that improvements in social anxiety mediated…

  16. Bullying Victimization, Parenting Stress, and Anxiety among Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jonathan A; Cappadocia, M Catherine; Tint, Ami; Pepler, Debra

    2015-12-01

    Bullying victimization is commonly associated with anxiety among individuals with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and both bullying victimization and anxiety are more prevalent among youth with ASD than in the general population. We explored individual and contextual factors that relate to anxiety in adolescents and young adults with ASD who also experience bullying victimization. Participants included 101 mothers of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with ASD. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relationship between bullying victimization and anxiety in children with ASD, as well as parenting stress as a potential moderator of that relationship. Findings indicate that parenting stress moderates the association between bullying victimization and anxiety. The severity of anxiety was most strongly associated with bullying victimization when mothers reported high levels of stress. Implications for interventions that assist parents with coping and address bullying victimization are discussed. PMID:25962561

  17. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  18. Mother-Child Attachment and Social Anxiety Symptoms in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…

  19. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  20. Neural mechanisms of social influence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Welborn, B Locke; Lieberman, Matthew D; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Galván, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    During the transformative period of adolescence, social influence plays a prominent role in shaping young people's emerging social identities, and can impact their propensity to engage in prosocial or risky behaviors. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of social influence from both parents and peers, two important sources of influence. Nineteen adolescents (age 16-18 years) completed a social influence task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Social influence from both sources evoked activity in brain regions implicated in mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction, right temporoparietal junction), reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and self-control (right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). These results suggest that mental state reasoning, social reward and self-control processes may help adolescents to evaluate others' perspectives and overcome the prepotent force of their own antecedent attitudes to shift their attitudes toward those of others. Findings suggest common neural networks involved in social influence from both parents and peers. PMID:26203050

  1. Assessing Fears and Related Anxieties in Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities or Mild Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Morris, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine self-reported fears and related anxieties in children and adolescents (7-18 years of age) having learning disabilities (LD) or mild mental retardation (MIMR), and whether these fears and related anxieties differ based on gender and age. Students responded to two well validated instruments, The "Fear…

  2. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  3. Associations between Depression and Anxiety Symptoms with Retinal Vessel Caliber in Adolescents and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Hickie, Ian B.; Lu, Yi; MacGregor, Stuart; Medland, Sarah E.; Sun, Cong; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Margie; Zhu, Gu; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mackey, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous longitudinal studies suggest that depression and anxiety are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether an association between depression and anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel caliber, an indicator of subclinical cardiovascular risk, is apparent as early as adolescence and young adulthood. Methods Participants were 865 adolescents and young adults who participated in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study and the Twin Eye Study in Tasmania. Participants completed the Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE), including assessments of depression/anxiety and somatic symptom subscales, when they were M=16.5 years, and they underwent retinal imaging M=2.5 years later (range=2 years before to 7 years after the depression/anxiety assessment). Retinal vessel caliber was assessed using computer software. Results: Depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with wider retinal arteriolar caliber in this sample of adolescents and young adults (β=0.09, p=.016), even after adjusting for other cardiovascular risk factors (β=0.08, p=.025). Multiple regression analyses revealed that affective symptoms of depression/anxiety were associated with retinal vessel caliber independently of somatic symptoms. Conclusions Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with measurable signs in the retinal microvasculature in early life, suggesting that pathological microvascular mechanisms may be operative in the association between depression and anxiety with cardiovascular disease starting as early as adolescence. PMID:25373892

  4. School Anxiety Inventory: Reliability and Validity Evidence in a Sample of Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levpušcek, Melita Puklek; Inglés, Candido J.; Marzo, Juan C.; García-Fernández, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the School Anxiety Inventory (SAI) using a sample of 646 Slovenian adolescents (48% boys), ranging in age from 12 to 19 years. Single confirmatory factor analyses replicated the correlated four-factor structure of scores on the SAI for anxiety-provoking school situations…

  5. Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Adolescents in China: Their Fears and Anxieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the fears and anxieties of Chinese deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents, and the ability of parents and teachers to report the presence of these fears and anxieties. Chinese deaf youth are at risk due to a lack of trained teachers, an overemphasis on oral education in schools, negative stereotypes, and parental…

  6. Assessment of Anxiety in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondhuis, Sabrina N.; Aman, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common comorbid conditions in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), although assessment presents unique challenges. Many symptoms of anxiety appear to overlap with common presentations of autism. Furthermore, deficits in language and cognitive functioning make it difficult for such…

  7. The Role of Sensitizing Experiences in Music Performance Anxiety in Adolescent Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Margaret S.; Kenny, Dianna T.

    2008-01-01

    Aversive performance incidents play a role in the development of some anxiety disorders. The role of sensitizing experiences in the development of music performance anxiety (MPA) in adolescent music students has not yet been explored. Two-hundred-and-ninety-eight music students were asked to provide written descriptions of their worst performance,…

  8. Adolescent Subthreshold-Depression and Anxiety: Psychopathology, Functional Impairment and Increased Suicide Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Judit; Miklosi, Monika; Kereszteny, Agnes; Hoven, Christina W.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Marusic, Dragan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A.; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Tubiana, Alexandra; Varnik, Airi; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Subthreshold-depression and anxiety have been associated with significant impairments in adults. This study investigates the characteristics of adolescent subthreshold-depression and anxiety with a focus on suicidality, using both categorical and dimensional diagnostic models. Methods: Data were drawn from the Saving and Empowering…

  9. Retrospective and Prospective Cognitions in Adolescents: Anxiety, Depression, and Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Helen; MacLeod, Andrew K.; Pote, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Research with anxious and depressed adults has suggested that anxiety is related to an increased anticipation of both negative memories and negative expectancies whereas depression is related to a reduction in positive memories and expectancies. The present study examined whether anxiety and depression in 123 school-aged adolescents would show the…

  10. The Relation between Anxiety Disorder and Experiential Avoidance in Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venta, Amanda; Sharp, Carla; Hart, John

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety disorders, as well as the usefulness of the Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y; Greco, Lambert, & Baer, 2008) in detecting anxiety disorder in a sample of adolescent inpatients. First, the relation between experiential avoidance and anxiety…

  11. Parenting and Early Adolescent Internalizing: The Importance of Teasing Apart Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lesley E.; Greenberg, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This community-based study examined differences in parenting quality and parent symptoms for youth in four categories: anxious (elevated anxiety symptoms), depressed (elevated depressive symptoms), comorbid (elevated anxiety and depressive symptoms), and nonelevated (elevations of neither type). Respondents were 976 young adolescents (mean age =…

  12. Examination of Relationship between Anxiety Sensitivity and Parenting Styles in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated the relationships between anxiety sensitivity and perceived parenting styles of adolescents and the predictive role of perceived parenting styles on anxiety sensitivity. The study group was composed by 545 (255 females; 290 males) students studying in different high schools in Mugla. The data were collected using the…

  13. Exposure to virtual social interactions in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Isabel L; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Hartanto, Dwi; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Zijlstra, Bonne J H; Morina, Nexhmedin

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of a stand-alone virtual reality exposure intervention comprising verbal interaction with virtual humans to target heterogeneous social fears in participants with social anxiety disorder. Sixty participants (Mage = 36.9 years; 63.3% women) diagnosed with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to individual virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET), individual in vivo exposure therapy (iVET), or waiting-list. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that both treatment groups improved from pre-to postassessment on social anxiety symptoms, speech duration, perceived stress, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs when compared to the waiting-list. Participants receiving iVET, but not VRET, improved on fear of negative evaluation, speech performance, general anxiety, depression, and quality of life relative to those on waiting-list. The iVET condition was further superior to the VRET condition regarding decreases in social anxiety symptoms at post- and follow-up assessments, and avoidant personality disorder related beliefs at follow-up. At follow-up, all improvements were significant for iVET. For VRET, only the effect for perceived stress was significant. VRET containing extensive verbal interaction without any cognitive components can effectively reduce complaints of generalized social anxiety disorder. Future technological and psychological improvements of virtual social interactions might further enhance the efficacy of VRET for social anxiety disorder. PMID:26752328

  14. Cognitive constructs and social anxiety disorder: beyond fearing negative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Teale Sapach, Michelle J N; Carleton, R Nicholas; Mulvogue, Myriah K; Weeks, Justin W; Heimberg, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Pioneering models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) underscored fear of negative evaluation (FNE) as central in the disorder's development. Additional cognitive predictors have since been identified, including fear of positive evaluation (FPE), anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty (IU), but rarely have these constructs been examined together. The present study concurrently examined the variance accounted for in SAD symptoms by these constructs. Participants meeting criteria for SAD (n = 197; 65% women) completed self-report measures online. FNE, FPE, anxiety sensitivity, and IU all accounted for unique variance in SAD symptoms. FPE accounted for variance comparable to FNE, and the cognitive dimension of anxiety sensitivity and the prospective dimension of IU accounted for comparable variance, though slightly less than that accounted for by FNE and FPE. The results support the theorized roles that these constructs play in the etiology of SAD and highlight both FNE and FPE as central foci in SAD treatment. PMID:25277488

  15. Behavioral avoidance mediates the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms among social anxiety disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Ethan; Herbert, James D; Forman, Evan M

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and behavioral avoidance among adult patients with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Epidemiological literature shows SAD is the most common comorbid disorder associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), though the relationship between these disorders has not been investigated. In most cases, SAD onset precedes MDD, suggesting symptoms associated with SAD might lead to depression in some people. The present study addressed this question by investigating the mediational role of behavioral avoidance in this clinical phenomenon, using self-report data from treatment-seeking socially anxious adults. Mediational analyses were performed on a baseline sample of 190 individuals and on temporal data from a subset of this group. Results revealed behavioral avoidance mediated this relationship, and supported the importance of addressing such avoidance in the therapeutic setting, via exposure and other methods, as a possible means of preventing depressive symptom onset in socially anxious individuals. PMID:18282686

  16. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children using a non-American population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C; Svarva, Kyrre

    2008-08-01

    Although previous studies have examined the factor structure of the SPAI-C, adequate factor analytic methodology has not been employed. This study explored the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), using a non-American population-based sample of older children and young adolescents 11-14 years of age. Initially an exploratory factor analysis was conducted followed 1 year later by a confirmatory factor analysis. Five factors labeled Assertiveness, Public Performance, Physical/Cognitive Symptoms, Social Encounter, and Avoidance were retained and confirmed. The Public Performance and Assertiveness factors were the most stable and consistent factors or traits of social anxiety over a 1-year period. Results revealed adequate concurrent validity, internal consistency and moderate 12-month test-retest reliability of the SPAI-C total scale. The SPAI-C was found to assess levels of both social anxiety and social anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Findings suggest that the SPAI-C is applicable in clinical treatment studies designed to assess sensitivity to change in various aspects of social anxiety disorder. PMID:18182274

  17. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  18. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication. PMID:22703034

  19. Social Support and Social Anxiety in Use and Perceptions of Online Mental Health Resources: Exploring Social Compensation and Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Erin K; McKinley, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    This study used the frameworks of social compensation and social enhancement to examine how social anxiety and social support were related to college students' (N=443) use and perceptions of online mental health resources (Web sites and online support groups). Potential interactions between social support and social anxiety were also examined. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, perceived usefulness of Web sites was positively associated with social support. Perceived usefulness of online support groups was positively associated with social support when participants reported average or high, but not low, social anxiety. In contrast, previous use of Web sites was consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Participants who reported less social support were more likely to have used a Web site for a mental or emotional problem. These findings suggest that college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources vary as a function of social support and social anxiety, and that patterns suggestive of social compensation and social enhancement depend on whether perceptions or actual use of resources are examined. Combined with the significant interaction between social support and social anxiety on perceived usefulness of online support groups, these findings highlight the potential complexity of social compensation and enhancement phenomena. PMID:26252931

  20. Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Winslow, James T; Mori, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Communication is essential to members of a society not only for the expression of personal information, but also for the protection from environmental threats. Highly social mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed ‘social buffering’, has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates and also in humans. This paper reviews classical findings on social buffering and focuses, in particular, on social buffering effects in relation to neuroendocrine stress responses. The social cues that transmit social buffering signals, the neural mechanisms of social buffering and a partner's efficacy with respect to social buffering are also detailed. Social contact appears to have a very positive influence on the psychological and the physiological aspects of social animals, including human beings. Research leading towards further understanding of the mechanisms of social buffering could provide alternative medical treatments based on the natural, individual characteristics of social animals, which could improve the quality of life. PMID:17118934

  1. The Interactive Effect of Test Anxiety and Learning Disabilities among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lufi, Dubi; Darliuk, Lina

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to expand the knowledge about test anxiety (TA) and its interactive effect on personality characteristics among adolescents who suffer from learning disabilities (LDs). The 166 participants aged 14-18 years, were divided into the following four groups: (1) adolescents with TA and with LD; (2) adolescents…

  2. Parental Behaviors during Family Interactions Predict Changes in Depression and Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…

  3. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  4. Psychological Effects of Illness in Adolescence. I. Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Perception of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellerman, Jonathan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Healthy adolescents were compared with adolescents (mean age of both groups, 15) with various chronic or serious diseases on standardized measures of trait anxiety, self-esteem, and health locus of control (perception of self-control over health and illness). Journal availability: C. V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO…

  5. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptoms: A 5-Year Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Muris, Peter; Van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the adolescent developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms from the general population is conducted. Results using individually focused trajectory-based analyses show that the symptoms differed from one another for various adolescent age and sex cohorts.

  7. Latent Variable Analysis of Coping, Anxiety/Depression, and Somatic Symptoms in Adolescents with Chronic Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.; Boyer, Margaret C.; Stanger, Catherine; Colletti, Richard B.; Thomsen, Alexandra H.; Dufton, Lynette M.; Cole, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Reports of adolescents' coping with recurrent pain, symptoms of anxiety/depression, and somatic complaints were obtained from a sample of 164 adolescents with recurrent abdominal pain and their parents. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that coping consisted of 3 nonorthogonal factors: Primary Control Engagement Coping (problem solving,…

  8. Biases in probabilistic category learning in relation to social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anna; Hermann, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental learning paradigms are rarely employed to investigate the mechanisms underlying acquired fear responses in social anxiety. Here, we adapted a probabilistic category learning paradigm to assess information processing biases as a function of the degree of social anxiety traits in a sample of healthy individuals without a diagnosis of social phobia. Participants were presented with three pairs of neutral faces with differing probabilistic accuracy contingencies (A/B: 80/20, C/D: 70/30, E/F: 60/40). Upon making their choice, negative and positive feedback was conveyed using angry and happy faces, respectively. The highly socially anxious group showed a strong tendency to be more accurate at learning the probability contingency associated with the most ambiguous stimulus pair (E/F: 60/40). Moreover, when pairing the most positively reinforced stimulus or the most negatively reinforced stimulus with all the other stimuli in a test phase, the highly socially anxious group avoided the most negatively reinforced stimulus significantly more than the control group. The results are discussed with reference to avoidance learning and hypersensitivity to negative socially evaluative information associated with social anxiety. PMID:26347685

  9. Dysregulated Fear Predicts Social Wariness and Social Anxiety Symptoms during Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Kristin A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Brooker, Rebecca J.; Beekman, Charles; Early, Martha C.

    2013-01-01

    Fearful temperament is associated with risk for the development of social anxiety disorder in childhood; however, not all fearful children become anxious. Identifying maladaptive trajectories is thus important for clarifying which fearful children are at risk. In an unselected sample of 111 two-year-olds (55% male, 95% Caucasian), Buss (2011) identified a pattern of fearful behavior, dysregulated fear, characterized by high fear in low threat situations. This pattern of behavior predicted parent- and teacher-reported withdrawn/anxious behaviors in preschool and at kindergarten entry. The current study extended original findings and examined whether dysregulated fear predicted observed social wariness with adults and peers, and social anxiety symptoms at age 6. We also examined prosocial adjustment during kindergarten as a moderator of the link between dysregulated fear and social wariness. Consistent with predictions, children with greater dysregulated fear at age 2 were more socially wary of adults and unfamiliar peers in the laboratory, were reported as having more social anxiety symptoms, and were nearly four times more likely to manifest social anxiety symptoms than other children with elevated wariness in kindergarten. Results demonstrated stability in the dysregulated fear profile and increased risk for social anxiety symptom development. Dysregulated fear predicted more social wariness with unfamiliar peers only when children became less prosocial during kindergarten. Findings are discussed in relation to the utility of the dysregulated fear construct for specifying maladaptive trajectories of risk for anxiety disorder development. PMID:23458273

  10. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PMID:22506821

  11. Elevated Fear Conditioning to Socially Relevant Unconditioned Stimuli in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Shmuel; Levenson, Jessica; Biggs, Arter L.; Johnson, Linda L.; Ameli, Rezvan; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Objective Though conditioned fear has long been acknowledged as an important etiologic mechanism in social anxiety disorder, past psychophysiological experiments have found no differences in general conditionability among social anxiety patients using generally aversive but socially nonspecific unconditioned stimuli (e.g., unpleasant odors and painful pressure). The authors applied a novel fear conditioning paradigm consisting of socially relevant unconditioned stimuli of critical facial expressions and verbal feedback. This study represents the first effort to assess the conditioning correlates of social anxiety disorder within an ecologically enhanced paradigm. Method Subjects with social anxiety disorder and age- and gender-matched healthy comparison subjects underwent differential classical conditioning. Conditioned stimuli included images of three neutral facial expressions, each of which was paired with one of three audiovisual unconditioned stimuli: negative insults with critical faces (USneg), positive compliments with happy faces (USpos), or neutral comments with neutral faces (USneu). The conditioned response was measured as the fear-potentiation of the startle-blink reflex elicited during presentation of the conditioned stimuli. Results Only social anxiety subjects demonstrated fear conditioning in response to facial expressions, as the startle-blink reflex was potentiated by the CSneg versus both CSneu and CSpos among those with the disorder, while healthy comparison subjects displayed no evidence of conditioned startle-potentiation. Such group differences in conditioning were independent of levels of anxiety to the unconditioned stimulus, implicating associative processes rather than increased unconditioned stimulus reactivity as the active mechanism underlying enhanced conditioned startle-potentiation among social anxiety subjects. Conclusions Results support a conditioning contribution to social anxiety disorder and underscore the importance of

  12. Sleep-Related Problems among Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kingery, Julie Newman

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined sleep-related problems (SRPs) among a large sample (n = 128) of youth with anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized, separation, and social). The frequency of eight specific SRPs was examined in relation to age, gender, type of anxiety disorder, anxiety severity, and functional impairment. The impact of…

  13. Generalized social anxiety disorder: A still-neglected anxiety disorder 3 decades since Liebowitz's review.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Futoshi; Teo, Alan R

    2015-12-01

    In the 3 decades since Liebowitz's review of 'a neglected anxiety disorder,' controversy and challenges have remained in the study of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This review examines evidence around the classification and subtyping of SAD, focusing on generalized SAD. Substantial discrepancies and variation in definition, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of generalized SAD exist as the international literature on it has grown. In East Asian cultures in particular, study of taijin kyofusho has been important to a broadened conceptualization of SAD into generalized SAD. Despite important progress with biological and other studies, many challenges in the understanding of generalized SAD will remain in the years to come. PMID:26121185

  14. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  15. Social Reasoning, Anxiety, and Collaboration with Rejected and Average Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Kimberly A.; Rose, Marcy D.; Fireman, Gary D.

    The current study examined peer nominated non-aggressive rejected children on their levels of social reasoning, anxiety, goals and perceptions of self-efficacy, and communication styles when collaborating with another peer. Sociometric measures were used to identify 15 average and 10 non-aggressive rejected 5th and 6th grade children. Pre- and…

  16. Anxiety, Stress and Social Support: Prenatal Predictors of Obstetrical Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethercut, Gail; Adler, Nancy

    The role of anxiety, stress, and social support in predicting negative obstetrical outcomes was examined in a high-risk group of pregnant women. The predictor variables were assessed with separate self-report scales, including The Sarason Life Experience Survey, the Spielberger State/Trait Inventory, and a modified version of the Lazarus and Cohen…

  17. Emotion Socialization in Families of Children with an Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen; Cassano, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Compared emotion socialization in 26 children with anxiety disorders ages 8-12 years and their mothers to 26 nonclinical counterparts without psychopathology. Children and their mothers participated in an emotion interaction task in which they discussed occasions when the child felt worry, sadness, and anger. Responses were coded for length of…

  18. The Relationship between Maladaptive Cognitions and Social Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Jim; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The cognitive theories of Beck and Ellis were used to identify cognitive phenomena thought to be related to social anxiety. Their constructs, risk appraisal and irrational beliefs, were operationalized for this study. Both discriminated between a clinical sample of anxious men and a group of competent daters. (Author)

  19. Getting Them Speaking: Classroom Social Factors and Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effiong, Okon

    2016-01-01

    This study, which focuses on foreign language anxiety (FLA) experienced by Japanese learners of English in four universities, explores causative agents by looking into the classroom. The research questions aim to explore how FLA is influenced by classroom social factors. The study adopted qualitative data collection procedures, and the field work…

  20. The Relationship Between Early Neural Responses to Emotional Faces at Age 3 and Later Autism and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Emily; Jones, Emily J H; Barnes, Karen; Sterling, Lindsey; Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeff; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara J

    2016-07-01

    Both autism spectrum (ASD) and anxiety disorders are associated with atypical neural and attentional responses to emotional faces, differing in affective face processing from typically developing peers. Within a longitudinal study of children with ASD (23 male, 3 female), we hypothesized that early ERPs to emotional faces would predict concurrent and later ASD and anxiety symptoms. Greater response amplitude to fearful faces corresponded to greater social communication difficulties at age 3, and less improvement by age 14. Faster ERPs to neutral faces predicted greater ASD symptom improvement over time, lower ASD severity in adolescence, and lower anxiety in adolescence. Early individual differences in processing of emotional stimuli likely reflect a unique predictive contribution from social brain circuitry early in life. PMID:27055415

  1. How smartphone usage correlates with social anxiety and loneliness

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqian; Liu, Xingyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Early detection of social anxiety and loneliness might be useful to prevent substantial impairment in personal relationships. Understanding the way people use smartphones can be beneficial for implementing an early detection of social anxiety and loneliness. This paper examines different types of smartphone usage and their relationships with people with different individual levels of social anxiety or loneliness. Methods: A total of 127 Android smartphone volunteers participated in this study, all of which have agreed to install an application (MobileSens) on their smartphones, which can record user’s smartphone usage behaviors and upload the data into the server. They were instructed to complete an online survey, including the Interaction Anxiousness Scale (IAS) and the University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). We then separated participants into three groups (high, middle and low) based on their scores of IAS and UCLA-LS, respectively. Finally, we acquired digital records of smartphone usage from MobileSens and examined the differences in 105 types of smartphone usage behaviors between high-score and low-score group of IAS/UCLA-LS. Results: Individuals with different scores on social anxiety or loneliness might use smartphones in different ways. For social anxiety, compared with users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 282.50∼409.00, p < 0.05), sent and received less number of text messages in the afternoon (Mann-Whitney U = 391.50∼411.50, p < 0.05), used health & fitness apps more frequently (Mann-Whitney U = 493.00, p < 0.05) and used camera apps less frequently (Mann-Whitney U = 472.00, p < 0.05). For loneliness, users in low-score group, users in high-score group had less number of phone calls (incoming and outgoing) (Mann-Whitney U = 305.00∼407.50, p < 0.05) and used following apps more frequently: health & fitness (Mann-Whitney U

  2. Perception of arousal in social anxiety: Effects of false feedback during a social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Jennifer; Clark, David M.; Ehlers, Anke; McManus, Freda

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that during social interactions, socially anxious individuals direct their attention to internal cues of arousal and use this information to erroneously infer how they appear to others. High (N=36) and low (N=36) socially anxious adults had a conversation with a stooge, and were led to believe by false feedback that they were experiencing either an increase or decrease in arousal, or evaluating the comfort level of the feedback equipment. Compared to the other groups, participants who believed their arousal had increased, reported greater anxiety, poorer perceived performance, more physical cues of anxiety, and greater underestimation of their performance and overestimation of the visibility of their anxiety. The effects were not specific to participants with high social anxiety. Observers rated the behaviour of participants who believed that their arousal had decreased most favourably. The results have implications for the treatment of social phobia. PMID:17223072

  3. The Trauma of Peer Abuse: Effects of Relational Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety Disorder on Physiological and Affective Reactions to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood, and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74) were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball) were recorded. Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure. Conclusion: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats. PMID:24672491

  4. Burnout, anxiety, depression, and social skills in medical residents.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lima, K; Loureiro, S R

    2015-01-01

    The medical residency is recognized as a risk period for the development of burnout and mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, which have impact on the physician and clientele alike. There is a need for studies that address conditions of risk and protection for the development of such problems. This study aimed to verify the rates of burnout, anxiety, and depression presented by resident physicians, as well as the associations of these problems with social skills, as potential protective factors. The hypothesis was defined that the problems (burnout, anxiety, and depression) would be negatively associated with social skills. A total of 305 medical residents, of both genders, of different specialties, from clinical and surgical areas of a Brazilian university hospital were evaluated using the following standardized self-report instruments: Burnout Syndrome Inventory, Social Skills Inventory, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. High rates of burnout and mental health problems were verified and social skills were negatively associated with burnout dimensions such as emotional exhaustion, emotional detachment, and dehumanization, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. Furthermore, residents with indicators of problems presented significantly lower social skills means than those of residents without indicators of burnout, anxiety, or depression. More studies are needed, which include other types of instruments in addition to self-report ones and evaluate not only social skills but also social competence in the professional practice. These should adopt intervention and longitudinal designs that allow the continuity or overcoming of the problems to be verified. Since social skills can be learned, the results of the study highlight the importance of developing the interpersonal skills of the professionals during the training of resident physicians in order to improve their practice. PMID:25030412

  5. Teacher autonomy support reduces adolescent anxiety and depression: An 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Grounded in stage-environment fit theory, this study adopts a longitudinal design to examine the contribution of autonomy support from teachers to reducing adolescent anxiety and depression. A total of 236 Chinese adolescents (57.38% females, Mage = 14.34) completed questionnaires on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, anxiety, and depression in the fall and spring semesters of their 7th and 8th grade years. The results showed that teacher autonomy support in the fall of 7th grade boosted basic psychological needs satisfaction in the spring of 7th grade; this, in turn, increased school engagement in the fall of 8th grade, which subsequently decreased anxiety and depression in the spring of 8th grade. These findings demonstrated the significant effect of teacher autonomy support on reducing adolescent anxiety and depression; furthermore, it highlighted the mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement in this relationship. PMID:27042976

  6. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  7. Social Functioning in Youth with Anxiety Disorders: Association with Anxiety Severity and Outcomes from Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settipani, Cara A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Social functioning was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher Report Form for children with anxiety disorders who participated in a randomized clinical trial (N = 161, aged 7-14). Significant relationships were found between severity of children's principal anxiety disorder and most measures of social functioning, such that poorer…

  8. Generalization of Social Anxiety to Sport: An Investigation of Elementary Aged Hispanic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Barlas, Mitchell E.; Dent, Heather C.; Masia, Carrie L.

    2002-01-01

    Used the Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised and additional questions to examine the relationship of social anxiety to sport anxiety and avoidance in a sample of urban Hispanic American fifth and sixth graders. Found that, for girls, fear of negative evaluation and social avoidance of general and new situations were associated with sport…

  9. Social Anxiety Mediates the Effect of Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics on Hostility in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan Williams; Kreiser, Nicole L.; Pugliese, Cara; Scarpa, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Problems with social anxiety are frequently reported in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is possible that social anxiety, when present, exacerbates the experience of hostility and other forms of aggression in relation to ASD symptoms. This study sought to determine if social anxiety symptoms mediate the relationship between features…

  10. Social Anxiety and Problematic Alcohol Consumption: The Mediating Role of Drinking Motives and Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Julia D.; Eggleston, A. Meade; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2006-01-01

    Social anxiety is inconsistently associated with alcohol use variables. To elucidate factors that contribute to the relationship between social anxiety and problematic alcohol use, the present study investigated drinking motives and drinking situations in an undergraduate sample (N = 293). Social anxiety was significantly correlated with…

  11. The Distribution of and Relationship between Autistic Traits and Social Anxiety in a UK Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Megan; Bullock, Tom; Milne, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Traits associated with autism and social anxiety were assessed in a UK student population (n = 1325) using the Autism-spectrum Quotient and the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Clinically relevant levels of autistic traits were observed in 3.3% of the cohort; 10.1% of the cohort reported clinically relevant levels of social anxiety; 1.8% of the…

  12. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. PMID:25847548

  13. Lack of a Benign Interpretation Bias in Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Prouvost, Caroline; Kuckertz, Jennie M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive models of social anxiety posit that recurrent interpretation of ambiguous information as threatening maintains symptoms (e.g. Clark & Wells, 1995, pp. 69–93, Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. New York: Guilford Press; Rapee & Heimberg, 1997, pp. 741–756, Behavior Research and Therapy, 35). However, biased interpretation may also be represented as a failure to make a benign interpretation of the ambiguous event. Furthermore, interpretation bias can be characterized by both an online (automatic) component and an offline (effortful) component (Hirsch & Clark, 2004, pp. 799–825, Clinical Psychology Review, 24). To measure both benign and threat biases, as well as examine the effect of social anxiety on offline versus online interpretations, Beard and Amir (2009, pp. 1135–1141, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46) developed the Word Sentence Association Paradigm (WSAP). In the current study, we administered the WSAP to a group of participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD) as well as to a group of non-anxious control (NAC) participants. We found that participants with SAD demonstrated a lack of benign online bias, but not an online threat bias when compared to NACs. However, when examining offline biases, SAD patients endorsed social threat interpretations and rejected benign social interpretations to a greater degree than non-anxious individuals. Our results, when taken together, clearly implicate the role of reduced bias toward benign information in SAD. PMID:22545788

  14. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2012-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism, doubts of child competency, over-control, and granting of autonomy) in anxious parents with (n = 21) and without (n = 45) social anxiety disorder (SAD) during a five-minute task with their non-anxious child (aged 7-12 years, M = 9.14). Parents with SAD demonstrated less warmth/positive affect and more criticism and doubts of child competency than did those without SAD. There were no group differences in over-control or granting of autonomy. Findings help clarify inconsistent results in the literature, inform models of familial transmission, and suggest intervention targets for parents with SAD. PMID:23053617

  15. Validation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seul-Ah

    2015-01-01

    Objective The tripartite model categorizes symptoms of depression and anxiety into three groups: 1) non-specific general distress that is shared between depression and anxiety, 2) depression-specific symptoms that include low positive affect and loss of interest, and 3) anxiety-specific symptoms that include somatic arousal. The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure these three factors of depression and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the MASQ (K-MASQ) in adolescents. Methods Community-dwelling adolescents (n=933) were randomly assigned to two groups. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted in each group to identify the factor structure of the K-MASQ. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ were also evaluated. Results Our results support the three-factor structure of the K-MASQ in adolescents. However, we found that the specific items of each factor differed from those of the original MASQ. That is, the depression-specific factor was only related to low positive affect and not loss of interest, and the anxiety-specific factor included more items related to general somatic symptoms of anxiety. The reliability and validity of the K-MASQ were found to be satisfactory. Conclusion The K-MASQ supports the tripartite model of depression and anxiety and has satisfactory reliability and validity among Korean adolescents. The K-MASQ can be used to distinguish unique symptoms of depression and anxiety in Korean adolescents. PMID:25866523

  16. Decreased Intra- and Inter-Salience Network Functional Connectivity is Related to Trait Anxiety in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Haiyang; Li, Xuebing; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Gu, Ruolei

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Adolescence is a critical period for the vulnerability of anxiety. Imaging studies focusing on adolescents' susceptibility to anxiety suggest that the different development trajectories between the limbic system and the executive control system may play important roles in this phenomenon. However, few studies have explored the brain basis of this susceptibility from the perspective of functional networks. The salience network (SN) consists of a series of key limbic and prefrontal regions that are engaged in the development of anxiety, such as the amygdala, anterior insula (AI), and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Intra- and inter-network connections in this system play essential roles in bottom-up attention and top-down regulation of anxiety, nevertheless, little is known about whether the SN-centered connections are associated with trait anxiety (i.e., susceptibility to anxiety) in adolescents. Method: Here, we applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the relationship between intra- and inter-network functional connectivity (FC) of the SN and trait anxiety in adolescents using the amygdala, AI and dACC as the regions of interest (ROI). Results: We found that trait anxiety levels were inversely associated with both characteristic AI-dACC FC in the SN and distributed inter-network FC between the SN and multiple functional systems, which included the default mode network and the executive control network. Conclusions: Our results indicate that weaker intra- and inter-network FC of the SN was linked to higher trait anxiety among adolescents, and it may underlie altered salience processing and cognitive regulation. PMID:26834594

  17. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129

  18. More than a face: a unified theoretical perspective on nonverbal social cue processing in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Shachar-Lavie, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Processing of nonverbal social cues (NVSCs) is essential to interpersonal functioning and is particularly relevant to models of social anxiety. This article provides a review of the literature on NVSC processing from the perspective of social rank and affiliation biobehavioral systems (ABSs), based on functional analysis of human sociality. We examine the potential of this framework for integrating cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary accounts of social anxiety. We argue that NVSCs are uniquely suited to rapid and effective conveyance of emotional, motivational, and trait information and that various channels are differentially effective in transmitting such information. First, we review studies on perception of NVSCs through face, voice, and body. We begin with studies that utilized information processing or imaging paradigms to assess NVSC perception. This research demonstrated that social anxiety is associated with biased attention to, and interpretation of, emotional facial expressions (EFEs) and emotional prosody. Findings regarding body and posture remain scarce. Next, we review studies on NVSC expression, which pinpointed links between social anxiety and disturbances in eye gaze, facial expressivity, and vocal properties of spontaneous and planned speech. Again, links between social anxiety and posture were understudied. Although cognitive, interpersonal, and evolutionary theories have described different pathways to social anxiety, all three models focus on interrelations among cognition, subjective experience, and social behavior. NVSC processing and production comprise the juncture where these theories intersect. In light of the conceptualizations emerging from the review, we highlight several directions for future research including focus on NVSCs as indexing reactions to changes in belongingness and social rank, the moderating role of gender, and the therapeutic opportunities offered by embodied cognition to treat social anxiety. PMID:24427129

  19. Social Competence with an Unfamiliar Peer in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism: Measurement and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Lauren V.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) display heterogeneity in social competence, which may be particularly evident during interactions with unfamiliar peers. The goal of this study was to examine predictors of social competence variability during an unfamiliar peer interaction. Thirty-nine participants with HFA and 39 age-, gender- and IQ-matched comparison participants were observed during dyadic laboratory interactions and detailed behavioral coding revealed three social competence dimensions: social initiative, social reciprocity, and social self-monitoring. Participants with HFA displayed higher social initiative but lower reciprocity than comparison participants. For participants with HFA, theory of mind was positively associated with observed initiative. For COM participants, social anxiety was negatively associated with reciprocity. However, for HFA participants, there was a quadratic relation between parent-reported social anxiety and observed reciprocity, demonstrating that low and high levels of anxiety were associated with low reciprocity. Results demonstrated the utility of our behavioral coding scheme as a valid assessment of social competence for children and adolescents with and without HFA. The curvilinear association between social anxiety and reciprocity highlights the importance of examining nonlinear relations in individuals with HFA, and emphasizes that discrete profiles of social anxiety in individuals with HFA may necessitate different treatment options. PMID:26161136

  20. Social Anxiety and Mental Health Service Use Among Asian American High School Students.

    PubMed

    Brice, Chad; Masia Warner, Carrie; Okazaki, Sumie; Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Sanchez, Amanda; Esseling, Petra; Lynch, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Asian American adults endorse more symptoms of social anxiety (SA) on self-report measures than European Americans, but demonstrate lower prevalence rates of SA disorder in epidemiological studies. These divergent results create ambiguity concerning the mental health needs of Asian Americans. The present study is the first to investigate this issue in adolescents through assessment of self-reported SA in Asian American high school students. Parent and self-ratings of impairment related to SA and self-reported mental health service use for SA were also measured. Asian American students endorsed a greater number of SA symptoms and scored in the clinical range more frequently than other ethnic groups. Also, Asian American and Latino students endorsed more school impairment related to SA than other ethnic groups. No differences in parent-reported impairment or service utilization were identified. Implications for future research and treatment for SA among Asian American adolescents are discussed. PMID:25300193

  1. Assessing Client Progress Session by Session in the Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder: The Social Anxiety Session Change Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Sarah A.; Miller, Nathan A.; Hope, Debra A.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Juster, Harlan R.

    2008-01-01

    Frequent assessment during therapy can improve treatments and provide accountability. However, clinicians often do not monitor progress because of the time it takes to administer and score assessments. In response, the Social Anxiety Session Change Index (SASCI) was developed. The SASCI is a short, easily administered rating of subjective…

  2. The motive to drink due to social anxiety and its relation to hazardous alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Cludius, Barbara; Stevens, Stephan; Bantin, Trisha; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-09-01

    Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinking reduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used. PMID:23586457

  3. Relations among Social Anxiety, Eye Contact Avoidance, State Anxiety, and Perception of Interaction Performance during a Live Conversation.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Zibulsky, Devin A; Srivastav, Akanksha; Weeks, Justin W

    2016-01-01

    There is building evidence that highly socially anxious (HSA) individuals frequently avoid making eye contact, which may contribute to less meaningful social interactions and maintenance of social anxiety symptoms. However, research to date is lacking in ecological validity due to the usage of either static or pre-recorded facial stimuli or subjective coding of eye contact. The current study examined the relationships among trait social anxiety, eye contact avoidance, state anxiety, and participants' self-perceptions of interaction performance during a live, four-minute conversation with a confederate via webcam, and while being covertly eye-tracked. Participants included undergraduate women who conversed with same-sex confederates. Results indicated that trait social anxiety was inversely related to eye contact duration and frequency averaged across the four minutes, and positively related to state social anxiety and negative self-ratings. In addition, greater anticipatory state anxiety was associated with reduced eye contact throughout the first minute of the conversation. Eye contact was not related to post-task state anxiety or self-perception of poor performance; although, trends emerged in which these relations may be positive for HSA individuals. The current findings provide enhanced support for the notion that eye contact avoidance is an important feature of social anxiety. PMID:26677735

  4. Habituation of cognitive and physiological arousal and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Eckman, P S; Shean, G D

    1997-12-01

    This study examined differences in habituation between high and low socially anxious Ss. Participants gave three impromptu speeches, each separated by a brief rest interval. Skin conductance and heart rate were monitored during the speeches. Following each speech participants completed self-ratings of nervousness, heart rate, and palmar sweat activity as well as a modified Social Interaction Self Statement Test. Low anxious controls showed significant reduction of negative expectations and self-reported nervousness, heart rate, and sweat activity across the three trials. Actual heart rate of low-anxious subjects also decreased significantly across trials. In contrast, high anxious subjects did not evidence significant decreases in any of the above measures of anxiety and stress across the three trials. Skin conductance measures increased across trials for both groups, but increased more for the high anxious group than low-anxious controls. Results indicate that high anxiety participants are slow to decrease cognitive and autonomic responsiveness to stressful social situations. PMID:9465444

  5. Pharmacotherapy for social anxiety disorder: an update.

    PubMed

    Van Ameringen, Michael; Mancini, Catherine; Patterson, Beth; Simpson, William

    2009-01-01

    Since the emergence of social phobia into the diagnostic nomenclature, we have seen an exponential expansion in our knowledge regarding effective treatment of this disorder. The literature clearly supports the use of SSRIs and the SNRI venlafaxine ER as first line pharmacological agents in the treatment of GSAD. In this article, treatment studies of pharmacotherapy of social phobia are summarized. Additional issues such as comparative efficacy, treatment resistance and relapse-prevention are reviewed. PMID:19728573

  6. Social anxiety disorder in recent onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders: The relation with symptomatology, anxiety, and social rank.

    PubMed

    Sutliff, Stephanie; Roy, Marc-André; Achim, Amélie M

    2015-05-30

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) represents a common comorbidity in schizophrenia, but questions remain regarding how this comorbidity is related to symptomatology and self-perceptions. Forty-two patients with recent-onset schizophrenia were evaluated for SAD, and assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), as well as the Social Comparison Scale (SCS), which assessed how participants perceived themselves in relation with others (i.e., social rank). Eighteen patients met criteria for SAD (SZ+) while 24 patients did not (SZ-). Analysis of symptoms using a five-factor model of the PANSS revealed that the SZ- group had more severe symptoms than SZ+ on the Cognitive/Disorganization factor. Further analyses of individual symptoms demonstrated that the SZ- group was more affected in attention, abstract thinking, and cognitive disorganization (Cognitive/Disorganization symptoms), while the SZ+ group was more severely affected in anxiety, suspiciousness/persecution, and active social avoidance. Interestingly, severity of social anxiety symptom ratings correlated with certain PANSS symptoms only in the SZ- group. Perception of social rank, which was reduced in SZ+, displayed a trend level correlation with the positive symptoms in SZ-. Overall, the results suggest that SZ+ and SZ- may have different clinical profiles that could be important to consider when tailoring treatments for these patients. PMID:25818255

  7. Long-term effects of chronic cocaine exposure throughout adolescence on anxiety and stress responsivity in a Wistar rat model.

    PubMed

    Alves, C J; Magalhães, A; Melo, P; de Sousa, L; Tavares, M A; Monteiro, P R R; Summavielle, T

    2014-09-26

    Adolescents display increased vulnerability to engage in drug experimentation. This is often considered a risk factor for later drug abuse. In this scenario, the permanent effects of cocaine exposure during adolescence on anxiety levels and stress responsivity, which may result in behavioral phenotypes prone to addiction, are now starting to be unveiled. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the long-lasting effects of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence, on anxiety-like behavior and on stress response. Adolescent male Wistar rats were daily administered 45-mg cocaine/kg of body weight in three equal intraperitoneal doses with 1-h interval, from postnatal day (PND) 35 to 50. The effects of cocaine administration on anxiety levels, assessed in the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), and on social stress response, assessed in the resident-intruder paradigm (R/I), were evaluated 10 days after withdrawal, when rats were reaching the adulthood. The underlying dopaminergic activity, and the corticosterone and testosterone levels were determined. Our results showed that cocaine induced long-lasting alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis function and in testosterone levels. Such alterations resulted in significant and enduring changes in behavioral responses to environmental challenges, such as the EPM and R/I, including the evaluation of potential threats that may lead to high-risk behavior and low-benefit choices. This was further supported by an altered dopaminergic function in the amygdala and hippocampus. The present findings provide new insights into how the use of cocaine during adolescent development may modulate emotional behavior later in life. Compromised ability to recognize and deal with potential threats is an important risk factor to perpetuate compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility. PMID:25047999

  8. Investigating the Association of Mental-Social Climate and Social Anxiety With Students’ Self-Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Farideh; Nadi Ghara, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The tendency and motivation to progress and achieve the ideal position have always encouraged people towards acquiring the required education. Objectives: The present research aimed to investigate the association of mental-social climate and social anxiety with self-efficiency and also predict the academic self-efficiency of first grade high school students based on social anxiety and the mental-social climate of the classroom. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects (172 girls and 178 boys) have been chosen by a random clustering sampling form the first grade high school students of Qaemshahr, Iran. The academic self-efficiency questionnaire, the social anxiety scale for teenagers and the classroom mental climate scale were used to collect the required data. For data analysis, the statistical method of correlation analysis, independent t test, and multivariate regression have been used. Results: The research findings showed that there was a significant negative relationship between mental-social climate of the classroom and students’ self-efficiency. In addition, social anxiety has been a significant negative relationship with self-efficiency. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship exists between mental-social climate and social anxiety. Conclusions: In order to develop students’ self-efficacy, there should be appropriate psychosocial climate. Therefore, teachers and administrators of education must provide all necessary arrangements to improve psychosocial climate classes. PMID:26576172

  9. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  10. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S; Ernst, Monique

    2016-08-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n = 17, 10 F, age = 8.3-12.1 years), healthy children (n = 13, 4 F, age = 9.3-12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n = 18, 6 F, age = 12.3-17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age = 12.5-17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  11. Age and Social Context Modulate the Effect of Anxiety on Risk-taking in Pediatric Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Dana; Patel, Nilam; Pavletic, Nevia; Grillon, Christian; Pine, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Although risk-taking has been studied from a developmental perspective, no study has examined how anxiety, age, risk-valence and social context interact to modulate decision-making in youths. This study probes this question using a risk-taking task, the Stunt Task, in clinically anxious children (n=17, 10 F, age=8.3–12.1 years), healthy children (n=13, 4 F, age=9.3–12.2 years), clinically anxious adolescents (n=18, 6 F, age=12.3–17.7 years), and healthy adolescents (n =14, 10 F, age=12.5–17.3 years). Social context was manipulated: in one condition, participants were led to believe that a group of peers were observing and judging their performance (peer-judge), while, in the other condition, they were led to believe that peers were not observing them (control). Only anxious children showed an influence of social context on their risk-taking behavior. Specifically, anxious children bet significantly less and had slower reaction times (RT) during the peer-judge than control condition. However, across social conditions, risk-valence modulated RT differently in function of age and diagnosis. Anxious children were slower on the positive-valence risky trial, whereas anxious adolescents were slower on the negative-valence risky trials relative to their respective healthy peers. In conclusion, clinically anxious children were the only group that was sensitive (risk-averse) to the effect of a negative peer-judge context. The negative peer-judge context did not affect risky decision-making in adolescents, whether they were anxious or healthy. Future work using a stronger aversive social context might be more effective at influencing risky behavior in this age group. PMID:26659306

  12. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. PMID:25810453

  13. Online Social Networking: Usage in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nevil Johnson; Valsaraj, Blessy Prabha; Noronha, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) has played a significant role on the relationship among college students. It is becoming a popular medium for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. Young adults and adolescents are the most prolific users of OSN sites. The frequent use of OSN sites results in addiction toward these sites and…

  14. A Contextual Approach to Experiential Avoidance and Social Anxiety: Evidence from an Experimental Interaction and Daily Interactions of People with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Goodman, Fallon R.; Machell, Kyla A.; Kleiman, Evan M.; Monfort, Samuel S.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Nezlek, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Experiential avoidance, the tendency to avoid internal, unwanted thoughts and feelings, is hypothesized to be a risk factor for social anxiety. Existing studies of experiential avoidance rely on trait measures with minimal contextual consideration. In two studies, we examined the association between experiential avoidance and anxiety within real-world social interactions. In the first study, we examined the effect of experiential avoidance on social anxiety in everyday life. For two weeks, 37 participants with Social Anxiety Disorder [SAD] and 38 healthy controls provided reports of experiential avoidance and social anxiety symptoms during face-to-face social interactions. Results showed that momentary experiential avoidance was positively related to anxiety symptoms during social interactions and this effect was stronger among people with SAD. People low in EA showed greater sensitivity to the level of situational threat than high EA people. In the second study, we facilitated an initial encounter between strangers. Unlike Study 1, we experimentally created a social situation where there was either an opportunity for intimacy (self-disclosure conversation) or no such opportunity (small-talk conversation). Results showed that greater experiential avoidance during the self-disclosure conversation temporally preceded increases in social anxiety for the remainder of the interaction; no such effect was found in the small-talk conversation. Our findings provide insight into the association between experiential avoidance on social anxiety in laboratory and naturalistic settings, and demonstrate that the effect of EA depends upon level of social threat and opportunity. PMID:24749634

  15. A randomized controlled trial of attention bias modification training for socially anxious adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Amanda; Rawdon, Caroline; Dooley, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    The current study aimed to examine the efficacy of attention bias modification (ABM) training to reduce social anxiety in a community-based sample of adolescents 15-18 years. The study used a single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial design (Clinical Trials ID: NCT02270671). Participants were screened in second-level schools using a social anxiety questionnaire. 130 participants scoring ≥24 on the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) were randomized to the ABM training (n = 66)/placebo (n = 64) group, 120 of which completed pre-, post-, and 12-week follow-up data collection including threat bias, anxiety, and depression measures. The ABM intervention included 4 weekly training sessions using a dot-probe task designed to reduce attention bias to threatening stimuli. ABM training did not alter the primary outcomes of attention bias to threat or social anxiety symptoms raising questions about the efficacy of ABM as an intervention for adolescents. PMID:27379745

  16. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire

    2015-03-01

    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. PMID:25677342

  17. The context specificity of anxiety responses induced by chronic psychosocial stress in rats: a shift from anxiety to social phobia?

    PubMed

    Barsy, Boglárka; Leveleki, Csilla; Zelena, Dóra; Haller, József

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anxiety-increasing effects of chronic psychosocial stress generalize to non-social (i.e. heterotypic) stressful situations. To investigate this issue, we repeatedly exposed rats to predictable or unpredictable psychosocial stress for 5 or 12 days and examined their anxiety in two markedly different contexts: the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Psychosocial stress and the social interaction test were administered under highly similar conditions, i.e. the two situations were homotypic. Psychosocial stress did not affect anxiety in the elevated plus-maze under any condition, but markedly increased anxiety in the social interaction test. In contrast, repeated restraint-a non-social stressor heterotypic to both the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests-increased plus-maze anxiety, demonstrating that anxiety in this test was sensitive to repeated restraint, and the effects were manifested in heterotypic situations. Thus, the anxiety-related effects of chronic psychosocial stress-unlike those of the chronic non-social stressor-were context-dependent. This is reminiscent of phobic anxiety, which manifests in specific situations only. In addition, behavior in the social interaction test showed changes that went beyond simple anxiogenesis. Socially stressed rats spent nearly 40% of total time in aggressive interactions. Based on recent data showing that social phobics are prone to violence under social pressure, and also based on the situation-dependent effects of the social stressor, we suggest that chronic psychosocial stress leads to a behavioral profile akin to social phobia. PMID:20392194

  18. Development and testing of a scale to measure separation anxiety of parents of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dashiff, Carol J; Weaver, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Separation anxiety as an experience of parents of adolescents remains underinvestigated. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to assess parental separation anxiety of mothers and fathers of adolescent sons and daughters, that is, the Parental Separation Anxiety Scale (PSAS). The Maternal Separation Anxiety Scale was adapted to address this purpose. Three studies were conducted to assess item performance, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and construct and predictive validity. Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.91 to 0.93 across samples. Factor analysis indicated four factors with a primary factor (70% of variance) that was consistent with attachment theory. Parental separation anxiety was negatively associated with global relationship quality (r = -0.23, p = .01). Maternal separation anxiety was negatively associated with cognitive autonomy of sons (r = -0.34, p = .05), while paternal separation anxiety was positively associated with cognitive autonomy of daughters (r = 0.20, p = .05). It was concluded that the final 18-item PSAS has good psychometric qualities and is appropriate for use with parents of chronically ill and healthy adolescents. PMID:18578110

  19. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: 20 Years After

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youth are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research was needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youth have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youth with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youth with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youth with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression, and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youth with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youth with co-primary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youth with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  20. Comorbidity of anxiety and depression in children and adolescents: 20 years after.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Colleen M; Caporino, Nicole E; Kendall, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youths are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research is needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youths have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youths with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youths with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youths with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youths with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youths with coprimary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youths with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  1. Bullying and Social Exclusion Anxiety in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergaard, Dorte Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics to the social processes that may lead to bullying.…

  2. Yoga and social support reduce prenatal depression, anxiety and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Delgado, Jeannette; Medina, Lissette

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of yoga (physical activity) versus social support (verbal activity) on prenatal and postpartum depression. Ninety-two prenatally depressed women were randomly assigned to a yoga or a social support control group at 22 weeks gestation. The yoga group participated in a 20-min group session (only physical poses) once per week for 12 weeks. The social support group (a leaderless discussion group) met on the same schedule. At the end of the first and last sessions the yoga group reported less depression, anxiety, anger, back and leg pain as compared to the social support group. At the end of the last session the yoga group and the support group did not differ. They both had lower depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI) scores and improved relationship scores. In addition, cortisol levels decreased for both groups following each session. Estriol and progesterone levels decreased after the last session. At the postpartum follow-up assessment depression and anxiety levels were lower for both groups. PMID:24138994

  3. Interpretation modification training reduces social anxiety in clinically anxious children.

    PubMed

    Klein, Anke M; Rapee, Ronald M; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A; Wuthrich, Viviana M; Kangas, Maria; Lyneham, Heidi J; Souren, Pierre M; Rinck, Mike

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of training in positive interpretations in clinically anxious children. A total of 87 children between 7 and 12 years of age were randomly assigned to either a positive cognitive bias modification training for interpretation (CMB-I) or a neutral training. Training included 15 sessions in a two-week period. Children with an interpretation bias prior to training in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in interpretation bias on the social threat scenarios after training, but not children in the neutral training group. No effects on interpretation biases were found for the general threat scenarios or the non-threat scenarios. Furthermore, children in the positive training did not self-report lower anxiety than children in the neutral training group. However, mothers and fathers reported a significant reduction in social anxiety in their children after positive training, but not after neutral training. This study demonstrated that clinically anxious children with a prior interpretation bias can be trained away from negative social interpretation biases and there is some evidence that this corresponds to reductions in social anxiety. This study also highlights the importance of using specific training stimuli. PMID:26580081

  4. The Ontogeny of Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rats from Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Debra A; Brown, Gillian R

    2010-01-01

    In human beings, susceptibility to anxiety disorders can be relatively high during adolescence. Understanding the ontogeny of anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents has implications for developing anxiolytic drugs that are suitable for this age group. Given the dearth of information about adolescent rodents, this study examined the response of both male and female adolescent, late adolescent, young adult, and older adult rats to three tests of anxiety-like behavior: the emergence test (ET), open field (OF), and elevated plus-maze (EPM). The results showed that adolescent rats exhibited a higher anxiety-like response than adults on each test; the amount of locomotion in the OF and percentage of time spent on the open arms of the EPM increased across the age groups, while older adult rats made the fewest start box re-entries in the ET. These results support the hypothesis that adolescent rats have a more pronounced response to stressors than do adults. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 52: 731–739, 2010. PMID:21117243

  5. Incorporating Social Anxiety Into a Model of College Problem Drinking: Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228 undergraduate volunteers. According to structural equation modeling (SEM) results, social anxiety was unrelated to alcohol use and was negatively related to drinking consequences. Perceived drinking norms mediated the social anxiety–alcohol use relation and was the variable most strongly associated with problem drinking. College students appear to be unique with respect to drinking and social anxiety. Although the notion of social anxiety alone as a risk factor for problem drinking was unsupported, additional research is necessary to determine whether there is a subset of socially anxious students who have high drinking norms and are in need of intervention. PMID:16938075

  6. Generalized Anxiety Symptoms and Identity Processes in Cross-Cultural Samples of Adolescents from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Hale, William W., III.; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Abubakar, Amina; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Agaloos Pesigan, Ivan Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 20% of adolescents around the world experience mental health problems, most commonly depression or anxiety. High levels of anxiety disorder symptoms can hinder adolescent development, persist into adulthood, and predict negative mental outcomes, such as suicidal ideation and attempts. Objectives: We analyzed generalized…

  7. The 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-IV Anxiety Disorders among Nigerian Secondary School Adolescents Aged 13-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…

  8. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  9. Recent Insight Into the Subtypes of Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzato, Catherine; Dalrymple, Kristy L

    2016-05-01

    Systems for subtyping individuals with social anxiety disorder have been the focus of much research attention as a means to improve assessment and treatment of the disorder. This article highlights recent revisions to social anxiety disorder (SAD) subtypes from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) to DSM-V, reviewing empirical evidence that served as the impetus for the revisions. Recent research examining the validity of the DSM-V system and alternative subtyping systems is reviewed. Overall, there appears to be greater empirical support for a dimensional subtyping system. Concerns therefore remain with the DSM-V system, which retained a categorical system but replaced the previous subtypes with a subtype of individuals fearing only performance situations. Recommendations for future research are discussed, as well as alternate options for capturing the variability in SAD presentations, including the possibility of eliminating subtyping altogether. PMID:27017831

  10. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury. PMID:22538179

  11. Social anxiety disorder: recent findings in the areas of epidemiology, etiology, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Blanco, C; Nissenson, K; Liebowitz, M R

    2001-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder is a common and chronic disorder that leads to substantial psychosocial impairment. The disorder occurs early in childhood, and is frequently comorbid with a variety of other psychiatric diagnoses like depression, other anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and eating disorders. Given these serious implications of social anxiety disorder, early effective treatment is extremely important. Pharmacotherapy, with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, and cognitive behavioral therapy are the first choice of treatments for social anxiety disorder. This paper reviews recent findings on the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment for social anxiety disorder, and highlights areas where future research should be directed. PMID:11470033

  12. The depression distress amplification model in adolescents: A longitudinal examination of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, depression and suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Capron, Daniel W; Allan, Nicholas P; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Leen-Feldner, Ellen; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents with comorbid anxiety and depression are at significantly increased risk of suicide. The recently proposed depression distress amplification model appears to have promise for explaining the relations between anxiety, depression, and suicidality, but it has not been tested in adolescents. Participants were 524 adolescents followed over two years. Baseline data for the current report were collected by trained interviewers while the adolescents were in eighth grade. Data were obtained in the same manner when the adolescents were in tenth grade. Baseline anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns significantly predicted suicidal ideation two years later, above and beyond baseline suicidal ideation and depression. Further, consistent with the depression distress amplification model, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns interacted with depressive symptoms to predict suicidal ideation. This report extends the empirical and theoretical support for a relationship between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality. PMID:25754194

  13. Anabolic/Androgenic Steroid Administration During Adolescence and Adulthood Differentially Modulates Aggression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Ricci, Lesley A.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic/androgenic steroid (AAS) use remains high in both teens and adults in the U.S. and worldwide despite studies showing that AAS use is associated with a higher incidence of aggression and anxiety. Recently we showed that chronic exposure to AAS through adolescence increases aggression and decreases anxious behaviors, while during AAS-withdrawal aggression is lowered to species-normative levels and anxiety increases. AAS exposure is known to differentially alter behaviors and their underlying neural substrates between adults and adolescents and thus the current study investigated whether exposure to AAS during adulthood affects the relationship between aggression and anxiety in manner similar to that previously observed in adolescents. Male hamsters were administered a moderate dose of AAS (5.0mg/kg/day × 30days) during adolescence (P27–56) or young adulthood (P65–P94) and then tested for aggression and anxiety during AAS exposure (i.e., on P57 or P95) and during AAS withdrawal (i.e., 30 days later on P77 or P115). Adolescent exposure to AAS increased aggressive responding during the AAS exposure period and anxiety-like responding during AAS withdrawal. Neither behavior was similarly influenced by adult exposure to AAS. Adult AAS exposure produced no difference in aggressive responding during AAS exposure (P95) or AAS withdrawal (P115); however, while AAS exposure during adulthood produced no difference in anxiety-like responding during AAS exposure, adult hamsters administered AAS were less anxious than vehicle control animals following AAS withdrawal. Together these data suggest that the aggression and anxiety provoking influence of AAS are likely a developmental phenomenon and that adult exposure to AAS may be anxiolytic over the long term. PMID:25655668

  14. Effectiveness of skills for academic and social success (SASS) with Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vagos, Paula; Pereira, Anabela; Warner, Carrie Masia

    2015-01-01

    Social fears are common among adolescents and may considerably impair their lives. Even so, most adolescents do not seek professional help for these difficulties, making it important to promote evidence-based and preventive interventions in community samples. This research presents the effectiveness of an intervention with a group of five female adolescents who reported serious interference of their social fears in their daily life. At post-intervention, effectiveness was noticeable by high recovery, reliable individual change, and intragroup statistical change. The intervention showed impact for measures of social anxiety, avoidance, and assertiveness, and such impact was steady at 3-month follow-up. These findings add to the cumulative and transcultural evidence on the effectiveness of Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS). PMID:25513945

  15. Social physique anxiety and disordered eating: what's the connection?

    PubMed

    Diehl, N S; Johnson, C E; Rogers, R L; Petrie, T A

    1998-01-01

    Social physique anxiety (SPA) is highly correlated with other body image measures that have been considered to be important in understanding eating disorders. However, SPA has not been directly studied with respect to eating disorders. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the link between SPA and measures of eating disorder symptomatology to determine if SPA should be considered as an additional risk factor in the prediction of eating disturbances. One hundred and sixty female undergraduates completed questionnaires measuring body mass index (BMI), social physique anxiety (SPAS), anorexic symptoms (EAT), bulimic symptoms (BULIT-R), depression (CES-D), self-esteem (SES) and obligatory exercise (OEQ). Regression analyses revealed that SPA and depression were the psychological correlates that predicted bulimic symptomatology and that SPA, depression, and obligatory exercise predicted anorexic symptomatology; all variables were positively related to eating disorder symptoms. Overall, the results indicate that social physique anxiety appears to be a useful construct for understanding eating disorder symptoms in female undergraduates. PMID:9468735

  16. Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders among Children and Adolescents in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zarafshan, Hadi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to conduct a review to investigate the prevalence of anxiety disorders among Iranian children and adolescents. Method: We systematically reviewed the literature up to June 2014. We searched three Persian databases (Magiran, IranMedex and SID) and three English databases: PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO. All original studies that investigated the current prevalence of anxiety in a sample of Iranian children and adolescents were entered into the study. All studies conducted on special samples or in special settings were excluded. By searching English databases, we obtained 124 original studies. After removing duplicate papers, 120 articles remained. In the next step, we screened the articles based on their title. In sum, 95 Persian and English articles had relevant titles. After screening based on the abstract and full text, 26 studies remained. After screening based on the full text, all selected studies were qualitatively assessed by two evaluators separately. Result: Twenty five studies were eligible and reported different types of anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phobias and panic disorder). The samples varied from 81 to 2996 among studies and their age range was 5 to 18 years. These studies were conducted in different cities of Iran. SCL-90 is a frequently used questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were mostly investigated with the prevalence rates ranging from 6.8% in Saravan to 85% in Bandar Abbas. OCD was the second common study with prevalence rates ranging from 1% in Tabriz to 11.9% in Gorgan. Conclusion: Our findings revealed considerable amount of anxiety disorder among Iranian children and adolescents. Given the fact that anxiety disorder has negative effects on the well-being and function of individuals and can lead to severe problems, this disorder should be considered in mental health programs designed for children and adolescents. PMID:26005473

  17. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  18. Social Anxiety and Alcohol Use across the University Years: Adaptive and Maladaptive Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Christina A.; Willoughby, Teena

    2016-01-01

    University/college can be a challenging time as students face developmental tasks such as building new social networks and achieving academically. Social anxiety may be disadvantageous in this setting given that social situations often include drinking and individuals with social anxiety tend to self-medicate through alcohol use. However, findings…

  19. Anxiety and depression as correlates of self-reported behavioural inhibition in normal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, P; Merckelbach, H; Schmidt, H; Gadet, B B; Bogie, N

    2001-09-01

    In a previous study, Muris, Merckelbach, Wessel, and Van de Ven [Psychopathological correlates of self-reported behavioural inhibition in normal children. Behav. Res. Ther. 37 (1999) 575-584] found that children who defined themselves as high on behavioural inhibition displayed elevated levels of psychopathological symptoms compared to children who defined themselves as low or middle on behavioural inhibition. The present study further examined the relationship between self-reported behavioural inhibition and anxiety disorders and depression symptoms in a large sample of adolescents aged 12-18 years (N=968). Adolescents completed a measure of behavioural inhibition and questionnaires of anxiety and depression. Results indicated that adolescents who classified themselves as high on behavioural inhibition had higher scores of anxiety and depression than adolescents who classified themselves as low or middle on behavioural inhibition. Structural equations modelling was employed to test hypothetical models on the role of behavioural inhibition in childhood anxiety and depression. It was found that a pathway in which behavioural inhibition results in anxiety, which in turn leads to depression, provided the best fit for the data. PMID:11520011

  20. Safe enough to sleep: sleep disruptions associated with trauma, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charuvastra, Anthony; Cloitre, Marylene

    2009-10-01

    Sleep disturbance is an essential symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence suggests that disrupted sleep may play an important role in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic stress. The authors review several aspects of sleep as it relates to posttraumatic stress disorder. First, there is an association between traumatic stress and different components of disrupted sleep in children and adolescents. Second, sleep disruption appears to be a core feature of other pediatric anxiety disorders, and the authors consider if this preexisting sleep vulnerability may explain in part why preexisting anxiety disorders are a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder following a traumatic event. Third, the authors consider attachment theory and the social context of trauma and sleep disruption. This article concludes with a consideration of the therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:19836694

  1. Fluoxetine for the Treatment of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Open-Label, Long-Term Extension to a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Duncan B.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Kalas, Catherine; Ehmann, Mary; Bridge, Jeffrey; Wood, D. Scott; Muthen, Bengt; Brent, David

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluoxetine for the long-term treatment of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Method: Children and adolescents (7-17 years old) with anxiety disorders were studied in open treatment for 1 year after they…

  2. Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism: An Investigation of Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Rachel K.; Hoffman, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) possess core social and pragmatic deficits, which interfere with normal relationship development. At a time when friendships are increasingly important, many adolescents with HFA realize they are different from their peers. Initial research has indicated that adolescence is the time when symptoms of…

  3. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure produces persistent anxiety in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Van Skike, Candice E.; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L.; Matthews, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethanol dependence and tolerance in the adult are marked by increased function of NMDA receptors and decreased function of GABAA receptors that coincides with altered receptor subunit expression in specific brain regions. Adolescents often use ethanol at levels greater than adults, yet the receptor subunit expression profiles following chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure in adolescents are not known. Persistent age-dependent changes in receptor subunit alterations coupled with withdrawal-related anxiety may help explain the increase in alcohol abuse following adolescent experimentation with the drug. Methods Adolescent and adult rats received 10 intraperitoneal administrations of 4.0 g/kg ethanol or saline every 48 hours. At either 24 hours or 12 days after the final exposure, anxiety-like behavior was assessed on the elevated plus maze and tissue was collected. Western blotting was used to assess changes in selected NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits in whole cortex and bilateral hippocampus. Results CIE exposure yields a persistent increase in anxiety-like behavior in both age groups. However, selected NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits were not differentially altered by this CIE exposure paradigm in adolescents or adults. Conclusions CIE exposure produced persistent anxiety-like behavior, which has important implications for alcohol cessation. Given the reported behavioral and neuropeptide expression changes in response to this dose of ethanol, it is important for future work to consider the circumstances under which these measures are altered by ethanol exposure. PMID:25684048

  4. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  5. How is anxiety involved in the longitudinal relationship between brooding rumination and depressive symptoms in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Jose, Paul E; Weir, Kirsty F

    2013-08-01

    A growing body of research supports the application of Response Styles Theory to adolescent populations. Although the essential dynamic, namely that rumination increases the incidence of depressive symptoms, has been demonstrated among adolescents, a number of important empirical questions remain, such as: what are the gender differences and developmental trends for brooding and reflective rumination?; does a reciprocal relationship exist between brooding or reflective rumination, on the one hand, and depressive symptoms and anxiety, on the other hand, over time? and how do additional variables (i.e., anxiety) impact upon the rumination-depressive symptoms relationship? In this study, self-reported levels of rumination (both brooding and reflective), and anxious and depressive symptoms were measured longitudinally across 4 months in a sample of 976 community adolescents (46% females), aged 11-16 years old. Mean group differences showed that female adolescents reported engaging in more brooding rumination than male adolescents beginning at 13 years of age. A reciprocal brooding rumination to depressive symptoms relationship and a reciprocal brooding rumination to anxiety relationship were found over time, and they did not differ for boys and girls. We tested the possibility that anxious symptoms would function as a third variable, but the obtained model showed that brooding rumination and anxiety both contributed unique variance in predicting changes in depressive symptoms over time. PMID:23266617

  6. Online gaming in the context of social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bianca W; Leeson, Peter R C

    2015-06-01

    In 2014, over 23 million individuals were playing massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs). In light of the framework provided by Davis's (2001) cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use, social anxiety, expressions of true self, and perceived in-game and face-to-face social support were examined as predictors of Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale (GPIUS) scores and hours spent playing MMORPGs per week. Data were collected from adult MMORPG players via an online survey (N = 626). Using structural equation modeling, the hypothesized model was tested on 1 half of the sample (N = 313) and then retested on the other half of the sample. The results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the data well in both samples. Specifically, expressing true self in game, higher levels of social anxiety, larger numbers of in-game social supports, and fewer supportive face-to-face relationships were significant predictors of higher GPIUS scores, and the number of in-game supports was significantly associated with time spent playing. The current study provides clinicians and researchers with a deeper understanding of MMORPG use by being the first to apply, test, and replicate a theory-driven model across 2 samples of MMORPG players. In addition, the present findings suggest that a psychometric measure of MMORPG usage is more indicative of players' psychological and social well-being than is time spent playing these games. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25938630

  7. Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Skills: A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelico, Antonio Paulo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a critical analysis of the research outlines used in empirical studies published between the years 2000 and March of 2007 about social anxiety disorder and its associations with social skills. Seventeen papers were identified and grouped into two classes for analysis, namely: Characterization of Social…

  8. "Build Your Social Confidence": A Social Anxiety Group for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damer, Diana E.; Latimer, Kelsey M.; Porter, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety, a common concern among college students, carries significant negative consequences. Group therapy is an efficient and cost-effective way to provide treatment, and cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT; Heimberg & Becker, 2002) is the most widely researched and empirically supported treatment for persons with social anxiety…

  9. Social Anxiety Disorder and Social Skills: A Critical Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelico, Antonio Paulo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre S.; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a critical analysis of the research outlines used in empirical studies published between the years 2000 and March of 2007 about social anxiety disorder and its associations with social skills. Seventeen papers were identified and grouped into two classes for analysis, namely: Characterization of Social…

  10. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  11. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestational day 12 elicits opposing deficits in social behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Marvin R; Mooney, Sandra M; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2016-09-01

    Our previous research has shown that in Long Evans rats acute prenatal exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social deficits in male offspring and elicits substantial decreases in social preference relative to controls, in late adolescents and adults regardless of sex. In order to generalize the observed detrimental effects of ethanol exposure on G12, pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol or saline and their offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction (SI) test as early adolescents, late adolescents, or young adults. Anxiety-like behavior was also assessed in adults using the elevated plus maze (EPM) or the light/dark box (LDB) test. Age- and sex-dependent social alterations were evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-exposed males showed deficits in social investigation at all ages and age-dependent alterations in social preference. Play fighting was not affected in males. In contrast, ethanol-exposed early adolescent females showed no changes in social interactions, whereas older females demonstrated social deficits and social indifference. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior was decreased in males and females prenatally exposed to ethanol in the EPM, but not the LDB. These findings suggest that social alterations associated with acute exposure to ethanol on G12 are not strain-specific, although they are more pronounced in Long Evans males and Sprague Dawley females. Furthermore, given that anxiety-like behaviors were attenuated in a test-specific manner, this study indicates that early ethanol exposure can have differential effects on different forms of anxiety. PMID:27154534

  12. Emotion Dysregulation and Anxiety in Adults with ASD: Does Social Motivation Play a Role?

    PubMed

    Swain, Deanna; Scarpa, Angela; White, Susan; Laugeson, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    Young adults with ASD and no intellectual impairment are more likely to exhibit clinical levels of anxiety than typically developing peers (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association, 2013). This study tests a mechanistic model in which anxiety culminates via emotion dysregulation and social motivation. Adults with ASD (49 males, 20 females) completed self-report measures on emotion regulation, caregivers completed measures on ASD severity and both on social anxiety. Results indicated that emotion dysregulation (p < .001; p < .05) and social motivation (p < .05, p < .001) significantly predicted social anxiety as reported by caregivers and young adults respectively. However, social motivation did not appear to play a moderating role in the relationship between emotion regulation and anxiety, even when controlling for social awareness. Significant predictor variables of social anxiety varied based on reporter (i.e. caregiver versus young adult), with difficulty engaging in goal-directed behaviors during negative emotions serving as the only shared predictor. PMID:26319254

  13. Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Anxiety Share: © Thinkstock Anxiety disorders affect about 40 million Americans age 18 ... in a given year. Effective conventional treatments for anxiety disorders are available, and research is uncovering new ...

  14. Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) predict anxiety reduction during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)?

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. PMID:23545482

  15. Goal Internalization and Outcome Expectancy in Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Joanne M.; Moberly, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety has been conceptualized in terms of increased avoidance motivation and higher expectancies of undesirable outcomes. However, anxiety research has hitherto not examined an important qualitative aspect of motivation: the degree to which reasons for goal pursuit are experienced as controlling and originating outside the core self. We asked 70…

  16. Pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kodish, Ian; Rockhill, Carol; Varley, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health diagnoses in youth, and carry risks for ongoing impairments and subsequent development of other psychiatric comorbidities into adulthood. This article discusses considerations for assessment and treatment of anxiety disorders in youth, with a focus on the evidence base of pharmacologic treatment and important clinical considerations to optimize care. We then briefly describe the impact of anxiety on neuronal elements of fear circuitry to highlight how treatments may ameliorate impairments through enhanced plasticity Overall, pharmacotherapy for anxiety disorders is effective in improving clinical symptoms, particularly in combination with psychotherapy. Response is typically seen within several weeks, yet longitudinal studies are limited. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are thought to be relatively safe and effective for acute treatment of several classes of anxiety disorders in youth, with increasing evidence supporting the role of neuronal plasticity in recovery. PMID:22275849

  17. Sexual Socialization during Early Adolescence: The Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    1986-01-01

    Explored early socialization of beliefs and attitudes toward menarche in 258 adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, male and female pre- and postmenarcheal, from southern Italy. Results showed a consistent lack of accurate information by a high percentage of subjects, both male and female; negative beliefs were held only by girls, boys tended to ignore…

  18. Training Blind Adolescents in Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Social skills training four blind unassertive adolescent females include instructions, feedback, behavior rehearsal, modeling, and manual guidance. Most behaviors selected for modification changed markedly, although some decreased after four weeks, requiring "booster" sessions to promote a return to posttreatment levels. (Author/CL)

  19. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  20. Terror mismanagement: evidence that mortality salience exacerbates attentional bias in social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Emma C.; Iverach, Lisa; Menzies, Ross G.; Jones, Mark

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Death anxiety is a basic fear underlying a range of psychological conditions, and has been found to increase avoidance in social anxiety. Given that attentional bias is a core feature of social anxiety, the aim of the present study was to examine the impact of mortality salience (MS) on attentional bias in social anxiety. Participants were 36 socially anxious and 37 non-socially anxious individuals, randomly allocated to a MS or control condition. An eye-tracking procedure assessed initial bias towards, and late-stage avoidance of, socially threatening facial expressions. As predicted, socially anxious participants in the MS condition demonstrated significantly more initial bias to social threat than non-socially anxious participants in the MS condition and socially anxious participants in the control condition. However, this effect was not found for late-stage avoidance of social threat. These findings suggest that reminders of death may heighten initial vigilance towards social threat. PMID:26211552

  1. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Wable, Gauri S; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-04-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, 2 hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73%, p = .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual's food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hr following the anxiety test (R = -.75, p = .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. In addition, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  2. Anxiety is correlated with running in adolescent female mice undergoing activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Wable, Gauri S.; Min, Jung-Yun; Chen, Yi-Wen; Aoki, Chiye

    2015-01-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is a widely used animal model for identifying the biological basis of excessive exercise and starvation, two hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN). Anxiety is correlated with exercise in AN. Yet the anxiety level of animals in ABA has not been reported. We asked: Does food restriction as part of ABA induction change the anxiety level of animals? If so, is the degree of anxiety correlated with degree of hyperactivity? We used the open field test before food restriction and the elevated plus maze test (EPM) during food restriction to quantify anxiety among singly housed adolescent female mice and determined whether food restriction alone or combined with exercise (i.e., ABA induction) abates or increases anxiety. We show that food restriction, with or without exercise, reduced anxiety significantly, as measured by the proportion of entries into the open arms of EPM (35.73 %, p= .04). Moreover, ABA-induced individuals varied in their open arm time measure of anxiety and this value was highly and negatively correlated to the individual’s food restriction-evoked wheel activity during the 24 hours following the anxiety test (R = − .75, p= .004, N = 12). This correlation was absent among the exercise-only controls. Additionally, mice with higher increase in anxiety ran more following food restriction. Our data suggest that food restriction-evoked wheel running hyperactivity can be used as a reliable and continuous measure of anxiety in ABA. The parallel relationship between anxiety level and activity in AN and ABA-induced female mice strengthens the animal model. PMID:25730124

  3. Post-Event Processing and Memory Bias for Performance Feedback in Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Meghan W.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite predictions following from cognitive theories of anxiety, evidence for memory biases in social anxiety has been mixed. This study extends previous research by using stimuli relevant to participants’ concerns and allowing time for post-event processing. Participants high (n = 42) or low (n = 39) in social anxiety symptoms gave speeches and received standardized feedback on their and a confederate’s performance. Participants then took recognition and recall tests for the feedback immediately after it was given and after a two-day delay. Results showed no recall biases. However, the hypothesized recognition biases were found: the high social anxiety group remembered the confederate’s feedback more positively than their own, remembered their negative feedback as worse than the low group, and diminished positive feedback over time. Moreover, post-event processing mediated the relationship between social anxiety and memory for negative feedback. Results suggest that biased recognition of social feedback is linked to social anxiety. PMID:20399601

  4. Differences in social anxiety between men and women across 18 countries.

    PubMed

    Caballo, Vicente E; Salazar, Isabel C; Irurtia, María Jesús; Arias, Benito; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-07-01

    Sex differences between men and women in social anxiety are largely unexplored. This study sought to shed some light on this topic. We administered self-report measures of social anxiety to community samples of 17,672 women and 13,440 men from 16 Latin American countries, Spain and Portugal, as well as to a clinical sample of 601 patients diagnosed with social anxiety disorder. Small but significant differences were found between men and women in the general degree of social anxiety and self-reported fears of interactions with the opposite sex, criticism and embarrassment, and speaking in public-talking to people in authority. These results point to small, but meaningful differences between men and women in social anxiety. Implications of these results for the self-report measurement of social anxiety in men and women are discussed. PMID:24976665

  5. Interpersonal risk for suicide in social anxiety: The roles of shame and depression.

    PubMed

    Arditte, Kimberly A; Morabito, Danielle M; Shaw, Ashley M; Timpano, Kiara R

    2016-05-30

    Though research indicates that individuals with social anxiety disorder may experience elevated levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, two interpersonal risk factors critical for the development of suicidal desire, it remains unclear why. The current investigation considered how shame and depression may help to explain the relationship between social anxiety and interpersonal suicide risk factors. Participants (N=259), recruited using Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk, completed measures of social anxiety, interpersonal suicide risk factors, shame, and depression. Social anxiety was associated with greater thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. In addition, shame partially explained the association between social anxiety and thwarted belongingness, though the indirect effect was no longer significant after considering depression as a moderator. As predicted, shame was found to fully explain the association between social anxiety and perceived burdensomeness and this indirect effect was most pronounced among individuals with high comorbid depression. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27137975

  6. Sexual assertiveness mediates the effect of social interaction anxiety on sexual victimization risk among college women.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-03-01

    Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques. This study examined social interaction anxiety as a risk factor for sexual victimization. College women (n=672) completed online measures of social interaction anxiety, sexual assertiveness, and sexual victimization experiences. Social interaction anxiety was significantly positively related to likelihood of experiencing coerced sexual intercourse, and significant indirect effects, via decreased sexual refusal assertiveness, were found for both coerced sexual intercourse and rape. Social anxiety may be an important psychological barrier to assertive resistance during risky sexual situations, and developers of risk reduction programs for college women should consider including methods to help women overcome their social anxiety in order to successfully use assertive resistance techniques. PMID:23312432

  7. fMRI Study of Social Anxiety during Social Ostracism with and without Emotional Support.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshiko; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Okada, Go; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takanao; Yoshino, Atsuo; Jinnin, Ran; Takagaki, Koki; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is characterized by an excessive fear of being embarrassed in social interactions or social performance situations. Emotional support can help to decrease or diminish social distress. Such support may play an important role at different points of social interaction. However, it is unclear how the beneficial effects of social support are represented in the brains of socially anxious individuals. To explore this, we used the same paradigm previously used to examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion. Undergraduates (n = 46) showing a wide range of social anxiety scores underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participating in a Cyberball game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session in which participants were excluded, they were provided with supportive messages. In line with our previous work, we found that social exclusion led to increased anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity, whereas emotional support led to increased left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity. Despite validation of the paradigm, social anxiety was not associated with increased ACC activity during social exclusion, or during perceived emotional support. Instead, fear of negative evaluation as assessed by the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale showed positive associations with left DLPFC activation while receiving emotional support, compared to while being socially excluded. The more socially anxious an individual was, the greater was the left DLPFC activity increased during receipt of messages. This suggests that highly socially anxious people still have the ability to perceive social support, but that they are nevertheless susceptible to negative evaluation by others. PMID:26000902

  8. Self-consciousness and social anxiety in youth: the Revised Self-Consciousness Scales for Children.

    PubMed

    Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Rita L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2014-12-01

    Despite the established relationship between self-consciousness (SC) and anxiety and depression in adults, there is a paucity of research examining SC in children and adolescents. We therefore sought to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of scores for a revised version of the Self-Consciousness Scales for Children, a measure of SC in youth. The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale for Children (R-SCS-C) was examined in 2 studies using a community sample of children and adolescents. In the 1st study, 1,207 youth (685 girls) ages 7 to 18 completed the R-SCS-C as well as measures of imaginary audience, anxiety, depression, and positive and negative affect. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the R-SCS-C conducted on a randomly selected subsample (n = 603) supported a 3-factor solution, including the subscales of Public Self-Consciousness, Private Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) conducted on the remaining half of the sample (n = 604) revealed that this model fit the data well. Additionally, subsequent multigroup CFAs by gender and age demonstrated good model fit across both gender and younger (ages 7 to 12 years) and older (ages 13 to 18 years) cohorts. In the 2nd study, 245 youth completed the R-SCS-C twice, approximately 2 weeks apart. The R-SCS-C scores in these samples demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and test-retest reliability. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25068912

  9. Influence of social stress on risk-taking behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Schreiber, Whitney M; Geisel, Kathy; MacPherson, Laura; Ernst, Monique; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    Risk-taking behavior involves making choices with uncertain positive or negative outcomes. Evidence suggests that risk-taking behavior is influenced by emotional state. One such emotional experience is social anxiety, which has been related to both risk-avoidant and risk-seeking decision making. The present study examined a community sample of 34 adolescents grouped into low (Low SA Group) and high (High SA Group) social anxiety (SA). Both groups were compared on changes in performance on a risk taking task (Balloon Analogue Risk Task) between a social threat condition (modified Trier Social Stress Test, High Stress) and a control condition (Low Stress). These conditions were administered on different days, and the order was counterbalanced across subjects. A group×condition interaction revealed that the High SA Group showed greater risk-taking behavior when exposed to the High Stress Condition compared to the Low Stress Condition, while the Low SA Group evidenced no difference between the two conditions. Interpretations for the increased risk behavior under the condition of social stress for those high in social anxiety are discussed as well as implications for understanding the complex relationship between social anxiety and risk behavior. PMID:23602940

  10. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  11. The Cultural and Developmental Significance of Parenting Processes in Adolescent Anxiety and Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…

  12. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Amygdala-Based Networks in Adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Amy K.; Fudge, Julie L.; Kelly, Clare; Perry, Justin S. A.; Daniele, Teresa; Carlisi, Christina; Benson, Brenda; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) typically begins during adolescence and can persist into adulthood. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. Recent evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies in adults suggests disruptions in amygdala-based circuitry; the…

  13. The Metacognitive Model of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Danielle M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Worry is a common phenomenon in children and adolescents, with some experiencing excessive worries that cause significant distress and interference. The metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (Wells 1995, 2009) was developed to explain cognitive processes associated with pathological worry in adults, particularly the role of positive…

  14. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  15. Interactions among Domain-Specific Expectancies, Values, and Gender: Predictors of Test Anxiety during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkirk, Laura C.; Bouchey, Heather A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on the interaction between students' domain-specific expectancies and values as a predictor of test anxiety. A subsample of adolescents from the MSALT dataset are used in the current study; students complete measures during the spring of sixth grade and again during the spring of seventh grade. Overall, findings provide…

  16. Computer Anxiety: A Comparison of Adolescents with and without a History of Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals who are anxious about computers may be at a disadvantage in their learning. This investigation focused on the use of home computers for educational purposes. It compared computer anxiety in adolescents with and without a history of special needs related to language difficulties. Participants were 55 17-year-olds with specific language…

  17. One Factor or Two Parallel Processes? Comorbidity and Development of Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Muris, Peter; van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates whether anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms of adolescents from the general community are best described by a model that assumes they are indicative of one general factor or by a model that assumes they are two distinct disorders with parallel growth processes. Additional analyses were conducted to explore…

  18. Precursors and Correlates of Anxiety Trajectories from Late Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana; Toumbourou, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The present research employed a prospective, multi-informant design to examine precursors and correlates of differing anxiety profiles from late childhood to late adolescence. The sample consisted of 626 boys and 667 girls who are participants in the Australian Temperament Project, a large, longitudinal, community-based study that has followed…

  19. Stressful Life Events and the Tripartite Model: Relations to Anxiety and Depression in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Halpern, Leslie F.; Ryan, Julie L.; Lowe, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the tripartite model reliably distinguishes anxiety and depression in adolescents, it remains unclear how negative affectivity (NA) and positive affectivity (PA) influence developmental pathways to internalizing problems. Based on models which propose that affectivity shapes how youth react to stress, the present study attempted to…

  20. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  1. A Unified, Transdiagnostic Treatment for Adolescents with Chronic Pain and Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain disorders represent a significant public health concern, particularly for children and adolescents. High rates of comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders often complicate psychological interventions for chronic pain. Unified treatment approaches, based on emotion regulation skills, are applicable to a broad range of emotional…

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the "Cool Teens" CD-ROM Computerized Program for Adolescent Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuthrich, Viviana M.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Cunningham, Michael J.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Computerized cognitive behavioral interventions for anxiety disorders in adults have been shown to be efficacious, but limited data are available on the use of computerized interventions with young persons. Adolescents in particular are difficult to engage in treatment and may be especially suited to computerized technologies. This…

  3. A twin study of computer anxiety in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deryakulu, Deniz; Calışkan, Erkan

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated computer anxiety within a sample of Turkish twins aged 10-18. A total of 185 twin-pairs participated in the study. Of the twins, 64 pairs (34.6 percent) were monozygotic (MZ) and 121 pairs (65.4 percent) were dizygotic (DZ). Of the 121 DZ twins, 54 pairs (44.63 percent) were same-sex twins and 67 pairs (55.37 percent) were opposite-sex twins. Computer anxiety was assessed using Computer Anxiety Rating Scale-Turkish Version (CARS-TV), one of the three main scales of "Measuring Technophobia Instruments" developed by Rosen and Weil. The results of paired t test comparisons showed no significant differences in MZ and same-sex DZ twin-pairs' levels of computer anxiety. On the other hand, a significant difference was found in opposite-sex DZ twin-pairs' level of computer anxiety. Interesting enough, males appeared to be more computer anxious than their female co-twins. In the present study, using Falconer's formula, heritability estimate for computer anxiety was derived from correlations based on MZ and DZ twins' mean scores on CARS-TV. The results showed that 57 percent of the variance in computer anxiety was from genetics and 41.5 percent was from nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental influence, on the other hand, was very small and negligible. Interpretations of results and potential directions for future research are presented. PMID:22394420

  4. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  5. Neural sensitivity to social reward and punishment anticipation in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Henk R.; Veer, Ilya M.; Spinhoven, Philip; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    An imbalance in the neural motivational system may underlie Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). This study examines social reward and punishment anticipation in SAD, predicting a valence-specific effect: increased striatal activity for punishment avoidance compared to obtaining a reward. Individuals with SAD (n = 20) and age, gender, and education case-matched controls (n = 20) participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a Social Incentive Delay (SID) task to measure the anticipation of social reward and punishment. The left putamen (part of the striatum) showed a valence-specific interaction with group after correcting for medication use and comorbidity. The control group showed a relatively stronger activation for reward vs. punishment trials, compared to the social anxiety group. However, post-hoc pairwise comparisons were not significant, indicating that the effect is driven by a relative difference. A connectivity analysis (Psychophysiological interaction) further revealed a general salience effect: SAD patients showed decreased putamen-ACC connectivity compared to controls for both reward and punishment trials. Together these results suggest that the usual motivational preference for social reward is absent in SAD. In addition, cortical control processes during social incentive anticipation may be disrupted in SAD. These results provide initial evidence for altered striatal involvement in both valence-specific and valence-nonspecific processing of social incentives, and stress the relevance of taking motivational processes into account when studying social anxiety. PMID:25601830

  6. Individual Day-to-Day Process of Social Anxiety in Vulnerable College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Cynthia G.; Bierman, Karen L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Transitions requiring the creation of new social networks may be challenging for individuals vulnerable to social anxiety, which may hinder successful adjustment. Using person-specific methodology, this study examined social anxiety in vulnerable university freshman away from home during their first semester of college to understand how day-to-day…

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues. PMID:26816292

  8. The ABC's of teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the classroom: the UCLA PEERS (®) Program.

    PubMed

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon

    2014-09-01

    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all. PMID:24715256

  9. [Social anxiety disorder: current status and future directions].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD; also known as social phobia) is characterized by fear of social situations involving performance or interaction. This disorder has been formally recognized as a distinct anxiety disorder since DSM-III was published in 1980. In Japan, a number of psychopathological and psychotherapeutic studies have been performed since the 1930s on a pathological condition similar to SAD, known as Taijin-kyofu (TK). TK, especially the convinced subtype of TK (c-TK; also known as the offensive subtype of TK), is described as a culture-bound syndrome similar to SAD. In proposed DSM-5 draft, it is suggested to add "offending others" to fear of being humiliating or embarrassing which were indicated in DSM-IV. It is interesting that fearing of making another person uncomfortable or "offending others" is consistent with symptom which has been investigated through c-TK in particular. The relation between SAD and TK will become clear in examination by new diagnostic criteria (DSM-5) more in future. PMID:23198595

  10. Differential effects of safety behaviour subtypes in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Plasencia, M Leili; Alden, Lynn E; Taylor, Charles T

    2011-10-01

    Clinical observations indicate that individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) use a variety of safety behaviours; however, virtually no research has examined the functional effect of different safety-seeking strategies. Accordingly, we conducted two studies to address this issue. Study 1 measured global patterns of safety behaviour use in a large analogue sample. Factor analysis revealed two primary safety behaviour categories, avoidance and impression management. Study 2 assessed situational use of safety behaviours during a controlled social interaction in a clinical sample of 93 patients with Generalised SAD. Factor analysis again revealed support for avoidance and impression-management subtypes. Notably, the two types of safety behaviours were associated with different social outcomes. Avoidance safety behaviours were associated with higher state anxiety during the interaction and negative reactions from participants' interaction partners. Impression-management strategies appeared to impede corrections in negative predictions about subsequent interactions. These findings suggest that it may be beneficial to consider the unique effects of different safety-seeking strategies when assessing and treating SAD. PMID:21831356

  11. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  12. Resting-State Peripheral Catecholamine and Anxiety Levels in Korean Male Adolescents with Internet Game Addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530

  13. Social Support Factors as Moderators of Community Violence Exposure Among Inner-City African American Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammack, Phillip L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Luo, Zupei; Edlynn, Emily S.; Roy, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Using both surveys and the experience sampling method (ESM), community violence exposure, social support factors, and depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed longitudinally among inner-city African American adolescents. Moderator models were tested to determine protective factors for youth exposed to community violence. Several social…

  14. Are Executive Functioning Deficits Concurrently and Predictively Associated with Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Han, Georges; Helm, Jonathan; Iucha, Cornelia; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    The central objective of the current study was to evaluate how executive functions (EF), and specifically cognitive flexibility, were concurrently and predictively associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Adolescents (N = 220) and their parents participated in this longitudinal investigation. Adolescents' EF was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) during the initial assessment, and symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders were reported by mothers and youths concurrently and 2 years later. Correlational analyses suggested that youths who made more total errors (TE), including both perseverative errors (PE) and nonperseverative errors (NPE), concurrently exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms. Adolescents who made more TE and those who made more NPE tended to have more anxiety symptoms 2 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses accounting for key explanatory variables (e.g., IQ, disruptive behavior disorders, and attention deficit hyperactive disorder) showed that TE was concurrently associated with parent reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results suggest internalizing psychopathology is associated with global (TE) and nonspecific (NPE) EF difficulties but not robustly associated with cognitive inflexibility (PE). Future research with the WCST should consider different sources of errors that are posited to reflect divergent underlying neural mechanisms, conferring differential vulnerability for emerging mental health problems. PMID:26042358

  15. A weighty issue: explaining the association between body mass index and appearance-based social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Titchener, Kristen; Wong, Quincy J J

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that individuals who are overweight or obese are more likely to experience mental health difficulties. One line of research has indicated that body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with appearance-based social anxiety, rather than social anxiety more generally. However, there is a lack of research that has attempted to explain this association. Thus, the current study recruited an undergraduate sample (N=90) and aimed (a) to replicate previous research by examining the associations between BMI, social anxiety, and appearance-based social anxiety and (b) to extend previous research by examining two potential mediators in the relationship between BMI and appearance-based social anxiety suggested in the literature (i.e., body image dissatisfaction and emotional eating). Analyses indicated that BMI was not associated with social anxiety but positively associated with appearance-based social anxiety. The association between BMI and appearance-based social anxiety was only mediated by body image dissatisfaction, and the model of these relationships emerged as the best fitting model relative to a plausible alternative model. The findings replicate and extend previous research on weight status and psychological factors and highlight the need for future longitudinal research on BMI, appearance-based social anxiety, and body image dissatisfaction so that interventions for obesity and weight loss maintenance programs can be ultimately enhanced. PMID:25464060

  16. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type) for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood. PMID:27404489

  17. Depression and Anxiety Change from Adolescence to Adulthood in Individuals with and without Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Botting, Nicola; Toseeb, Umar; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2016-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study aims to determine patterns and predictors of change in depression and anxiety from adolescence to adulthood in individuals with language impairment (LI). Individuals with LI originally recruited at age 7 years and a comparison group of age-matched peers (AMPs) were followed from adolescence (16 years) to adulthood (24 years). We determine patterns of change in depression and anxiety using the Child Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R) and Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). In addition to examining associations with gender, verbal and nonverbal skills, we use a time-varying variable to investigate relationships between depression and anxiety symptoms and transitions in educational/employment circumstances. The results show that anxiety was higher in participants with LI than age matched peers and remained so from adolescence to adulthood. Individuals with LI had higher levels of depression symptoms than did AMPs at 16 years. Levels in those with LI decreased post-compulsory schooling but rose again by 24 years of age. Those who left compulsory school provision (regardless of school type) for more choice-driven college but who were not in full-time employment or study by 24 years of age were more likely to show this depression pathway. Verbal and nonverbal skills were not predictive of this pattern of depression over time. The typical female vulnerability for depression and anxiety was observed for AMPs but not for individuals with LI. These findings have implications for service provision, career/employment advice and support for individuals with a history of LI during different transitions from adolescence to adulthood. PMID:27404489

  18. Postural balance in patients with social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, M.N.; Crippa, J.A.; Bruno, L.M.; Pastore, D.L.; Freire, R.C.; Arrais, K.C.; Hallak, J.E.; Nardi, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Body stability is controlled by the postural system and can be affected by fear and anxiety. Few studies have addressed freezing posture in psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present study was to assess posturographic behavior in 30 patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 35 without SAD during presentation of blocks of pictures with different valences. Neutral images consisted of objects taken from a catalog of pictures, negative images were mutilation pictures and anxiogenic images were related to situations regarding SAD fears. While participants were standing on a force platform, similar to a balance, displacement of the center of pressure in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions was measured. We found that the SAD group exhibited a lower sway area and a lower velocity of sway throughout the experiment independent of the visual stimuli, in which the phobic pictures, a stimulus associated with a defense response, were unable to evoke a significantly more rigid posture than the others. We hypothesize that patients with SAD when entering in a situation of exposure, from the moment the pictures are presented, tend to move less than controls, remaining this way until the experiment ends. This discrete body manifestation can provide additional data to the characterization of SAD and its differentiation from other anxiety disorders, especially in situations regarding facing fear. PMID:22086467

  19. The Role of Various Social Support Variables on Turkish Children's Anxiety Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkok, Fusun; Guneri, Oya; Oral, Gunseli; Sumer, Zeynep (Hatipoglu)

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the role of various social support variables on the state and trait anxiety levels of 196 fourth and fifth graders. Results reveal a significant effect of living together with parents, but not grandparents, on state and trait anxiety and a positive correlation between state anxiety and love and affection for the teacher. (SLD)

  20. The Effects of Social Anxiety and State Anxiety on Visual Attention: Testing the Vigilance-Avoidance Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Singh, J Suzanne; Capozzoli, Michelle C; Dodd, Michael D; Hope, Debra A

    2015-01-01

    A growing theoretical and research literature suggests that trait and state social anxiety can predict attentional patterns in the presence of emotional stimuli. The current study adds to this literature by examining the effects of state anxiety on visual attention and testing the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis, using a method of continuous visual attentional assessment. Participants were 91 undergraduate college students with high or low trait fear of negative evaluation (FNE), a core aspect of social anxiety, who were randomly assigned to either a high or low state anxiety condition. Participants engaged in a free view task in which pairs of emotional facial stimuli were presented and eye movements were continuously monitored. Overall, participants with high FNE avoided angry stimuli and participants with high state anxiety attended to positive stimuli. Participants with high state anxiety and high FNE were avoidant of angry faces, whereas participants with low state and low FNE exhibited a bias toward angry faces. The study provided partial support for the vigilance-avoidance hypothesis. The findings add to the mixed results in the literature that suggest that both positive and negative emotional stimuli may be important in understanding the complex attention patterns associated with social anxiety. Clinical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25767901