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Sample records for adolescent social functioning

  1. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents' Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14-20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents' social functioning,…

  2. Autonomy and Adolescent Social Functioning: The Moderating Effect of Risk

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of risk on the relation between autonomy processes and family and adolescent functioning. The present sample comprised 131 adolescents from either a low-risk or high-risk social context, their mothers, and their peers. Observational ratings of autonomy processes within the mother-adolescent dyad were obtained, along with adolescent reports of the quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, and both adolescent and peer reports of the adolescent’s functioning. Consistent with past research, in low-risk families, behavior undermining autonomy was negatively related to relationship quality, and adolescents’ expressions of autonomy were linked with positive indices of social functioning. In high-risk families, however, undermining of autonomy was positively linked with mother-adolescent relationship quality, and adolescents’ expressions of autonomy were linked with negative indices of social functioning. Results are interpreted as demonstrating the ways in which the developmental task of attaining autonomy in adolescence is systematically altered depending on the level of risk and challenge in the adolescent’s social context. PMID:11280481

  3. Social support, family functioning and parenting competence in adolescent parents.

    PubMed

    Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers. PMID:24833286

  4. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  5. Understanding Adolescent Parenting: The Dimensions and Functions of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Pamela S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents model of adolescent parenting, emphasizing multiple influences that social support has on maternal personality, health and nutritional status, cognitive readiness for parenting, and actual parenting behavior and child development. Concludes life span perspective is useful in evaluating teenage mother's social support needs and individual…

  6. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition. PMID:24465033

  7. Young People with Specific Language Impairment: A Review of Social and Emotional Functioning in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of research into the social and emotional functioning of adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI). In particular, we focus on peer relations, peer friendships, bullying, emotional difficulties and psychiatric difficulties. As a group, adolescents with SLI tend to be more vulnerable to problems in these…

  8. Tipping Points in Adolescent Adjustment: Predicting Social Functioning from Adolescents’ Conflict with Parents and Friends

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents’ experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents’ experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semi-structured discussions about areas of adolescent-parent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents’ social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. PMID:22946461

  9. Functioning of Social Skills from Middle Childhood to Early Adolescence in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsolnai, Anikó; Kasik, László

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the social skills that crucially affect children's social behaviour in the school. Our objective was to gather information about the functioning of social skills from middle childhood to early adolescence. The sample consisted of 7-, 9-, and 11-year-old Hungarian students (N = 1398). Based on…

  10. Relations among Sadness Regulation, Peer Acceptance, and Social Functioning in Early Adolescence: The Role of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Zeman, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Using a multi-informant approach, this study examined emotion regulation within the social context of White and Black adolescent peer groups by assessing two aspects of sadness expression management (i.e., inhibition, disinhibition) and their linkages to peer acceptance and social functioning as a function of gender and ethnicity. Seventh- and…

  11. Linking social anxiety and adolescent romantic relationship functioning: indirect effects and the importance of peers.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Karen R; Fales, Jessica; Nangle, Douglas W; Papadakis, Alison A; Grover, Rachel L

    2013-11-01

    Peer relationships undergo dramatic shifts in form and function during adolescence, at the same time the incidence of socially evaluative fears sharply rises. Despite well-established links between social anxiety and broader interpersonal functioning, there is a dearth of research evaluating the impact of social anxiety on functioning in close relationships during this developmental stage. The present study examines the impact of social anxiety on functioning in close friendships and romantic relationships during adolescence. From a developmental psychopathology perspective, it was expected that social anxiety would influence functioning (quality, length, satisfaction) in romantic relationships through its influence on functioning in same- and other-sex friendships. Participants included 314 adolescents (60.5% female, 14-19 years of age) with a prior or current history of romantic relationship involvement. Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model positing an indirect pathway from social anxiety to romantic relationship functioning through functioning in close same- and other-sex friendships. Given known gender differences in social anxiety and relationship functioning, gender also was explored as a potential moderator. Results supported the hypothesized indirect pathway whereby social anxiety was associated with impairment in same-sex friendships; functioning in same-sex friendships was associated with functioning in other-sex friendships, which was associated, in turn, with functioning in romantic relationships. While the hypothesized indirect pathway was significant among both boys and girls, there was greater continuity of functioning between same- and other-sex friendships for girls. These findings highlight the importance of examining the multiple downstream effects of social anxiety on perceived social functioning in adolescence, and suggest that continuity may exist for maladaptive patterns of socialization, particularly across

  12. Differentiating Anxiety and Depression in Relation to the Social Functioning of Young Adolescents With ADHD.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Langberg, Joshua M; Evans, Steven W; Girio-Herrera, Erin; Vaughn, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depressive symptoms in relation to the social functioning of young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and builds upon prior work by incorporating youths' self-reports of internalizing symptoms and examining distinct anxiety and depression dimensions to increase specificity. Participants were 310 young adolescents (ages 10-14; 71% male, 78% Caucasian) diagnosed with ADHD. Youth provided ratings of anxiety/depression, and parents provided ratings of their own depression. Parents and youth both reported on youths' social skills and perceived social acceptance. Path analyses indicated that above and beyond child demographics, ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptom severity, and parents' own depression, self-reported social anxiety and anhedonia were both associated with lower youth-reported social skills and both parent- and youth-reported social acceptance. Negative self-evaluation was associated with poorer parent-reported social skills. Finally, harm avoidance was positively associated with both youth- and parent-reported social skills. A path analysis using comorbid diagnoses (rather than symptom dimensions) indicated that that having a comorbid disruptive behavior disorder or depression diagnosis (but not a comorbid anxiety diagnosis) was associated with poorer parent-reported social functioning. Results demonstrate that the relation between internalizing symptoms and social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD is nuanced, with social anxiety and anhedonia symptoms associated with lower social skills and social acceptance in contrast to harm avoidance being associated with higher ratings of social skills (and unrelated to social acceptance). In terms of comorbid diagnoses, depression is more clearly related than anxiety to poorer social functioning among young adolescents with ADHD. These results point to the importance of attending to specific facets of anxiety and depression in

  13. Social problem solving, family functioning, and suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C Lai; Shek, Daniel T L

    2009-01-01

    Based on the responses of 5,557 Chinese secondary students in Hong Kong, the relationship among social problem solving, perceived family functioning, and suicidal ideation were examined in this study. Results showed that suicidal ideation was negatively related to social problem solving and family functioning. It was further found that the linkage between social problem solving and adolescent suicidal ideation was stronger under high family functioning relative to low family functioning, thus suggesting the moderating effect of family functioning on the effect of social problem solving on suicidal ideation. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:19764274

  14. Longitudinal Associations between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between depressive problems and three types of functioning in…

  15. Development of Social Functioning in Preschizophrenia Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbox, Sarah I.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with severe deficits in social functioning. Similar deficits may be present prior to psychosis onset, in childhood and adolescence. If so, then prepsychosis social deficits could provide clues to the development of pathological processes in preschizophrenia children and could potentially improve early identification of…

  16. Naturalistic Observations of Schoolyard Social Participation: Marker Variables for Socio-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Ooi, Laura L.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine links between observed social participation in the schoolyard and indices of socio-emotional functioning in early adolescence. Participants were children (N = 290) aged 9 to 12 years. Social participation (e.g., solitary play, dyadic interaction, group interaction) was assessed in the schoolyard during recess…

  17. The effects of religious socialization and religious identity on psychosocial functioning in Korean American adolescents from immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents. PMID:22506544

  18. Relationship of social support to stress responses and immune function in healthy and asthmatic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, D H; Coe, C L; Karaszewski, J; McCarthy, D O

    1998-04-01

    Although most clinicians believe that social support has beneficial effects on health, the mechanisms mediating this relationship have not been clearly established. We examined the direct effect of social support on several immune measures and its role in moderating the response to academic exams in healthy and asthmatic adolescents. Three types of students--healthy, mild asthma, and severe asthma--completed social support and stress questionnaires and gave blood samples during the midsemester and final exam periods. Social support and natural killer cell (NK) function showed a significant reduction during exams in both healthy and asthmatic adolescents. Social support, however, did not have a direct effect on immune responses. Nevertheless, high social support appeared to attenuate the magnitude of exam-induced reduction in NK activity, suggesting a role for social support in protecting against immune decrements during times of stress. PMID:9535404

  19. The Typical Developmental Trajectory of Social and Executive Functions in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood…

  20. Sluggish Cognitive Tempo among Young Adolescents with ADHD: Relations to Mental Health, Academic, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Stephen P.; Langberg, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) in relation to externalizing and internalizing mental health problems, academic functioning, and social functioning among young adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: In all, 57 youth ages 10 to 14 participated in the study. Parents…

  1. Family Functioning, Social Impairment, and Symptoms Among Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Peris, Tara; Axelson, David; Kowatch, Robert A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Impaired social functioning is common among youth with bipolar disorder (BD), emerges in multiple settings, and persists over time. However, little is known about factors associated with poor peer and family functioning in the early-onset form of BD. Using a sample of adolescents with BD I or II, we examined which symptoms of BD,…

  2. Effects of Social Skill Instruction for High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, B. J.; Miller, S. P.; Pierce, T. B.; Strawser, S.; Jones, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using the SCORE Skills Strategy (Vernon, Schumaker, & Deshler, 1996) to teach high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders five important social skills. Ten male participants ranging in age from 12 to 17 took part in a 10-week program. Results obtained using a…

  3. Sibling Relationship Quality and Social Functioning of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…

  4. Supportive Non-Parental Adults and Adolescent Psychosocial Functioning: Using Social Support as a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, E. M.; Jones, D. J.; McKee, L. G.; Kincaid, C.

    2014-01-01

    Supportive Non-Parental Adults (SNPAs), or non-parental adults who provide social support to youth, are present in the lives of many adolescents; yet to date, a guiding framework for organizing the existing literature on the provision of support provided by multiple types of SNPAS, such as teachers, natural mentors, and extended family members, as well as to inform future research efforts, is lacking. The aim of the current paper is to utilize the well-established lens of social support to integrate, across this broad range of literatures, recent findings regarding associations between SNPAs and four indices of adolescent psychosocial adjustment: academic functioning, self-esteem, and behavioral and emotional problems. Beyond offering an integrative framework for understanding the link between SNPAs and adolescent functioning, the issues reviewed here have potentially far-reaching consequences for adolescents and their families, as well as the professionals working with adolescents and their families in the health care, school, and community settings. PMID:21384233

  5. Cognitive Shifting as a Predictor of Progress in Social Understanding in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Hans J. C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study of 17 high-functioning residentially treated adolescents with autism found that cognitive shifting, as measured by card sorting tests, was the only significant factor in predicting progress in social understanding. (Author/JDD)

  6. The longitudinal development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sophie J.; Barker, Lynne A.; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12–16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed. PMID:26441579

  7. The longitudinal development of social and executive functions in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Sophie J; Barker, Lynne A; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier work suggests that, executive functions and social cognition show protracted development into late adolescence and early adulthood (Taylor et al., 2013). However, it remains unknown whether these functions develop linearly or non-linearly corresponding to dynamic changes to white matter density at these age ranges. Executive functions are particularly in demand during the transition to independence and autonomy associated with this age range (Ahmed and Miller, 2011). Previous research examining executive function (Romine and Reynolds, 2005) and social cognition (Dumontheil et al., 2010a) in late adolescence has utilized a cross sectional design. The current study employed a longitudinal design with 58 participants aged 17, 18, and 19 years completing social cognition and executive function tasks, Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (Wechsler, 1999), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., 1988), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Zigmond and Snaith, 1983) at Time 1 with follow up testing 12-16 months later. Inhibition, rule detection, strategy generation and planning executive functions and emotion recognition with dynamic stimuli showed longitudinal development between time points. Self-report empathy and emotion recognition functions using visual static and auditory stimuli were stable by age 17 whereas concept formation declined between time points. The protracted development of some functions may reflect continued brain maturation into late adolescence and early adulthood including synaptic pruning (Sowell et al., 2001) and changes to functional connectivity (Stevens et al., 2007) and/or environmental change. Clinical implications, such as assessing the effectiveness of rehabilitation following Head Injury, are discussed. PMID:26441579

  8. Social Influences on Executive Functions Development in Children and Adolescents: Steps Toward a Social Neuroscience of Predictive Adaptive Responses.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the findings and implications of four empirical papers that establish a reciprocal, longitudinal link between the social environment and executive functions from childhood to adolescence. Two future directions are suggested by this work. The first is a call for measurement research to clarify the nomological network of various measurements of self-regulation and executive functions across a variety of methods and procedures. The second new direction is to broaden the analysis of executive function to include a wider array of predictive adaptive responses to various environmental conditions, including those where youth are chronically marginalized or otherwise stressed. Findings from these studies suggest that the executive functions within the brain guide adaptation in both deviant as well as competent responses to the social environment. Understanding various forms of adaptation will enhance the potential for prevention as well as avoid iatrogenic intervention strategies with misinformed targets. PMID:26729426

  9. Processing Speed and Neurodevelopment in Adolescent-Onset Psychosis: Cognitive Slowing Predicts Social Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Peter; Niendam, Tara A.; Jalbrzikowkski, Maria; Park, Chan Y.; Daley, Melita; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Onset of psychosis may be associated with abnormal adolescent neurodevelopment. Here we examined the neurocognitive profile of first-episode, adolescent onset psychosis (AOP) as compared to typically developing adolescents, and asked whether neurocognitive performance varied differentially as a function of age in the cases compared with controls.…

  10. The Adolescent Relational Dialectic and the Peer Roots of Adult Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Joseph P.; Chango, Joanna; Szwedo, David

    2014-01-01

    The long-term import of a fundamental challenge of adolescent social development--establishing oneself as a desirable peer companion while avoiding problematic behaviors often supported within peer groups--was examined in a community sample of 184 adolescents, followed from ages 13 to 23, along with parents, peers, and romantic partners. The…

  11. The Functions of Mass Media in the Political Socialization of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adoni, Hanna

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that the mass media serve as socializing agents by providing direct linkage to media and contents which are essential for the development of political values, and by contributing to the structuring of social contexts in which adolescents may exercise such value orientations and reinforce ties with primary socializing agents. (JMF)

  12. Adolescents' fear of social consequences of academic success as a function of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, F I; Chabassol, D J

    1985-02-01

    The Fear of Success Consequence Scale (FOSC) was used to assess adolescents' fears of potential social consequences of academic success in three dimensions, i.e., negative social reaction, positive peer reaction, and increased pressure and responsibility for continuous success. Subjects were 360 students in early adolescence (grades 7-9) and mid-adolescence (grades 10-12) in three urban British Columbia areas. Two hypotheses were supported: (1) that fear of academic success is higher among early adolescents than among mid-adolescents; (2) that girls generally have higher fear of academic success than do boys. Significant sex differences were found among early adolescents but not among mid-adolescents. While general sex differences were consistent with Horner's prediction, the findings of lower fear of success consequences among older adolescents than among younger ones, and the absence of significant sex difference among mid-adolescents, were contrary to Horner's prediction. Possible explanations for these findings are considered. Suggestions for further research are mentioned. PMID:24301042

  13. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety. PMID:24177484

  14. Using a Social Communication Intervention to Improve the Social Interactions and Employment Experiences of Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavenna-Deane, Beth Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral social communication intervention on improving the social reciprocity and employment experiences of adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Four youth diagnosed with a HFASD participated in this study. A multiple baseline across skills design provided…

  15. Value Acceptance on Adolescent Socialization: A Test of a Cognitive-Functional Theory of Television Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Alexis; Nelson, Leigh; Dong, Qingwen; Tan, Gerdean

    1997-01-01

    Presents a cognitive-functional explanation of television's influence on Anglo-American, Native American, and Hispanic adolescents' acceptance of values. Finds that adolescents accepted values observed in television when they recognized them (a measure of learning) and when they evaluated the values to be important in "being successful" in the…

  16. Social Competence with an Unfamiliar Peer in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism: Measurement and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Usher, Lauren V.; Burrows, Catherine A.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) display heterogeneity in social competence, which may be particularly evident during interactions with unfamiliar peers. The goal of this study was to examine predictors of social competence variability during an unfamiliar peer interaction. Thirty-nine participants with HFA and 39 age-, gender- and IQ-matched comparison participants were observed during dyadic laboratory interactions and detailed behavioral coding revealed three social competence dimensions: social initiative, social reciprocity, and social self-monitoring. Participants with HFA displayed higher social initiative but lower reciprocity than comparison participants. For participants with HFA, theory of mind was positively associated with observed initiative. For COM participants, social anxiety was negatively associated with reciprocity. However, for HFA participants, there was a quadratic relation between parent-reported social anxiety and observed reciprocity, demonstrating that low and high levels of anxiety were associated with low reciprocity. Results demonstrated the utility of our behavioral coding scheme as a valid assessment of social competence for children and adolescents with and without HFA. The curvilinear association between social anxiety and reciprocity highlights the importance of examining nonlinear relations in individuals with HFA, and emphasizes that discrete profiles of social anxiety in individuals with HFA may necessitate different treatment options. PMID:26161136

  17. The association between social cognition and executive functioning and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hollocks, Matthew J; Jones, Catherine R G; Pickles, Andrew; Baird, Gillian; Happé, Francesca; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily

    2014-04-01

    While high levels of anxiety and depression are now recognized as major co-occurring problems in children and young people with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research examining possible associations with individual differences in neurocognitive functioning has been limited. This study included 90 adolescents with an ASD aged 14-16 years with a full-scale IQ > 50. Using structural equation modeling, we examined the independent relationships between multiple measures of executive functioning and social cognition on severity of anxiety or depressive symptoms. Results indicated a significant association between poorer executive functioning and higher levels of anxiety, but not depression. In contrast, social cognition ability was not associated with either anxiety or depression. This study is the first to report significant associations between executive functions and anxiety in ASD. This may suggest that poor executive functioning is one factor associated with the high prevalence of anxiety disorder in children and adolescents with ASD. PMID:24737743

  18. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema. PMID:24496238

  19. Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

  20. Loneliness, Friendship Quality and the Social Networks of Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism in an Inclusive School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Ishijima, Eric H.; Kasari, Connie; London, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    By definition, children with autism have poor peer relationships despite age and ability. When children enter adolescence, social problems typically worsen and feelings of loneliness and isolation may emerge. Thus, the overarching goal of the current study is to examine the social-emotional relationships of adolescents with autism and their…

  1. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites. PMID:19492691

  2. Structural and functional correlates of a quantitative autistic trait measured using the social responsive scale in neurotypical male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Lan, Chen-Chia; Liu, Chia-Chien; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue

    2016-05-01

    Behaviors associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been suggested to be considered as quantitative traits. This study investigated the structural and functional correlates of autistic traits measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in neurotypical adolescents. Twenty-six neurotypical male adolescents (12-18 years old) were recruited for this study and underwent structural and resting functional magnetic resonance image scanning, and intelligence quotient and SRS evaluations. We used the automated surface-based method (FreeSurfer) to measure cortical thickness and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to derive the FC map of the dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC). Brain-wise regression analyses of cortical thickness and FC maps on SRS scores were performed using a general linear model. The results indicated that higher autistic trait ratings of total SRS scores were associated with a thinner cortex in the left insula, right insula, and right superior temporal gyrus. Furthermore, we observed that only higher scores of social awareness were correlated with increased FC between the dACC and right superior temporal gyrus and decreased FC between the dACC and right putamen and thalamus. These results indicated that a quantitative trait in social cognition is associated with structural and connectivity variations linked to ASD patients. Autism Res 2016, 9: 570-578. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26284955

  3. Social Anxiety in High-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusikko, Sanna; Pollock-Wurman, Rachel; Jussila, Katja; Carter, Alice S.; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ebeling, Hanna; Pauls, David L.; Moilanen, Irma

    2008-01-01

    We examined social anxiety and internalizing symptoms using the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), the Social Anxiety Scale for Children -Revised (SASC-R), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of fifty-four high-functioning subjects with autism or Asperger syndrome (HFA/AS) (M = 11.2 plus or minus 1.7 years)…

  4. Social Interaction Style of Children and Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheeren, Anke M.; Koot, Hans M.; Begeer, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative differences in social interaction style exist "within" the autism spectrum. In this study we examined whether these differences are associated with (1) the severity of autistic symptoms and comorbid disruptive behavior problems, (2) the child's psycho-social health, and (3) executive functioning and perspective taking skills. The…

  5. A Pilot Study of Social Competence Group Training for Adolescents with Borderline Intellectual Functioning and Emotional and Behavioural Problems (SCT-ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestler, J.; Goldbeck, L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Emotional and behavioural problems as well as a lack of social competence are common in adolescents with borderline intellectual functioning and impair their social and vocational integration. Group interventions specifically developed for this target group are scarce and controlled evaluation studies are absent. Methods: A…

  6. Neural mechanisms of social influence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Welborn, B Locke; Lieberman, Matthew D; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Galván, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    During the transformative period of adolescence, social influence plays a prominent role in shaping young people's emerging social identities, and can impact their propensity to engage in prosocial or risky behaviors. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of social influence from both parents and peers, two important sources of influence. Nineteen adolescents (age 16-18 years) completed a social influence task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Social influence from both sources evoked activity in brain regions implicated in mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction, right temporoparietal junction), reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and self-control (right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). These results suggest that mental state reasoning, social reward and self-control processes may help adolescents to evaluate others' perspectives and overcome the prepotent force of their own antecedent attitudes to shift their attitudes toward those of others. Findings suggest common neural networks involved in social influence from both parents and peers. PMID:26203050

  7. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  8. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  9. Group Social Skills Instruction for Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Koenig, Kathleen; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Given the increased recognition of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the chronic and pervasive nature of associated deficits, there is a pressing need for effective treatments. The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a structured, group social skills training program for high-functioning youth with ASD was examined in this study. Fifteen…

  10. The Relation between Self-Concept and Social Functioning in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, H.

    2008-01-01

    A model of the relation between self-concept and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours in adolescence, with the self-concept influencing problem behaviours (S[right arrow]IE), was assessed using a sample of 277 Swedish adolescents. The model was tested in a path analysis with data from Youth Self Report (YSR) and Structural Analysis…

  11. Development of the Adolescent Brain: Implications for Executive Function and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Choudhury, Suparna

    2006-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of considerable development at the level of behaviour, cognition and the brain. This article reviews histological and brain imaging studies that have demonstrated specific changes in neural architecture during puberty and adolescence, outlining trajectories of grey and white matter development. The implications of brain…

  12. Frequent Use of Social Networking Sites Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning Among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lewis, Rosamund F

    2015-07-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained substantial popularity among youth in recent years. However, the relationship between the use of these Web-based platforms and mental health problems in children and adolescents is unclear. This study investigated the association between time spent on SNSs and unmet need for mental health support, poor self-rated mental health, and reports of psychological distress and suicidal ideation in a representative sample of middle and high school children in Ottawa, Canada. Data for this study were based on 753 students (55% female; Mage=14.1 years) in grades 7-12 derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between mental health variables and time spent using SNSs. Overall, 25.2% of students reported using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day, 54.3% reported using SNSs for 2 hours or less every day, and 20.5% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Students who reported unmet need for mental health support were more likely to report using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day than those with no identified unmet need for mental health support. Daily SNS use of more than 2 hours was also independently associated with poor self-rating of mental health and experiences of high levels of psychological distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that students with poor mental health may be greater users of SNSs. These results indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on SNSs in order to provide support to youth. PMID:26167836

  13. The Impact of Social Stress During Adolescence or Adulthood and Coping Strategy on Cognitive Function of Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kevin; Barry, Mark; Plona, Zachary; Ho, Andrew; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Valentino, Rita J.

    2015-01-01

    The age of stressor exposure can determine its neurobehavioral impact. For example, exposure of adolescent male rats to resident-intruder stress impairs cognitive flexibility in adulthood. The current study examined the impact of this stressor in female rats. Rats were exposed to resident-intruder stress during early adolescence (EA), mid-adolescence (MA) or adulthood (Adult). They were tested in an operant strategy-shifting task for side discrimination (SD), reversal learning (REV) and strategy set-shifting (SHIFT) the following week. Performance varied with age, stress and coping style. MA and EA rats performed SD and SHIFT better than other ages, respectively. Social stress impaired performance in rats depending on their coping strategy as determined by a short (SL) or long (LL) latency to become subordinate. SL rats were impaired in SD and REV, whereas EA-LL rats were impaired in SHIFT. These impairing effects of female adolescent stress did not endure into adulthood. Strategy set-shifting performance for female adolescents was positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation as indicated by c-fos expression suggesting that this region is engaged during task performance. This contrasts with the inverse relationship between these indices reported for male adolescent rats. Together, the results demonstrate that social stress produces cognitive impairments for female rats that depend on age and coping style but unlike males, the impairing effects of female adolescent social stress are immediate and do not endure into adulthood. Sex differences in the impact of adolescent social stress on cognition may reflect differences in mPFC engagement during the task. PMID:25746514

  14. Discrepancies in Military Middle-School Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of Family Functioning, Social Support, Anger Frequency, and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Janet R.; Seybold, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning are typically quite disparate and that perceptual discrepancies increase when a family is under stress. During the years of deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan adolescents in military families have faced uniquely stressful circumstances which may…

  15. Agreement in Multi-Informant Assessment of Behaviour and Emotional Problems and Social Functioning in Adolescents with Autistic and Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Matthew I.; Gray, Kylie M.; Taffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    There is a paucity of evidence concerning the patterns of multi-informant agreement in populations with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study compared ratings of behaviour and emotional problems and social functioning provided by 45 adolescents aged 12-18 years, with Autistic or Asperger's Disorder with ratings by their parents and teachers.…

  16. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  17. A prosocial online game for social cognition training in adolescents with high-functioning autism: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Un-sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Shin, Yee Jin; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-01-01

    To help patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their social skills, effective interventions and new treatment modalities are necessary. We hypothesized that a prosocial online game would improve social cognition in ASD adolescents, as assessed using metrics of social communication, facial recognition, and emotional words. Ten ASD adolescents underwent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) using a prosocial online game (game-CBT), and ten ASD adolescents participated in an offline-CBT. At baseline and 6 weeks later, social communication quality, correct identification of emotional words and facial emoticons, and brain activity were assessed in both groups. Social communication quality and correct response rate of emotional words and facial emoticons improved in both groups over the course of the intervention, and there were no significant differences between groups. In response to the emotional words, the brain activity within the temporal and parietal cortices increased in the game-CBT group, while the brain activity within cingulate and parietal cortices increased in the offline-CBT group. In addition, ASD adolescents in the game-CBT group showed increased brain activity within the right cingulate gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left cerebellum, left fusiform gyrus, left insular cortex, and sublobar area in response to facial emoticons. A prosocial online game designed for CBT was as effective as offline-CBT in ASD adolescents. Participation in the game especially increased social arousal and aided ASD adolescents in recognizing emotion. The therapy also helped participants more accurately consider associated environments in response to facial emotional stimulation. However, the online CBT was less effective than the offline-CBT at evoking emotions in response to emotional words. PMID:27051288

  18. A prosocial online game for social cognition training in adolescents with high-functioning autism: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Un-Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Shin, Yee Jin; Renshaw, Perry F

    2016-01-01

    To help patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) improve their social skills, effective interventions and new treatment modalities are necessary. We hypothesized that a prosocial online game would improve social cognition in ASD adolescents, as assessed using metrics of social communication, facial recognition, and emotional words. Ten ASD adolescents underwent cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) using a prosocial online game (game-CBT), and ten ASD adolescents participated in an offline-CBT. At baseline and 6 weeks later, social communication quality, correct identification of emotional words and facial emoticons, and brain activity were assessed in both groups. Social communication quality and correct response rate of emotional words and facial emoticons improved in both groups over the course of the intervention, and there were no significant differences between groups. In response to the emotional words, the brain activity within the temporal and parietal cortices increased in the game-CBT group, while the brain activity within cingulate and parietal cortices increased in the offline-CBT group. In addition, ASD adolescents in the game-CBT group showed increased brain activity within the right cingulate gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left cerebellum, left fusiform gyrus, left insular cortex, and sublobar area in response to facial emoticons. A prosocial online game designed for CBT was as effective as offline-CBT in ASD adolescents. Participation in the game especially increased social arousal and aided ASD adolescents in recognizing emotion. The therapy also helped participants more accurately consider associated environments in response to facial emotional stimulation. However, the online CBT was less effective than the offline-CBT at evoking emotions in response to emotional words. PMID:27051288

  19. Measuring Changes in Social Behavior during a Social Skills Intervention for Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Vismara, Laurie A.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    The social behavior of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder was evaluated weekly over 19 weeks of a social skills training program. Participants' vocalizations were coded as initiating, responding, or other (e.g., self-talk). Participants' interactions were coded as dyadic peer interactions, dyadic leader interactions,…

  20. Field-Independence: A Function of Sex and Socialization in Cuban and American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britain, Susan D.; Abad, Marcy

    The relationship between field-dependence and cultural biases towards control and discipline practices was explored. It was hypothesized that the strict control practices described for the Cuban culture would foster greater field-dependence in their adolescents than would the practice of a U. S. born group. Seventy-two Cuban and U. S. born…

  1. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  2. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  3. Targeted Rejection Triggers Differential Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Gene Expression in Adolescents as a Function of Social Status

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Michael L. M.; Slavich, George M.; Rohleder, Nicolas; Miller, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    Social difficulties during adolescence influence life-span health. To elucidate underlying mechanisms, we examined whether a noxious social event, targeted rejection (TR), influences the signaling pathways that regulate inflammation, which is implicated in a number of health problems. For this study, 147 adolescent women at risk for developing a first episode of major depression were interviewed every 6 months for 2.5 years to assess recent TR exposure, and blood was drawn to quantify leukocyte messenger RNA (mRNA) for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inhibitor of κB (I-κB) and the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Participants had more NF-κB and I-κB mRNA at visits when TR had occurred. These shifts in inflammatory signaling were most pronounced for adolescents high in perceived social status. These findings demonstrate that social rejection upregulates inflammatory gene expression in youth at risk for depression, particularly for those high in status. If sustained, this heightened inflammatory signaling could have implications for life-span health. PMID:23638342

  4. Adolescents and social support situations.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ingrid; Hagekull, Berit; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Åhlander, Camilla

    2016-06-01

    The present study concerned adolescents' needs for social support with a focus on specific situations. The Adolescent Need for Social Support Questionnaire (ANSSQ) was developed based on qualitative interviews with typically developing adolescents about situations in which they need parent support. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 380 Swedish 15-year-olds. A 3-component structure reflecting the dimensions "Home and school", "Low mood", and "Sex and alcohol" was tested in SEM analyses. Scales based on these dimensions, measuring support from parents and peers, yielded satisfactory psychometric results. Parent support was preferred over peer support for "Home and school" situations; in the other two areas peers were more likely to be the support providers. Females turned more often to parents and friends for support than males. Seeking parental support was positively related to adolescent disclosure and negatively related to adolescent secrecy, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Further validation of the ANSSQ is discussed. The current study points to possibilities for adapting measures of social support to contexts. PMID:27038341

  5. Increased dopamine transporter function as a mechanism for dopamine hypoactivity in the adult infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex following adolescent social stress.

    PubMed

    Novick, Andrew M; Forster, Gina L; Hassell, James E; Davies, Daniel R; Scholl, Jamie L; Renner, Kenneth J; Watt, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Being bullied during adolescence is associated with later mental illnesses characterized by deficits in cognitive tasks mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA). Social defeat of adolescent male rats, as a model of teenage bullying victimization, results in medial PFC (mPFC) dopamine (DA) hypofunction in adulthood that is associated with increased drug seeking and working memory deficits. Increased expression of the DA transporter (DAT) is also seen in the adult infralimbic mPFC following adolescent defeat. We propose the functional consequence of this increased DAT expression is enhanced DA clearance and subsequently decreased infralimbic mPFC DA availability. To test this, in vivo chronoamperometry was used to measure changes in accumulation of the DA signal following DAT blockade, with increased DAT-mediated clearance being reflected by lower DA signal accumulation. Previously defeated rats and controls were pre-treated with the norepinephrine transporter (NET) inhibitor desipramine (20 mg/kg, ip.) to isolate infralimbic mPFC DA clearance to DAT, then administered the selective DAT inhibitor GBR-12909 (20 or 40 mg/kg, sc.). Sole NET inhibition with desipramine produced no differences in DA signal accumulation between defeated rats and controls. However, rats exposed to adolescent social defeat demonstrated decreased DA signal accumulation compared to controls in response to both doses of GBR-12909, indicating greater DAT-mediated clearance of infralimbic mPFC DA. These results suggest that protracted increases in infralimbic mPFC DAT function represent a mechanism by which adolescent social defeat stress produces deficits in adult mPFC DA activity and corresponding behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26056032

  6. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.…

  7. Forms and Functions of Aggression in Adolescent Friendship Selection and Influence: A Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Ojanen, Tiina; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive children are known to have friends. However, less is known about the impact of aggression on friendship development and how this can differ for overt and relational (i.e., the forms) and instrumental and reactive (i.e., the functions) aggression. This longitudinal study utilized the forms and functions perspective on aggression to…

  8. Social cognition in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in social cognition, accounted for by differences in IQ and language. Within the FXS group, IQ and language were related to social cognition; parent-reported social functioning was related to language and EFs; and self-reported social functioning was generally good and not related to cognitive or social cognition variables. Results suggest that intervention might focus on managing language and cognitive contributions to social functioning, rather than social cognition, and underscore the importance of considering parent and adolescent perspectives. (120 words) PMID:25007297

  9. Concurrent and Predictive Relations between Hormone Levels and Social-Emotional Functioning in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottelmann, Editha D.; And Others

    Hormone levels and changes in hormone levels were evaluated three times across a 1-year period as concurrent and predictive correlates of the socio-emotional functioning of 56 boys 10- to 14-years-old and 52 girls 9- to 14-years-old who represented the five stages of Tanner's criteria of pubertal development. The hormone measures were serum levels…

  10. Social Function and Communication in Optimal Outcome Children and Adolescents with an Autism History on Structured Test Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orinstein, Alyssa J.; Suh, Joyce; Porter, Kaitlyn; De Yoe, Kaitlin A.; Tyson, Katherine E.; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Youth who lose their ASD diagnosis may have subtle social and communication difficulties. We examined social and communication functioning in 44 high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 optimal outcome (OO) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth. Results indicated that OO participants had no autism communication symptoms, no pragmatic language deficits,…

  11. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  12. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  13. Social Function and Communication in Optimal Outcome Children and Adolescents with an Autism History on Structured Test Measures.

    PubMed

    Orinstein, Alyssa J; Suh, Joyce; Porter, Kaitlyn; De Yoe, Kaitlin A; Tyson, Katherine E; Troyb, Eva; Barton, Marianne L; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Stevens, Michael C; Fein, Deborah A

    2015-08-01

    Youth who lose their ASD diagnosis may have subtle social and communication difficulties. We examined social and communication functioning in 44 high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 optimal outcome (OO) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth. Results indicated that OO participants had no autism communication symptoms, no pragmatic language deficits, and were judged as likable as TD peers. Some group differences were found: OO youth had less insight into social relationships and poorer friendship descriptions than TD youth. OO participants had attention, self-control, and immaturity difficulties that may impact social abilities. However, OO participants were most engaged, friendliest, warmest, and most approachable. Overall, OO participants had no social and communicative impairments, although some exhibited mild social difficulties that often accompany attentional problems. PMID:25758821

  14. Social function and communication in optimal outcome children and adolescents with an autism history on structured test measures

    PubMed Central

    Orinstein, A.; Suh, J.; Porter, K.; de Yoe, K.A; Tyson, K.; Troyb, E.; Barton, M.; Eigsti, I.M.; Stevens, M.C.; Fein, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    Youth who lose their ASD diagnosis may have subtle social and communication difficulties. We examined social and communication functioning in 44 high-functioning autism (HFA), 34 optimal outcome (OO) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth. Results indicated that OO participants had no autism communication symptoms, no pragmatic language deficits, and were judged as likable as TD peers. Some group differences were found: OO youth had less insight into social relationships and poorer friendship descriptions than TD youth. OO participants had attention, self-control, and immaturity difficulties that may impact social abilities. However, OO participants were most engaged, friendliest, warmest, and most approachable. Overall, OO participants had no social and communicative impairments, although some exhibited mild social difficulties that often accompany attentional problems. PMID:25758821

  15. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  16. Social Cognition Dysfunction in Adolescents with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (Velo-Cardio-Facial Syndrome): Relationship with Executive Functioning and Social Competence/Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, L. E.; McCabe, K. L.; Melville, J. L.; Strutt, P. A.; Schall, U.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social difficulties are often noted among people with intellectual disabilities. Children and adults with 22q.11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have poorer social competence as well as poorer performance on measures of executive and social-cognitive skills compared with typically developing young people. However, the relationship…

  17. Psicologia social de la adolescencia (Social Psychology of the Adolescent).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…

  18. [Characteristics and functions of friendship in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Claes, M; Poirier, L

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies which have examined various aspects of friendship relations in adolescence. Friendship relations are of central importance in the social life of adolescents because they assume a crucial role in certain developmental functions: emancipation from parental guardianship, commencement of heterosexual relations and affirmation of one's identity. This article reports on various aspects of friendships in adolescence: number of friends, places of recruitment, frequency of meetings, and common themes of conversations. Friendship relations are relatively conflict free in adolescence. They can be characterised by three main elements: trust, communication and intimacy. Friendships evolve in adolescence from a common interest in activities to a sharing of opinions, emotions and feelings. At all ages, girls value the elements of friendship more than boys. In the last ten years research has demonstrated that there is a correlation between adolescent friendship, coping mechanisms, and the acquisition of social skills. The quality of friendship relations and particularly the ability to communicate personal worries predicts this correlation better than the number of friends. The research in the field of friends versus parent influence has abused the concept of peer pressure in committing delinquent crimes. Indeed there is a great deal of agreement between parents and friends in terms of moral values and academic and vocational aspirations. The influence of friends predominates only when there are severe conflicts between parents and their children. PMID:8362017

  19. The developmental roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K

    2011-01-01

    Social responsibility is a value orientation, rooted in democratic relationships with others and moral principles of care and justice, that motivates certain civic actions. Given its relevance for building stronger relationships and communities, the development of social responsibility within individuals should be a more concerted focus for developmental scholars and youth practitioners. During childhood and adolescence, the developmental roots of individuals' social responsibility lie in the growth of executive function, empathy and emotion regulation, and identity. Efforts to cultivate children and adolescents' social responsibility in the proximal settings of their everyday lives should emphasize modeling prosocial behaviors, communicating concerns for others, and creating opportunities to practice civic skills. PMID:22147598

  20. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  1. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  2. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  3. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  4. The Relationship between Social Support and Adolescent Dating Violence: A Comparison across Genders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…

  5. Associations of maternal and adolescent religiosity and spirituality with adolescent alcohol use in Chile: Implications for social work practice among Chilean social workers

    PubMed Central

    Adaniya, Fernando Andrade; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Han, Yoonsun

    2013-01-01

    To inform social work practice with adolescents who may consume alcohol, we examined if alcohol use among Chilean adolescents varied as a function of their mothers’ and their own religiosity and spirituality. Data were from 787 Chilean adolescents and their mothers. Adolescent spirituality was a protective factor against more deleterious alcohol use. Parental monitoring and alcohol using opportunities mediated the associations. The practice of religious behaviors by themselves without meaningful faith were not associated with alcohol use among adolescents. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25729092

  6. ADHD and autistic traits, family function, parenting style, and social adjustment for Internet addiction among children and adolescents in Taiwan: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-04-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population. PMID:25617844

  7. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  8. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  9. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…

  10. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. PMID:25810453

  11. Online Social Networking: Usage in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nevil Johnson; Valsaraj, Blessy Prabha; Noronha, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) has played a significant role on the relationship among college students. It is becoming a popular medium for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. Young adults and adolescents are the most prolific users of OSN sites. The frequent use of OSN sites results in addiction toward these sites and…

  12. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention. PMID:26224584

  13. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  14. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  15. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury. PMID:22538179

  16. Social Support as Predictor of Psychopathology in the Adolescent Offspring of Psychiatric Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoefnagels, Cees; Meesters, Cor; Simenon, Joke

    2007-01-01

    The potential role of social support for the adolescent offspring of psychiatric patients has hitherto not been examined. We examined whether the adolescent's level of psychiatric symptoms is dependent on the content and the function of social support (whether direct or moderating), controlling for perceived stress. In a cross-sectional design, 40…

  17. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  18. Social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Van Hasselt, V B; Null, J A; Kempton, T; Bukstein, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present study provided an assessment of social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Level of social skill was evaluated using the Adolescent Assertion Expression Scale and the Loneliness Scale. Depression and related problems were examined through administration of the Beck Depression Inventory. Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Comparisons with normative values and clinical cut-offs (by gender) indicated that female adolescent substance abusers were less submissive and more aggressive than normative counterparts; male substance abusers exhibited less assertiveness. In addition, mild to moderate levels of depression were evident in both female and male substance abusers. Further, results of correlational analyses revealed several significant relationships between measures of social skills and depression. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) the need for finer grained analyses of social functioning in adolescent substance abusers, (b) the potential value of skills intervention for a subgroup of these individuals, and (c) the need for longitudinal data to more clearly explicate patterns and sequencing of social (mal)adjustment, affective disorder, and onset of substance abuse in this population. PMID:8465682

  19. Development of neural systems for processing social exclusion from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pitskel, Naomi B; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2011-11-01

    Adolescence is a period of development in which peer relationships become especially important. A computer-based game (Cyberball) has been used to explore the effects of social exclusion in adolescents and adults. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used Cyberball to extend prior work to the cross-sectional study of younger children and adolescents (7 to 17 years), identifying age-related changes in the neural correlates of social exclusion across the important transition from middle childhood into adolescence. Additionally, a control task illustrated the specificity of these age-related changes for social exclusion as distinct from expectancy violation more generally. During exclusion, activation in and functional connectivity between ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex increased with age. These effects were specific to social exclusion and did not exist for expectancy violation. Our results illustrate developmental changes from middle childhood through adolescence in both affective and regulatory brain regions during social exclusion. PMID:22010901

  20. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  1. The group-based social skills training SOSTA-FRA in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder - study protocol of the randomised, multi-centre controlled SOSTA - net trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Group-based social skills training (SST) has repeatedly been recommended as treatment of choice in high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). To date, no sufficiently powered randomised controlled trial has been performed to establish efficacy and safety of SST in children and adolescents with HFASD. In this randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with 220 children and adolescents with HFASD it is hypothesized, that add-on group-based SST using the 12 weeks manualised SOSTA–FRA program will result in improved social responsiveness (measured by the parent rated social responsiveness scale, SRS) compared to treatment as usual (TAU). It is further expected, that parent and self reported anxiety and depressive symptoms will decline and pro-social behaviour will increase in the treatment group. A neurophysiological study in the Frankfurt HFASD subgroup will be performed pre- and post treatment to assess changes in neural function induced by SST versus TAU. Methods/design The SOSTA – net trial is designed as a prospective, randomised, multi-centre, controlled trial with two parallel groups. The primary outcome is change in SRS score directly after the intervention and at 3 months follow-up. Several secondary outcome measures are also obtained. The target sample consists of 220 individuals with ASD, included at the six study centres. Discussion This study is currently one of the largest trials on SST in children and adolescents with HFASD worldwide. Compared to recent randomised controlled studies, our study shows several advantages with regard to in- and exclusion criteria, study methods, and the therapeutic approach chosen, which can be easily implemented in non-university-based clinical settings. Trial registration ISRCTN94863788 – SOSTA – net: Group-based social skills training in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23289935

  2. Sexual Socialization during Early Adolescence: The Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    1986-01-01

    Explored early socialization of beliefs and attitudes toward menarche in 258 adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, male and female pre- and postmenarcheal, from southern Italy. Results showed a consistent lack of accurate information by a high percentage of subjects, both male and female; negative beliefs were held only by girls, boys tended to ignore…

  3. Training Blind Adolescents in Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Social skills training four blind unassertive adolescent females include instructions, feedback, behavior rehearsal, modeling, and manual guidance. Most behaviors selected for modification changed markedly, although some decreased after four weeks, requiring "booster" sessions to promote a return to posttreatment levels. (Author/CL)

  4. Early Adolescent Social Networks and Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orleans, Myron; Laney, Margaret C.

    A research project was conducted to examine the interactions between the social networks of young adolescents and their computer usage. Particular attention was focused upon whether computers tend to isolate youthful users. Adult anxiety regarding the damaging effects of computers on children was assessed. Parental involvement, orientation to…

  5. SCARF SOCIAL FUNCTIONING INDEX

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, R.; Thara, R.; Srinivasan, Latha; Kumar, Shuba

    1995-01-01

    Several instruments measuring social functioning have been developed in the last four decades, as a result of the increasing interest in community care of the chronic mentally ill. SCARF Social Functioning Index (SSFI) was developed to meet the pressing need for an instrument which was easy to administer and which could be used by all mental health professionals. The SSFI comprises four main sections: self concern, occupational role, role in the family and other social roles. Each section has several subsections covering different areas of social functioning. Validity and reliability have been established for a group of normals, patients suffering from schizophrenia and from Hansen's disease. Internal consistencies of these factors were high Factor analysis derived four main factors, which included nearly all items of the SSFI. This paper reports on the development and standardization of the instrument. PMID:21743742

  6. Executive Function in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanfranchi, S.; Jerman, O.; Dal Pont, E.; Alberti, A.; Vianello, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present work is aimed at analysing executive function (EF) in adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS). So far, EF has been analysed mainly in adults with DS, showing a pattern of impairment. However, less is known about children and adolescents with this syndrome. Studying adolescents with DS might help us better understand whether…

  7. Evidence-Based Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA PEERS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R.; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social…

  8. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  9. Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism: An Investigation of Comorbid Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Rachel K.; Hoffman, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with high-functioning autism (HFA) possess core social and pragmatic deficits, which interfere with normal relationship development. At a time when friendships are increasingly important, many adolescents with HFA realize they are different from their peers. Initial research has indicated that adolescence is the time when symptoms of…

  10. Social Anxiety, Acute Social Stress, and Reward Parameters Interact to Predict Risky Decision-Making among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jessica M.; Patel, Nilam; Daniele, Teresa; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C.W.; Ernst, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Risk-taking behavior increases during adolescence, leading to potentially disastrous consequences. Social anxiety emerges in adolescence and may compound risk-taking propensity, particularly during stress and when reward potential is high. However, the manner in which social anxiety, stress, and reward parameters interact to impact adolescent risk-taking is unclear. To clarify this question, a community sample of 35 adolescents (15 to 18 yo), characterized as having high or low social anxiety, participated in a 2-day study, during each of which they were exposed to either a social stress or a control condition, while performing a risky decision-making task. The task manipulated, orthogonally, reward magnitude and probability across trials. Three findings emerged. First, reward magnitude had a greater impact on the rate of risky decisions in high social anxiety (HSA) than low social anxiety (LSA) adolescents. Second, reaction times (RTs) were similar during the social stress and the control conditions for the HSA group, whereas the LSA group’s RTs differed between conditions. Third, HSA adolescents showed the longest RTs on the most negative trials. These findings suggest that risk-taking in adolescents is modulated by context and reward parameters differentially as a function of social anxiety. PMID:25465884

  11. Social surrogacy and adjustment: exploring the correlates of having a "social helper" for shy and non-shy young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Andrea; Bowker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A social surrogate is an individual who offers help and comfort in social situations or makes social events more exciting. In this study of 157 young adolescents (55% female; Mage = 13.84 years, SD = 0.75 years), the authors examined whether the linear and curvilinear associations between self-reported social surrogate use and adjustment outcomes (social problems, loneliness, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms) varied as a function of shyness and gender, after accounting for the effects of positive friendship quality. Regression analyses revealed that low and high levels of social surrogate use were related to greater social problems for all adolescents. In addition, shyness emerged as a moderator for several curvilinear effects. Specifically, results indicated that (a) high levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater anxiety for adolescents high in shyness; and (b) low levels of social surrogate use were associated with greater depressive symptoms for adolescents low in shyness. Findings highlight the developmental importance of specific types of relationship experiences during early adolescence and point to different implications of social surrogate use for shy and non-shy young adolescents. PMID:25775369

  12. iSocial: Delivering the Social Competence Intervention for Adolescents (SCI-A) in a 3D Virtual Learning Environment for Youth with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stichter, Janine P.; Laffey, James; Galyen, Krista; Herzog, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    One consistent area of need for students with autism spectrum disorders is in the area of social competence. However, the increasing need to provide qualified teachers to deliver evidence-based practices in areas like social competence leave schools, such as those found in rural areas, in need of support. Distance education and in particular, 3D…

  13. Social Skills Training for Adolescents With Intellectual Disabilities: A School-Based Evaluation.

    PubMed

    O'Handley, Roderick D; Ford, W Blake; Radley, Keith C; Helbig, Kate A; Wimberly, Joy K

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) often demonstrate impairments in social functioning, with deficits becoming more apparent during adolescence. This study evaluated the effects of the Superheroes Social Skills program, a program that combines behavioral skills training and video modeling to teach target social skills, on accurate demonstration of three target social skills in adolescents with ID. Skills taught in the present study include Expressing Wants and Needs, Conversation, and Turn Taking. Four adolescents with ID participated in a 3-week social skills intervention, with the intervention occurring twice per week. A multiple baseline across skills design was used to determine the effect of the intervention on social skill accuracy in both a training and generalization setting. All participants demonstrated substantial improvements in skill accuracy in both settings, with teacher ratings of social functioning further suggesting generalization of social skills to nontraining settings. PMID:26872955

  14. Getting Students Engaged Might Not Be Enough: The Importance of Psychological Needs Satisfaction on Social-Emotional and Behavioral Functioning among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saeki, Elina; Quirk, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relations between students' social-emotional/behavioral functioning, engagement, and basic psychological needs satisfaction among a sample of N = 83 sixth grade students. A mediation model was tested to examine the role of needs satisfaction on the relations between engagement and social-emotional/behavioral functioning.…

  15. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Early Adolescents' Social Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…

  16. Development of Neural Systems for Processing Social Exclusion from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolling, Danielle Z.; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Deen, Ben; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development in which peer relationships become especially important. A computer-based game (Cyberball) has been used to explore the effects of social exclusion in adolescents and adults. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used Cyberball to extend prior work to the cross-sectional study of…

  17. [Social drinking and adolescent parties].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H A; Verruno, C; Cinolo Vernengo, R

    1995-12-01

    A study carried out with 250 young students showed how much alcohol is socially accepted during young people parties. Significant differences were observed according to kind of alcoholic beverage, specially greater alcohol consumption of those of less alcoholic graduation. PMID:8762703

  18. The effect of music on social attribution in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhatara, Anjali K; Quintin, Eve-Marie; Heaton, Pamela; Fombonne, Eric; Levitin, Daniel J

    2009-07-01

    High-functioning adolescents with ASD and matched controls were presented with animations that depicted varying levels of social interaction and were either accompanied by music or silent. Participants described the events of the animation, and we scored responses for intentionality, appropriateness, and length of description. Adolescents with ASD were less likely to make social attributions, especially for those animations with the most complex social interactions. When stimuli were accompanied by music, both groups were equally impaired in appropriateness and intentionality. We conclude that adolescents with ASD perceive and integrate musical soundtracks with visual displays equivalent to typically developing individuals. PMID:19140055

  19. Gaining Insight into Adolescent Vulnerability for Social Anxiety from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Caouette, Justin D.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach. PMID:24239049

  20. Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones: A Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    F, J.; Pullen, Darren; Swabey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence (e.g. ages 13-15) communication and connectedness with peers is an essential part of adolescents' self-formation; mobiles phones are a conduit that maintains both communication and connectedness among adolescents whereby social interactions and connectedness are not limited by place, context or time. To study mobile phone usage…

  1. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…

  2. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  3. An Exploration of Young Adolescents' Social Achievement Goals and Social Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the proposition that social achievement goals (different orientations toward social competence) are an important aspect of young adolescents' social motivation. Study 1 (N = 153 6th-grade students) established that different orientations toward developing or demonstrating social competence can be seen in young adolescents'…

  4. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  5. Cognitive Correlates of Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined different cognitive phenomena in relation to social phobia among children (aged 7 to 11) and adolescents (aged 12-16) separately. Fifty socially phobic youths were compared to 30 normal control children on measures of social anxiety, social expectation as well as self-and observer-rated performance during two social tasks involving a…

  6. Development of an Adolescent Depression Ontology for Analyzing Social Data.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun

    2015-01-01

    Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media. PMID:26262398

  7. Social-Perspective Coordination and Gifted Adolescents' Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masden, Catherine A.; Leung, Olivia N.; Shore, Bruce M.; Schneider, Barry H.; Udvari, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This research examined links among academic ability, social-perspective coordination, and friendship quality, within the context of gifted adolescents' friendships. The sample consisted of 120 early adolescents (59 girls, 61 boys), 81 of whom were identified as gifted. Academic ability, sex, and grade significantly predicted social-perspective…

  8. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  9. Social-Emotional Adjustment of Integrated Hearing Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elizabeth B.; Shade, Maureen

    1985-01-01

    Social-emotional adjustment patterns of eight mainstreamed hearing impaired adolescents were compared with identical measures of a matched group of eight normally hearing adolescents. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found. Results presented a picture of social and emotional well-being similar for both the hearing…

  10. Relationship of Family Socialization Processes to Adolescent Moral Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between family socialization processes, focusing on adaptability, cohesion, and parent-child communication, and adolescent moral thought. Used a sample of 271 Australian adolescents and their parents. Presents the findings. The results suggest that there is a relationship between family-socialization processes and…

  11. Patterns of Stress, Coping Styles and Social Supports among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, K. S.; Reddy, Hanumanth

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to assess the nature of stress, social support systems and coping styles among adolescents. Methods: 100 students in Pre University College (II year) of both genders in the age range of 16-19 years were assessed with the Adolescent Stress Scale, a semi-structured interview to elicit social support, and a self-report…

  12. Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…

  13. Social Class Privilege and Adolescent Women's Perceived Career Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapour, Anne Scott; Heppner, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceived career options of 10 White adolescent young women who experienced social class privilege in their families of origin. The model of contextual privilege and career selection for adolescent White women emerged from the data, and it describes how social class privilege, gender, achievement expectations,…

  14. Internet Lives: Social Context and Moral Domain in Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents nowadays socialize, network, and sort out their friendships and relationships online. As such, it is assumed that adolescents' experiences in the online world will influence their experiences in the face-to-face world and will play an important role in their development of social and moral knowledge. In this article, the author…

  15. Looking at the Social Activity for Adolescents with Orthopedic Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biastro, Leslie; Frank, Heather; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with identified orthopedic impairments are often less likely to participate in social activities outside of the school setting. However, the adolescents who are able to participate in activities have higher social skills, more academic successes, and show more satisfaction in their roles as family member or friend. The aim of this…

  16. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  17. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. PMID:25620319

  18. Adolescent social competence: effectiveness in a group setting.

    PubMed

    Englund, M M; Levy, A K; Hyson, D M; Sroufe, L A

    2000-01-01

    We used a longitudinal data set to evaluate an observational assessment of adolescent competence within a group context. Participants were 40 (21 males, 19 females) ethnically diverse children who had earlier been observed in summer camp (age 10) and preschool (age 4 1/2), as well as in infancy. A revealed differences task was videotaped as part of an intensive weekend camp reunion at ages 15 to 16. Raters, blind to the adolescents' developmental histories, coded each adolescent on the following behavioral rating scales: enjoyment of the task, involvement, leadership, self-confidence in the task, and global social competence. Both concurrent validity (strong correlations with independent camp reunion counselor ratings and peer sociometric measures) and clear associations with antecedent measures of peer competence in preschool and middle childhood were demonstrated. A pattern of correlations revealed considerable discriminate validity. Neither IQ nor socioeconomic status accounted for these associations. Overall, the results confirm the power of a developmentally appropriate, taxing, behaviorally based assessment of group functioning as a measure of competence in adolescence. PMID:11016565

  19. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents’ Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14–20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents’ social functioning, especially with low externalizing and internalizing behaviors and sometimes with high peer competence. Furthermore, aspects of socialization (parenting practices more than family expressiveness) were associated with adolescents’ effortful control, ego resiliency, and social functioning. Effortful control and ego resiliency mediated the relations between parental socialization and adolescents’ peer competence and internalizing problems. Furthermore, effortful control mediated the relations between socialization and adolescents’ externalizing behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of cultural and developmental variation. PMID:21228912

  20. Peer emotion socialization and somatic complaints in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Parr, Naomi J; Zeman, Janice; Braunstein, Kara; Price, Natalee

    2016-07-01

    Somatic symptoms tend to increase during early adolescence and although youth's social environments and emotional functioning play a role in somatic symptoms, few studies have examined mechanisms through which social interaction could influence youth's somatic wellbeing. Participants were 132 youth (61.6% girls, Mage = 12.61 years, 84.7% Caucasian) and their mothers. Reciprocated best-friend dyads participated in a video-taped problem discussion task to assess peer emotion socialization responses. Two supportive friend responses (i.e., emotion-focused, problem-focused) and two unsupportive responses (i.e., punitive, neglect) were examined. Mothers reported on their child's somatic complaints. Friends who provided emotion-focused, problem-focused, punitive, and neglect responses to their close friend's emotional disclosures had significantly fewer somatic symptoms. However, youth who received punitive responses to their emotional disclosures from their close friends had more somatic complaints. These findings provide initial evidence of a link between emotion socialization responses within close friendships and somatic complaints in early adolescence. PMID:27176784

  1. TV and Teens: Television In Adolescent Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome

    1988-01-01

    Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…

  2. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  3. Strategies to Enhance the Social Identities and Social Networks of Adolescent Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2010-01-01

    For youth with disabilities, it is good to belong to multiple groups and have multiple identities. Social groups are important to people because they are social creatures. Unless a child has a severe social disability, connecting with others is important, especially during adolescence. Adolescence is the time when young people define themselves by…

  4. Correlations among Social-Cognitive Skills in Adolescents Involved in Acting or Arts Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Thalia R.

    2011-01-01

    Empathy, theory of mind, and adaptive emotion regulation are critical skills for social functioning. However, the ways in which these skills may co- or differentially develop has thus far been understudied. We explored how these social-cognitive skills converge and diverge across a year of development in early adolescence, and with different kinds…

  5. The Effect of Video Feedback on the Social Behavior of an Adolescent with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Mazur, Amy; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Ross, J. Megan; Kuriyan, Aparajita B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The social functioning of adolescents with ADHD is characteristically impaired, yet almost no interventions effectively address the peer relationships of these youth. This study evaluates the preliminary effects of a video-feedback intervention on the social behavior of a 16-year-old male with ADHD-combined type in the context of a…

  6. Camp Campus: College Preparation for Adolescents and Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and Other Social Communication Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Kristine S.; Schreiber, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Camp Campus is a 1-week campus experience for juniors or seniors in high school or high school graduates who are diagnosed with high-functioning autism, Asperger syndrome, or a related social communication disorder and who plan to attend college. Participants experience campus life by partaking of campus services, living and dining on campus,…

  7. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  8. Social support in high-risk adolescents: structural components and adaptive impact.

    PubMed

    Cauce, A M; Felner, R D; Primavera, J

    1982-08-01

    This study examines the structure of social support and its relationship to adjustment for adolescents from high-stress lower socioeconomic class inner-city backgrounds. An attempt is made to (a) identify meaningful dimensions of perceived social support for this population; (b) examine the degree to which the perceived helpfulness of each source of support varied as a function of age, sex, and ethnic background; and (c) determine the relationship between the dimensions of social support, personal characteristics of the adolescent, and indices of personal and academic adjustment. Factor analyses reveal three distinct support dimensions: Family, Formal, and Informal Support. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance show differences in the perceived helpfulness of the support dimensions as a function of the adolescent's age, sex, and ethnic background as well as in the relationship of each source of support to the adjustment indices. Implications of the findings for elaborating the impact of social support on coping efforts are discussed. PMID:7137129

  9. Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S

    2009-06-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension, probing whether pornography consumers differed from other Internet users, as well as the social characteristics of adolescent frequent pornography consumers. Data from a 2004 survey of a national representative sample of the adolescent population in Israel were used (n=998). Adolescent frequent users of the Internet for pornography were found to differ in many social characteristics from the group that used the Internet for information, social communication and entertainment. Weak ties to mainstream social institutions were characteristic of the former group but not of the latter. X-rated material consumers proved to be a distinct sub-group at risk of deviant behaviour. PMID:18694593

  10. The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A; Lagle, Kristy; Kraemer, Helena C; Killen, Joel D; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:17348001

  11. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  12. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kathryn L.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11–17 and 22–30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking. PMID:26715991

  13. Adolescent Social Defeat Induced Alterations in Social Behavior and Cognitive Flexibility in Adult Mice: Effects of Developmental Stage and Social Condition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Sanna; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Negative social experiences during adolescence increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Using “resident-intruder” stress, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social defeat on emotional and cognitive symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders during adulthood and the effects of the developmental stage and social condition on this process. In Experiment 1, animals were exposed to social defeat or manipulation for 10 days during early adolescence (EA, postnatal days [PND] 28–37), late adolescence (LA, PND 38–47), and adulthood (ADULT, PND 70–79) and then singly housed until the behavioral tests. Behaviors, including social avoidance of the defeat context and cortically mediated cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task (AST), were assessed during the week following stress or after 6 weeks during adulthood. We determined that social defeat induced significant and continuous social avoidance across age groups at both time points. The mice that experienced social defeat during adulthood exhibited short-term impairments in reversal learning (RL) on the AST that dissipated after 6 weeks. In contrast, social defeat during EA but not LA induced a delayed deficit in extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) in adulthood but not during adolescence. In Experiment 2, we further examined the effects of social condition (isolation or social housing after stress) on the alterations induced by social defeat during EA in adult mice. The adult mice that had experienced stress during EA exhibited social avoidance similar to the avoidance identified in Experiment 1 regardless of the isolation or social housing after the stress. However, social housing after the stress ameliorated the cognitive flexibility deficits induced by early adolescent social defeat in the adult mice, and the social condition had no effect on cognitive function. These findings suggest that the effects of social defeat on emotion and cognitive

  14. Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A

    2015-04-01

    This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years. PMID:24684661

  15. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  16. Socialization Agents Influencing the Religious Identity of Religious Israeli Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2011-01-01

    Of all the dimensions of religiosity, where the Israeli religious adolescent is concerned, faith identity and religious behavior seem the most relevant. Research findings on the relative influence of various socialization agents on the religiosity of adolescents are ambiguous. The primary objective of this study was to compare the various agents…

  17. Sociodemographic Variables in Relation to Social Appearance Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gender, age, grade level, and the educational level of the mother and father on social appearance anxiety in Turkish adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which a simple random sampling method was used. Participants were 2,219 adolescents (1089 boys, 1130 girls) with a mean age of 12.76 years old (SD =…

  18. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  19. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  20. Adolescents' Online Social Networking Following the Death of a Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how online social networking facilitates adolescent grieving following the sudden death of a peer. Researchers reviewed 20 profiles authored by adolescents who had died between 2005 and 2007 collecting information from commentary posted to the profiles posthumously. Observed themes included adolescent…

  1. Adolescent Risk-Taking and Social Meaning: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking can be illuminated through an understanding of the development of the brain, of dual-processing theories, and of social norms and meanings. When adolescents take unjustified risks, it is often because of the weakness of their analytic systems, which provide an inadequate check on impulsive or ill-considered decisions. Social…

  2. Addressing Adolescent Needs for Socialization in the Distance Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawidowicz, Paula M.

    2000-01-01

    One important aspect of adolescent education, regardless of the learning environment, is learning acceptable human interaction, socialization styles, and cooperation mechanisms. However, when adolescent students attend cyber schools, they no longer receive those traditional opportunities to gain the human interactions required for such…

  3. Exploring Social Connectivity through the Use of Adolescent Queer Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dwight C.

    2010-01-01

    In order for adolescents to undergo a healthy maturation into adulthood, they must be given common opportunities to reinvent themselves and to progress along stages of psychosocial development. Due to heterosexual conditioning and a lack of awareness of the need for social connectivity that may lead to intimacy, gay and lesbian adolescents lapse…

  4. Peer Perceptions of Social Skills in Socially Anxious and Nonanxious Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miers, Anne C.; Blote, Anke W.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min…

  5. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  6. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  7. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  8. Chronic Childhood Peer Rejection is Associated with Heightened Neural Responses to Social Exclusion During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Will, Geert-Jan; van Lier, Pol A C; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2016-01-01

    This functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study examined subjective and neural responses to social exclusion in adolescents (age 12-15) who either had a stable accepted (n = 27; 14 males) or a chronic rejected (n = 19; 12 males) status among peers from age 6 to 12. Both groups of adolescents reported similar increases in distress after being excluded in a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball), but adolescents with a history of chronic peer rejection showed higher activity in brain regions previously linked to the detection of, and the distress caused by, social exclusion. Specifically, compared with stably accepted adolescents, chronically rejected adolescents displayed: 1) higher activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during social exclusion and 2) higher activity in the dACC and anterior prefrontal cortex when they were incidentally excluded in a social interaction in which they were overall included. These findings demonstrate that chronic childhood peer rejection is associated with heightened neural responses to social exclusion during adolescence, which has implications for understanding the processes through which peer rejection may lead to adverse effects on mental health over time. PMID:25758671

  9. Mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kyongsik; Chung, Dongil; Jang, Bosun; Kim, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2011-01-01

    Many mathematically gifted adolescents are characterized as being indolent, underachieving and unsuccessful despite their high cognitive ability. This is often due to difficulties with social and emotional development. However, research on social and emotional interactions in gifted adolescents has been limited. The purpose of this study was to observe differences in complex social strategic behaviors between gifted and average adolescents of the same age using the repeated Ultimatum Game. Twenty-two gifted adolescents and 24 average adolescents participated in the Ultimatum Game. Two adolescents participate in the game, one as a proposer and the other as a responder. Because of its simplicity, the Ultimatum Game is an apt tool for investigating complex human emotional and cognitive decision-making in an empirical setting. We observed strategic but socially impaired offers from gifted proposers and lower acceptance rates from gifted responders, resulting in lower total earnings in the Ultimatum Game. Thus, our results indicate that mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization. PMID:21483742

  10. The ABC's of Teaching Social Skills to Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Classroom: The UCLA "PEERS®" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines…

  11. Some characteristics of social interactions among adolescents in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Klarin, Mira; Pororoković, Ana; Šašić, Slavica Šimić; Arnaudova, Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The bioecological model refers to the basic social needs that a person has satisfied through social interactions. In individualist cultures, the need for independence is emphasized with the aim of self-realization and personal achievement. In collectivist cultures, togetherness is encouraged and it prevails over individuality. Aim The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in adolescents (n = 1033) from three different cultural environments (Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia) with regard to the various aspects of the social interactions and behaviors these adolescents exercise with their parents and friends. Methods Three groups of questionnaires were used: those that measure family interactions (the quality of family interactions, loneliness in the family, and family influence); those that assess peer interactions (quality of friendships, social loneliness, and influence of friendships); and those that examined behavioral variables (self-esteem, aggression, and prosocialness). Results Discriminant analysis has shown that there are two significant functions that differentiate subjects from the three different cultural environments. The first discriminant function that adequately discriminates between subjects in all three cultural environments is related to social and family loneliness and the influence of friends. Loneliness in the family, social loneliness, and influence of friends are most prevalent among adolescents in Macedonia and least among adolescents in Croatia. The second function that distinguished adolescents in Croatia from those in the other two cultural environments was primarily connected with the quality of family interactions, aggressiveness, parent influence, and self-esteem. Finally, it was found that adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina were more likely to engage in family interactions, have greater levels of parental influence, and appeared to be less aggressive and had lower self

  12. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…

  13. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619322

  14. Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: the role of social anxiety and negative cognition.

    PubMed

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Heyne, David A; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that the adolescent onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be partly attributable to an increase in avoidance of social situations across this period. The current cohort-sequential study investigated developmental pathways of social avoidance in adolescence and examined the explanatory role of social anxiety and negative cognitive processes. A community sample of youth (9-21 years, N=331) participated in a four-wave study. Trajectory analyses revealed two pathways: an increased avoidance pathway and a low avoidance pathway. The pathways were hardly distinguishable at age 9 and they steadily diverged across adolescence. Logistic regression analyses showed that social anxiety and post-event rumination were significantly related to the increased avoidance pathway; anticipatory processing and self-focused attention were not. The findings suggest that adolescence is a key developmental period for the progression of social avoidance among youth who show relatively high levels of social anxiety and post-event rumination. PMID:25265547

  15. Social competence: evaluation of assertiveness in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Castedo, Antonio López; Juste, Margarita Pino; Alonso, José Domínguez

    2015-02-01

    Relations between assertiveness in adolescents' social behavior and demographic variables were assessed in 4,943 Spanish adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, enrolled in 32 schools for Compulsory Secondary Education. Province of residence, school size, age, grade, and academic focus were statistically significant sources of variance in assertiveness scores. All effects were small. Patterns in responses indicate the items should be reviewed to improve the measure for adolescents, and as a tool for addressing teens' social competence in real life situations. PMID:25621673

  16. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship. PMID:26254219

  17. Sleep Schedules and Daytime Functioning in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    1998-01-01

    Studied relationship between adolescents' sleep/wake habits and daytime functioning. Found that self-reported total sleep times decreased from age 13 to 19 years. Struggling or failing students obtained less sleep, went to bed later, and had greater weekend delays of sleep than those with better grades. Students with inadequate sleep reported…

  18. Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Adolescent School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between adolescents' perceptions of their neighborhoods' safety and multiple elements of their functioning in school with data on 15 year olds from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 924). In general, perceived neighborhood safety was more strongly associated with aspects of…

  19. Motivation and Social Relations in School Following a CBT Course for Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate changes in school functioning, including motivation, intentions to quit school and social relations in school, following an early group based CBT intervention implemented for depressed adolescents. The "Adolescent Coping with Depression Course" (ACDC) is such an early group intervention. The primary…

  20. The ABC's of teaching social skills to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder in the classroom: the UCLA PEERS (®) Program.

    PubMed

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Ellingsen, Ruth; Sanderson, Jennifer; Tucci, Lara; Bates, Shannon

    2014-09-01

    Social skills training is a common treatment method for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet very few evidence-based interventions exist to improve social skills for high-functioning adolescents on the spectrum, and even fewer studies have examined the effectiveness of teaching social skills in the classroom. This study examines change in social functioning for adolescents with high-functioning ASD following the implementation of a school-based, teacher-facilitated social skills intervention known as Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS (®) ). Seventy-three middle school students with ASD along with their parents and teachers participated in the study. Participants were assigned to the PEERS (®) treatment condition or an alternative social skills curriculum. Instruction was provided daily by classroom teachers and teacher aides for 14-weeks. Results reveal that in comparison to an active treatment control group, participants in the PEERS (®) treatment group significantly improved in social functioning in the areas of teacher-reported social responsiveness, social communication, social motivation, social awareness, and decreased autistic mannerisms, with a trend toward improved social cognition on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Adolescent self-reports indicate significant improvement in social skills knowledge and frequency of hosted and invited get-togethers with friends, and parent-reports suggest a decrease in teen social anxiety on the Social Anxiety Scale at a trend level. This research represents one of the few teacher-facilitated treatment intervention studies demonstrating effectiveness in improving the social skills of adolescents with ASD in the classroom: arguably the most natural social setting of all. PMID:24715256

  1. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

  2. A short-term longitudinal examination of young adolescent functioning following divorce: the role of family factors.

    PubMed

    Forehand, R; Wierson, M; Thomas, A M; Fauber, R; Armistead, L; Kemptom, T; Long, N

    1991-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine young adolescent functioning over a 2-year period after divorce and to assess the role of two family factors, interpersonal conflict and the parent-adolescent relationship, in predicting such functioning. One hundred and twelve young adolescents, their mothers, and their social studies teachers served as participants. One-half of the adolescent were from recently divorced families and one-half were from married families. Mothers completed measures concerning interparental conflict and the parent-adolescent relationship, adolescents completed a measure of the relationship, and teachers completed measures assessing four areas of adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents from divorced families were functioning less well than those from married families. There were no changes in adolescent functioning and the parent-adolescent relationship from the first to second year postdivorce. High levels of interparental conflict in divorced families were associated with more parent-adolescent relationship problems. In turn parent-adolescent relationships problems served as the best predictor of concurrent and subsequent difficulty in adolescent functioning. PMID:2030250

  3. Social Milieu and Future Orientation: The Case of Kibbutz vs. Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of one social milieu factor (Israeli kibbutz vs. urban lifestyle) on adolescents' future orientation. Analysis of questionnaires from 114 kibbutz and 112 urban adolescents shows that kibbutz adolescents express fewer hopes for the future. (SKC)

  4. [Social consequences of birth in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beck, A; Hoffellner, L

    1977-01-01

    234 Austrian women gave birth to a child in the years 1972--74 before the age of 18. 95 of them were invited to an interview and interrogated about changes in their life-situation due to the birth. The general attitude was, if they could choose again the date of the first pregnancy they would prefer after 20 years. No correlation was found between early menarche and early sexual intercourse. For 60 of the women pregnancy was the reason for their marriage. Most of the young women had experience with contraceptives, but did not use them for different reasons. After the birth of the child most of them took the pill, but there are 11 women left without any contraception, exposing themselves to the risk of a repeat pregnancy. Young age at birth has an impact upon pre-vocational training: either through interruption of the training or through total discontinuation of their education. A possible solution of the present unsatisfactory situation for young pregnant women and their social problems are interdisciplinary projects for the guidance of adolescents in some centers in the USA. PMID:595966

  5. Assessing Adolescent Social Competence Using the Social Responsiveness Scale: Should We Ask Both Parents or Will Just One Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Amanda M.; Murray, Michael J.; Smith, Laura A.; Arnold, Mariah

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of instruments designed to measure social competence of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The Social Responsiveness Scale is one of a few that can be used. This study compared differences between mother and father reports of social competence of adolescents. Data were collected from parents of 50 adolescents with and…

  6. Adolescent neighborhood quality predicts adult dACC response to social exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Beckes, Lane; Chango, Joanna; Allen, Joseph P.; Coan, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies using the social-exclusion paradigm Cyberball indicate increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right insula activity as a function of exclusion. However, comparatively less work has been done on how social status factors may moderate this finding. This study used the Cyberball paradigm with 85 (45 females) socio-economically diverse participants from a larger longitudinal sample. We tested whether neighborhood quality during adolescence would predict subsequent neural responding to social exclusion in young adulthood. Given previous behavioral studies indicating greater social vigilance and negative evaluation as a function of lower status, we expected that lower adolescent neighborhood quality would predict greater dACC activity during exclusion at young adulthood. Our findings indicate that young adults who lived in low-quality neighborhoods in adolescence showed greater dACC activity to social exclusion than those who lived in higher quality neighborhoods. Lower neighborhood quality also predicted greater prefrontal activation in the superior frontal gyrus, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly indicating greater regulatory effort. Finally, this effect was not driven by subsequent ratings of distress during exclusion. In sum, adolescent neighborhood quality appears to potentiate neural responses to social exclusion in young adulthood, effects that are independent of felt distress. PMID:25349459

  7. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  8. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  9. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  10. Social Intelligence and Academic Achievement as Predictors of Adolescent Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…

  11. The Psychological and Social Characteristics of Asian Adolescent Overdose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Compared social and psychological features of Asian (n=13) and Caucasian (n=37) adolescents who had taken drug overdoses. Found that Asians were more socially isolated than Caucasians and that, despite Asians having low suicidal intent, they had higher rates of depression, hopelessness, long premeditation time, and previous overdose. (Author/NB)

  12. Developmental Change in Social Responsibility during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…

  13. Treating Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Ten Group Therapy Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…

  14. Social Interaction Research for Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Ross, Robert; Haring, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Research on social interaction of severely disabled adolescents is reviewed. A conceptual model for research and instruction is based on the reciprocal exchange of responses between two interactants. Among topics addressed are peer initiation strategies, teaching disabled students to initiate, the environmental context, social scripts, and school…

  15. Social Contexts in Adolescent Smoking: Does School Policy Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontek, D.; Buehler, A.; Rudolph, U.; Metz, K.; Kroeger, C.; Gradl, S.; Floeter, S.; Donath, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to an ecological perspective in psychology and in line with social cognitive theory, smoking behaviour is determined by different social contexts (for example, peers, family and school) providing adolescents with important role models. This paper investigates the effects of personal characteristics as well as family, peer and school…

  16. Adolescent Social Competence: Effectiveness in a Group Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Levy, Alissa K.; Hyson, Daniel M.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2000-01-01

    Examined the validity of an observational assessment of adolescent social competence within a group interaction during a revealed differences task. Found that ratings of task enjoyment, involvement, leadership, self-confidence in task, and global social competence showed strong correlations to counselor ratings and peer sociometrics and were…

  17. Perfectionism, Perspective Taking, and Social Connection in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Rice, Kenneth G.; Carboni, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Although studies examining multidimensional perfectionism among adolescents have increased over the past two decades, most continue to focus on psychological outcomes such as anxiety or depression. The purpose of this study was to examine two social outcomes that may differ among perfectionistic subtypes: "social perspective taking"…

  18. Ethnic, Social Class, and Gender Differences in Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cindy; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    The independent effects of ethnicity and social class on multiple aspects of adolescent drinking were examined. African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students (1,134 females, 740 males) from three social classes completed measures of drinking frequency and quantity, drinking consequences, reasons for drinking, and…

  19. The Influence of Academic Tracking on Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…

  20. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  1. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-03-01

    Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  2. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  3. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  4. Neurocognitive Functioning in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinvall, Outi; Voutilainen, Arja; Kujala, Teija; Korkman, Marit

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research studying comprehensive neurocognitive profiles of adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study compared the neurocognitive profiles of higher functioning adolescents with ASD (n = 30, mean age 13.5) with that of typically developing adolescents (n = 30; mean age 13.7). Adolescents…

  5. Assessment of Patient Functioning in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Carol Valera; Meyer, Tracy

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) for assessing the functioning of youth with mental disorders. The CAFAS is a multidimensional tool used to record the extent to which a youth's mental health disorder is disruptive of functioning in each of five psycho-social areas: role…

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  7. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  8. Social Brain Development and the Affective Consequences of Ostracism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Catherine; Viding, Essi; Williams, Kipling D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural and functional imaging studies have provided evidence for continued development of brain regions involved in social cognition during adolescence. In this paper, we review this rapidly expanding area of neuroscience and describe models of neurocognitive development that have emerged recently. One implication of these models is…

  9. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  10. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems. PMID:25219790

  11. Evidence-based social skills training for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: the UCLA PEERS program.

    PubMed

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Frankel, Fred; Gantman, Alexander; Dillon, Ashley R; Mogil, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    The present study examines the efficacy and durability of the PEERS Program, a parent-assisted social skills group intervention for high-functioning adolescents with ASD. Results indicate that teens receiving PEERS significantly improved their social skills knowledge, social responsiveness, and overall social skills in the areas of social communication, social cognition, social awareness, social motivation, assertion, cooperation, and responsibility, while decreasing autistic mannerisms and increasing the frequency of peer interactions. Independent teacher ratings revealed significant improvement in social skills and assertion from pre-test to follow-up assessment. Examination of durability of improvement revealed maintenance of gains in nearly all domains with additional treatment gains at a 14-week follow-up assessment. PMID:21858588

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  13. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both peer and parental influences have been associated with the use of addictive substances in adolescence. We evaluated the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent’s peers’ parents and an adolescent’s substance use. Design Longitudinal survey Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States Main Exposure Authoritative versus neglectful parenting style of adolescent’s parents and adolescent’s friends parents; adolescent substance use Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol abuse, smoking, marijuana use, and binge drinking Results If an adolescent has a friend whose mother is authoritative, that adolescent is 40% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to drink to the point of drunkenness, 38% (95% CI 5%–59%) less likely to binge drink, 39% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to smoke cigarettes, and 43% (95% CI 1%–67%) less likely to use marijuana than an adolescent whose friend’s mother is neglectful, controlling for the parenting style of the adolescent’s own mother, school level fixed effects, and demographics. These results are only partially mediated by peer substance use. Conclusion Social network influences may extend beyond the homogeneous dimensions of own-peer or own-parent to include extra-dyadic influences of the wider network. The value of parenting interventions should be re-assessed to take into account these spillover effects in the greater network. PMID:23045157

  14. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  15. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  16. The impact of social media on the sexual and social wellness of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa M; Ryan, Ginny L

    2015-02-01

    For most adolescents in the United States, the use of social media is an integral part of daily life. While the advent of the Internet has enhanced information dispersal and communication worldwide, it has also had a negative impact on the sexual and social wellness of many of its adolescent users. The objective of this review is to describe the role of social media in the evolution of social norms, to illustrate how online activity can negatively impact adolescent self-esteem and contribute to high-risk adolescent behaviors, to elucidate how this activity can result in real-world consequences with life-long results, and to provide guidance regarding social media use for those who care for adolescents. Although research is now aimed at use of social media for positive health and wellness interventions, much work needs to be done to determine the utility of these programs. Adolescent healthcare providers are important contributors to this new field of study and must resolve to stay informed and to engage this up-and-coming generation on the benefits and risks of social media use. PMID:25555296

  17. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  18. Social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-08-01

    We recently observed that social interactions influence morphine responsiveness in adolescent males. Given sex-related differences in both social interactions and responses to morphine, the present study examines social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent female mice. Four experimental groups were examined: (1) morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10-40 mg/kg, s.c.) housed physically and visually separated from saline-treated mice ('morphine only'), (2) morphine-treated mice housed together with saline-treated mice ('morphine cage-mates (of saline)'), (3) saline-treated mice housed together with morphine-treated mice ('saline cage-mates (of morphine)'), and (4) saline-treated mice housed physically and visually separated from morphine-treated mice ('saline only'). Following the treatment period, mice were tested individually for their locomotor response to 20 mg/kg morphine (s.c.). There were no significant differences in morphine-induced hyper-locomotion between saline only and saline cage-mates (of morphine) female adolescent mice. Notably, morphine only mice exhibited significantly greater morphine sensitization as compared to morphine cage-mates (of saline). Thus, this study demonstrates social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females. Drug use during early adolescence is a key predictor of later drug abuse and dependence during adulthood. Thus, understanding the specific vulnerabilities to drug use in this age group may represent a first step in helping develop more effective treatment programs. PMID:20456874

  19. Stability and change of social goals in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Elisa M; Wright, Aidan G C; Colder, Craig R

    2014-10-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in social goals using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model across adolescence (ages 11-16). Five complementary definitions of stability were examined: structural, rank-order, absolute, individual, and ipsative. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of early adolescent problem behavior. Social goals were assessed during each wave, with data collection occurring at three annual intervals (Wave 1, ages 10-12). A community sample of adolescents (N = 387) was recruited. Adolescents were evenly split on gender, and a majority (82.7%) was White. Results suggest a modest increase in stability across social goals, yet significant interindividual heterogeneity. Although levels of Agentic and Communal factors increase over time, these patterns were driven by decreases in the Submissive and Separate octants. This offers evidence for the utility of examining lower-order facets of interpersonal dispositions, as it provides a nuanced picture of adolescent personality development. Furthermore, findings suggest that change and continuity in social goals may both be relevant in this developmental period. The difficulty is accounting for trait stability as well as change, and the IPC model may be particularly useful for meeting this challenge. PMID:23998889

  20. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  1. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multi-reporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents’ social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a three-year period, even after accounting for teens’ baseline level of social competence. Additionally, reciprocal relationships emerged between rejection sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. Rejection sensitivity was also linked to relative decreases in peer-reports of teens’ social competence over a three-year period. Consistent with research on gendered socialization, males reported higher levels of rejection sensitivity than females at age 16 and 17. Results are interpreted as highlighting the importance of rejection sensitivity in understanding late adolescent social and emotional development. PMID:21113326

  2. The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin; Clarke-Pearson, Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Using social media Web sites is among the most common activity of today's children and adolescents. Any Web site that allows social interaction is considered a social media site, including social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter; gaming sites and virtual worlds such as Club Penguin, Second Life, and the Sims; video sites such as YouTube; and blogs. Such sites offer today's youth a portal for entertainment and communication and have grown exponentially in recent years. For this reason, it is important that parents become aware of the nature of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. Pediatricians are in a unique position to help families understand these sites and to encourage healthy use and urge parents to monitor for potential problems with cyberbullying, "Facebook depression," sexting, and exposure to inappropriate content. PMID:21444588

  3. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  4. A Developmental Study of Social Self-Conceptions in Adolescence: Impressions and Misimpressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, Sharon, D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates adolescents' perceptions of impressions held about them by important others, focusing on cross-sectional differences from early to late adolescence in the structure of social self-conceptions, on differences between parental and peer social self-conceptions and between individual and social self-conceptions, and on adolescents'…

  5. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  6. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  7. Do Adolescents and Parents Reconstruct Memories about Their Conflict as a Function of Adolescent Attachment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Woodhouse, Susan S.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Cassidy, Jude

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether 17-year-old adolescents (n = 189) and their parents reconstructed their memory for an adolescent-parent laboratory conflict over a 6-week period as a function of adolescent attachment organization. It also compared participants' perceptions of conflict over time to observational ratings of the conflict to further…

  8. [Neurocognitive function in child and adolescent psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Chamorro Oschilewsky, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Executive control processes, such as sustained attention, response inhibition and working memory allows us to guide behavior appropriately, flexible and adaptable. The consequences of executive dysfunction in humans can be dramatic, as evidenced by the wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders in which such deficits impact negatively on the performance and quality of life, affecting high prosecutions relating to the prefrontal areas and their connections, including cognitive function. This review is to update and highlight the importance of assess neuropsychological and neurocognitive functional changes that occur in the course of various neuropsychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. PMID:21977606

  9. Physiological Response to Social Evaluative Threat in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Edmiston, E Kale; Jones, Robin M; Corbett, Blythe A

    2016-09-01

    The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was employed to study response to social evaluative threat in male adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, n = 21) and typical development (n = 13). Participants wore a mobile electrocardiogram to collect heart rate data. There were significant group effects on respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of parasympathetic nervous system function, with lower values in ASD (F = 4.97). Bivariate correlations also showed a significant relationship between parent reports of social problems and RSA response to the TSST (r = -0.586). These findings suggest that autonomic dysregulation may contribute to social deficits in adolescents with ASD. PMID:27318810

  10. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    PubMed

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:23875556

  11. Social and economic antecedents and consequences of adolescent aggressive personality: Predictions from the interactionist model.

    PubMed

    Conger, Rand D; Martin, Monica J; Masarik, April S; Widaman, Keith F; Donnellan, M Brent

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the development of a cohort of 279 early adolescents (52% female) from 1990 to 2005. Guided by the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and human development, we proposed that parent aggressive personality, economic circumstances, interparental conflict, and parenting characteristics would affect the development of adolescent aggressive personality traits. In turn, we hypothesized that adolescent aggressiveness would have a negative influence on adolescent functioning as an adult in terms of economic success, personality development, and close relationships 11 years later. Findings were generally supportive of the interactionist model proposition that social and economic difficulties in the family of origin intensify risk for adolescent aggressive personality (the social causation hypothesis) and that this personality trait impairs successful transition to adult roles (the social selection hypothesis) in a transactional process over time and generations. These results underscore how early development leads to child influences that appear to directly hamper the successful transition to adult roles (statistical main effects) and also amplify the negative impact of dysfunctional family systems on the transition to adulthood (statistical interaction effects). The findings suggest several possible points of intervention that might help to disrupt this negative developmental sequence of events. PMID:26439065

  12. "Learning how to deal with feelings differently": Psychotropic medications as vehicles of socialization in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Suparna; McKinney, Kelly A; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-10-01

    Drawing from ethnographic research among clinicians working with adolescents at a hospital psychiatric emergency department and outpatient clinic, and with interviews with adolescent psychiatric patients and their parents, we examine how psychiatric medicines function as socializing agents. Although psychiatric medications are thought to exert their main effects through direct biological action on neural circuitry, in fact, their use mobilizes specific kinds of moral discourse and social positioning that may have profound effects on sense of self, personhood, and psychological development. Specifically, our data reveal how clinical discourse around medications aims to enlist adolescents in becoming responsible, emotionally intelligent selves through learning to manage their medications. Among doctors, adolescents and their families, talk about psychiatric medications intertwines narratives of 'growing up' and 'getting well'. Our analysis of case studies from the clinic thus demonstrates that while psychiatric medications are explicitly designed to influence behavior by acting directly on the brain, they also act to structure adolescents' selves and social worlds through indirect, rather than direct causal pathways to the brain. PMID:25779773

  13. Aggressive Behaviors in Social Interaction and Developmental Adaptation: A Narrative Analysis of Interpersonal Conflicts during Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Hongling; Swift, Dylan J.; Cairns, Beverley D.; Cairns, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated interactional properties and developmental functions of the following four types of aggressive behaviors in adolescents: social aggression, direct relational aggression, physical aggression, and verbal aggression. Found that the majority of conflict interactions involved more than a dyad, and that social aggression was an initiating…

  14. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  15. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Mark Orkin, F; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents’ capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. Discussion New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support (“cash, care and classroom”). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Conclusions Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine

  16. Lying Behavior, Family Functioning and Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Finkenauer, Catrin; van Kooten, Dyana C.

    2006-01-01

    Communication between children and parents has been the subject of several studies, examining the effects of, for example, disclosure and secrecy on adolescents' social relationships and adjustment. Less attention has paid to adolescent deception. We developed and tested a new instrument on lying behavior in a sample of 671 parent-adolescent…

  17. Parenting Practices and the Development of Adolescents' Social Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2012-01-01

    Social trust (ST) (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is a critical disposition for democratic governance. Yet there has been scant research on its developmental foundations. We assess factors related to ST in 11-18 year olds with survey data collected over two years from 1150 U.S. adolescents and their mothers.…

  18. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  19. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  20. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  1. Social Support and Children's and Adolescents' Adaptation to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Taska, Lynn S.; Lewis, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes how social support helps explain variations in child and adolescent psychological distress at time of sexual-abuse discovery (N=154). Support from a parent was related to less psychological distress, whereas support from friends is related to increased adjustment difficulties. (Author/MKA)

  2. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  3. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  4. Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…

  5. Mass Media and Interpersonal Influence in Adolescent Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    This study explores the consumer socialization process in adolescents with regard to mass media and interpersonal factors associated with the acquisition of consumer skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Questionnaires were completed by 300 consumer education students in three Grand Forks, North Dakota schools, assessing such variables as "consumer…

  6. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  7. Adolescent Fathers' Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Involvement with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…

  8. Potential Mechanisms of Action in the Treatment of Social Impairment and Disorganization in Adolescents with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven W.; Schultz, Brandon K.; Zoromski, Allison K.

    2014-01-01

    Two important domains that can be impaired in adolescents with ADHD are organization and social functioning; however, the development of interventions to target these areas in adolescents is in the early stages. Currently, small efficacy trials are beginning to be used to conduct preliminary tests on the proposed mechanisms of action for these interventions. These two studies examined the efficacy of organization and social functioning interventions for adolescents with ADHD, as well as the potential mechanisms of action for each intervention. Results from the organization intervention provide support for a significant relationship between performance on the organization checklist and overall GPA; however, there was no meaningful pattern of relationships between achieving mastery of the organization tasks and grades within quarter. Further, results from the social functioning intervention support a moderate relationship between performance on process measures of response to the intervention and outcome measures of social functioning. Results of this study provide implications for modifications to the measures and intervention procedures in future research. PMID:24748901

  9. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  10. Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, A R; Carskadon, M A

    1998-08-01

    Sleep and waking behaviors change significantly during the adolescent years. The objective of this study was to describe the relation between adolescents' sleep/wake habits, characteristics of students (age, sex, school), and daytime functioning (mood, school performance, and behavior). A Sleep Habits Survey was administered in homeroom classes to 3,120 high school students at 4 public high schools from 3 Rhode Island school districts. Self-reported total sleep times (school and weekend nights) decreased by 40-50 min across ages 13-19, ps < .001. The sleep loss was due to increasingly later bedtimes, whereas rise times were more consistent across ages. Students who described themselves as struggling or failing school (C's, D's/F's) reported that on school nights they obtain about 25 min less sleep and go to bed an average of 40 min later than A and B students, ps < .001. In addition, students with worse grades reported greater weekend delays of sleep schedule than did those with better grades. Furthermore, this study examined a priori defined adequate sleep habit groups versus less than adequate sleep habit groups on their daytime functioning. Students in the short school-night total sleep group (< 6 hr 45 min) and/or large weekend bedtime delay group (> 120 min) reported increased daytime sleepiness, depressive mood, and sleep/wake behavior problems, ps < .05, versus those sleeping longer than 8 hr 15 min with less than 60 min weekend delay. Altogether, most of the adolescents surveyed do not get enough sleep, and their sleep loss interferes with daytime functioning. PMID:9768476

  11. The gonadal function in obese adolescents: review.

    PubMed

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Calogero, Aldo E; Vicari, Enzo; Mongioi', Laura; Favilla, Vincenzo; Morgia, Giuseppe; Cimino, Sebastiano; Russo, Giorgio; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-12-01

    This review deals with the relationship between obesity in male adolescents and gonadal function. The article is structured in two main paragraphs; the first one is about population studies that have assessed puberty timing and its mode of onset in relation with body weight to evaluate if and how the latter can influence the gonadal function in this phase of life. These studies analyze issues such as increased BMI and early onset of male puberty, gender differences, secular trend toward early onset of puberty in males, effects of a different body composition on male puberty and consequences of a different stage of childhood obesity on the onset of male puberty. The second paragraph examines the possible mechanisms through which, obesity may alter the timing of puberty in young males, including the role of SHBG, leptin, insulin resistance, ghrelin, GH-IGF-1 axis, AR polymorphisms, primary testicular dysfunction, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4) and liver function abnormalities. However, despite the numerous studies in the literature, the etiology of gonadal disfunction in obese adolescents on puberty remains uncertain. PMID:24923899

  12. Parental Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Coping with Problems Related to Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Chavira, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Investigated ethnic socialization by parents of minority group adolescents and adolescents' ethnic identity and strategies for coping with stereotypes and discrimination. Interviewed 60 American-born adolescents drawn from 3 ethnic groups (Japanese, Mexican, African) and 1 parent of each adolescent. Discovered significant differences in parental…

  13. Racial/Ethnic Socialization Messages, Social Support, and Personal Efficacy among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Owens, Delila

    2010-01-01

    Associations between ethnic socialization and a sense of personal efficacy were explored among African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents. We found that those who reported greater intimacy with their mothers were more likely to perceive them as sources of race-related socialization messages. Consisting of primarily African-American and…

  14. A Social Process Mode of Adolescent Deviance: Combining Social Control and Differential Association Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Crosnoe, Robert; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined social factors associated with changes in two forms of adolescent deviance, substance use and delinquency using a model that combines social control and differential association perspectives. Results for approximately 2,000 high school students support the model and show that strong bonds to family, school, and community protect…

  15. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

  16. Learned Social Hopelessness: The Role of Explanatory Style in Predicting Social Support during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Almost no research has examined the impact of explanatory style on social adjustment. We hypothesised that adolescents with a pessimistic style would be less likely to develop and maintain social support networks. Methods: Seven hundred and nineteen students (351 males and 366 females; 2 unknown; M[subscript AGE] = 12.28, SD = 0.49)…

  17. The Political Socialization of Adolescent Children of Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. Methods We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. Results We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation young adults. Conclusions The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors. PMID:24489413

  18. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  19. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  20. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  1. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  2. [Old age for adolescents: a social representations approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaelly Fernandes; de Freitas, Maria Célia; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research, based on the Theory of Social Representations, which aimed to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in a public school and a private on ageing, and to compare them between these two groups. Participants were 60 adolescents, 30 from the private school and 30 from the public school, who responded to semi-structured interviews in the period May-June 2012. The collected data were subjected to content analysis techniques, from which emerged three categories, namely: representations of ageing, the treatment of the elderly, and the recognition of oneself as a subject in the aging process. The adolescents' social representations have showed negative and positive aspects in relation to old age, marked by the influence of socio-cultural aspects. PMID:25271586

  3. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being. PMID:25132873

  4. Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Margolin, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of SNS technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults’ stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication—to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents’ social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  5. Empathy in adolescence: Relations with emotion awareness and social roles.

    PubMed

    Rieffe, Carolien; Camodeca, Marina

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the individual differences contributing to feelings of empathy in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the extent to which emotion awareness (e.g., recognizing and appreciating one's own and the emotions of others) and a tendency for certain social roles (e.g., helping or teasing peers when being bullied) are related to adolescents' levels of empathy. The sample was comprised of 182 adolescents aged between 11 and 16. Empathy and emotion awareness were assessed using self-report measures. Peer reports were used to indicate adolescents' different social roles: Bullying, defending the victim, and outsider behaviour. Outcomes demonstrated that evaluating one's own and the emotions of others, and more defending nominations were associated with both affective and cognitive empathy, whereas aspects of emotion awareness which are linked with internalizing symptoms were related to empathic distress, suggesting maladaptive emotion appraisal. Furthermore, outsider behaviour was associated with empathic distress, emphasizing a self-focused orientation. In contrast, more bullying was negatively associated with cognitive empathy. Overall, these outcomes demonstrate that, besides social roles, emotion awareness is an important factor for adaptive empathic reactions, whereas emotion dysregulation might cause distress when witnessing the negative feelings of others. PMID:26778274

  6. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  7. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  8. Longitudinal Investigation of the Associations between Adolescents' Popularity and Cyber Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2014-01-01

    As adolescents become increasingly immersed in electronic technologies, popular adolescents may act in similar ways online as they do offline. This longitudinal study employed peer nominations and self-reports to examine perceived popularity and social preference in relation to cyber social behaviors among 256 adolescents during the fall (T1) and…

  9. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  10. An Evaluation of the Applicability of the Tripartite Constructs to Social Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…

  11. Modeling the contribution of personality, social identity and social norms to problematic Facebook use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Pastore, Massimiliano; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2016-12-01

    Facebook is the most popular social networking site in the world providing the opportunity to maintain and/or establish relationships, to share media contents and experiences with friends, and to easily communicate with them. Despite the resources and the innovative social features offered by Facebook research has emerged indicating that its use may become problematic, with negative consequences on personal psycho-social well-being, especially among adolescents and young adults. The main aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of personality traits and social influence processes (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, and social identity) to perceived frequency of Facebook Use and Problematic Facebook Use in a sample of adolescents. A total of 968 Italian adolescents participated in the study. Structural equation modeling showed that emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness and norms directly predicted Problematic Facebook Use, whereas gender, group norms and social identity predicted perceived frequency of Facebook use. In conclusion, both personal and social variables appear to explain perceived frequency of Facebook use and Problematic Facebook Use among adolescents, and should be taken into account by researchers and educational practitioners. PMID:27423098

  12. Obesity Has Few Effects on Future Psychosocial Functioning of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Hao, Duong T.

    2013-01-01

    We reexamine the effects of obesity on a wide range (n=17) of indicators of functioning drawn from five broad domains: interpersonal problems, psychological problems, suicidal behaviors, academic performance, and psychiatric disorders. Evidence on this question is mixed. Data are analyzed from a large community sample of adolescents 11 – 17 at baseline (n=4175) who were followed up a year later (n=3,134). Using measured height and weight, overweight was defined as 95th > BMI ≤ 85th percentile and obese as BMI > 95th percentile. At baseline, obesity was associated with increased odds only for any mood disorder and poor perceived mental health. For boys, there were no significant associations, but girls had higher odds of problems at school, poor perceived mental health, and mood disorders. Results from the two-wave cohort reveal obesity increased future risk only for poor perceived mental health. For boys, the same pattern was observed, but for girls there were no significant associations. Overall, we found that weight status had few deleterious effects on adolescent social functioning, in multivariate, prospective analyses. If there is an effect of obesity on functioning, it may operate through mediators such as body image. PMID:23557808

  13. Acculturation, social self-control, and substance use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A; Sussman, Steve

    2013-09-01

    It is unclear how acculturation is related to self-control characteristics and whether part of the effect of acculturation on Hispanic adolescents' substance use behavior is mediated through lower self-control. We tested social self-control, peer substance use, and baseline substance use as mediators of the effect of Hispanic (predominantly Mexican or Mexican American) adolescents' level of U.S. acculturation on their substance use behavior 1 year later. In addition, we tested gender as a possible moderator of the pathways involved in the mediation model. Participants included 1,040 self-identified Hispanic/Latino adolescents (M = 14.7; SD = 0.90; 89% Mexican/Mexican American) recruited from nine public high schools. Acculturation was measured in terms of adolescents' extent of English language use in general, at home, with friends, and their use of the English-language entertainment media. Analyses were conducted using structural equation modeling and controlled for potential confounders such as age and parental education. Results indicated a statistically significant three-path mediation in which poor social self-control and peer substance use mediated the effects of acculturation on prospective substance use. Paths in the mediation model were not found to differ by gender. Our findings suggest that acculturation may influence adolescents' self-control characteristics related to interpersonal functioning, which may in turn influence their affiliation with substance-using friends and substance use behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of future research and prevention programming. PMID:23772765

  14. Correlates of functional status, self-management, and developmental competence outcomes in adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents with spina bifida (SB), a congenital spinal cord impairment, are at high risk for negative outcomes. Even those with favorable cognitive status often fail to achieve independence, exhibiting poor functional and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation outcomes (functional status, self-management, and developmental competence) and SB condition-specific, adolescent protective factors, and family protective factors in a sample of adolescents with SB. Individual, interpersonal, and social developmental competence were explored. Sixty-six adolescent/parent pairs were interviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and partial correlations controlling for age. All instruments had acceptable reliabilities. Factors associated with outcomes generally fell into two patterns. SB condition-specific variables and adolescent activities (e.g., decision-making, household responsibilities) were related to functional status, self-management, and social competence. In contrast, adolescent beliefs (hope, attitude, and communication efficacy) were predominantly related to individual, interpersonal, and overall developmental competence. PMID:14626030

  15. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  16. Functioning of Adolescents with Symptoms of Disturbed Sleep.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Chen, Irene G.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the association between disturbed sleep and the functioning of adolescents, especially cumulative effects across multiple life domains. Results from 5,423 students suggest that adolescents experiencing disturbed sleep also experience a range of deficits in functioning. Available evidence does not make it possible to specify causal…

  17. Impact of Growing Up with a Chronically Ill Sibling on Well Siblings' Late Adolescent Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fleary, Sasha A.; Heffer, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the continuing impact of growing up with an ill sibling on well siblings' late adolescent functioning. Forty late adolescents (Mage = 18.78, SD = 0.83), who identified themselves as growing up with an ill sibling, completed a semistructured interview, demographic questionnaire, Personality Assessment Screener, and My Feelings and Concerns Sibling Questionnaire. Participants reported clinically significant problems on some PAS scales, and gender differences were found for acting out and alienation. Significant relationships were reported for communication and social withdrawal and alienation. Both positive and negative themes about the experience were elicited from the responses in the semistructured interview. This study provides evidence for some lingering negative effects of growing up with an ill sibling on well siblings' late adolescent functioning. Additionally, evidence for siblings' development of positive characteristics that may act as protective variables as they face the stressors of late adolescence was also highlighted. PMID:24959574

  18. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Moitra, Ethan; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy L.; Brandsma, Lynn L.

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is critical to prevent development of a chronic course of symptoms, persistent functional impairment, and progressive psychiatric comorbidity. A small but growing literature supports the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders, including SAD, in adolescence. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of group vs. individual CBT for adolescents with generalized SAD in relation to an educational/supportive psychotherapy that did not contain specific CBT elements. All three treatments were associated with significant reductions in symptoms and functional impairment, and in improved social skills. No differences between treatments emerged on measures of symptoms, but the CBT conditions demonstrated greater gains on behavioral measures. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:18653310

  19. Sex-Specific Relationships among Attachment Security, Social Values, and Sensation Seeking in Early Adolescence: Implications for Adolescents' Externalizing Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others"--that is, their "social value orientation"--with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were…

  20. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks

    PubMed Central

    Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6–12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  1. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication. PMID:22703034

  2. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  3. Change in Maternal Depressive Mood: Unique Contributions to Adolescent Functioning over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Amanda McCombs; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the relation of change in maternal depressed mood across time and adolescent functioning. Analyses revealed that increased depressed mood across one year predicted teacher reports of higher levels of externalizing and internalizing problems and lower levels of social competence. A static maternal depressive mood did not forecast…

  4. Parent and Self-Ratings of Executive Function in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deanna M.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Wulfeck, Beverly B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is accumulating evidence that adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) have impairments in domains beyond formal language that may affect academic and social outcomes. The findings of previous studies as well as parent reports of behavioural concerns suggest that they lag behind peers in functions such as…

  5. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  6. Psychological, behavioural, and social adjustment in children and adolescents with juvenile chronic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Huygen, A; Kuis, W; Sinnema, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the psychological, behavioural and social adjustment of children (7-11 years) and adolescents (12-16 years) with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA). Higher rates of maladjustment were expected to be found in these patients.
METHODS—Self report questionnaires were used within the context of personal interviews. Family functioning and social support were studied as well. Forty seven patients with JCA, 52 healthy peers and their respective parents participated in the study.
RESULTS—Self esteem, perceived competence and body image in patients with JCA were as positive as they were in healthy participants. There were no differences between ill and healthy youngsters with respect to the incidence of psychopathology. Patients with JCA, in general, perceived themselves as socially competent, but they seemed to have somewhat less opportunity or energy to participate in social activities. Children with JCA showed a high level of aspiration to cope with social expectations. This aspiration seemed to be even stronger in case the disease caused more strains, for example, in periods of inflammation and in the systemic onset type. The high level of social adjustment in children with JCA seemed to be supported by highly cohesive family structures. Generally, adolescents with JCA experienced much social support.
CONCLUSIONS—In contrast with our expectation, children and adolescents with JCA seemeed to cope quite well with the psychological and social consequences of their long term condition. For future studies, it is hypothesised that the high levels of adaptation might imply an enduring psychological strain, which is reflected in an altered function of the autonomic nervous system.

 PMID:10733474

  7. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  8. Contribution of personal and environmental factors on positive psychological functioning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Daniela; Scalas, L Francesca; Meleddu, Mauro

    2015-08-01

    This study examined self-esteem as mediator in the relations of personal (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental (maternal, paternal, peer-relationships) variables with domains of positive psychological functioning (PPF) in adolescence (Satisfaction with life, Mastery, Vigor, Social Interest, Social Cheerfulness). We compared one-sided and multidimensional models using a sample of 1193 high school students (592 males and 601 females). We examined variations in adolescent PPF as a function of parenting styles via independent examination of maternal and paternal bonding. Results supported the multidimensional models, which indicated direct effects of personality traits, maternal care and peer relationships, as well as indirect effects, mediated by self-esteem, of all predictors on most PPF dimensions. Overall, our study provided a broader picture of personal and environmental predictors on different dimensions of PPF, which supported the mediating role of self-esteem and emphasized the importance of considering multidimensional models to characterize PPF in adolescents. PMID:26093819

  9. Social feedback processing from early to late adolescence: influence of sex, age, and attachment style

    PubMed Central

    Vrtička, Pascal; Sander, David; Anderson, Brittany; Badoud, Deborah; Eliez, Stephan; Debbané, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objective The establishment of an accurate understanding of one's social context is a central developmental task during adolescence. A critical component of such development is to learn how to integrate the objective evaluation of one's behavior with the social response to the latter—here referred to as social feedback processing. Case report We measured brain activity by means of fMRI in 33 healthy adolescents (12–19 years old, 14 females). Participants played a difficult perceptual game with integrated verbal and visual feedback. Verbal feedback provided the participants with objective performance evaluation (won vs. lost). Visual feedback consisted of either smiling or angry faces, representing positive or negative social evaluations. Together, the combination of verbal and visual feedback gave rise to congruent versus incongruent social feedback combinations. In addition to assessing sex differences, we further tested for the effects of age and attachment style on social feedback processing. Results revealed that brain activity during social feedback processing was significantly modulated by sex, age, and attachment style in prefrontal cortical areas, ventral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, caudate, and amygdala/hippocampus. We found indication for heightened activity during incongruent social feedback processing in females, older participants, and individuals with an anxious attachment style. Conversely, we observed stronger activity during processing of congruent social feedback in males and participants with an avoidant attachment style. Conclusion Our findings not only extend knowledge on the typical development of socio-emotional brain function during adolescence, but also provide first clues on how attachment insecurities, and particularly attachment avoidance, could interfere with the latter mechanisms. PMID:25328847

  10. A Social Neuroscience Perspective on Adolescent Risk-Taking

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Laurence

    2007-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for theory and research on risk-taking that is informed by developmental neuroscience. Two fundamental questions motivate this review. First, why does risk-taking increase between childhood and adolescence? Second, why does risk-taking decline between adolescence and adulthood? Risk-taking increases between childhood and adolescence as a result of changes around the time of puberty in the brain’s socio-emotional system leading to increased reward-seeking, especially in the presence of peers, fueled mainly by a dramatic remodeling of the brain’s dopaminergic system. Risk-taking declines between adolescence and adulthood because of changes in the brain’s cognitive control system – changes which improve individuals’ capacity for self-regulation. These changes occur across adolescence and young adulthood and are seen in structural and functional changes within the prefrontal cortex and its connections to other brain regions. The differing timetables of these changes make mid-adolescence a time of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior. PMID:18509515

  11. Social Phobia and Educational and Interpersonal Impairments in Adolescence: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; La Greca, Annette M; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2016-08-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between social phobia (SP) and educational and interpersonal impairments among Finnish adolescents. Participants were 3278 adolescents (9th grade; M age = 15.5 years) who completed measures of SP and depressive symptoms; 2070 participated in follow-up two years later. Indicators for educational and interpersonal functioning were assessed for each sex separately. Multivariate analyses, controlling for depression and relevant socioeconomic covariates, indicated that for boys, age 15 SP predicted slow academic progression, being without a close friend or not having a romantic relationship, and poor support from friends and significant others at age 17. However, for girls, age 15 SP only predicted not having been involved in a romantic relationship by age 17. In conclusion, we found striking sex differences for adolescent SP as a predictor for subsequent educational and interpersonal impairments in late adolescence. SP may have a more devastating effect on boys' social and academic functioning relative to that of girls. PMID:26514560

  12. PCBs and cognitive functioning of Mohawk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Joan; Aucompaugh, Amy G; Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; Kao, Chin-Cheng; Hanover, MaryEllen Rougas; David, Dawn; Jacobs, Agnes M; Tarbell, Alice M; Worswick, Priscilla

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the relationships between the cognitive functioning and PCB current body burdens of adolescents in the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne where there is concern about industrial pollution of the environment. Three cognitive tests (Woodcock Johnson-Revised, Test of Memory and Learning, and Ravens Progressive Matrices) provide 13 subtests that allow a variety of cognitive outcomes to be assessed. A summary measure of PCB level was created from the congeners detected in at least 50% of the participants. The most notable finding was the significant negative relationship between PCB levels and two separate measures of long term memory. There was also a negative relationship with a measure of comprehension and knowledge. Significant relationships were not large, but provide evidence of subtle negative effects of PCB exposure. PMID:16809019

  13. Network Ecology and Adolescent Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel A.; Moody, James; Diehl, David; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent societies—whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships—exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings. We develop this argument using longitudinal friendship data on schools (Add Health study) and classrooms (Classroom Engagement study), and by extending exponential random graph models to the study of multiple societies over time. PMID:25535409

  14. Executive Function and Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lantrip, Crystal; Isquith, Peter K; Koven, Nancy S; Welsh, Kathleen; Roth, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Development of emotion regulation strategy use involves a transition from reliance on suppression during childhood to greater use of reappraisal in adolescence and adulthood-a transition that parallels developmental changes in executive functions. We evaluated the relationship between emotion regulation strategy use and executive functioning in the everyday life of 70 typically developing adolescents who completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Youth and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report. Results indicated that greater reliance on reappraisal was associated with better executive functions, while reliance on suppression was related to poorer executive functions. Findings suggest that adolescents who rely on reappraisal may have more cognitive resources to help them remain attentive and well regulated in their daily lives. On the other hand, if better executive functions facilitate the use of reappraisal, adolescents' ability to regulate their emotions could potentially be enhanced via supports for executive functions. PMID:25650638

  15. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  16. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, BJ

    2014-01-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The current study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents towards action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggests possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  17. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of

  18. Relations Between Nonverbal and Verbal Social Cognitive Skills and Complex Social Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Lewine, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on domains of social skill deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), little research has examined the relation between specific social cognitive skills and complex social behaviors in daily functioning. This was the aim of the present study. Participants were 37 (26 male and 11 female) children and adolescents aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD. To determine the amount of variance in parent-rated complex social behavior accounted for by the linear combination of five directly-assessed social cognitive variables (i.e., adult and child facial and vocal affect recognition and social judgment) after controlling for general intellectual ability, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The linear combination of variables accounted for 35.4 % of the variance in parent-rated complex social behavior. Vocal affect recognition in adult voices showed the strongest association with complex social behavior in ASD. Results suggest that assessment and training in vocal affective comprehension should be an important component of social skills interventions for individuals with ASD. PMID:26386582

  19. Singaporean Adolescents' Perceptions of Online Social Communication: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…

  20. Group Guidance and Group Counseling to Foster Social Acceptability and Self-Esteem in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shechtman, Zipora; Bar-El, Orit

    1994-01-01

    Measures the degree to which group guidance and small group counseling generated positive change in the social acceptance and self-esteem of normal and socially inefficacious adolescents. Both methods enhanced the social acceptability of the adolescents, with partial gains recorded in self-esteem. Recommends a combination of both methods. (RJM)

  1. The Role of Social Identity Complexity in Inter-Group Attitudes among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knifsend, Casey A.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2013-01-01

    To supplement research on adolescent social identities, the current study examined how social identity complexity relates to ethnic inter-group attitudes in a young adolescent sample (N = 97; "age range" = 12-14 years). Social identity complexity refers to the perceived overlap of groups with which youth align themselves. Descriptive…

  2. The Development of Social Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellini, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined factors contributing to the development of social anxiety in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular, the study examined the contribution of social skill deficits and physiological hyperarousal to the development of social anxiety in individuals with ASD. Forty-one adolescents with…

  3. Social Skills: An Investigation with Young Adolescents from Different Socioeconomic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronel, Claudia Paola; Levin, Mariel; Mejail, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a stage in the life cycle where social abilities are a crucial factor in social adjustment. Prosocial behaviour contributes to the development of self-esteem and psychological well-being. Method: The aim of this study was to analyze and compare social abilities in adolescents of low and high socioeconomic status, from…

  4. Social cognitive factors and perceived social influences that improve adolescent eHealth literacy.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    While adolescents are increasingly using the Internet for health information, little research has been done to assess and improve their "eHealth literacy"-the abilities to find, evaluate, and apply online health information. This study examines the extent to which adolescents' levels of eHealth literacy can be improved by known determinants such as social cognitive factors and perceived social influences, either independently or jointly. Among 182 middle-schoolers, an eHealth literacy intervention was carried out. It involved qualitative and quantitative baseline research, three online training sessions, and a postintervention survey. According to hierarchical regression model results, social cognitive factors of outcome expectations and involvement, but not health motivation, significantly improved eHealth literacy, and all the perceived social influence variables significantly improved eHealth literacy. However, no joint effect of social cognitive factors and perceived social influences was found. In light of these findings, educators need to make eHealth literacy programs personally relevant to adolescents and reinforce local social norms about the importance of seeking health information online. PMID:22452551

  5. Family correlates of adolescent self-monitoring and social competence.

    PubMed

    Schoenrock, C J; Bell, N J; Sun, S W; Avery, A W

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate linkages between adolescent self-monitoring, global social competence, and parenting and family environment dimensions of support and encouragement of autonomy. The sample consisted of 233 young women and 199 young men at 2 southwestern universities. The primary measures used were the Family Environment Scale (R. H. Moos, 1981), the Parent Behavior Form (L. Worell & J. Worell, 1974), the revised Self-Monitoring Scale (M. Snyder, 1987), and the Texas Social Behavior Inventory (R. Helmreich, J. Stapp, & C. Ervin, 1974). Findings indicated that family variables are more strongly associated with social competence than with self-monitoring; family support was, overall, a more important ingredient of social competence than was autonomy. Women and men had different patterns of associations among specific variables. PMID:10412219

  6. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  7. Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Parental Reflective Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Naomi; Priel, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescent adjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…

  8. Parent-Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared 40 families with adolescents unsuccessful in public schools who were attending alternative schools with 52 families of public school adolescents. Results showed predicted differences in direction of greater balanced functioning and more positive communication in public school families. Public school families also perceived greater…

  9. Parent Adolescent Communication, Family Functioning, and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masselam, Venus Shirley

    Fifty-two families of students successful in public school and 40 families of students requiring alternative school programs completed self-report instruments on their perceptions of parent-adolescent communication and family functioning. The alternative school programs included residential and day treatment programs for adolescents with emotional…

  10. Early Adolescent Executive Functioning, Intrauterine Exposures and Own Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Soenksen, Shayna; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Richardson, Mark A.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use, and/or their potential interactions are related to poorer executive functioning after controlling for important contextual variables. Analyses were based on data collected on a sample of 137 predominantly African-American/ African Caribbean adolescents from low-income urban backgrounds who were followed since their term birth. Intrauterine substance exposures (cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes) and adolescents' substance use were documented using a combination of biological assays and maternal and adolescent self-report. At 12-14 years of age, examiners masked to intrauterine exposures and current substance use assessed the adolescents using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), an age-referenced instrument evaluating multiple dimensions of executive functioning (EF). Results of covariate-controlled analyses in this study suggest that when intrauterine substance exposures and young adolescents' substance use variables were in the same analysis models, subtle differences in specific EF outcomes were identifiable in this non-referred sample. While further study with larger samples is indicated, these findings suggest that 1) research on adolescent substance use and intrauterine exposure research should evaluate both predictors simultaneously; 2) subtle neurocognitive effects associated with specific intrauterine drug exposures can be identified during early adolescence; and 3) intrauterine substance exposure effects may differ from those associated with adolescents' own drug use. PMID:21371553

  11. Mothers' Socialization Goals, Mothers' Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Socioemotional Functioning in Urban India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Raval, Pratiksha H.; Deo, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the link between parental socialization and child functioning in varying cultural contexts are scarce. Focusing on early adolescents in suburban middle-class families in India, the present study examined interrelations among reports of mothers' socialization goals, socialization behaviors in response to child emotion, child…

  12. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

  13. The effect of a music therapy social skills training program on improving social competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Lori F

    2011-01-01

    Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning. PMID:22506299

  14. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Moderates the Relation between Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescents' Social Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan

    2016-02-01

    This 2-wave longitudinal study aimed (1) to investigate whether high resting RSA predicted adolescents' lower externalizing behavior and higher empathic concern, and (2) to address the potential moderating role of resting RSA in the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' externalizing behavior and empathic concern. In a sample of 379 adolescents (212 boys, 167 girls), resting RSA was assessed during a laboratory session, and adolescents reported on parental support, negative interaction with parents, empathic concern and externalizing behavior during a home visit. We found no support for high resting RSA predicting low externalizing behavior or high empathic concern. However, in line with our hypotheses, we did find several instances of RSA functioning as a moderator, although the interaction patterns varied. First, negative interaction with parents was a negative predictor of externalizing behavior for girls low in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls with high RSA. Second, higher negative interaction with parents predicted lower empathic concern for boys high in resting RSA, whereas the association was reversed for boys with low resting RSA. Third, parental support was a positive predictor of empathic concern for girls high in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls low in resting RSA. The findings suggest that adolescents with different levels of resting RSA respond differentially to relationship quality with parents. PMID:25711459

  15. [Atipical antipsychotics in relation with social functioning].

    PubMed

    Vrdoljak, Marijo; Sesar, Marijan Alfonso; Ivezić, Sladana Strkalj

    2007-01-01

    We studied influence of type of antipsychotics in relation with social functioning in sample of 123 patients diagnozed with schizophrenia accordingto lCD 10 criteria. On atypicals (olanzapin, risperidon, clozapin) were 39 patients, 26 female and 13 male. The social functioning scale according to Bellak et al was used for assessment of social functioning. Results of our study show that there is no difference in social functioning between patients on atypical in comapration with patients on typical antipsychotics. We observed a positive trend of better social functioning in group of patients who takes atypicals. Results also showed that women had better social functioning comparing to males Education and duration of illness were not in relation with social functioning. PMID:18298001

  16. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2015-01-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75 g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5 g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75 g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75 g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  17. Sex differences in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol and social drinking during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2015-04-01

    In human adolescents, sociable males frequently drink to enhance positive emotional states, whereas anxious females often drink to avoid negative affective states. This study used a rat model of adolescence to provide information regarding possible sex differences in contributors to social drinking. The effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, and 0.75g/kg) on play fighting and social preference were assessed on P30, P32, and P34 using a within-subject design. Then animals were tested in a social drinking paradigm (P37-P40), with this testing revealing high drinkers and low drinkers. Sex differences in sensitivity to ethanol emerged among high and low drinkers. High socially drinking males, but not females, when tested prior to drinking sessions, showed significant increases in play fighting at both doses. In low drinking males, play fighting was increased by 0.5g/kg ethanol, whereas the higher dose of 0.75g/kg produced significant decreases in play fighting. High drinking females initially showed low levels of social preference than high drinking males and low drinking females and were extremely sensitive to ethanol-induced enhancement of this social measure. Low social drinkers, both males and females, were more sensitive to the suppressing effects of ethanol on social preference following 0.75g/kg ethanol. These findings indicate that during adolescence enhanced sensitivity to the facilitating effects of ethanol on play fighting is associated with heavy drinking among males, whereas low social preference together with high sensitivity to ethanol-induced enhancement of social preference is related to high social drinking in females. PMID:25557799

  18. A Replication and Extension of the PEERS Intervention: Examining Effects on Social Skills and Social Anxiety in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schohl, Kirsten A.; Van Hecke, Amy V.; Carson, Audrey Meyer; Dolan, Bridget; Karst, Jeffrey; Stevens, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS: Laugeson et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(4):596-606, 2009). PEERS focuses on improving friendship quality and social skills among adolescents with higher-functioning ASD. 58 participants aged 11-16 years-old were randomly assigned to…

  19. Social Network Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: Disentangling Structural Equivalence from Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates two contagion mechanisms of peer influence based on direct communication (cohesion) versus comparison through peers who occupy similar network positions (structural equivalence) in the context of adolescents' drinking alcohol and smoking. To date, the two contagion mechanisms have been considered observationally inseparable, but this study attempts to disentangle structural equivalence from cohesion as a contagion mechanism by examining the extent to which the transmission of drinking and smoking behaviors attenuates as a function of social distance (i.e., from immediate friends to indirectly connected peers). Using the U.S. Add Health data consisting of a nationally representative sample of American adolescents (Grades 7-12), this study measured peer risk-taking up to four steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends of friends) using a network exposure model. Peer influence was tested using a logistic regression model of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Results indicate that influence based on structural equivalence tended to be stronger than influence based on cohesion in general, and that the magnitude of the effect decreased up to three steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends). Further analysis indicated that structural equivalence acted as a mechanism of contagion for drinking and cohesion acted as one for smoking. These results indicate that the two transmission mechanisms with differing network proximities can differentially affect drinking and smoking behaviors in American adolescents. PMID:22475405

  20. Social network influences on adolescent substance use: disentangling structural equivalence from cohesion.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates two contagion mechanisms of peer influence based on direct communication (cohesion) versus comparison through peers who occupy similar network positions (structural equivalence) in the context of adolescents' drinking alcohol and smoking. To date, the two contagion mechanisms have been considered observationally inseparable, but this study attempts to disentangle structural equivalence from cohesion as a contagion mechanism by examining the extent to which the transmission of drinking and smoking behaviors attenuates as a function of social distance (i.e., from immediate friends to indirectly connected peers). Using the U.S. Add Health data consisting of a nationally representative sample of American adolescents (Grades 7-12), this study measured peer risk-taking up to four steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends of friends) using a network exposure model. Peer influence was tested using a logistic regression model of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Results indicate that influence based on structural equivalence tended to be stronger than influence based on cohesion in general, and that the magnitude of the effect decreased up to three steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends). Further analysis indicated that structural equivalence acted as a mechanism of contagion for drinking and cohesion acted as one for smoking. These results indicate that the two transmission mechanisms with differing network proximities can differentially affect drinking and smoking behaviors in American adolescents. PMID:22475405

  1. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. PMID:25680679

  2. Socio-Dramatic Affective-Relational Intervention for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome & High Functioning Autism: Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Levine, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a novel intervention called "socio-dramatic affective-relational intervention" (SDARI), intended to improve social skills among adolescents with Asperger syndrome and high functioning autism diagnoses. SDARI adapts dramatic training activities to focus on in vivo practice of areas of social skill deficit…

  3. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  4. Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Krayer, A; Ingledew, D K; Iphofen, R

    2008-10-01

    This study explored the use of social comparison appraisals in adolescents' lives with particular reference to enhancement appraisals which can be used to counter threats to the self. Social comparison theory has been increasingly used in quantitative research to understand the processes through which societal messages about appearance influence adolescents' body image. Little is known about the comparison processes used in their daily lives-to whom individuals compare (the target), on what individuals compare (the attribute) and how they compare (comparison appraisal). Based on the analysis of 20 in-depth grounded theory interviews with 12- to 14-year old boys and girls, we suggest that comparison processes are used for the purpose of identity development (core category). Given the opportunity, adolescents spontaneously describe a variety of targets, comparison attributes and comparison appraisals. Peers play an important part in making sense of media images and messages and provide comparison targets themselves. Adolescents are aware of societal standards and pressures and use a range of enhancement appraisals. The positive impact of these might depend on individual characteristics. Findings suggest that enhancement appraisals might have a protective function and should be considered in designing health promotion and prevention programmes. PMID:18156148

  5. Social Capital, Savings, and Educational Performance of Orphaned Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ssewamala, Fred M.; Karimli, Leyla; Chang-Keun, Han; Ismayilova, Leyla

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of social capital on savings and educational performance of orphaned adolescents participating in a family-level economic strengthening program in Uganda. Findings indicate that if given the opportunity, poor families in Uganda will use financial institutions to save for the education of their adolescent youth. Moreover, although the results are mixed, overall, adolescents with higher levels of social capital and social support, including participation in youth groups, are likely to report better saving performance compared to their counterparts with lower levels of social capital and social support. The results point to: (1) the role for family-economic strengthening programs specifically focused on improving the educational outcomes of orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, and (2) the need for adolescents to be encouraged to participate in youth groups since these groups seem to offer the much needed supportive informal institutional structure for positive adolescent outcomes. PMID:20948971

  6. Social marketing: an underutilized tool for promoting adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Carol A; Mayer, Alyssa B; McDermott, Robert J; Panzera, Anthony D; Trainor, John K

    2011-12-01

    Social marketing applies some of the same principles used in commercial marketing for the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of programs designed to motivate voluntary behavioral change. It relies on consumer research for understanding the people they hope to change, including their values, aspirations, fears, lifestyle, and factors that motivate and deter them from adopting desired behaviors. Social marketing has been applied in public health settings since the 1980s for promoting such behaviors as safer sex, hypertension and cholesterol control, reduced occurrence of alcohol-impaired driving, improved utilization of public health prevention and screening services, and enactment of better school nutrition policies in schools. Although most evidence for social marketing's utility comes from interventions directed at adult audiences, its application with adolescents may help to address issues that have been challenging or unresponsive to health behavior change specialists. This article describes the basic tenets of social marketing as a behavior change process, identifies its previously successful applications with adolescent audience segments, and offers both lessons learned and projected future applications that employ emerging communication technologies. PMID:22423457

  7. Social barriers faced by adolescent parents and their children.

    PubMed

    Spivak, H; Weitzman, M

    1987-09-18

    Pregnancy and childbearing are well recognized as having significant, long-term consequences for teenagers. Recent literature documents an array of negative outcomes for children born to adolescents, with a range of factors identified as contributing to the problems observed in these children. These include (1) the characteristics of those teenagers most likely to become parents, (2) the social and economic consequences of early childbearing, (3) the increased biologic vulnerability of children born to teenagers, and (4) the nature of parenting by teenagers. It has been acknowledged that adolescent parents tend to come from high-risk families, have poor academic achievement, and live in our most disadvantaged communities and therefore, biologic, economic, and behavioral factors contribute to the increased likelihood of teenagers having children who are vulnerable to physical and developmental problems. Teenaged parents face many obstacles to economic and social success, and these further influence the environment in which their children grow up. Adolescents also experience many difficulties in adjusting to parenthood and display a range of suboptimal parenting practices. Whereas some of these factors appear highly resistant to change, others have clear clinical, programmatic, and policy implications. PMID:3625950

  8. The coherence of critical event narratives and adolescents' psychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Wang, Qi; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the coherence of low- and high-point life-event narratives among adolescents (aged between 12 and 21 years) and their psychological functioning in terms of well-being and prosocial behaviour. The results showed robust age-related increases in narrative coherence. Age and gender significantly moderated the associations between narrative coherence and psychological functioning. Specifically, higher levels of coherence were significantly associated with prosocial behaviour only for older adolescents. Higher levels of narrative coherence were also associated with lower levels of well-being among adolescent boys, but not among adolescent girls. Results are discussed in terms of why coherent life-event narratives may not be linked to benefits for younger adolescents and for boys, and how low- and high-point life events both contribute to identity construction. PMID:22716656

  9. Adolescents' risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María José; Padrón, Iván; de Vega, Manuel; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents' risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old) read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug) or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog). Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right medial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind (ToM). In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active [right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral orbitofrontal cortex], whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (ventral striatum). Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC) and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole). Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in ToM related regions (bilateral MTG) and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area). Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others' perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in

  10. Neighborhoods, Social Support, and African American Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes: A Multilevel Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood characteristics may relate to African American adolescents' internalizing symptoms via adolescents' social support and perceptions of neighborhood cohesion. Participants included 571 urban, African American adolescents (52% female; "M" age = 17.8). A multilevel path analysis testing both direct and indirect…

  11. Social Correlates of Bullying in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermanis, Victoria; Wiener, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the levels and social correlates of bullying in adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Sixty-four male and female participants (40 ADHD) and their parents and teachers complete standardized questionnaires. Compared to adolescents without ADHD, adolescents with ADHD are more likely to report…

  12. Psychological, Behavioral, and Social Characteristics Associated with Early Forced Sexual Intercourse among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanz, Jean B.

    1995-01-01

    Explored patterns of substance use and sexual behavior among pregnant adolescents under age 18. Data were examined for associations between a history of early forced sexual intercourse and indicators of psychological, behavioral, and social problems during adolescence. Many pregnant adolescents were found to have experienced early forced sexual…

  13. The Meaning of Smoking as Health and Social Risk in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilleczek, Kate C.; Hine, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation describes what smoking means to adolescents, and attempts to better understand it as a rite of passage. Applying a social ontology to an often-individualized issue, interviews were conducted with 20 adolescent smokers between the ages of 13 and 19. Results show that adolescents possess detailed information about the risks of…

  14. Social Support and Self-Esteem among Adolescents with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huurre, Taina Maarit; Komulainen, Erkki Juhani; Aro, Hillevi Marita

    1999-01-01

    The social support and self-esteem of 115 adolescents with visual impairments who attended mainstream Finnish schools, and a control group of 607 classmates were assessed. Self-esteem of the adolescents did not differ; relationships with friends contributed to the enhancement of the self-esteem of the adolescents with visual impairments.…

  15. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Atwood, Katharine A; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-08-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai adolescents' substance use and delinquency, through peer deviance, to determine which neighborhood aspects are particularly important. Families (N=420) with adolescents aged 13-14 were randomly selected from 7 districts in Bangkok, Thailand. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents', but not parents', perceptions of greater disorganization were related to increased rates of both minor and serious delinquency. Surprisingly, greater neighborhood cohesion was related to greater minor delinquency. Peer deviance was unrelated to neighborhood variables. Findings can inform prevention strategies for Thai adolescents, as results suggest that neighborhoods are important for adolescent behaviors regardless of culture. Further work should help communities make use of social cohesion to benefit residents. PMID:24465060

  16. Depression and the social developmental context of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Aseltine, R H; Gore, S; Colten, M E

    1994-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations of personal and social factors in fostering longitudinal patterns of depressive symptoms, using 3 waves of data from high school students in the Boston area. Previously depressed and nondepressed youths differed markedly in their emotional responsiveness to family and friend relations. Chronically depressed youths were unresponsive to family problems, but were highly reactive to peer relations. Among previously asymptomatic youths, family relations exerted greater effects on depressed mood than relations with peers. Further analyses suggest a process through which chronic family turmoil shapes long-term mental health while also intensifying the distancing from family and investment in peer relationships that typically occurs in adolescence. Findings illustrate the importance of modeling transactions between personal and environmental factors in research on adolescent mental health and development. PMID:7932062

  17. Relationship between Illness Severity, Social/Familial Variables and Adjustment in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtig, Anita Landau; Koepke, David

    The study examined the effects of social support and family functioning on illness and adjustment in 70 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Four sources of information were used: patient interview and standardized tests; parent interview and standardized tests; teacher interview; and medical records. Results revealed several…

  18. Brief Report: How Adolescents with ASD Process Social Information in Complex Scenes. Combining Evidence from Eye Movements and Verbal Descriptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeth, Megan; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter; Chapman, Peter; Loher, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    We investigated attention, encoding and processing of social aspects of complex photographic scenes. Twenty-four high-functioning adolescents (aged 11-16) with ASD and 24 typically developing matched control participants viewed and then described a series of scenes, each containing a person. Analyses of eye movements and verbal descriptions…

  19. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  20. Developmental Trajectories of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aidan G C; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. Simultaneously, a profound shift has occurred in the adult personality pathology literature, in which empirical evidence rebuts the idea that personality disorders (PDs) are intractable disorders that do not develop or otherwise change over time, and therefore cannot be treated. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N = 2,450), the authors used bivariate latent growth curve models to analyze the codevelopment of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., academic achievement, social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14-17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. Controlling for depression and conduct disorder features revealed unique associations between BPD and self-perception, social skills, and sexual behavior. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings. PMID:26067158

  1. Social orientations and adolescent health behaviours in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Skultéti, Dóra; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-02-01

    Adolescent health behaviours are influenced by a variety of social factors, including social orientations, such as social comparison or competitiveness. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the role that these social orientations might play in health behaviours (both health-impairing and health-promoting). Data were collected from high school students (N = 548; ages 14-20 years; 39.9% males) in two counties of the Southern Plain Region of Hungary. The self-administered questionnaires contained items on sociodemographics, such as age, sex, parental schooling, and socioeconomic status (SES) self-assessment; school achievement, health behaviours, competitiveness and social comparison. Multiple regression analyses suggest that those who scored higher on competitiveness engaged in more substance use, a pattern that was not present for health-promoting behaviours. Social comparison, however, was associated with lower levels of substance use. In addition, in relation to health-impairing behaviours, both competitiveness and social comparison interacted with sex; both social orientation variables proved to be more important for boys. Social comparison also contributed to health-promoting behaviours among boys. Findings support the idea that the role of social orientations, such as competitiveness and social comparison, can be quite different depending on sex and the nature of the health behaviour. While competitiveness may act as a risk factor for substance use among boys, social comparison may act as a protection. It appears that social orientations play less of a role in girls' health-related behaviours. More focus is needed on gender differences in influences on adolescents' health-related behaviours. Les comportements de santé des adolescents sont influencés par une variété de facteurs sociaux, incluant les orientations sociales telles que la comparaison sociale ou la compétitivité. Le but principal de la présente étude était d'examiner le r

  2. Background for Community-Level Work on Social Competency in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hair, Elizabeth C.; Jager, Justin; Garrett, Sarah

    Because social competency is an important element for adolescents' healthy development, a central question is what can be done to help adolescents achieve and maintain social competency. This report details antecedents of two key aspects of social competency: quality social relationships and good social skills. For each social relationship and…

  3. Family functioning in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family functioning impairment is widely reported in the eating disorders literature, yet few studies have examined the role of family functioning in treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined family functioning in two treatments for adolescent AN from multiple family members’ perspectives. Method Participants were 121 adolescents with AN ages 12–18 from a randomized-controlled trial comparing family-based treatment (FBT) to individual adolescent-focused therapy (AFT). Multiple clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline. Family functioning from the perspective of the adolescent and both parents was assessed at baseline and after one year of treatment. Full remission from AN was defined as achieving both weight restoration and normalized eating disorder psychopathology. Results In general, families dealing with AN reported some baseline impairment in family functioning, but average ratings were only slightly elevated compared to published impaired functioning cutoffs. Adolescents’ perspectives on family functioning were the most impaired and were generally associated with poorer psychosocial functioning and greater clinical severity. Regardless of initial level of family functioning, improvements in several family functioning domains were uniquely related to full remission at the end of treatment in both FBT and AFT. However, FBT had a more positive impact on several specific aspects of family functioning compared to AFT. Discussion Families seeking treatment for adolescent AN report some difficulties in family functioning, with adolescents reporting the greatest impairment. While FBT may be effective in improving some specific aspects of family dynamics, remission from AN was associated with improved family dynamics, regardless of treatment type. PMID:24902822

  4. A social psychologic model of female adolescents' compliance with contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DuRant, R H; Jay, M S

    1987-06-01

    A theoretical model is proposed to help the clinician organize the multiple interrelationships between factors that may influence a female adolescent's compliance with her birth control method. 1 variable that has been found to be predictive for compliance in adults that was not included in the model is the quality of the patient-physician relationship. This variable was excluded because the model is a social psychological model that focuses on the attitudes and behavior of the female adolescent. The female adolescent's perception of the quality of her relationship with her health care provider can be accounted for under the component of the model discussing costs of acquiring birth control. A table contains a checklist of information the clinician may want to obtain from a patient to help determine if she may be at risk for noncompliance. Factors that influence contraceptive compliance are reviewed: frequency of sexual intercourse, perceived probability of pregnancy, premarital sexual standards and experiences, intimacy of sexual relationship, physical and emotional development, cognitive assessment of pregnancy, parental and peer support, and personality development. Lindemann and DeLamater argue that frequency of intercourse is the "prime mover" in the process of acquiring and using birth control. As the frequency of coitus increases or decreases, awareness of the possibility will increase or decrease. DeLamater hypothesizes that before assessing that pregnancy may be undesirable and thus initiating contraceptive use to prevent pregnancy, a woman 1st must perceive that she is at significant risk for becoming pregnant. Russ proposes that a major reason that sexually active female adolescents fail to use effective birth control is that they do not fully accept sexual intercourse as morally acceptable for themselves and thus are unable to rationally prepare for it. Rains argues that when a female adolescent initiates sexual activity, she is in a state of moral

  5. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  6. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    PubMed

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  7. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activities Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, JoAnn; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Jobe, Jared B.; Rung, Ariane L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school. Methods Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities. Results The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person. Conclusions Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls. PMID:19420391

  8. A Few Close Friends: The Pediatrician's Role in the Management of Social Skills Deficits in Adolescent Children.

    PubMed

    Braddock, Barbara A; Twyman, Kimberly A; Garrity, Matthew R; Wang, Tracy; Neary, Meaghan K; Ezzelgot, Jamie; Heithaus, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Pediatricians must recognize and respond to adolescents with social skills deficits because they are at heightened risk for mental health disorders, peer victimization, and social isolation. The aim of this project was to describe a group of adolescent children at the time of enrollment into social skills treatment. Ninety participants with neurodevelopmental weaknesses or disorders, to include high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, participated. Results showed that adolescents referred for social skills deficits had communication weaknesses and concerns in everyday social reciprocal behavior. They rarely hosted get-togethers with same-aged peers and were not often invited by same-aged peers to get-togethers. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported that they were victims of bullying, and more than half of participants reported clinically significant ostracism experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the pediatrician's role in the prevention, identification, and treatment of social skills deficits in light of recent research showing brain neuroplasticity extending into adolescence. PMID:25676832

  9. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  10. Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

  11. Social identity and violence among immigrant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S; Turjeman, Hagit; Fishman, Gideon

    2008-01-01

    Whereas traditional criminological theories treat juvenile delinquency largely as a reactive and expressive behavior that only seldom leads to specialized criminal offending or a criminal career, this article proposes an alternative classification of offenses that accounts for the difference between youthful reactive conduct and specialized criminality. It examines the effect of immigration on delinquency among juvenile Russians in Israel. In contrast to previous work that has examined the criminogenic effect of immigration without differentiating specific types of delinquency, this study investigates the immigration effect on eclectic as well as specialized delinquency. Based on survey data from face-to-face interviews with 910 immigrant youths from the former Soviet Union in Israel, the study finds important results regarding the integration of juvenile immigrants in modern societies. In contrast to the assumption that assimilation in multicultural societies represents a safe way for social adaptation and to prevent specific kinds of violent behavior, the authors find empirical support for a more sophisticated approach. Furthermore, the results underline the importance in differentiating between distinct forms of violence. PMID:18855327

  12. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  13. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  14. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  15. The Power of the Like in Adolescence: Effects of Peer Influence on Neural and Behavioral Responses to Social Media.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence. PMID:27247125

  16. Assessing adolescent social competence using the Social Responsiveness Scale: should we ask both parents or will just one do?

    PubMed

    Pearl, Amanda M; Murray, Michael J; Smith, Laura A; Arnold, Mariah

    2013-11-01

    There is a paucity of instruments designed to measure social competence of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The Social Responsiveness Scale is one of a few that can be used. This study compared differences between mother and father reports of social competence of adolescents. Data were collected from parents of 50 adolescents with and without an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis between the ages of 12 and 17 years. The Social Responsiveness Scale demonstrated high interrater reliability between parents. These results suggest that the Social Responsiveness Scale is an efficient and valuable tool for researchers and clinicians to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of an individual's social skills deficits. Additionally, given the extremely high agreement between mothers and fathers on the ratings of their children's social competence, obtaining data from either parent is sufficient to provide an accurate reflection of social competence at home. PMID:22914777

  17. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  18. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Matthew D; Trucco, Elisa M; Coffman, Donna L; Colder, Craig R

    2015-08-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  19. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  20. Adolescents' Construction of Social Reality: The Impact of Television and Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.

    1983-01-01

    Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…

  1. The LD Adolescent at Risk: Developmental Tasks, Social Competence, and Communication Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Moss A.

    1987-01-01

    Key developmental tasks of adolescence and the unique problems that face the learning-disabled adolescent are outlined, focusing on the role of social competency and communication effectiveness. Components of a comprehensive social competency training program include the nature of the learning disability, the affective-defensive pattern, adaptive…

  2. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  3. Promoting Social Competence and Peer Relationships for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Common, Eric A.; Sreckovic, Melissa A.; Huber, Heartley B.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Gustafson, Jenny Redding; Dykstra, Jessica; Hume, Kara

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses some of the key considerations and complexities associated with intervening to address social competence and peer relationships of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in middle and high school settings. First, we provide a brief overview of the social context during adolescence for all students. Next, we…

  4. Relations between Media, Perceived Social Support and Personal Well-Being in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarriera, Jorge Castella; Abs, Daniel; Casas, Ferran; Bedin, Livia Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper's main objective is to show relations between interest in media, perceived social support and adolescents' personal well-being. For this purpose, 1,589 Brazilian adolescents answered a questionnaire containing Cummins' Personal Well-Being, Vaux's Social Support Appraisals and Casas' interest in media scales. The media in study are: The…

  5. Peer Group and Friend Influences on the Social Acceptability of Adolescent Book Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing recreational reading is a priority in a climate of growing adolescent aliteracy. Raising the social appeal of books has been identified as one potential avenue for arresting this trend. An understanding of the current social acceptability of book reading amongst contemporary adolescents is important in informing an effective approach to…

  6. Why Are Socially Anxious Adolescents Rejected by Peers? The Role of Subject-Group Similarity Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Miers, Anne C.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2012-01-01

    This study addressed the role of actual and perceived similarity in peer rejection of socially anxious adolescents. Videotapes of 20 high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) giving a speech were rated by groups of unfamiliar peers with regard to perceived similarity and desire for future interaction (lower scores indicating…

  7. Virtual Friendships and Social Distress among Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: The Subtyping Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharabi, Adi; Margalit, Malka

    2011-01-01

    Many adolescents spend time online, communicating with friends, family members and strangers, and these social activities have been often related with their loneliness experience. The goals of this study were to examine the social distress expressed by adolescents with and without learning disabilities (LD) and to distinguish between unique…

  8. HIV-Affected Children and Adolescents: What School Social Workers Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Dorie J.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues facing HIV-affected children and adolescents and aims to help school social workers become better equipped to recognize the secondary effects of the AIDS epidemic among HIV-affected children. Concludes with recommendations for addressing the needs of HIV-affected children and adolescents through school social work.…

  9. Social Contagion, Adolescent Sexual Behavior, and Pregnancy: A Nonlinear Dynamic EMOSA Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rowe, David C.; Buster, Maury

    1998-01-01

    Expands an existing nonlinear dynamic epidemic model of onset of social activities (EMOSA), motivated by social contagion theory, to quantify the likelihood of pregnancy for adolescent girls of different sexuality statuses. Compares five sexuality/pregnancy models to explain variance in national prevalence curves. Finds that adolescent girls have…

  10. Interactive Effect of Substance Abuse and Depression on Adolescent Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sara J.; Curry, John F.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the interactive effect of substance abuse and depression on social competence among 106 adolescent inpatients (57% female, 86% Caucasian). Substance abuse and depression were conceptualized using dimensional ratings of illness severity based on adolescent interviews, whereas social competence was conceptualized using parent…

  11. The Effects of Assertiveness Training on Enhancing the Social Skills of Adolescents with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-il

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of assertiveness training to enhance the social/assertiveness skills of 36 adolescents with visual impairments found that parents, the students, teachers, and observers judged the adolescents' social skills differently. However, the training did have some specific effect on increasing assertiveness. (Contains references.)…

  12. "Bad Things Could Happen": How Fear Impedes Social Responsibility in Privileged Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In this study, I compared the shifts in attitude of affluent high school seniors participating in a course on social justice issues to a control group of similar adolescents. In this course, participating adolescents learned about social justice issues such as homelessness, poverty, world hunger, and illegal immigration. An analysis of presurvey…

  13. Neurocognitive and Temperamental Systems of Self-Regulation and Early Adolescents' Social and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checa, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of individual differences in neurocognitive and temperamental systems of self-regulation in early adolescents' social and academic competence. Measures used in the study included the Attention Network Test, the Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire, a peer-reported Social Status…

  14. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  15. Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger's Syndrome Using a Consultation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minihan, Aileen; Kinsella, William; Honan, Rita

    2011-01-01

    A case study design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of behavioural consultation as a method for improving the social skills of adolescents with Asperger's syndrome. Two case studies were conducted. In each study, two teachers implemented a social skills programme with two to three adolescents with Asperger's syndrome in a group setting with…

  16. Interpersonal Identity and Social Capital: The Importance of Commitment for Low Income, Rural, African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerpelman, Jennifer; White, Lloyd

    2006-01-01

    Social capital may be particularly important for the well-being and future opportunities of African American adolescents living in low income families. In this study, linkages between interpersonal identity formation and adolescents' perceptions of social capital quality were examined in a cross-sectional study of 374 low income, rural, African…

  17. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  18. Executive functioning: developmental consequences on adolescents with histories of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Kirke-Smith, Mimi; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David

    2014-09-01

    Research suggests that children exposed to maltreatment have deficits in executive functioning (EF) but few studies have focused on the adolescent age group. We investigated whether maltreated adolescents had lower EF abilities compared to a group of non-maltreated adolescents. Forty adolescents with histories of child maltreatment, together with a comparison group of 40 non-maltreated adolescents matched for age, completed a comprehensive battery of EF tasks. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, controlling for IQ, were carried out using each of the EF measures as dependent variables to examine group differences. Maltreated adolescents had significantly lower performance than non-maltreated adolescents on tasks assessing executive loaded working memory, fluency, and inhibition, although switching was not impaired. Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) were included in additional regression analyses to examine whether these variables would explain the group differences. The inclusion of EBD variables had some effect on group differences, as expected, but did not eliminate them. These findings support the theory that impairments in EF may be one underlying reason why adolescents with histories of maltreatment struggle to cope both inside and outside the classroom. PMID:24684281

  19. Rumination prospectively predicts executive functioning impairments in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Wagner, Clara A.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives The current study tested the resource allocation hypothesis, examining whether baseline rumination or depressive symptom levels prospectively predicted deficits in executive functioning in an adolescent sample. The alternative to this hypothesis was also evaluated by testing whether lower initial levels of executive functioning predicted increases in rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Methods A community sample of 200 adolescents (ages 12–13) completed measures of depressive symptoms, rumination, and executive functioning at baseline and at a follow-up session approximately 15 months later. Results Adolescents with higher levels of baseline rumination displayed decreases in selective attention and attentional switching at follow-up. Rumination did not predict changes in working memory or sustained and divided attention. Depressive symptoms were not found to predict significant changes in executive functioning scores at follow-up. Baseline executive functioning was not associated with change in rumination or depression over time. Conclusions Findings partially support the resource allocation hypothesis that engaging in ruminative thoughts consumes cognitive resources that would otherwise be allocated towards difficult tests of executive functioning. Support was not found for the alternative hypothesis that lower levels of initial executive functioning would predict increased rumination or depressive symptoms at follow-up. Our study is the first to find support for the resource allocation hypothesis using a longitudinal design and an adolescent sample. Findings highlight the potentially detrimental effects of rumination on executive functioning during early adolescence. PMID:23978629

  20. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Shauna M; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2011-12-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization-racial barrier socialization-have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 African American adolescents, the present study focuses attention on the quality of mother-adolescent relations as an indicator of affective context, and examines its moderating influence on the association between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the link between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment is moderated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. However, these associations varied by gender. PMID:23152648

  1. The functions of ritual in social groups.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    Ritual cognition builds upon social learning biases that may have become specialized for affiliation within social groups. The adaptive problems of group living required a means of identifying group members, ensuring commitment to the group, facilitating cooperation, and maintaining group cohesion. We discuss how ritual serves these social functions. PMID:26948744

  2. Social networking technology, social network composition, and reductions in substance use among homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G; Monro, William

    2011-03-01

    Peer-based prevention programs for homeless youth are complicated by the potential for reinforcing high-risk behaviors among participants. The goal of this study is to understand how homeless youth could be linked to positive peers in prevention programming by understanding where in social and physical space positive peers for homeless youth are located, how these ties are associated with substance use, and the role of social networking technologies (e.g., internet and cell phones) in this process. Personal social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Los Angeles, CA. Respondents reported on composition of their social networks with respect to: home-based peers and parents (accessed via social networking technology; e.g., the internet, cell phone, texting), homeless peers and agency staff (accessed face-to-face) and whether or not network members were substance-using or non-substance-using. Associations between respondent's lifetime cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use and recent (previous 30 days) alcohol and marijuana use were assessed by the number of non-substance-using versus substance-using ties in multivariate linear regression models. 43% of adolescents reported a non-substance-using home-based tie. More of these ties were associated with less recent alcohol use. 62% of adolescents reported a substance-using homeless tie. More of these ties were associated with more recent marijuana use as well as more lifetime heroin and methamphetamine use. For homeless youth, who are physically disconnected from positive peers, social networking technologies can be used to facilitate the sorts of positive social ties that effective peer-based prevention programs require. PMID:21194011

  3. Predicting Acceptance and Popularity in Early Adolescence as a Function of Hearing Status, Gender, and Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Nina; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special education. Acceptance varied as a function of…

  4. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. PMID:26792765

  5. Health inequality in adolescence. Does stratification occur by familial social background, family affluence, or personal social position?

    PubMed Central

    LK, Koivusilta; AH, Rimpelä; SM, Kautiainen

    2006-01-01

    Background Two new sets of stratification indicators – family's material affluence and adolescent's personal social position- were compared with traditional indicators of familial social position based on parental occupation and education for their ability to detect health inequality among adolescents. Methods Survey data were collected in the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey in 2003 from nationally representative samples of 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Finns (number of respondents 5394, response rate 71%). Indicators of the familial social position were father's socio-economic status, parents' education, parents' labour market position. Indicators of material affluence were number of cars, vacation travels, and computers in the family, own room and amount of weekly spending money. Adolescent's personal social position was measured as school performance. Measures of health were long-standing illness, overweight, use of mental health services, poor self-rated health and number of weekly health complaints. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was applied to study the associations between stratification indicators and health variables. Results All three groups of indicators of social stratification showed inequality in health, but the strongest associations were observed with the adolescent's personal social position. Health inequality was only partly identifiable by the traditional indicators of familial social position. The direction of the inequality was as expected when using the traditional indicators or personal social position: adolescents from higher social positions were healthier than those from lower positions. The indicators of family's material affluence showed mainly weak or no association with health and some of the indicators were inversely associated, although weakly. Conclusion In addition to traditional indicators describing the socio-structural influences on the distribution of health among adolescents, indicators of family's material affluence

  6. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  7. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  8. Identity formation and social relations during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Craig-Bray, L; Adams, G R; Dobson, W R

    1988-04-01

    Theoretical assumptions outlined by Erik Erikson on psychosocial crisis resolution hypothesizes that the positive resolution of the identity crisis is predictive of more mature intimacy formation. To test this hypothesis, college-aged late adolescents (48 subjects) completed interviews and selfreport instruments measuring identity formation and degree of intimacy along with daily records of social interactions for one week. Analyses indicated a complex association between identity and intimacy formation. Comparisons were made between the exploration and commitment process of identity and the measures of intimacy formation and social interaction measures. Numerous complex sex differences were observed with several interactions between gender, exploration, commitment, and intimacy context. Findings are discussed in terms of broadening future research direction beyond the simple study of the linkage of identity and intimacy. PMID:24277583

  9. Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Linkages from Adolescence Into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon; Whitsel, Eric A.; Tabor, Joyce; Elder, Glen; Hewitt, John; Shanahan, Michael; Williams, Redford; Siegler, Ilene; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994–1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12 000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. PMID:23927505

  10. Social, behavioral, and genetic linkages from adolescence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon; Whitsel, Eric A; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Tabor, Joyce; Elder, Glen; Hewitt, John; Shanahan, Michael; Williams, Redford; Siegler, Ilene; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. PMID:23927505

  11. Developmental effects of aggressive behavior in male adolescents assessed with structural and functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Heinecke, Armin; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; Knutson, Kristine M.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common during adolescence. Although aggression-related functional changes in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and frontopolar cortex (FPC) have been reported in adults, the neural correlates of aggressive behavior in adolescents, particularly in the context of structural neurodevelopment, are obscure. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the blood oxygenation level-depended signal and cortical thickness. In a block-designed experiment, 14–17-year old adolescents imagined aggressive and non-aggressive interactions with a peer. We show reduced vmPFC activation associated with imagined aggressive behavior as well as enhanced aggression-related activation and cortical thinning in the FPC with increasing age. Changes in FPC activation were also associated with judgments of the severity of aggressive acts. Reduced vmPFC activation was associated with greater aggression indicating its normal function is to exert inhibitory control over aggressive impulses. Concurrent FPC activation likely reflects foresight of harmful consequences that result from aggressive acts. The correlation of age-dependent activation changes and cortical thinning demonstrates ongoing maturation of the FPC during adolescence towards a refinement of social and cognitive information processing that can potentially facilitate mature social behavior in aggressive contexts. PMID:19770220

  12. Anxiety, stress, depression, and psychosocial functioning of Indian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Junnarkar, Mohita; Sharma, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifetime prevalence of depression and anxiety increases from 1% of the population under age 12 years to ~17%-25% of the population by the end of adolescence. The greatest increase in new cases occurs between 15-18 years. Indian empirical studies have reported a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the range between 14.4% and 31.7%; thus, affecting psychosocial functioning. Aims: The objectives of the current study were to (i) examine the psychometric properties of the DASS and SDQ on Indian adolescents, (ii) explore the role of socio- demographic variablesand (iii) examine if there was any difference between school going and school dropouts. Methodology: Data from 1812 students, aged 12-19 years was collected with mean age = 15.67 years (SD =1.41 years). The participants were administered a booklet containing demographic questionnaire and psychometric scales such as DASS-21 (Henry & Crawford, 2005; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1999) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman, 1997). Statistical Analysis: Structure validation, correlational analysis and multivariate analysis. Results and Conclusions: The results of validation indicated that English and Hindi version of 3 factor model of DASS and 2 factor model of SDQ was an acceptable model fit. It was noted that early adolescents were high on prosocial behaviour whereas late adolescents were high on difficulties score. Females were higher than males on prosocial behaviour. Adolescents residing in rural areas differed from their urban counterparts on prosocial behaviour and anxiety. Government school going adolescents differed from private school going adolescents on prosocial behaviour, stress and anxiety. Negative perception of relationship with family affected adolescents difficulties score, depression and stress. Similarly, negative perception of self-concept leads to higher difficulties score and lower prosocial behaviour score. The school going adolescents differed from non-school going

  13. [Gonadal function after treatment for a childhood or adolescent cancer].

    PubMed

    Rousset-Jablonski, Christine; Giscard d'Estaing, Sandrine; Bernier, Valérie; Lornage, Jacqueline; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Aubier, Françoise; Faure-Conter, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Due to high cure rate in childhood and adolescent cancer, fertility preservation is a major concern. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery may alter gonadal function, and uterine cavity in women. In women, combined toxicity affecting both endocrine function and ovulation are observed leading to premature ovarian insufficiency. In men, spermatogenesis is frequently affected whereas endocrine function is almost always preserved. The current article focuses on investigations concerning gonadal function after treatment for a cancer during childhood or adolescence and treatment of subsequent infertility or hypogonadism. Nevertheless, those therapeutic are still limited and pretherapeutic preservation of fertility is preferred when possible. PMID:25890827

  14. Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2016-10-01

    The effects of group membership on brain responses to social exclusion have been investigated in adults, revealing greater anterior cingulate responses to exclusion by members of one's in-group (e.g., same-gender). However, social exclusion is a critical aspect of peer relations in youth and reaches heightened salience during adolescence, a time when social anxiety disorders are also emergent. While the behavioral and neural correlates of social exclusion in adolescence have been extensively explored, the effects of group membership on peer rejection are less clear. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differential neural correlates of being excluded by peers of one's same- versus opposite-gender during an online ball-toss game. Participants were a group of typically developing children and adolescents (7-17 years). As predicted, anterior cingulate cortex showed a main effect of social exclusion versus fair play. However, unlike a previous adult study, this region did not show increased activation to same-gender exclusion. Instead, several regions differentiating same- versus opposite-gender exclusion were exclusively more sensitive to exclusion by one's opposite gender. These results are discussed in the context of adolescent socio-emotional development. PMID:26592311

  15. Predicting sexual coercion in early adulthood: The transaction among maltreatment, gang affiliation, and adolescent socialization of coercive relationship norms.

    PubMed

    Ha, Thao; Kim, Hanjoe; Christopher, Caroline; Caruthers, Allison; Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-08-01

    This study tested a transactional hypothesis predicting early adult sexual coercion from family maltreatment, early adolescent gang affiliation, and socialization of adolescent friendships that support coercive relationship norms. The longitudinal study of a community sample of 998 11-year-olds was intensively assessed in early and middle adolescence and followed to 23-24 years of age. At age 16-17 youth were videotaped with a friend, and their interactions were coded for coercive relationship talk. Structural equation modeling revealed that maltreatment predicted gang affiliation during early adolescence. Both maltreatment and gang affiliation strongly predicted adolescent sexual promiscuity and coercive relationship norms with friends at age 16-17 years. Adolescent sexual promiscuity, however, did not predict sexual coercion in early adulthood. In contrast, higher levels of observed coercive relationship talk with a friend predicted sexual coercion in early adulthood for both males and females. These findings suggest that peers have a socialization function in the development of norms prognostic of sexual coercion, and the need to consider peers in the promotion of healthy relationships. PMID:27427801

  16. Role models and social supports related to adolescent physical activity and overweight/obesity.

    PubMed

    Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2015-07-01

    Positive role models, social and community activities, and school support are protective social factors that promote youth health and well-being. Latino, African-American, Asian, multi-racial, and low-income adolescents are less likely to experience these protective social factors compared to other groups, which may contribute to health disparities. Adolescents who identify a role model, volunteer, participate in organizations outside of school, or experience high levels of teacher or other adult support at school engage in greater physical activity and are more likely to have a healthy weight. Strategies to increase these protective social factors among adolescents could help promote healthy weight and healthy behaviors. PMID:26248387

  17. Social perception and WAIS-IV Performance in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Asperger's Syndrome and Autism.

    PubMed

    Holdnack, James; Goldstein, Gerald; Drozdick, Lisa

    2011-06-01

    Previous research using the Wechsler scales has identified areas of cognitive weaknesses in children, adolescents, and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome. The current study evaluates cognitive functioning in adolescents and adults diagnosed with Autism or Asperger's syndrome using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and the Social Perception subtest from the Advanced Clinical Solutions. Deficits in social perception, verbal comprehension, and processing speed were found in the Autism sample. Additionally, they exhibited inconsistent performance on auditory working memory and perceptual reasoning tasks. The Asperger's syndrome group had better overall cognitive skills than the Autism group, but compared with controls, they had weaknesses in processing speed, social perception, and components of auditory working memory. Both groups had relatively low scores on the WAIS-IV Comprehension subtest compared with the other verbal comprehension subtests. Clinical application and utility of the WAIS-IV and Social Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders are discussed. PMID:21220381

  18. Adolescent's perception of peer substance use in relation to social relationship and the neighbourhood social capital.

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between the perception of selected peer behaviours, social relationships and the neighbourhood social capital among 15-year-old adolescents in Poland. Research was carried out in 2010 as part of a successive series of the HBSC international studies on health behaviours in school-aged children (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: AWHO Collaborative Cross-national Study). 1551 students in the third grade of junior high schools were surveyed (762 boys and 789 girls). The standard, international, anonymous HBSC questionnaire was used in the surveys. In the analyses the scales for perception of male and female risky peer behaviours, the scales for communication with peers as well as the scales of confidence in friends, social competences and the social capital were used. It was found that the perception among respondents of their male and female friends as individuals engaging in risky behaviours (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, getting drunk) was widespread. Almost 40% of respondents claimed that all or most of their friends smoked cigarettes; one in two respondents was of the opinion that they drank alcohol; and one in ten that they get drunk. In the analyses comprising linear regression it was demonstrated that as the intensity of risky peer behaviours increases, selected social relationships deteriorate; this particularly applies to the general assessment of social capital. With regard to preventive measures aimed at counteracting risky behaviours among adolescents more attention should be paid to compliance with the provisions of law on tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption by minors among private individuals as well as those professionally dealing with law enforcement. An important task is also to raise the awareness of adolescents and adults of the relationship between young people engaging in risky behaviours and declining confidence in individuals and formal and informal institutions. PMID

  19. School Social Fragmentation, Economic Deprivation and Social Cohesion and Adolescent Physical Inactivity: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pabayo, Roman; Janosz, Michel; Bisset, Sherri; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent influence of school economic deprivation, social fragmentation, and social cohesion on the likelihood of participating in no physical activity among students. Methods Data are from a large-scale longitudinal study of schools based in disadvantaged communities in Quebec, Canada. Questionnaires were administered every year between 2002 and 2008 among n = 14,924 students aged 12 to 18 from a sample of 70 schools. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. Multilevel modeling was utilized to account for the clustering of students within schools. Schools were categorized as being low, moderate or high economic deprivation, social fragmentation and social cohesion. Those who indicated that they do no participate in any physical activity during the week were identified as being physically inactive. Results In baseline multilevel cross-sectional analyses, adolescents attending schools in the highest (compared to the lowest) levels of socioeconomic deprivation and social fragmentation were more likely to be physically inactive (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.72; and OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.98, 1.56, respectively). Conversely, students attending schools with the highest cohesion were less likely to be physically inactive (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.99). In longitudinal analysis, physically active students who attended schools with the highest social fragmentation were more likely to become physically inactive over two years (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.51). Conclusion The school socioeconomic environment appears to be an important contextual influence on participation in no physical activity among adolescents. Following adolescents beyond two years is necessary to determine if these environments have a lasting effect on physical activity behavior. PMID:24932679

  20. Effects of adolescent sociocognitive development on the cortisol response to social evaluation.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Esther; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents become increasingly sensitive to social evaluation. Some previous studies have related this change to pubertal development. The present longitudinal study examined the role of sociocognitive development. We investigated whether or not the transition to recursive thinking, the ability to think about (others') thoughts, would be associated with changes in the magnitude and timing of the cortisol response to social evaluation. Salivary cortisol was obtained during the Leiden Public Speaking Task. The task was administered twice with a 2-year interval to 221 participants, aged 9-17 years at Time 1. The area under the curve was computed to assess the magnitude of the overall cortisol response. Two difference scores, reflecting speech anticipation and speech delivery, were computed to assess the timing of the cortisol response. Recursive thinking was measured with a cartoon description task. Regression analyses with clustered bootstrap controlling for pubertal development, age, and general cognitive functioning showed that the transition to recursive thinking predicted an increase in the cortisol response to speech anticipation, but was unrelated to the magnitude of the overall cortisol response. This is in line with the view that increasing sensitivity to social evaluation in adolescence is mainly due to the effects of pubertal hormones on affective regions of the brain. Sociocognitive development affected the timing rather than the magnitude of the cortisol response. The results suggest that recursive thinking enables earlier realization of social-evaluative threat. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27177160

  1. Skills for Social and Academic Success: A School-Based Intervention for Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Paige H.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Klein, Rachel G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes Skills for Academic and Social Success (SASS), a cognitive-behavioral, school-based intervention for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Clinic-based treatment studies for socially anxious youth are reviewed, and a strong rationale for transporting empirically-based interventions into schools, such as SASS, is provided.…

  2. Becoming Who We Are: A Theoretical Explanation of Gendered Social Structures and Social Networks that Shape Adolescent Interpersonal Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paige Hall; White, Jacquelyn W.; Moracco, Kathryn E.

    2009-01-01

    A conceptualization of gendered interpersonal aggression that is grounded in the social ecological framework is presented to explicate factors in adolescents' gendered environments that give rise to aggression and victimization. The focus is on gendered social structures and social networks. Our framework for prevention suggests that violence…

  3. The Peer Context of Adolescent Substance Use: Findings from Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Foshee, Vangie A.; Cai, Li; DuRant, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for…

  4. Social Anxiety and Peer Relations in Early Adolescence: Behavioral and Cognitive Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with social anxiety during early adolescence using multiple informants, including self and peer perspectives, teacher ratings, and direct observations. Negative social performance expectations, maladaptive coping strategies, and social skill deficits were examined as correlates of social anxiety and…

  5. Social Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents in Relation to Perceived Competence and Situational Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smari, Jakob; Petursdottir, Guolaug; Porsteindottir, Vin

    2001-01-01

    Questionnaires, as well as an inventory of cost and likelihood appraisal of negative social and non-social events, were filled in by 184 adolescents. It was expected, and supported by the results, that social anxiety would be related to low perceived social competence and threat appraisal, whereas depression would be related to more general…

  6. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  7. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204

  8. Predicting Treatment Success in Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Gantman, Alexander; Ellingsen, Ruth; Frankel, Fred; Dillon, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the predictors of positive social skills outcomes from the University of California, Los Angeles Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills, an evidence-based parent-assisted social skills program for high-functioning middle school and high school adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The…

  9. Fearfulness moderates the link between childhood social withdrawal and adolescent reward response.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-06-01

    Withdrawal from peers during childhood may reflect disruptions in reward functioning that heighten vulnerability to affective disorders during adolescence. The association between socially withdrawn behavior and reward functioning may depend on traits that influence this withdrawal, such as fearfulness or unsociability. In a study of 129 boys, we evaluated how boys' fearfulness and sociability at age 5 and social withdrawal at school at ages 6 to 10 and during a summer camp at age 9/10 were associated with their neural response to reward at age 20. Greater social withdrawal during childhood was associated with heightened striatal and mPFC activation when anticipating rewards at age 20. Fearfulness moderated this effect to indicate that social withdrawal was associated with heightened reward-related response in the striatum for boys high on fearfulness. Altered striatal response associated with social withdrawal and fearfulness predicted greater likelihood to have a lifetime history of depression and social phobia at age 20. These findings add greater specificity to previous findings that children high in traits related to fear of novelty show altered reward responses, by identifying fearfulness (but not low levels of sociability) as a potential underlying mechanism that contributes to reward alterations in withdrawn children. PMID:25193948

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Zalewski, Maureen; Hallquist, Michael N.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Major gains toward understanding the emergence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) pathology, which is typically first noted during adolescence, have been made. The present study addresses a gap in our understanding of within-person change in BPD symptoms across adolescence and contributes to the limited literature on outcomes associated with adolescent BPD. Using an at-risk community sample of girls (N=2,450), bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the co-development of BPD symptoms with eight domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., social skills, sexual behavior) across ages 14–17. Findings revealed moderate to strong effect sizes for the associations between BPD symptoms and every domain of psychosocial functioning, suggesting that the development of BPD was coupled with poorer outcomes across development. These results highlight the increased need for extending advancements in the adult PD literature to research on PDs in adolescence, and for greater recognition of adolescent BPD in clinical settings. PMID:26067158

  11. Gender, Parenting, and Adolescent Functioning in Bangladesh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sunita Mahtani; Bond, Michael Harris; Abdullah, Abu Saleh M.; Ma, Stefan S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined associations of self-esteem, relationship harmony, and academic achievement with perceptions of parents' styles and supervisory practices among 212 adolescents in Islamic Bangladesh. Found that parental supervisory practices were associated with a warm parental style for girls and parental dominating control for boys. Girls' (but not…

  12. Roles of interpersonal and media socialization agents in adolescent self-reported health literacy: a health socialization perspective.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H; Lariscy, Ruthann W

    2011-02-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis results show that both interpersonal and media socialization agents are significantly and positively related to adolescent health literacy. Media socialization agents seem to play a strong role in health literacy orientation, not much weaker than those of interpersonal socialization agents. The proposed health socialization model could contribute to the literature on how adolescents acquire health-related information and channels through which they are most receptive. PMID:21248025

  13. Exploring Social Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Social Services for Early Adjustment of Immigrant Adolescents in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; Kim, Kihyun; Hong, Jun Sung

    2016-10-01

    Recently arrived immigrant adolescents experience difficulties in adjusting to school in South Korea. However, the existing social services do not meet their psychosocial needs. This study investigates the perspectives of social service providers about challenges in providing services for immigrant adolescents early in their adjustments. We conducted qualitative, in-depth interviews with 27 South Korean social service providers. We identified barriers to social services, categorized into three themes: (1) Initial Contact Phase; (2) Service Delivery Phase; and (3) Structural Challenges. We suggest interventions concerning work-related stress for the social service providers, family-level involvement, diversity training, and integrated and collaborative immigration services. An examination of social service providers' challenges in working with immigrant adolescents is a necessary first step toward the development of programs and policies. PMID:27013328

  14. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  15. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  16. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  17. Family functioning and adolescent alcohol use: A moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Simpson, Emily; Russell, Beth S

    2016-06-01

    The primary goals of this longitudinal study were to examine the relationship between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use and to examine whether depressed mood mediates this relationship. An additional goal was to explore whether these relations were moderated by gender. The sample included 1031 high school students from the Mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed surveys in school during the spring of 2007, 2008, and 2009. Path analysis results indicated that family functioning predicted alcohol use for girls. Moreover, depressed mood mediated this relationship. None of the direct paths between family functioning and adolescent alcohol use were significant for boys. However, similar to girls, depressed mood negatively predicted alcohol use for boys. Taken together, the findings highlight the need for prevention programs targeting adolescent substance use to consider gender-specific trajectories. PMID:26994346

  18. Decreased Functional Brain Connectivity in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Zalesky, Andrew; Cocchi, Luca; Fornito, Alex; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Suh, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet addiction has become increasingly recognized as a mental disorder, though its neurobiological basis is unknown. This study used functional neuroimaging to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity in adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction. Based on neurobiological changes seen in other addiction related disorders, it was predicted that connectivity disruptions in adolescents with internet addiction would be most prominent in cortico-striatal circuitry. Methods Participants were 12 adolescents diagnosed with internet addiction and 11 healthy comparison subjects. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance images were acquired, and group differences in brain functional connectivity were analyzed using the network-based statistic. We also analyzed network topology, testing for between-group differences in key graph-based network measures. Results Adolescents with internet addiction showed reduced functional connectivity spanning a distributed network. The majority of impaired connections involved cortico-subcortical circuits (∼24% with prefrontal and ∼27% with parietal cortex). Bilateral putamen was the most extensively involved subcortical brain region. No between-group difference was observed in network topological measures, including the clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, or the small-worldness ratio. Conclusions Internet addiction is associated with a widespread and significant decrease of functional connectivity in cortico-striatal circuits, in the absence of global changes in brain functional network topology. PMID:23451272

  19. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  20. Demographic marginalization, social integration, and adolescents' educational success.

    PubMed

    Benner, Aprile D; Wang, Yijie

    2014-10-01

    Links between schools' demographic composition and students' achievement have been a major policy interest for decades. Using a racially/ethnically diverse sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,302; 54% females; 53% White, 21% African American, 15% Latino, 8% Asian American, 2% other race/ethnicity), we examined the associations between demographic marginalization, students' later social integration (loneliness at school, school attachment), and educational performance and attainment. Adolescents who were socioeconomically marginalized at school [i.e., having <15% same-socioeconomic status (SES) peers] had lower cumulative grade point averages across high school and lower educational attainment. A similar disadvantage was observed among students who were both socioeconomically and racially/ethnically marginalized at school (i.e., having <15% same-SES peers and <15% same-racial/ethnic peers). Indirect effects were also observed, such that demographic marginalization was linked to poorer school attachment, and poorer school attachment, in turn, was related to poorer academic performance. These results highlight the educational barriers associated with demographic marginalization and suggest potential targets for future intervention efforts. PMID:25034249

  1. [Social and psychological aspects of contraception in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Fortier, L

    1976-09-01

    Reasons for the high adolescent birthrate in the U.S., medical, psychological, and social repercussions of teenage pregnancy, and facts and myths about sex education and contraception for young people are discussed. About 30% of U.S. women under 20 become pregnant outside marriage, and many more are pregnant when they marry. The reasons for the high pregnancy rates in young people include recent early menarch, which accounts for 94% fertility in 17.5-year-olds, better health, and ignorance about contraception and basic facts about reproduction. Pregnant adolescents risk toxemia, anemia, puerperal morbidity, prematurity, neonatal mortality, and congenital defects such as mental retardation in the baby. They face family alienation, loss of educational and employment opportunities, forced marriage, and high suicide rates in addition to the trials of puberty. Many girls believe that their fertile period is during menses, that pills are dangerous, that they are not fertile. Studies have shown that sex education can lower repeat pregnancies 67%. Recent research has negated the belief that many young women desire pregnancy unconsciously. Current information shows that supplying contraception will not encourage young people to begin having intercourse. Most sex education courses in the U.S. are given after the average teenagers become active sexually. It is believed that contraception should be provided universally for young people, and that parental authorization of contraception would probably mend family ties, certainly better than would unwanted pregnancy. PMID:987631

  2. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

  3. Social and interpersonal factors relating to adolescent suicidality: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Merchant, Christopher R

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature concerning social and interpersonal variables as risk factors for adolescent suicidality (suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, death by suicide). It also describes major social constructs in theories of suicide and the extent to which studies support their importance to adolescent suicidality. PsychINFO and PubMed searches were conducted for empirical studies focused on family and friend support, social isolation, peer victimization, physical/sexual abuse, or emotional neglect as these relate to adolescent suicidality. Empirical findings converge in documenting the importance of multiple social and interpersonal factors to adolescent suicidality. Research support for the social constructs in several major theories of suicide is summarized and research challenges are discussed. PMID:18576200

  4. Social and Interpersonal Factors Relating to Adolescent Suicidality: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Merchant, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature concerning social and interpersonal variables as risk factors for adolescent suicidality (suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, death by suicide. It also describes major social constructs in theories of suicide and the extent to which studies support their importance to adolescent suicidality. PsychINFO and PubMed searches were conducted for empirical studies focused on family and friend support, social isolation, peer victimization, physical/sexual abuse, or emotional neglect as these relate to adolescent suicidality. Empirical findings converge in documenting the importance of multiple social and interpersonal factors to adolescent suicidality. Research support for the social constructs in several major theories of suicide is summarized and research challenges are discussed. PMID:18576200

  5. Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25818181

  6. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  7. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2012-01-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization—racial barrier socialization—have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 African American adolescents, the present study focuses attention on the quality of mother-adolescent relations as an indicator of affective context, and examines its moderating influence on the association between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the link between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment is moderated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. However, these associations varied by gender. PMID:23152648

  8. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  9. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls. PMID:16480119

  10. The Link between Emotion Regulation, Social Functioning, and Depression in Boys with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Rieffe, Carolien; Stockmann, Lex; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Symptoms of depression are common in children and adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but information about underlying developmental factors is limited. Depression is often linked to aspects of emotional functioning such as coping strategies, but in children with ASD difficulties with social interactions are also a likely…

  11. Youths with ADHD with and without Tic Disorders: Comorbid Psychopathology, Executive Function and Social Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders (TD) commonly co-occur. Clarifying the psychiatric comorbidities, executive functions and social adjustment difficulties in children and adolescents of ADHD with and without TD is informative to understand the developmental psychopathology and to identify their specific clinical…

  12. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  13. Risk Factors for Depression in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    De-la-Iglesia, Myriam; Olivar, José-Sixto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to examine, discuss, and provide proposals on diagnostic comorbidity of depression in children and adolescents with high functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) in the following aspects. (1) Prevalence. It was concluded that there are an elevated depression rate and the need for longitudinal studies to determine prevalence and incidence based on functioning level, autistic symptoms, gender, age, type of depression, prognosis, duration, and treatment. (2) Explicative Hypotheses and Vulnerability. The factors that present the greatest specific risk are higher cognitive functioning, self-awareness of deficit, capacity for introspection, stressful life events, adolescence, quality of social relationships, and alexithymia. (3) Risk of Suicide. The need for control and detection of suicidal tendencies and bullying is emphasised. (4) Depressive Symptoms. Indicators for early detection are proposed and their overlap with HFASD is analysed, examining the assessment techniques used and arguing that specific adapted tests are needed. PMID:26413564

  14. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Joel Shaw, Daniel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Bruce Pike, G; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions. PMID:26772669

  15. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12-17 year-olds and 25-37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli. PMID:27192210

  16. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12–17 year-olds and 25–37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli. PMID:27192210

  17. Trait Rumination, Depression, and Executive Functions in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  18. Trait rumination, depression, and executive functions in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Clara A; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2015-01-01

    Although deficits in executive functions have been linked with both depression and rumination in adulthood, the nature of the relationship between these constructs is not well understood and remains understudied in adolescence. The present study examined the relationship of rumination and depression to deficits in executive functions in early adolescence, a critical developmental period for the emergence of depression and rumination and the development of executive functions. Participants were 486 early adolescents (52.7% female; 47.1% African American, 48.8% Caucasian; 4.2% Biracial/Multiracial/Other; M age = 12.88 years; SD = .62) and their mothers, recruited through local schools. Measures included (a) a semi-structured diagnostic interview of the mother and adolescent, (b) youth self-report forms assessing depressive symptoms and trait rumination, (c) mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and (d) behavioral tests of executive function (sustained, selective and divided attention, attentional set shifting, and working memory). Gender moderated rumination-set shifting associations, such that rumination predicted better set shifting in boys only. The current level of depressive symptoms moderated rumination-sustained attention associations, such that rumination predicted better sustained attention in those with low levels of depressive symptoms and worse sustained attention in those with high levels of depressive symptoms. Rumination did not predict performance on other measures of executive functions. Likewise, depressive symptoms and diagnosis were not associated with executive functions. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24839132

  19. Resourcing resilience: social protection for HIV prevention amongst children and adolescents in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Toska, Elona; Gittings, Lesley; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie D; Govender, Kaymarlin; Chademana, K Emma; Gutiérrez, Vincent Evans

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with behavioural and social interventions to alleviate the socio-structural determinants of HIV infection. There is growing evidence that social protection has the potential to reduce the risk of HIV infection among children and adolescents. This research combined expert consultations with a rigorous review of academic and policy literature on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention among children and adolescents, including prevention for those already HIV-positive. The study had three goals: (i) assess the evidence on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention, (ii) consider key challenges to implementing social protection programmes that promote HIV prevention, and (iii) identify critical research gaps in social protection and HIV prevention, in Eastern and Southern Africa. Causal pathways of inequality, poverty, gender and HIV risk require flexible and responsive social protection mechanisms. Results confirmed that HIV-inclusive child-and adolescent-sensitive social protection has the potential to interrupt risk pathways to HIV infection and foster resilience. In particular, empirical evidence (literature and expert feedback) detailed the effectiveness of combination social protection particularly cash/in-kind components combined with "care" and "capability" among children and adolescents. Social protection programmes should be dynamic and flexible, and consider age, gender, HIV-related stigma, and context, including cultural norms, which offer opportunities to improve programmatic coverage, reach and uptake. Effective HIV prevention also requires integrated social protection policies, developed through strong national

  20. Different gain/loss sensitivity and social adaptation ability in gifted adolescents during a public goods game.

    PubMed

    Chung, Dongil; Yun, Kyongsik; Kim, Jin Ho; Jang, Bosun; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2011-01-01

    Gifted adolescents are considered to have high IQs with advanced mathematical and logical performances, but are often thought to suffer from social isolation or emotional mal-adaptation to the social group. The underlying mechanisms that cause stereotypic portrayals of gifted adolescents are not well known. We aimed to investigate behavioral performance of gifted adolescents during social decision-making tasks to assess their affective and social/non-social cognitive abilities. We examined cooperation behaviors of 22 gifted and 26 average adolescents during an iterative binary public goods (PG) game, a multi-player social interaction game, and analyzed strategic decision processes that include cooperation and free-riding. We found that the gifted adolescents were more cooperative than average adolescents. Particularly, comparing the strategies for the PG game between the two groups, gifted adolescents were less sensitive to loss, yet were more sensitive to gain. Additionally, the behavioral characteristics of average adolescents, such as low trust of the group and herding behavior, were not found in gifted adolescents. These results imply that gifted adolescents have a high cognitive ability but a low ability to process affective information or to adapt in social groups compared with average adolescents. We conclude that gain/loss sensitivity and the ability to adapt in social groups develop to different degrees in average and gifted adolescents. PMID:21359224

  1. Associations of Social-Environmental and Individual-Level Factors with Adolescent Soft Drink Consumption: Results from the SMILE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Hein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is positively associated with soft drink consumption. We investigated the association of social-environmental and individual-level factors with soft drink consumption in a Dutch adolescent sample. Data were gathered in a longitudinal Dutch adolescent sample (n = 208, 62% girls). Soft drink consumption, social cognitions from the…

  2. Using social media to engage adolescents and young adults with their health

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Charlene A.; Merchant, Raina M.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the potential of social media related to the health of adolescent and young adults, who are nearly ubiquitous social media users but difficult to engage with their health and relatively low healthcare utilizers. Opportunities to better engage adolescents and young adults through social media exist in healthcare delivery, health education and health policy. However, challenges remain for harnessing social media, including making a clear value proposition and developing evidence-based frameworks for measuring the impact of social media on health. PMID:25984444

  3. Understanding loneliness during adolescence: developmental changes that increase the risk of perceived social isolation.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Hartl, Amy C

    2013-12-01

    Loneliness is typically defined in terms of feeling states. In this review, we take a somewhat different approach, describing loneliness in terms of perceived social isolation. Vulnerabilities to perceived social isolation differ across the lifespan. Unique properties of adolescence are identified that carry special risk for perceived social isolation. These include (but are not limited to) developmental changes in companions, developmental changes in autonomy and individuation, identity exploration, cognitive maturation, developmental changes in social perspective taking, and physical maturation. Scholars are encouraged to consider loneliness through the lens of perceived social isolation so as to better understand how the experience of physical isolation varies across adolescence. PMID:23866959

  4. Abnormal affective decision making revealed in adolescent binge drinkers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Xiangrui; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of affective decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which are associated with adolescent binge drinking. Fourteen adolescent binge drinkers (16-18 years of age) and 14 age-matched adolescents who had never consumed alcohol--never drinkers--were recruited from local high schools in Chengdu, China. Questionnaires were used to assess academic performance, drinking experience, and urgency. Brain regions activated by the IGT performance were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that, compared to never drinkers, binge drinkers performed worse on the IGT and showed higher activity in the subcomponents of the decision-making neural circuitry implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors, namely, the left amygdala and insula bilaterally. Moreover, measures of the severity of drinking problems in real life, as well as high urgency scores, were associated with increased activity within the insula, combined with decreased activity within the orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that hyperreactivity of a neural system implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors can be associated with socially undesirable behaviors, such as binge drinking, among adolescents. These findings have social implications because they potentially reveal underlying neural mechanisms for making poor decisions, which may increase an individual's risk and vulnerability for alcoholism. PMID:22486330

  5. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  6. The role of executive functions in social impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Leung, Rachel C; Vogan, Vanessa M; Powell, Tamara L; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Taylor, Margot J

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by socio-communicative impairments. Executive dysfunction may explain some key characteristics of ASD, both social and nonsocial hallmarks. Limited research exists exploring the relations between executive function and social impairment in ASD and few studies have used a comparison control group. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the relations between executive functioning using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF), social impairment as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and overall autistic symptomology as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) in children and adolescents with and without ASD. Seventy children and adolescents diagnosed with ASD and 71 typically developing controls were included in this study. Findings showed that behavioral regulation executive processes (i.e., inhibition, shifting, and emotional control) predicted social function in all children. However, metacognitive executive processes (i.e., initiation, working memory, planning, organization, and monitoring) predicted social function only in children with ASD and not in typically developing children. Our findings suggest a distinct metacognitive executive function-social symptom link in ASD that is not present in the typical population. Understanding components of executive functioning that contribute to the autistic symptomology, particularly in the socio-communicative domain, is crucial for developing effective interventions that target key executive processes as well as underlying behavioral symptoms. PMID:25731979

  7. Differential effects of social and non-social reward on response inhibition in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Gregor; Peltzer, Judith; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2009-07-01

    An important issue in the field of clinical and developmental psychopathology is whether cognitive control processes, such as response inhibition, can be specifically enhanced by motivation. To determine whether non-social (i.e. monetary) and social (i.e. positive facial expressions) rewards are able to differentially improve response inhibition accuracy in typically developing children and adolescents, an 'incentive' go/no-go task was applied with reward contingencies for successful inhibition. In addition, the impact of children's personality traits (such as reward seeking and empathy) on monetary and social reward responsiveness was assessed in 65 boys, ages 8 to 12 years. All subjects were tested twice: At baseline, inhibitory control was assessed without reward, and then subjects were pseudorandomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, including (1) social reward only, (2) monetary reward only, (3) mixed social and monetary reward, or (4) a retest condition without reward. Both social and non-social reward significantly improved task performance, although larger effects were observed for monetary reward. The higher the children scored on reward seeking scales, the larger was their improvement in response inhibition, but only if monetary reward was used. In addition, there was a tendency for an association between empathic skills and benefits from social reward. These data suggest that social incentives do not have an equally strong reinforcing value as compared to financial incentives. However, different personality traits seem to determine to what extent a child profits from different types of reward. Clinical implications regarding probable hyposensitivity to social reward in subjects with autism and dysregulated reward-seeking behaviour in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are discussed. PMID:19635087

  8. Cognitive, emotional and social development in adolescents born to substance using women.

    PubMed

    Irner, Tina Birk; Teasdale, Thomas William; Nielsen, Tine; Vedal, Sissel; Olofsson, May

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the long-term developmental consequences of being born to a substance-using mother, focusing on cognitive functions, attention, emotional and social development. The longitudinal sample comprised 48 adolescents aged 12-16 at the time of follow-up assessments, which included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children, The Tower of London test and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The adolescents scored significantly lower than the norms on Wechsler's subtests and Full-Scale IQ, and on The Everyday Attention test. There were few differences on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The girls reported significantly more hyperactivity than the British norms, and the teachers reported higher impact scores in boys, compared to the British norms. Thus, the results on cognitive consequences of maternal substance use appear to be very substantial while the emotional and social consequences do not. The results suggest serious negative effects of substance exposure in utero on attention and cognitive functioning in general. PMID:24828950

  9. The Contribution of Extracurricular Activities to Adolescent Friendships: New Insights through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David R.; Simpkins, Sandra D.; Vest, Andrea E.; Price, Chara D.

    2011-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are settings that are theorized to help adolescents maintain existing friendships and develop new friendships. The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine whether coparticipating in school-based extracurricular activities supported adolescents' school-based friendships. We used social network methods…

  10. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Moderating Effects of Socially Demanding Kin Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Lopez, Elizabeth I.; Budescu, Mia; McGill, Rebecca Kang

    2012-01-01

    Association of socially demanding kin relations, mother's emotional support, behavioral control/monitoring, family organization and psychological control with adolescent's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed in 200 economically disadvantaged, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations and mother's…

  11. Parent and Adolescent Interaction in Television Advertisements as Consumer Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmete, Emine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the interaction between parents and adolescents pertaining to television advertisements as a consumer socialization agent and the effects of advertisements on the purchasing decisions of adolescents. The effects of age and sex were also investigated. The sample included 240 high school students in grades 9, 10 and…

  12. Treating Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder in School: An Attention Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Carrie Masia; Fisher, Paige H.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Rathor, Snigdha; Klein, Rachel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are often undetected and untreated in adolescents. This study evaluates the relative efficacy of a school-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention compared to an educational-supportive treatment for adolescents with social anxiety disorder. Methods: Thirty-six students (30 females), ages 14 to 16, were randomized to a…

  13. Factor Structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Fisher, Paige H.; Pincus, Donna B.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale for Children and Adolescents (LSAS-CA). The LSAS-CA was administered to 225 children and adolescents as a component of various clinical studies. In addition, other measures of psychopathology and impairment were administered to a subgroup of the…

  14. The Relationship between Social Skills and Depression in Adolescent Suicide Attempters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirito, Anthony; And Others

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States, there are little empirical data available on psychological factors which may lead an adolescent to consider or attempt suicide. To address this issue, the relationships among depression, social skills, and severity of suicidal attempt were investigated in…

  15. Socialization and Individual Antecedents of Adolescents' and Young Adults' Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Buchmann, Marlis

    2010-01-01

    Socialization and individual differences were examined as antecedents of moral motivation in representative samples of 15-year-old adolescents (N = 1,258; 54% female) and 21-year-old young adults (N = 584; 53% female). The adolescents' primary caregivers (N = 1,056) also participated. The strength of moral motivation was rated by participants'…

  16. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  17. Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Prospective and Reciprocal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Rebecca S.; La Greca, Annette M.; Harrison, Hannah M.

    2009-01-01

    This study used a 2-month prospective research design to examine the bi-directional interplay between peer victimization and social anxiety among adolescents. Participants included 228 adolescents (58% female) in grades 10-12. Three types of peer victimization were examined: "overt" (physical aggression or verbal threats), "relational" (malicious…

  18. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization of Young Adolescents' Substance Use and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aikins, Julie Wargo; Simon, Valerie A.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined romantic partner selection and socialization of substance use (cigarettes, alcohol) and behavior problems among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders) over eleven months. Adolescent and romantic partner behaviors were assessed before and after relationships were initiated via school records and self-report. Most…

  19. Cultural Continuity amid Social Change: Adolescents' Use of Free Time in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Suman; Sharma, Deepali

    2003-01-01

    Used the experience sampling method to examine Indian adolescents' use of free time. Found that adolescents' free time use was influenced by both tradition and modernization, and varied according to social class, urban versus rural setting, and gender. Concluded that youth activities continue to reflect the sociocultural and historical nature of…

  20. Engaging Adolescents in Politics: The Longitudinal Effect of Political Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintelier, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Starting from a political socialization perspective, this study examined the development of political participation during adolescence and early adulthood. We explore the effect of parents, peers, school media, and voluntary associations on political participation. Self-reported data were collected from 3,025 Belgian adolescents at three points in…

  1. A Review of Online Social Networking Profiles by Adolescents: Implications for Future Research and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored content posted and interactions taking place on adolescent online social networking profiles. Although "blogging" continues to soar in popularity, with over half of teenagers online participating in some form, little research has comprehensively explored blog communication within the context of adolescent development. Content…

  2. Social Anxiety and the Severity and Typography of Stuttering in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Kylie; Hennessey, Neville; Beilby, Janet; Byrnes, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between anxiety, attitude toward daily communication, and stuttering symptomatology in adolescent stuttering. Adolescents who stuttered (n = 19) showed significantly higher levels of trait, state and social anxiety than fluent speaking controls (n = 18). Trait and state anxiety was significantly…

  3. Positive Individual and Social Behavior among Gang and Nongang African American Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Carl S.; Lerner, Richard M.; von Eye, Alexander; Bobek, Deborah L.; Balsano, Aida B.; Dowling, Elizabeth M.; Anderson, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    To explore potential bases of positive development among gang youth, attributes of positive individual and social behavior were assessed in individual interviews with 45 African American adolescent male members of inner-city Detroit gangs and 50 African American adolescent males from the same communities but involved in community-based…

  4. Social Influence, Health Variables and Criminal Behaviours Associated with Substance Use among Rural Norwegian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Dahl, Hilde; Flemmen, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To investigate social influence, health, criminality and substance use in a sample of 1288 Norwegian rural adolescents. Relations between these factors and substance use were examined. Methods: Data were obtained from the "UngData" study. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among adolescents (n = 740) in nine secondary…

  5. Relational Victimization: The Association between Recalled Adolescent Social Experiences and Emotional Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Allison G.; Storch, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Although the relationship between relational victimization and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence has been established, it is unknown whether it extends into early adulthood. The current retrospective study investigated the relationship between recall of adolescent relational victimization and symptoms of depression, social anxiety, and…

  6. Understanding and Acting on the Growing Childhood and Adolescent Weight Crisis: A Role for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn; Hazlett, Rebekah; Hightower, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity rates are rising at an alarming rate. Numerous individual, family, community, and social factors contribute to overweight and obesity in children and are explored. If left unaddressed, the epidemic of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity may lead to amplified problems for individual…

  7. Social Anxiety Disorder and Victimization in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gren-Landell, Malin; Aho, Nikolas; Andersson, Gerhard; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2011-01-01

    Despite high prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and high rates of victimization in adolescents, studies on the relationship between these phenomena are missing. In the present study we report associations between SAD and multiple victimization experiences in a community sample of adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on…

  8. Alcohol-Specific Socialization Practices and Alcohol Use in Dutch Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koning, Ina M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of alcohol-specific socialization practices and heavy parental drinking with alcohol use in early adolescents. Cross-sectional nationwide survey data from 2599 parent-adolescent (mean age = 12.16) dyads were used to conduct logistic regression analyses. Onset of alcohol use as well as infrequent and…

  9. Adolescents during and after Times of Social Change: The Case of the Czech Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Petr; Ježek, Stanislav; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces a set of four studies focused on adolescents in the Czech Republic. In the first part, authors reflect on the cultural background, the political, social, and psychological factors that have had influence on several generations of adolescents in the period of the communist totalitarian regime. They also describe the social…

  10. Similarity in Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents' Friendship Dyads: Selection or Socialization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Burk, William J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Larsen, Junilla K.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Ciairano, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    This study examined friendship selection and socialization as mechanisms explaining similarity in depressive symptoms in adolescent same-gender best friend dyads. The sample consisted of 1,752 adolescents (51% male) ages 12-16 years (M = 13.77, SD = 0.73) forming 487 friend dyads and 389 nonfriend dyads (the nonfriend dyads served as a comparison…

  11. The Individuation Process from a Social-Cognitive Perspective in Kibbutz Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Aviva; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The individuation process was explored from a social-cognitive perspective using 61 kibbutz adolescents and youth in grades 4, 7, and 10, and post-high school in military service. Results support the developmental sequence of the individuation construct in kibbutz adolescents and fit the model proposed by A. Mazor (1985). (SLD)

  12. The Effect of Early Noncognitive Skills on Social Outcomes in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coneus, Katja; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of early noncognitive skills on social outcomes in adolescence. The child's attention span, approach, prevailing mood and distractibility in early childhood may be crucial predictors for school achievements, health risk behavior, delinquency and autonomy as adolescent. We investigate this issue using a…

  13. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  14. Developing Social Skills: Issues for Adolescents with Chronic Illnesses and Disabilities. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This collection of annotated bibliographies focuses on the social skills of adolescents, and is drawn from a national database of current programs and literature regarding adolescents with chronic illnesses and other disabilities. Bibliographic materials listed include documents and articles selected from the database of the National Center for…

  15. Relational and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Early Adolescents' Forgiveness of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Katherine J.; Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Busby, Dean M.; Hardy, Sam A.; Day, Randal D.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how mother and father-child relationship quality and marital forgiveness were related to early adolescents' forgiveness of mothers and fathers. Adolescents' social-cognitive skills (empathy and emotional regulation) and parents' forgiveness of child were examined as mediators. Mother, father, and child self-reported…

  16. The Misperceived Social Norm of Drunkenness among Early Adolescents in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintonen, T. P.; Konu, A. I.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents tend to overestimate peer drinking; the resulting misperception of the social norm predicts the child's own future drinking. This study examined the misperception's relatedness to a person's drinking pattern in order to facilitate the segmentation of the audience for health education interventions. Adolescent Health and Lifestyle…

  17. Parental Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: Differences in Sex, Age and Problem Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Brand, Ann E.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Usher, Barbara; Hastings, Paul D.; Kendziora, Kimberly; Garside, Rula B.

    2007-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on how mothers and fathers socialize emotion in their adolescent sons and daughters. This study was based on 220 adolescents (range 11- to 16-years-old) who exhibit a range of emotional and behavioral problems and their parents. Parental responses to their children's displays of sadness, anger and fear were assessed.…

  18. Parental Psychological Violence and Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: The Role of Coping and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Melancon, Claudiane

    2013-01-01

    The role of coping strategies (approach and avoidance) as a mediating factor between parental psychological violence and adolescent behavior problems, both internalized and externalized, as well as the protective role of social support were examined separately for boys and girls. A group of 278 adolescents (mean age: 14.2) were recruited in three…

  19. Associations of Neighborhood and Family Factors with Trajectories of Physical and Social Aggression during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents develop within multiple contexts that synergistically influence their behavior and health. To understand the simultaneous influence of neighborhood and family contexts on adolescents, this study examined relationships of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage, neighborhood social disorganization, family conflict, parent-child bonding…

  20. Peer Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Depression: The Role of School Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Natalie P.; Mrug, Sylvie; Borch, Casey; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated homophily in depressive symptoms among adolescent friends, resulting from both peer selection and socialization processes. However, developmental differences and the role of school transitions in these processes have not been elucidated. A sample of 367 (51% female) adolescents was followed from 6th to 11th grade to…

  1. Hanging out with Which Friends? Friendship-Level Predictors of Unstructured and Unsupervised Socializing in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siennick, Sonja E.; Osgood, D. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Companions are central to explanations of the risky nature of unstructured and unsupervised socializing, yet we know little about whom adolescents are with when hanging out. We examine predictors of how often friendship dyads hang out via multilevel analyses of longitudinal friendship-level data on over 5,000 middle schoolers. Adolescents hang out…

  2. Sleep in Mexican-American Adolescents: Social Ecological and Well-Being Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kan, Marni; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    A burgeoning body of research documents links between sleep and adjustment in adolescence, but little is known about the role of the social ecology in promoting healthful sleeping habits. This study was aimed at identifying the socio-cultural correlates of adolescents' sleep, including average nighttime sleep duration, average daytime napping, and…

  3. Perceived Demands of Social Change and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents from Different Educational Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Grümer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed whether perceived demands associated with social change and coping with these demands are related to depressive symptoms in German adolescents from the highest versus middle/lowest educational track. Demands reflected an increase in uncertainty (e.g., risk for getting no job). Adolescents on the highest educational track perceived…

  4. Moderators of Peer Contagion: A Longitudinal Examination of Depression Socialization between Adolescents and Their Best Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined peer contagion of depressive symptoms over an 18-month interval within a sample of 100 11th-grade adolescents. Three types of peer contagion moderators were examined, including characteristics of adolescents (social anxiety, global self-worth), friends (level of friends' peer-perceived popularity), and the…

  5. Attribution Style of Adolescents with School-Reported Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, P. F.; Moon, A.; Gridley, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between attribution style and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs), and to explore differences in attribution tendencies between adolescents with and without SEBDs. In total, 72 adolescents attending a school in London were recruited; 27 were receiving support for SEBDs…

  6. Unpopularity and Disliking among Peers: Partially Distinct Dimensions of Adolescents' Social Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer; Schwartz, David; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Mayeux, Lara

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines whether unpopularity and disliking among peers are partially distinct dimensions of adolescents' negative social experience. We recruited 418 students (187 boys, 231 girls, M = 12.12 years, SD = 4.33) from an urban junior high school. These early adolescents completed a peer nomination inventory assessing aspects of their social…

  7. The Role of Individual- and Macro-Level Social Determinants on Young Adolescents' Psychosomatic Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottova, Veronika; Erhart, Michael; Vollebergh, Wilma; Kokonyei, Gyongyi; Morgan, Antony; Gobina, Inese; Jericek, Helena; Cavallo, Franco; Valimaa, Raili; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Gaspar, Tania; Schnohr, Christina W.; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the social determinants of psychosomatic complaints in young adolescents. Using data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study, psychosomatic complaints are studied in 98,773 adolescents (11- and 13-year-olds; 48% 11-year-olds, 52% 13-year-olds; 52% females, 48% males) from 34 European countries.…

  8. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Concurrent Validity of the Perceived Social Support-Family Measure among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Miller-Tutzauer, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Confirmatory, simultaneous group factor analysis supported three-factor structure of Perceived Social Support-Family measure for adolescents (n=975). Factors of Support Received, Support Provided, and Family Intimacy were significantly correlated with adolescent ratings of maternal and paternal support and inversely correlated with primary…

  9. Adolescent Judgments and Reasoning about the Failure to Include Peers with Social Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Li, Zhushan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder often do not have access to crucial peer social activities. This study examines how typically developing adolescents evaluate decisions not to include a peer based on disability status, and the justifications they apply to these decisions. A clinical interview methodology was used to elicit judgments and…

  10. Social Capital and Adolescent Violent Behavior: Correlates of Fighting and Weapon Use among Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between social capital and adolescent violent behaviors for a national sample of secondary school students (N = 4,834). Cross-sectional data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to evaluate multivariate models examining the family school and neighborhood correlates of violent…

  11. The Role of Materialism on Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties for British Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, Pam; Moon, Amy; Gupta, Taveeshi; Gridley, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between materialism and social-emotional behavioural difficulties (SEBDs) was assessed by comparing a sample of adolescents receiving in-school behavioural support with adolescents not receiving any support. All participants completed the Youth Materialism Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Binary logistic…

  12. Dropping out of School as a Meaningful Action for Adolescents with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    This study examines and discusses dropping out of school related to adolescents with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). It is based on in-depth interviews of 10 adolescents between the ages of 16 and 20, three girls and two boys with internalised problems, and two girls and three boys with extroverted behavioural problems.…

  13. Risk-Taking among Adolescents: Associations with Social and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Keren; Ben-Zur, Hasida

    2007-01-01

    The research investigated the associations of social and affective factors with risk-taking in male and female adolescents. A sample of 269 Israeli adolescents completed questionnaires measuring frequency of involvement in risk-taking behaviours, relationships with parents, orientation towards peer group, depressive mood, and aggressive behaviour.…

  14. The Association between Observed Parental Emotion Socialization and Adolescent Self-Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Matthew A.; Hussong, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating influence of observed parental emotion socialization (PES) on self-medication in adolescents. Strengths of the study include the use of a newly developed observational coding system further extending the study of PES to adolescence, the use of an experience sampling method to assess the daily covariation…

  15. Adolescents' Emotions and Reasoning in Contexts of Moral Conflict and Social Exclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Dys, Sebastian P.; Colasante, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how adolescents feel and think about contexts of moral conflict and social exclusion. We asked twelve-year-old adolescents how they would feel about intentionally harming another peer, omitting a prosocial duty, and excluding another peer. We then asked them to explain the reasoning behind their feelings and report on levels…

  16. Predictors of Peer Victimization among Hispanic Adolescent Girls: Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Anne; Jenson, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behavior aimed at peers in school settings is a persistent problem for students, teachers, parents, and school social workers. Peer victimization is particularly troubling for adolescent girls in light of recent increases in aggression and violence among female adolescents. However, most studies of peer victimization, particularly among…

  17. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  18. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  19. Social Strain, Self-Control, and Juvenile Gambling Pathology: Evidence From Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Nicole W. T.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent concerns over youthful problem gambling, few gambling studies have looked into Asian adolescent populations. This study of a stratified, random sample of high school students in Hong Kong is designed to estimate the prevalence of gambling pathology among Chinese adolescents and to examine the relationships between social strain,…

  20. Social Participation of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: Trade-Offs and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Debra A.; Lawless, John J.; Shimmell, Lorie J.; Palisano, Robert J.; Freeman, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Peter L.; Russell, Dianne J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a qualitative study about the experiences and perceptions of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) in relation to social participation. A phenomenological approach was used to interview 10 adolescents with CP, 17 to 20 years of age, selected using purposeful sampling. An iterative process of data collection…