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Sample records for adolescent social network

  1. Social networking and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuld, Gilbert L

    2009-04-01

    Online social networking is a 21st century innovation increasingly embraced by today's young people. It provides new opportunities for communication that expand an adolescent's world. Yet adults, often suspicious of new trends and technologies initially embraced by youth, often see these new environments as perilous places to visit. These fears have been accentuated by media hype, especially about sexual predators. How dangerous are they? Because the rush to go on these sites is a new phenomenon, research is as yet scant. This review explores current beliefs and knowledge about the dangers of social networking sites. PMID:19492691

  2. Online Social Networking: Usage in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nevil Johnson; Valsaraj, Blessy Prabha; Noronha, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Online social networking (OSN) has played a significant role on the relationship among college students. It is becoming a popular medium for socializing online and tools to facilitate friendship. Young adults and adolescents are the most prolific users of OSN sites. The frequent use of OSN sites results in addiction toward these sites and…

  3. Early Adolescent Social Networks and Computer Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orleans, Myron; Laney, Margaret C.

    A research project was conducted to examine the interactions between the social networks of young adolescents and their computer usage. Particular attention was focused upon whether computers tend to isolate youthful users. Adult anxiety regarding the damaging effects of computers on children was assessed. Parental involvement, orientation to…

  4. Social Networks and Social Influences in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotterell, John

    Young people are concerned with making and keeping friends, and they invest a great deal of energy in group social life to do so. This book charts the interactions of young people both in and out of school and the role of peers and friends in strengthening social attachments and in establishing social identities. It describes how social identities…

  5. The Influence of Academic Tracking on Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kim W.; Shogren, Karrie A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' social capital, through social network analyses (i.e., ego network analyses), in two high schools where students were placed into academic tracks adopted by the schools and shaped by disability status (i.e., general education, co-taught, segregated special education classrooms). The impact of academic tracks, as…

  6. Adolescents' Online Social Networking Following the Death of a Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how online social networking facilitates adolescent grieving following the sudden death of a peer. Researchers reviewed 20 profiles authored by adolescents who had died between 2005 and 2007 collecting information from commentary posted to the profiles posthumously. Observed themes included adolescent…

  7. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Early Adolescents' Social Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antheunis, Marjolijn L.; Schouten, Alexander P.; Krahmer, Emiel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of social networking sites (SNSs) in early adolescents' social lives. First, we investigated the relation between SNS use and several aspects of early adolescents' social lives (i.e., friendship quality, bridging social capital, and bonding social capital). Second, we examined whether there are…

  8. Network Ecology and Adolescent Social Structure

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Daniel A.; Moody, James; Diehl, David; Smith, Jeffrey A.; Thomas, Reuben J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent societies—whether arising from weak, short-term classroom friendships or from close, long-term friendships—exhibit various levels of network clustering, segregation, and hierarchy. Some are rank-ordered caste systems and others are flat, cliquish worlds. Explaining the source of such structural variation remains a challenge, however, because global network features are generally treated as the agglomeration of micro-level tie-formation mechanisms, namely balance, homophily, and dominance. How do the same micro-mechanisms generate significant variation in global network structures? To answer this question we propose and test a network ecological theory that specifies the ways features of organizational environments moderate the expression of tie-formation processes, thereby generating variability in global network structures across settings. We develop this argument using longitudinal friendship data on schools (Add Health study) and classrooms (Classroom Engagement study), and by extending exponential random graph models to the study of multiple societies over time. PMID:25535409

  9. Too Many Friends: Social Integration, Network Cohesion and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina; McNeely, Clea

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we examine associations among social integration (network size), network cohesion (alter-density), perceptions of social relationships (e.g., social support) and adolescent depressive symptoms. We find that adolescents with either too large or too small a network have higher levels of…

  10. Parental Influence on Substance Use in Adolescent Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shakya, Holly B.; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Both peer and parental influences have been associated with the use of addictive substances in adolescence. We evaluated the relationship between the parenting style of an adolescent’s peers’ parents and an adolescent’s substance use. Design Longitudinal survey Setting Adolescents across the United States were interviewed at school and at home Participants Nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States Main Exposure Authoritative versus neglectful parenting style of adolescent’s parents and adolescent’s friends parents; adolescent substance use Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol abuse, smoking, marijuana use, and binge drinking Results If an adolescent has a friend whose mother is authoritative, that adolescent is 40% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to drink to the point of drunkenness, 38% (95% CI 5%–59%) less likely to binge drink, 39% (95% CI 12%–58%) less likely to smoke cigarettes, and 43% (95% CI 1%–67%) less likely to use marijuana than an adolescent whose friend’s mother is neglectful, controlling for the parenting style of the adolescent’s own mother, school level fixed effects, and demographics. These results are only partially mediated by peer substance use. Conclusion Social network influences may extend beyond the homogeneous dimensions of own-peer or own-parent to include extra-dyadic influences of the wider network. The value of parenting interventions should be re-assessed to take into account these spillover effects in the greater network. PMID:23045157

  11. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-03-01

    Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  12. Adolescents' and Emerging Adults' Social Networking Online: Homophily or Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Elizabeth; Richards, Lacey

    2011-01-01

    More than half of all online American adolescents and emerging adults have created personal profiles for social networking on the Internet. Does homophily in their offline friendships extend online? Drawing mainly on research of face-to-face friendship, we collected data from the public spaces, called "walls," of 129 young Americans ages 16 to 19…

  13. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  14. Social networking technology, social network composition, and reductions in substance use among homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rice, Eric; Milburn, Norweeta G; Monro, William

    2011-03-01

    Peer-based prevention programs for homeless youth are complicated by the potential for reinforcing high-risk behaviors among participants. The goal of this study is to understand how homeless youth could be linked to positive peers in prevention programming by understanding where in social and physical space positive peers for homeless youth are located, how these ties are associated with substance use, and the role of social networking technologies (e.g., internet and cell phones) in this process. Personal social network data were collected from 136 homeless adolescents in Los Angeles, CA. Respondents reported on composition of their social networks with respect to: home-based peers and parents (accessed via social networking technology; e.g., the internet, cell phone, texting), homeless peers and agency staff (accessed face-to-face) and whether or not network members were substance-using or non-substance-using. Associations between respondent's lifetime cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine use and recent (previous 30 days) alcohol and marijuana use were assessed by the number of non-substance-using versus substance-using ties in multivariate linear regression models. 43% of adolescents reported a non-substance-using home-based tie. More of these ties were associated with less recent alcohol use. 62% of adolescents reported a substance-using homeless tie. More of these ties were associated with more recent marijuana use as well as more lifetime heroin and methamphetamine use. For homeless youth, who are physically disconnected from positive peers, social networking technologies can be used to facilitate the sorts of positive social ties that effective peer-based prevention programs require. PMID:21194011

  15. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks

    PubMed Central

    Hill, E. M.; Griffiths, F. E.; House, T.

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6–12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  16. Social network profiles as information sources for adolescents' offline relations.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Cédric; All, Anissa; Vanwynsberghe, Hadewijch

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study concerning the use of online profile pages by adolescents to know more about "offline" friends and acquaintances. Previous research has indicated that social networking sites (SNSs) are used to gather information on new online contacts. However, several studies have demonstrated a substantial overlap between offline and online social networks. Hence, we question whether online connections are meaningful in gathering information on offline friends and acquaintances. First, the results indicate that a combination of passive uncertainty reduction (monitoring a target's profile) and interactive uncertainty reduction (communication through the target's profile) explains a considerable amount of variance in the level of uncertainty about both friends and acquaintances. More specifically, adolescents generally get to know much more about their acquaintances. Second, the results of online uncertainty reduction positively affect the degree of self-disclosure, which is imperative in building a solid friend relation. Further, we find that uncertainty reduction strategies positively mediate the effect of social anxiety on the level of certainty about friends. This implies that socially anxious teenagers benefit from SNSs by getting the conditions right to build a more solid relation with their friends. Hence, we conclude that SNSs play a substantial role in today's adolescents' everyday interpersonal communication. PMID:22703034

  17. Spreading of healthy mood in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Hill, E M; Griffiths, F E; House, T

    2015-08-22

    Depression is a major public health concern worldwide. There is evidence that social support and befriending influence mental health, and an improved understanding of the social processes that drive depression has the potential to bring significant public health benefits. We investigate transmission of mood on a social network of adolescents, allowing flexibility in our model by making no prior assumption as to whether it is low mood or healthy mood that spreads. Here, we show that while depression does not spread, healthy mood among friends is associated with significantly reduced risk of developing and increased chance of recovering from depression. We found that this spreading of healthy mood can be captured using a non-linear complex contagion model. Having sufficient friends with healthy mood can halve the probability of developing, or double the probability of recovering from, depression over a 6-12-month period on an adolescent social network. Our results suggest that promotion of friendship between adolescents can reduce both incidence and prevalence of depression. PMID:26290075

  18. Growing Up Wired: Social Networking Sites and Adolescent Psychosocial Development

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Lauren A. Spies; Margolin, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    Since the advent of SNS technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults’ stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication—to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents’ interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents’ social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  19. Friending Adolescents on Social Networking Websites: A Feasible Research Tool

    PubMed Central

    Brockman, Libby N.; Christakis, Dimitri A.; Moreno, Megan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Social networking sites (SNSs) are increasingly used for research. This paper reports on two studies examining the feasibility of friending adolescents on SNSs for research purposes. Methods Study 1 took place on www.MySpace.com where public profiles belonging to 18-year-old adolescents received a friend request from an unknown physician. Study 2 took place on www.Facebook.com where college freshmen from two US universities, enrolled in an ongoing research study, received a friend request from a known researcher’s profile. Acceptance and retention rates of friend requests were calculated for both studies. Results Study 1: 127 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 62.2% male and 51.8% Caucasian. 49.6% accepted the friend request. After 9 months, 76% maintained the online friendship, 12.7% defriended the study profile and 11% deactivated their profile. Study 2: 338 participants received a friend request; participants were 18 years-old, 56.5% female and 75.1% Caucasian. 99.7% accepted the friend request. Over 12 months, 3.3% defriended the study profile and 4.1% deactivated their profile. These actions were often temporary; the overall 12-month friendship retention rate was 96.1%. Conclusion Friending adolescents on SNSs is feasible and friending adolescents from a familiar profile may be more effective for maintaining online friendship with research participants over time. PMID:25485226

  20. Social network media exposure and adolescent eating pathology in Fiji

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Anne E.; Fay, Kristen E.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Khan, A. Nisha; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass media exposure has been associated with an increased risk of eating pathology. It is unknown whether indirect media exposure – such as the proliferation of media exposure in an individual’s social network – is also associated with eating disorders. Aims To test hypotheses that both individual (direct) and social network (indirect) mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in Fiji. Method We assessed several kinds of mass media exposure, media influence, cultural orientation and eating pathology by self-report among adolescent female ethnic Fijians (n = 523). We fitted a series of multiple regression models of eating pathology, assessed by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE–Q), in which mass media exposures, sociodemographic characteristics and body mass index were entered as predictors. Results Both direct and indirect mass media exposures were associated with eating pathology in unadjusted analyses, whereas in adjusted analyses only social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology. This result was similar when eating pathology was operationalised as either a continuous or a categorical dependent variable (e.g. odds ratio OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.15–2.23 relating social network media exposure to upper-quartile EDE–Q scores). Subsequent analyses pointed to individual media influence as an important explanatory variable in this association. Conclusions Social network media exposure was associated with eating pathology in this Fijian study sample, independent of direct media exposure and other cultural exposures. Findings warrant further investigation of its health impact in other populations. PMID:21200076

  1. Social Network Status and Depression among Adolescents: An Examination of Social Network Influences and Depressive Symptoms in a Chinese Sample

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Janet; Johnson, C. Anderson; Leventhal, Adam; Milam, Joel; Pentz, Mary Ann; Schwartz, David; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well established influence of peer experiences on adolescent attitudes, thoughts, and behaviors, surprisingly little research has examined the importance of peer context and the increased prevalence of depressive symptoms accompanying the transition into adolescence. Examination of social networks may provide some insight into the role of peers in the vulnerability of some adolescents to depression. To address this issue, we leveraged an existing sample of 5,563 Chinese 10th graders to incorporate social network data into a multilevel regression model of depressive symptoms. We found that, in this sample, being nominated as a friend was more important than being nominated as most liked. Social network centrality was significantly associated with depression; those adolescents who were less connected were more likely to suffer from depression. The risk of depression for those who were marginal members of classroom social networks was substantial. These findings suggest that a social network perspective could help to increase the effectiveness of programs aimed at preventing adolescent depression. PMID:23226988

  2. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  3. The Peer Context of Adolescent Substance Use: Findings from Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Foshee, Vangie A.; Cai, Li; DuRant, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for…

  4. Health and the Structure of Adolescent Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Much research has explored the role of social networks in promoting health through the provision of social support. However, little work has examined how social networks themselves may be structured by health. This article investigates the link between individuals' health and the characteristics of their social network positions.We first develop…

  5. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  6. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  7. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

  8. Utilizing social networking sites to promote adolescents' health: a pragmatic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Francomano, Jesse A; Harpin, Scott B

    2015-01-01

    Social networking site use has exploded among youth in the last few years and is being adapted as an important tool for healthcare interventions and serving as a platform for adolescents to gain access to health information. The aim of this study was to examine the strengths, weaknesses, and best practices of utilizing Facebook in adolescent health promotion and research via pragmatic literature review. We also examine how sites can facilitate ethically sound healthcare for adolescents, particularly at-risk youth. We conducted a literature review of health and social sciences literature from the past 5 years related to adolescent health and social network site use. Publications were grouped by shared content then categorized by themes. Five themes emerged: access to healthcare information, peer support and networking, risk and benefits of social network site use in care delivery, overcoming technological barriers, and social network site interventions. More research is needed to better understand how such Web sites can be better utilized to provide access to adolescents seeking healthcare. Given the broad reach of social network sites, all health information must be closely monitored for accurate, safe distribution. Finally, consent and privacy issues are omnipresent in social network sites, which calls for standards of ethical use. PMID:25393833

  9. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Meyer, Johanna; Zima, Bonnie T.; Mason, Dana M.; Gary, Faye A.; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207) and low risk (n = 167) for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care. PMID:26402692

  10. The Contribution of Extracurricular Activities to Adolescent Friendships: New Insights through Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David R.; Simpkins, Sandra D.; Vest, Andrea E.; Price, Chara D.

    2011-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are settings that are theorized to help adolescents maintain existing friendships and develop new friendships. The overarching goal of the current investigation was to examine whether coparticipating in school-based extracurricular activities supported adolescents' school-based friendships. We used social network methods…

  11. A Review of Online Social Networking Profiles by Adolescents: Implications for Future Research and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Amanda L.; Merten, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored content posted and interactions taking place on adolescent online social networking profiles. Although "blogging" continues to soar in popularity, with over half of teenagers online participating in some form, little research has comprehensively explored blog communication within the context of adolescent development. Content…

  12. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  13. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A.; Lau, Jennifer Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an…

  14. A friend request from dear old dad: associations between parent-child social networking and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Day, Randal D; Harper, James; Stockdale, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between parent-child social networking, connection, and outcomes for adolescents. Participants (491 adolescents and their parents) completed a number of questionnaires on social networking use, feelings of connection, and behavioral outcomes. Social networking with parents was associated with increased connection between parents and adolescents. Feelings of connection then mediated the relationship between social networking with parents and behavioral outcomes, including higher prosocial behavior and lower relational aggression and internalizing behavior. Conversely, adolescent social networking use without parents was associated with negative outcomes, such as increased relational aggression, internalizing behaviors, delinquency, and decreased feelings of connection. These results indicate that although high levels of social networking use may be problematic for some individuals, social networking with parents may potentially strengthen parent-child relationships and then lead to positive outcomes for adolescents. PMID:23845157

  15. Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Valkenburg, Patti M; Peter, Jochen; Schouten, Alexander P

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of friend networking sites (e.g., Friendster, MySpace) for adolescents' self-esteem and well-being. We conducted a survey among 881 adolescents (10-19-year-olds) who had an online profile on a Dutch friend networking site. Using structural equation modeling, we found that the frequency with which adolescents used the site had an indirect effect on their social self-esteem and well-being. The use of the friend networking site stimulated the number of relationships formed on the site, the frequency with which adolescents received feedback on their profiles, and the tone (i.e., positive vs. negative) of this feedback. Positive feedback on the profiles enhanced adolescents' social self-esteem and well-being, whereas negative feedback decreased their self-esteem and well-being. PMID:17034326

  16. Becoming Who We Are: A Theoretical Explanation of Gendered Social Structures and Social Networks that Shape Adolescent Interpersonal Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paige Hall; White, Jacquelyn W.; Moracco, Kathryn E.

    2009-01-01

    A conceptualization of gendered interpersonal aggression that is grounded in the social ecological framework is presented to explicate factors in adolescents' gendered environments that give rise to aggression and victimization. The focus is on gendered social structures and social networks. Our framework for prevention suggests that violence…

  17. The Role of Gender in Adolescents' Social Networks and Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…

  18. Place-Based Social Network Quality and Correlates of Substance Use among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Valente, Thomas W.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Mennis, Jeremy; Lawrence, Frank; Zelenak, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 301 Philadelphia adolescents were assessed for substance use and place-based social network quality, a weighted variable based upon risky and protective behaviors of alters. The network measure was anchored in routine locations identified as safe, risky, important, or favorite. Results show young females' (13-16) substance use was…

  19. Strategies to Enhance the Social Identities and Social Networks of Adolescent Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2010-01-01

    For youth with disabilities, it is good to belong to multiple groups and have multiple identities. Social groups are important to people because they are social creatures. Unless a child has a severe social disability, connecting with others is important, especially during adolescence. Adolescence is the time when young people define themselves by…

  20. Friendship and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence: A Multilevel Social Network Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea B.; Burk, William J.; Weesie, Jeroen; Steglich, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This study applies multilevel social network analytic techniques to examine processes of homophilic selection and social influence related to alcohol use among friends in early adolescence. Participants included 3,041 Dutch youth (M age =12 years, 49% female) from 120 classrooms in 14 schools. Three waves with 3-month intervals of friendship…

  1. Parents and Peers as Providers of Support in Adolescents' Social Network: A Developmental Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Valle, Jorge F.; Bravo, Amaia; Lopez, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The authors carried out an assessment of social support networks with a sample of 884 Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 17. The main goal was to analyze the development of the figures of parents and peers as providers of social support in the two basic dimensions of emotional and instrumental support. In peers, they distinguished between the contexts…

  2. Relationship of perceived maternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and social support networks of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sherman, B R; Donovan, B R

    1991-01-01

    In a sample of 53 at-risk pregnant adolescents, the relationship between their perceptions of maternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the nature of their social supports was examined. Perception of acceptance-rejection was significantly correlated with both frequency of interaction with social network members and expectations of their future support. Implications for public health strategies are discussed. PMID:2006666

  3. Multiple contexts and adolescent body mass index: Schools, neighborhoods, and social networks.

    PubMed

    Evans, Clare R; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Williams, David R; Subramanian, S V

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent health and behaviors are influenced by multiple contexts, including schools, neighborhoods, and social networks, yet these contexts are rarely considered simultaneously. In this study we combine social network community detection analysis and cross-classified multilevel modeling in order to compare the contributions of each of these three contexts to the total variation in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is used, and for robustness we conduct the analysis in both the core sample (122 schools; N = 14,144) and a sub-set of the sample (16 schools; N = 3335), known as the saturated sample due to its completeness of neighborhood data. After adjusting for relevant covariates, we find that the school-level and neighborhood-level contributions to the variance are modest compared with the network community-level (σ(2)school = 0.069, σ(2)neighborhood = 0.144, σ(2)network = 0.463). These results are robust to two alternative algorithms for specifying network communities, and to analysis in the saturated sample. While this study does not determine whether network effects are attributable to social influence or selection, it does highlight the salience of adolescent social networks and indicates that they may be a promising context to address in the design of health promotion programs. PMID:27322912

  4. Relationship Reciprocation Modulates Resource Allocation in Adolescent Social Networks: Developmental Effects.

    PubMed

    Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Jih, Yeou-Rong; Block, Per; Hiu, Chii-Fen; Holmes, Emily A; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized as a period of social reorientation toward peer relationships, entailing the emergence of sophisticated social abilities. Two studies (Study 1: N = 42, ages 13-17; Study 2: N = 81, ages 13-16) investigated age group differences in the impact of relationship reciprocation within school-based social networks on an experimental measure of cooperation behavior. Results suggest development between mid- and late adolescence in the extent to which reciprocation of social ties predicted resource allocation. With increasing age group, investment decisions increasingly reflected the degree to which peers reciprocated feelings of friendship. This result may reflect social-cognitive development, which could facilitate the ability to navigate an increasingly complex social world in adolescence and promote positive and enduring relationships into adulthood. PMID:26235042

  5. Building and using a social network: nurture for low-income Chinese American adolescents' learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of social networks in lieu of direct parental involvement: (a) designating a helper in and outside the home for the child, (b) identifying peer models for the child to emulate, and (c) involving extended kin to guide the child jointly. These forms of social capital reflect Chinese cultural values applied to the challenges of immigrant adaptation. PMID:18792948

  6. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  7. Adolescent Friendships, BMI, and Physical Activity: Untangling Selection and Influence Through Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Schaefer, David R.; Price, Chara D.; Vest, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents’ health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents’ friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mean age = 15.97 years). Results indicated evidence of friend influence on BMI and physical activity. Friendships were more likely among adolescents who engaged in greater physical activity and who were similar to one another in BMI and physical activity. These effects emerged after controlling for alternative friend selection factors, such as endogenous social network processes and propinquity through courses and activities. Some selection effects were moderated by gender, popularity, and reciprocity. PMID:24222971

  8. The Embeddedness of Adolescent Friendship Nominations: The Formation of Social Capital in Emergent Network Structures

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kenneth A.; Muller, Chandra; Mueller, Anna S.

    2014-01-01

    Although research on social embeddedness and social capital con-firms the value of friendship networks, little has been written about how social relations form and are structured by social institutions. Using data from the Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the authors show that the odds of a new friendship nomination were 1.77 times greater within clusters of high school students taking courses together than between them. The estimated effect cannot be attributed to exposure to peers in similar grade levels, indirect friendship links, or pair-level course overlap, and the finding is robust to alternative model specifications. The authors also show how tendencies associated with status hierarchy inhering in triadic friendship nominations are neutralized within the clusters. These results have implications for the production and distribution of social capital within social systems such as schools, giving the clusters social salience as “local positions.” PMID:25364011

  9. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…

  10. Gender Differences in the Structure and Support Characteristics of Black Adolescents' Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Deborah L.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of 390 Black American adolescents demonstrates that males and females experience very different structured forms of social support. Females report more frequent contact with network members, who were both male and female, slightly older, and met in private settings. Males report larger groups of intimate friends, who are overwhelmingly…

  11. Adolescent Peer Networks as a Context for Social and Emotional Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Salazar, Ricardo D.; Spina, Stephanie Urso

    2005-01-01

    The findings reported here emerged from a larger study of the social support networks and help-seeking experiences of low-income, Mexican-origin adolescents in San Diego, California. This larger study used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and included special attention to those instances in which participating…

  12. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time. PMID:25119729

  13. Social Networking and the Social and Emotional Wellbeing of Adolescents in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Amanda; Bower, Julie; Carroll, Annemaree

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social networking tools and sites are changing the way young people build and maintain their social connections with others (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). This study utilised a new measure, The Self in a Social Context, Virtual Connectedness subscale (SSC-VC subscale), to examine the effects of social networking tools and sites on…

  14. Adolescents’ Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents’ views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. Results A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for “safe” resources. Discussion Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents’ preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. Translation to Health Education Practice Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents’ views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  15. Embeddedness and Empathy: How the Social Network Shapes Adolescents' Social Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfer, Ralf; Cortina, Kai S.; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Based on theories of social-cognitive development, the present study investigated the yet unknown social structure that underlies the concept of empathy in adolescence. A total of 3.159 seventh graders (13.67 years, 56% girls) from 166 school classes participated by providing information on empathy, related psychosocial factors, and friendship…

  16. Exploring the role of parents and peers in young adolescents' risk taking on social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wonsun; Ismail, Nurzali

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the role of parental and peer mediation in young adolescents' engagement in risk-taking in social networking sites (SNSs). A survey conducted in Malaysia with 469 SNS users aged 13-14 revealed that control-based parental mediation can cause boomerang effects, making young adolescents more inclined to taking risks in SNSs. While discussion-based parental mediation was found to be negatively related to young adolescents' befriending strangers in SNSs, it did not reduce privacy risks. Findings also suggested that peer influence could result in undesirable outcomes. In particular, the more young adolescents talked about Internet-related issues with peers, the more likely they were to disclose personally identifiable information on SNSs. PMID:25126969

  17. Adolescent Substance Use in Different Social and Peer Contexts: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Michael; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Gordon, Jacki; Turner, Katrina

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates whether associations between social network measures and substance use differ according to type of substance and social context. The analyses use data obtained from 13 and 15 year olds (N=3146) in a school-based survey and focus on three social network measures: sociometric position (e.g. group, dyad, isolate);…

  18. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  19. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  20. Adolescent depression. Epidemiology, nosology, life stress and social network. Minireview based on a doctoral thesis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, G

    1998-01-01

    The study engaged a total population of 16-17-year-old urban high-school students and 2300 (93%) were screened for depression and previous suicide attempts. Adolescents with high depression scores in self-evaluation (12.3%) or reporting previous suicide attempts (2.4%) were diagnostically interviewed together with one control for each, matched for gender and educational program. After the interview self-ratings were completed regarding social network, family climate, and life events. Major depression was prevalent during the last year in 5.8% and during life time in 11.4%, 4 girls for every boy. A depression with remaining symptoms for a year or more was the most common type. Dysthymia without major depressive episodes was diagnosed in 1.1%, two girls for every boy. Short hypomanic episodes had been experienced by 13.2% of those with major depressive disorder. Anxiety disorder was comorbid to depression in one half and conduct disorder in one forth of the depressed adolescents. Alcohol was abused by 6.5% and used regularly by another 12%. Other drugs were used by 6.5% of depressed adolescents and not at all by controls. The depressed used tobacco twice as frequently as non-depressed. Social network and family climate were compared within the originally matched pairs. Adolescents with long-lasting depressions had a smaller and unsatisfying social network. They also had experienced many stressful life events related to family adversities, while those with shorter depressive episodes had stress related to the peer group. Depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder reported insufficient support from the close network and a more negative family climate. PMID:9923068

  1. Social Network Influences on Adolescent Substance Use: Disentangling Structural Equivalence from Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates two contagion mechanisms of peer influence based on direct communication (cohesion) versus comparison through peers who occupy similar network positions (structural equivalence) in the context of adolescents' drinking alcohol and smoking. To date, the two contagion mechanisms have been considered observationally inseparable, but this study attempts to disentangle structural equivalence from cohesion as a contagion mechanism by examining the extent to which the transmission of drinking and smoking behaviors attenuates as a function of social distance (i.e., from immediate friends to indirectly connected peers). Using the U.S. Add Health data consisting of a nationally representative sample of American adolescents (Grades 7-12), this study measured peer risk-taking up to four steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends of friends) using a network exposure model. Peer influence was tested using a logistic regression model of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Results indicate that influence based on structural equivalence tended to be stronger than influence based on cohesion in general, and that the magnitude of the effect decreased up to three steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends). Further analysis indicated that structural equivalence acted as a mechanism of contagion for drinking and cohesion acted as one for smoking. These results indicate that the two transmission mechanisms with differing network proximities can differentially affect drinking and smoking behaviors in American adolescents. PMID:22475405

  2. Social network influences on adolescent substance use: disentangling structural equivalence from cohesion.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates two contagion mechanisms of peer influence based on direct communication (cohesion) versus comparison through peers who occupy similar network positions (structural equivalence) in the context of adolescents' drinking alcohol and smoking. To date, the two contagion mechanisms have been considered observationally inseparable, but this study attempts to disentangle structural equivalence from cohesion as a contagion mechanism by examining the extent to which the transmission of drinking and smoking behaviors attenuates as a function of social distance (i.e., from immediate friends to indirectly connected peers). Using the U.S. Add Health data consisting of a nationally representative sample of American adolescents (Grades 7-12), this study measured peer risk-taking up to four steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends of friends) using a network exposure model. Peer influence was tested using a logistic regression model of alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking. Results indicate that influence based on structural equivalence tended to be stronger than influence based on cohesion in general, and that the magnitude of the effect decreased up to three steps away from the adolescent (friends of friends of friends). Further analysis indicated that structural equivalence acted as a mechanism of contagion for drinking and cohesion acted as one for smoking. These results indicate that the two transmission mechanisms with differing network proximities can differentially affect drinking and smoking behaviors in American adolescents. PMID:22475405

  3. Same-sex sexual attraction does not spread in adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Brakefield, Tiffany A; Mednick, Sara C; Wilson, Helen W; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2014-02-01

    Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power to those that suggest positive and significant peer-to-peer influence in sexual behavior fail to demonstrate a significant relationship on sexual attraction between friends or siblings. These results suggest that peer influence has little or no effect on the tendency toward heterosexual or homosexual attraction in teens, and that sexual orientation is not transmitted via social networks. PMID:23842784

  4. On Social and Cognitive Influences: Relating Adolescent Networks, Generalized Expectancies, and Adolescent Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Lakon, Cynthia M.; Hipp, John R.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths’ friends smoking behavior and youths’ own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths’ friends and youths’ own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends’ generalized expectancies and youths’ expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses. PMID:25536039

  5. On social and cognitive influences: relating adolescent networks, generalized expectancies, and adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R

    2014-01-01

    We examine the moderating role of friendship and school network characteristics in relationships between 1) youths' friends smoking behavior and youths' own generalized expectancies regarding risk and future orientation and 2) generalized expectancies of youths' friends and youths' own generalized expectancies. We then relate these constructs to smoking. Using a longitudinal sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 15,142), the relationship between friends' generalized expectancies and youths' expectancies is stronger for those more central in the network, with more reachability, or stronger network ties, and weaker for those with denser friendship networks. Risk expectancies exhibited an inverted U shaped relationship with smoking at the next time point, whereas future orientation expectancies displayed a nonlinear accelerating negative relationship. There was also a feedback effect in which smoking behavior led to higher risk expectancies and lower future orientation expectancies in instrumental variable analyses. PMID:25536039

  6. The dynamics of friendships and victimization in adolescence: a longitudinal social network perspective.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to changes in victimization (influence effects). This was done for peer-reported relational and physical victimization separately in two middle schools (total N = 480; N = 220, 47% girls, in School 1; N = 260, 52% girls, in School 2) across three time points (Grades 6 through 8; M ages 11.5-13.5). Gender, ethnicity, and baseline aggression were controlled as individual predictors of victimization. Similarity in physical victimization predicted friendship formation, whereas physical victimization was not influenced by friends' victimization but rather by adolescents' own physical aggression. Peer influence effects existed for relational victimization, in that adolescents with victimized friends were more likely to increase in victimization over time as well, over and above the effect of adolescents' own relational aggression. These selection and influence effects were not further qualified by gender. The results suggested that both selection and influence processes as well as individual characteristics play a role in the co-evolution of friendships and victimization, but that these processes are specific for different types of victimization. PMID:23446945

  7. Adolescent girls' friendship networks, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating: examining selection and socialization processes.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Kathryn E; Schniering, Carolyn A; Rapee, Ronald M; Taylor, Alan; Hutchinson, Delyse M

    2013-02-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescent girls tend to resemble their friends in their level of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, no studies to date have attempted to disentangle the underlying peer selection and socialization processes that may explain this homophily. The current study used longitudinal stochastic actor-based modeling to simultaneously examine these two processes in a large community sample of adolescent girls (N = 1,197) from nine Australian girls' high schools. Friendship nominations and measures of body dissatisfaction, dieting and bulimic behaviors were collected across three annual waves. Results indicated that selection rather than socialization effects contributed to similarity within friendship groups when both processes were examined simultaneously. Specifically, girls tended to select friends who were similar to themselves in terms of body dissatisfaction and bulimic behaviors, but dissimilar in terms of dieting. Network and individual attribute variables also emerged as significant in explaining changes in adolescents' friendships and behaviors. As well as having important clinical implications, the findings point to the importance of controlling for friendship selection when examining the role of peers in adolescent body image and eating problems. PMID:22867115

  8. The relationship between optimal parenting, Internet addiction and motives for social networking in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos

    2013-10-30

    This paper presents a cross-sectional study of a large, high-school Greek student sample (N=1971) with the aim to examine adolescent motives for participating in social networking (SN) for a possible link with parenting style and cognitions related to Internet addiction disorder (IAD). Exploratory statistics demonstrate a shift from the prominence of online gaming to social networking for this age group. A regression model provides with the best linear combination of independent variables useful in predicting participation in SN. Results also include a validated model of negative correlation between optimal parenting on the one hand and motives for SN participation and IAD on the other. Examining cognitions linked to SN may assist in a better understanding of underlying adolescent wishes and problems. Future research may focus in the patterns unveiled among those adolescents turning to SN for the gratification of basic unmet psychological needs. The debate on the exact nature of IAD would benefit from the inclusion of SN as a possible online activity where addictive phenomena may occur. PMID:23415042

  9. The role of social networks in physical and relational aggression among young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2013-07-01

    Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group influence on individual levels of physical and relational aggression over a year with 6th and 7th grade students (n = 346, 51 % female). A multilevel network approach was used in which peer groups were identified via social network analysis, and peer group influence was evaluated with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). HLM analyses indicated that peer group aggression (physical and relational) at time 1 was predictive of individual aggression levels at time 2 after controlling for other peer group characteristics as well as other individual risk and protective factors. Although both forms of aggression were embedded in peer networks, findings suggest that physical aggression is relatively less endemic to peer networks, and is more likely to occur in smaller, predominantly male networks. The current study highlights the importance of understanding the influence of peer group membership on adolescent aggression and points to important implications for prevention. PMID:23504600

  10. Leveraging social influence to address overweight and obesity using agent-based models: the role of adolescent social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Tong, L; Lamberson, P J; Durazo-Arvizu, R A; Luke, A; Shoham, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight and obesity (hereafter, simply "overweight") in the US has increased over the past several decades. Individually-targeted prevention and treatment strategies targeting individuals have been disappointing, leading some to propose leveraging social networks to improve interventions. We hypothesized that social network dynamics (social marginalization; homophily on body mass index, BMI) and the strength of peer influence would increase or decrease the proportion of network member (agents) becoming overweight over a simulated year, and that peer influence would operate differently in social networks with greater overweight. We built an agent-based model (ABM) using results from R-SIENA. ABMs allow for the exploration of potential interventions using simulated agents. Initial model specifications were drawn from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focused on a single saturation school with complete network and BMI data over two waves (n = 624). The model was validated against empirical observations at Wave 2. We focused on overall overweight prevalence after a simulated year. Five experiments were conducted: (1) changing attractiveness of high-BMI agents; (2) changing homophily on BMI; (3) changing the strength of peer influence; (4) shifting the overall BMI distribution; and (5) targeting dietary interventions to highly connected individuals. Increasing peer influence showed a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of overweight; making peer influence negative (i.e., doing the opposite of friends) increased overweight. However, the effect of peer influence varied based on the underlying distribution of BMI; when BMI was increased overall, stronger peer influence increased proportion of overweight. Other interventions, including targeted dieting, had little impact. Peer influence may be a viable target in overweight interventions, but the distribution of body size in the population needs to

  11. Adolescents' Views regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents' views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods: Focus group interviews were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old.…

  12. An overview of the role of social network sites in the treatment of adolescent diabetes.

    PubMed

    McDarby, Vincent; Hevey, David; Cody, Declan

    2015-04-01

    Of all the forms of social media, social network sites (SNS) have seen the fastest and broadest uptake, and their role within health care is only starting to be explored. SNS in clinical practice have the potential to provide education and support without the costs and constraints of more conventional treatment approaches. However, in order to effectively utilize SNS, it is important to use the SNS most frequented by adolescents. Despite the increase in the use of SNS in diabetes management, there are very few empirical studies on their efficacy, and the few that have been conducted have been inconclusive or had methodological limitations. Future research needs to be directed toward the impact of SNS on standard objective outcome measures and the comparison of SNS with conventional treatment approaches. PMID:25654161

  13. Friending, IMing, and hanging out face-to-face: overlap in adolescents' online and offline social networks.

    PubMed

    Reich, Stephanie M; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2012-03-01

    Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for interacting with unknown others, may put teens at increased risk. Two hundred and fifty-one high school students completed an in-person survey, and 126 of these completed an additional online questionnaire about how and why they use the Internet, their activities on social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace) and their reasons for participation, and how they perceive these online spaces to impact their friendships. To examine the extent of overlap between online and offline friends, participants were asked to list the names of their top interaction partners offline and online (Facebook and instant messaging). Results reveal that adolescents mainly use social networking sites to connect with others, in particular with people known from offline contexts. While adolescents report little monitoring by their parents, there was no evidence that teens are putting themselves at risk by interacting with unknown others. Instead, adolescents seem to use the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect with known others. While the study found moderate overlap between teens' closest online and offline friends, the patterns suggest that adolescents use online contexts to strengthen offline relationships. PMID:22369341

  14. A social network approach to the interplay between adolescents' bullying and likeability over time.

    PubMed

    Sentse, Miranda; Kiuru, Noona; Veenstra, René; Salmivalli, Christina

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge on adolescents' bullying behavior has rapidly increased over the past decade and it is widely recognized that bullying is a group process and, consequently, context-dependent. Only since recently, though, researchers have had access to statistical programs to study these group processes appropriately. The current 1-year longitudinal study examined the interplay between adolescents' bullying and likeability from a social network perspective. Data came from the evaluation of the Finnish KiVa antibullying program, consisting of students in grades 7-9 (N = 9,183, M age at wave 1 = 13.96 years; 49.2% boys; M classroom size = 19.47) from 37 intervention and 30 control schools. Perceived popularity, gender, and structural network effects were additionally controlled. Longitudinal social network analysis with SIENA revealed that, overall, the higher the students' level of bullying, the less they were liked by their peers. Second, students liked peers with similar levels of bullying and this selection-similarity effect was stronger at low levels of bullying. This selection effect held after controlling for selection-similarity in perceived popularity and gender. Third, students were likely to increase in bullying when they liked peers high on bullying and to decrease in bullying when they liked peers low on bullying. Again, this influence effect held after controlling for the effects of perceived popularity and gender on changes in bullying behavior. No significant differences between control and intervention schools appeared in the effects. The results are discussed in light of their theoretical and methodological implications. PMID:24752280

  15. Pressure to Drink but Not to Smoke: Disentangling Selection and Socialization in Adolescent Peer Networks and Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Burk, William J.; Laursen, Brett; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined the relative influence of selection and socialization on alcohol and tobacco use in adolescent peer networks and peer groups. The sample included 1419 Finnish secondary education students (690 males and 729 females, mean age 16 years at the outset) from nine schools. Participants identified three school friends and described…

  16. An Actor-Based Model of Social Network Influence on Adolescent Body Size, Screen Time, and Playing Sports

    PubMed Central

    Shoham, David A.; Tong, Liping; Lamberson, Peter J.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Zhang, Jun; Dugas, Lara; Kaufman, Jay S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Luke, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that obesity may be “contagious” between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence), however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves) or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM) framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI), screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network) and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151). Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers’ influence on one another, rather than treating “high risk” adolescents in isolation. PMID:22768124

  17. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed. PMID:26299596

  18. Building and Using a Social Network: Nurture for Low-Income Chinese American Adolescents' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Holloway, Susan D.; Bempechat, Janine; Loh, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined how low-income Asian American children are supported to achieve well in school. The authors used the notion of social capital to study higher versus lower achieving Chinese adolescents from low-income backgrounds. They found that families of higher-achieving adolescents built and used more effectively three kinds of…

  19. Adolescents' Social Network Site Use, Peer Appearance-Related Feedback, and Body Dissatisfaction: Testing a Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Dian A; Peter, Jochen; de Graaf, Hanneke; Nikken, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Previous correlational research indicates that adolescent girls who use social network sites more frequently are more dissatisfied with their bodies. However, we know little about the causal direction of this relationship, the mechanisms underlying this relationship, and whether this relationship also occurs among boys to the same extent. The present two-wave panel study (18 month time lag) among 604 Dutch adolescents (aged 11-18; 50.7% female; 97.7% native Dutch) aimed to fill these gaps in knowledge. Structural equation modeling showed that social network site use predicted increased body dissatisfaction and increased peer influence on body image in the form of receiving peer appearance-related feedback. Peer appearance-related feedback did not predict body dissatisfaction and thus did not mediate the effect of social network site use on body dissatisfaction. Gender did not moderate the findings. Hence, social network sites can play an adverse role in the body image of both adolescent boys and girls. PMID:25788122

  20. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…

  1. Early Adolescent Friendships and Academic Adjustment: Examining Selection and Influence Processes with Longitudinal Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed…

  2. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications. PMID:19250021

  3. The Interplay of Friendship Networks and Social Networking Sites: Longitudinal Analysis of Selection and Influence Effects on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the coevolution of adolescent friendships and peer influences with respect to their risk behaviors and social networking site use. Methods. Investigators of the Social Network Study collected longitudinal data during fall 2010 and spring 2011 from 10th-grade students in 5 Southern California high schools (n = 1434). We used meta-analyses of stochastic actor-based models to estimate changes in friendship ties and risk behaviors and the effects of Facebook and MySpace use. Results. Significant shifts in adolescent smoking and drinking occurred despite little change in overall prevalence rates. Students with higher levels of alcohol use were more likely to send and receive friendship nominations and become friends with other drinkers. They were also more likely to increase alcohol use if their friends drank more. Adolescents selected friends with similar Facebook and MySpace use habits. Exposure to friends’ risky online pictures increased smoking behaviors but had no significant effects on alcohol use. Conclusions. Our findings support a greater focus on friendship selection mechanisms in school-based alcohol use interventions. Social media platforms may help identify at-risk adolescent groups and foster positive norms about risk behaviors. PMID:24922126

  4. Do physical and relational aggression explain adolescents' friendship selection? The competing roles of network characteristics, gender, and social status.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Berger, Christian; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2011-01-01

    The role of physical and relational aggression in adolescents' friendship selection was examined in a longitudinal sample of 274 Chilean students from 5th and 6th grade followed over 1 year. Longitudinal social network modeling (SIENA) was used to study selection processes for aggression while influence processes were controlled for. Furthermore, the effects of network characteristics (i.e., reciprocity and transitivity), gender, and social status on friendship selection were examined. The starting assumption of this study was that selection effects based on aggression might have been overestimated in previous research as a result of failing to consider influence processes and alternative characteristics that steer friendship formation. The results show that selection effects of both physical and relational aggression disappeared when network effects, gender, and social status were taken into account. Particularly gender and perceived popularity appeared to be far more important determinants of friendship selection over time than aggression. Moreover, a peer influence effect was only found for relational aggression, and not for physical aggression. These findings suggest that similarity in aggression among befriended adolescents can be considered to be mainly a by-product rather than a leading dimension in friendship selection. PMID:21688275

  5. Adolescents' risky decision-making activates neural networks related to social cognition and cognitive control processes.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María José; Padrón, Iván; de Vega, Manuel; Ferstl, Evelyn C

    2014-01-01

    This study examines by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging the neural mechanisms underlying adolescents' risk decision-making in social contexts. We hypothesize that the social context could engage brain regions associated with social cognition processes and developmental changes are also expected. Sixty participants (adolescents: 17-18, and young adults: 21-22 years old) read narratives describing typical situations of decision-making in the presence of peers. They were asked to make choices in risky situations (e.g., taking or refusing a drug) or ambiguous situations (e.g., eating a hamburger or a hotdog). Risky as compared to ambiguous scenarios activated bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), bilateral middle temporal gyrus (MTG), right medial prefrontal cortex, and the precuneus bilaterally; i.e., brain regions related to social cognition processes, such as self-reflection and theory of mind (ToM). In addition, brain structures related to cognitive control were active [right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral orbitofrontal cortex], whereas no significant clusters were obtained in the reward system (ventral striatum). Choosing the dangerous option involved a further activation of control areas (ACC) and emotional and social cognition areas (temporal pole). Adolescents employed more neural resources than young adults in the right DLPFC and the right TPJ in risk situations. When choosing the dangerous option, young adults showed a further engagement in ToM related regions (bilateral MTG) and in motor control regions related to the planning of actions (pre-supplementary motor area). Finally, the right insula and the right superior temporal gyrus were more activated in women than in men, suggesting more emotional involvement and more intensive modeling of the others' perspective in the risky conditions. These findings call for more comprehensive developmental accounts of decision-making in

  6. Frequent Use of Social Networking Sites Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning Among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lewis, Rosamund F

    2015-07-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained substantial popularity among youth in recent years. However, the relationship between the use of these Web-based platforms and mental health problems in children and adolescents is unclear. This study investigated the association between time spent on SNSs and unmet need for mental health support, poor self-rated mental health, and reports of psychological distress and suicidal ideation in a representative sample of middle and high school children in Ottawa, Canada. Data for this study were based on 753 students (55% female; Mage=14.1 years) in grades 7-12 derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between mental health variables and time spent using SNSs. Overall, 25.2% of students reported using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day, 54.3% reported using SNSs for 2 hours or less every day, and 20.5% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Students who reported unmet need for mental health support were more likely to report using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day than those with no identified unmet need for mental health support. Daily SNS use of more than 2 hours was also independently associated with poor self-rating of mental health and experiences of high levels of psychological distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that students with poor mental health may be greater users of SNSs. These results indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on SNSs in order to provide support to youth. PMID:26167836

  7. "I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You": A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cleemput, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…

  8. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13–14 years and again at ages 20–22 years. At ages 20–22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13–14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20–22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13–14 years and at ages 20–22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20–22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. PMID:20053005

  9. Individual and social network predictors of physical bullying: a longitudinal study of Taiwanese early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Lee, Wonjae

    2014-01-01

    This study followed 125 7th-grade students in Taiwan for the entire school year and analyzed the individual and social network factors predicting their involvement in physical bullying over 5 waves of data. Using self-reports of bullying experiences, 20 classroom-level networks of bullying and friendship were constructed for 4 classrooms and 5 temporal points, from which 4 individual-level network measures were calculated. They included bully and victim centrality, popularity, and embeddedness in friendship networks. A series of mixed models for repeated measures were constructed to predict students' bully and victim centrality in bullying network at time t + 1. Compared to girls, boys were more likely to be both the bullies and victims. Lower self-esteem and higher family economic status contributed to victim centrality. Having parents married and living together predicted lower bully centrality. Higher educational level of parents predicted lower victim and bully centrality. Regarding the social network factors, students' bully centrality at t positively predicted their bully centrality at t + 1, whereas victim centrality predicted their subsequent victim centrality. Interaction effects between friendship network and bullying network were observed. Embeddedness in friendship network reduced victim centrality at t + 1 except for those students with low victim centrality at t. For those with high victim centrality at t, popularity increased their risk of physical victimization over time. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25199395

  10. Loneliness, Friendship Quality and the Social Networks of Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism in an Inclusive School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Ishijima, Eric H.; Kasari, Connie; London, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    By definition, children with autism have poor peer relationships despite age and ability. When children enter adolescence, social problems typically worsen and feelings of loneliness and isolation may emerge. Thus, the overarching goal of the current study is to examine the social-emotional relationships of adolescents with autism and their…

  11. Use of Social Networking Sites and Risk of Cyberbullying Victimization: A Population-Level Study of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained considerable popularity among youth in recent years; however, there is a noticeable paucity of research examining the association between the use of these web-based platforms and cyberbullying victimization at the population level. This study examines the association between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization using a large-scale survey of Canadian middle and high school students. Data on 5,329 students aged 11-20 years were derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between the use of SNSs and cyberbullying victimization while adjusting for covariates. Overall, 19 percent of adolescents were cyberbullied in the past 12 months. Adolescents who were female, younger, of lower socioeconomic status, and who used alcohol or tobacco were at greater odds of being cyberbullied. The use of SNSs was associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimization in a dose-response manner (p-trend <0.001). Gender was not a significant moderator of the association between use of SNSs and being cyberbullied. Results from this study underscore the need for raising awareness and educating adolescents on effective strategies to prevent cyberbullying victimization. PMID:26539738

  12. Semantic Networks and Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To illustrate the need for social network metadata within semantic metadata. Design/methodology/approach: Surveys properties of social networks and the semantic web, suggests that social network analysis applies to semantic content, argues that semantic content is more searchable if social network metadata is merged with semantic web…

  13. Do friends share similar body image and eating problems? The role of social networks and peer influences in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Delyse M; Rapee, Ronald M

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the role of friendship networks and peer influences in body image concern, dietary restraint, extreme weight loss behaviours (EWLBs) and binge eating in a large community sample of young adolescent females. Based on girls' self-reported friendship groups, social network analysis was used to identify 173 friendship cliques. Results indicated that clique members shared similar scores on measures of dieting, EWLB and binge eating, but not body image concern. Average clique scores for dieting, EWLB and binge eating, were also correlated significantly with clique averages on measures of perceived peer influence, body mass index and psychological variables. Multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived peer influences in weight-related attitudes and behaviours were predictive of individual girls' level of body image concern, dieting, EWLB use and binge eating. Notably, an individual girl's dieting and EWLB use could be predicted from her friends' respective dieting and EWLB scores. Findings highlight the significance of the peer environment in body image and eating problems during early adolescence. PMID:17258173

  14. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trend<0·01) and consuming SSB (P trend<0·01) and energy drinks (P trend<0·01) in a dose-response manner with adjustments for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status, tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use as well as BMI. However, there was no evidence of a significant association between use of SNS and BMI before or after adjusting for all the covariates and unhealthy eating behaviours. In conclusion, our results suggest associations between the use of SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours among youth. Given the popularity of SNS, more efforts are needed to better understand the impact of social networks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight. PMID:26400488

  15. Neural mechanisms of social influence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Welborn, B Locke; Lieberman, Matthew D; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Galván, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    During the transformative period of adolescence, social influence plays a prominent role in shaping young people's emerging social identities, and can impact their propensity to engage in prosocial or risky behaviors. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of social influence from both parents and peers, two important sources of influence. Nineteen adolescents (age 16-18 years) completed a social influence task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Social influence from both sources evoked activity in brain regions implicated in mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction, right temporoparietal junction), reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and self-control (right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). These results suggest that mental state reasoning, social reward and self-control processes may help adolescents to evaluate others' perspectives and overcome the prepotent force of their own antecedent attitudes to shift their attitudes toward those of others. Findings suggest common neural networks involved in social influence from both parents and peers. PMID:26203050

  16. Social Resource Characteristics and Adolescent Substance Abuse Relapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Peter W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined social resource network characteristics of adolescent substance abusers (n=19). Perceived similarity to one's social network emerged as important moderator of whether social network provided support to remain abstinent or elevated risk for relapse. Increased perceived support predicted continued posttreatment abstinence when recovering…

  17. Social Networks and the Diffusion of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Reliable Estimates of Selection and Influence from 6th through 9th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, D. Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E.; Ragan, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Seeking to reduce problematic peer influence is a prominent theme of programs to prevent adolescent problem behavior. To support the refinement of this aspect of prevention programming, we examined peer influence and selection processes for three problem behaviors (delinquency, alcohol use, and smoking). We assessed not only the overall strengths of these peer processes, but also their consistency versus variability across settings. We used dynamic stochastic actor-based models to analyze five waves of friendship network data across sixth through ninth grades for a large sample of U.S. adolescents. Our sample included two successive grade cohorts of youth in 26 school districts participating in the PROSPER study, yielding 51 longitudinal social networks based on respondents’ friendship nominations. For all three self-reported antisocial behaviors, we found evidence of both peer influence and selection processes tied to antisocial behavior. There was little reliable variance in these processes across the networks, suggesting that the statistical imprecision of the peer influence and selection estimates in previous studies likely accounts for inconsistencies in results. Adolescent friendship networks play a strong role in shaping problem behavior, but problem behaviors also inform friendship choices. In addition to preferring friends with similar levels of problem behavior, adolescents tend to choose friends who engage in problem behaviors, thus creating broader diffusion. PMID:25943034

  18. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5-10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598

  19. Frequency of Victimization Experiences and Well-Being Among Online, Offline, and Combined Victims on Social Online Network Sites of German Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glüer, Michael; Lohaus, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Victimization is associated with negative developmental outcomes in childhood and adolescence. However, previous studies have provided mixed results regarding the association between offline and online victimization and indicators of social, psychological, and somatic well-being. In this study, we investigated 1,890 German children and adolescents (grades 5–10, mean age = 13.9; SD = 2.1) with and without offline or online victimization experiences who participated in a social online network (SNS). Online questionnaires were used to assess previous victimization (offline, online, combined, and without), somatic and psychological symptoms, self-esteem, and social self-concept (social competence, resistance to peer influence, esteem by others). In total, 1,362 (72.1%) children and adolescents reported being a member of at least one SNS, and 377 students (28.8%) reported previous victimization. Most children and adolescents had offline victimization experiences (17.5%), whereas 2.7% reported online victimization, and 8.6% reported combined experiences. Girls reported more online and combined victimization, and boys reported more offline victimization. The type of victimization (offline, online, combined) was associated with increased reports of psychological and somatic symptoms, lower self-esteem and esteem by others, and lower resistance to peer influences. The effects were comparable for the groups with offline and online victimization. They were, however, increased in the combined group in comparison to victims with offline experiences alone. PMID:26734598

  20. Towards a Methodology of Postmodern Assemblage: Adolescent Identity in the Age of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Chad

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents who occupy virtual spaces construct identities for a dual audience, those intimate friends whose favor they seek and a broader public audience whose purpose for viewing cannot be known. The digital world of MySpace, Facebook, and Instant Messaging has simultaneously complicated and enhanced the process of identity construction. The…

  1. The Role of Social Networks in Physical and Relational Aggression among Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Sabina; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the veritable influence of the peer context on the elaboration of adolescent aggression, few studies of relational aggression have directly identified and measured peer groups, limiting our ability to draw formal conclusions about the level and nature of peer influence. The current study used a developmental framework to examine peer group…

  2. Help, I Am Losing Control! Examining the Reporting of Sexual Harassment by Adolescents to Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment is often encountered by adolescents on social networking sites (SNS). One option to cope with a situation of harassment on SNS is to alarm the provider by reporting the transgressive content. It is yet unclear what the determinants of reporting a sexual harassment situation on SNS are, as well as the subsequent actions to these reports from the part of the SNS provider. In this article, we seek to address these gaps, and in particular examine whether control-by-the-self over the situation and negative emotions play a role in the reporting of sexual harassment on SNS. Findings indicate that a low situational control-by-the-self, indirectly (namely through a higher experience of negative emotions such as anger and shame) increases the reporting of sexual harassment by the victim. Public visibility of the incident and the impossibility to remove the content reduce the situational control-by-the-self. Results further suggest that SNS providers often ignore reported situations of sexual harassment. The study concludes with suggestions for responses to reported harassment on SNS, which should be directed toward increasing behavioral control and thereby alleviating negative emotions. PMID:26779661

  3. Internet Lives: Social Context and Moral Domain in Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents nowadays socialize, network, and sort out their friendships and relationships online. As such, it is assumed that adolescents' experiences in the online world will influence their experiences in the face-to-face world and will play an important role in their development of social and moral knowledge. In this article, the author…

  4. The Social Network, Socioeconomic Background, and School Type of Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Chip; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the role of Dutch second grade (age 13-14) high school peer networks in mediating socioeconomic background and school type effects on smoking behavior. This study is based on a longitudinal design with two measurement waves at five different high schools, of the complete networks of second grader friendships, as…

  5. Popularity and Adolescent Friendship Networks: Selection and Influence Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Borch, Casey

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher…

  6. Wayfinding in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liben-Nowell, David

    With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

  7. Visualization of Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ing-Xiang; Yang, Cheng-Zen

    With the ubiquitous characteristic of the Internet, today many online social environments are provided to connect people. Various social relationships are thus created, connected, and migrated from our real lives to the Internet environment from different social groups. Many social communities and relationships are also quickly constructed and connected via instant personal messengers, blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and a great variety of online social services. Since social network visualizations can structure the complex relationships between different groups of individuals or organizations, they are helpful to analyze the social activities and relationships of actors, particularly over a large number of nodes. Therefore, many studies and visualization tools have been investigated to present social networks with graph representations. In this chapter, we will first review the background of social network analysis and visualization methods, and then introduce various novel visualization applications for social networks. Finally, the challenges and the future development of visualizing online social networks are discussed.

  8. Popularity and adolescent friendship networks: selection and influence dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the dynamics of popularity in adolescent friendship networks across 3 years in middle school. Longitudinal social network modeling was used to identify selection and influence in the similarity of popularity among friends. It was argued that lower status adolescents strive to enhance their status through befriending higher status adolescents, whereas higher status adolescents strive to maintain their status by keeping lower status adolescents at a distance. The results largely supported these expectations. Selection partially accounted for similarity in popularity among friends; adolescents preferred to affiliate with similar-status or higher status peers, reinforcing the attractiveness of popular adolescents and explaining stability of popularity at the individual level. Influence processes also accounted for similarity in popularity over time, showing that peers increase in popularity and become more similar to their friends. The results showed how selection and influence processes account for popularity dynamics in adolescent networks over time. PMID:22985296

  9. Development of an Adolescent Depression Ontology for Analyzing Social Data.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Song, Tae-Min; Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Ae Ran; Lee, Joo Yun

    2015-01-01

    Depression in adolescence is associated with significant suicidality. Therefore, it is important to detect the risk for depression and provide timely care to adolescents. This study aims to develop an ontology for collecting and analyzing social media data about adolescent depression. This ontology was developed using the 'ontology development 101'. The important terms were extracted from several clinical practice guidelines and postings on Social Network Service. We extracted 777 terms, which were categorized into 'risk factors', 'sign and symptoms', 'screening', 'diagnosis', 'treatment', and 'prevention'. An ontology developed in this study can be used as a framework to understand adolescent depression using unstructured data from social media. PMID:26262398

  10. Online and Offline Social Networks: Use of Social Networking Sites by Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Reich, Stephanie M.; Waechter, Natalia; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of "friends" relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students…

  11. Social Justice, Research, and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    In what ways might research on adolescence contribute to social justice? My 2014 Presidential Address identified strategies for social justice in our field. First, we need research that is conscious of biases, power, and privilege in science, as well as in our roles as scholars. Second, we need research that attends to inequities in lives of adolescents, and as scholars we need to question the ways that our research may unwittingly reinforce those inequalities. Third, we need research that attends to urgencies, that is, issues or conditions that influence adolescents’ well-being which demand attention and action. I draw from a range of concepts and theoretical perspectives to make the case for a framework of social justice in research on adolescence. PMID:27307689

  12. Adolescents and social support situations.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Ingrid; Hagekull, Berit; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Åhlander, Camilla

    2016-06-01

    The present study concerned adolescents' needs for social support with a focus on specific situations. The Adolescent Need for Social Support Questionnaire (ANSSQ) was developed based on qualitative interviews with typically developing adolescents about situations in which they need parent support. The questionnaire was tested on a sample of 380 Swedish 15-year-olds. A 3-component structure reflecting the dimensions "Home and school", "Low mood", and "Sex and alcohol" was tested in SEM analyses. Scales based on these dimensions, measuring support from parents and peers, yielded satisfactory psychometric results. Parent support was preferred over peer support for "Home and school" situations; in the other two areas peers were more likely to be the support providers. Females turned more often to parents and friends for support than males. Seeking parental support was positively related to adolescent disclosure and negatively related to adolescent secrecy, indicating convergent and discriminant validity. Further validation of the ANSSQ is discussed. The current study points to possibilities for adapting measures of social support to contexts. PMID:27038341

  13. Decentralized Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anwitaman; Buchegger, Sonja; Vu, Le-Hung; Strufe, Thorsten; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Current Online social networks (OSN) are web services run on logically centralized infrastructure. Large OSN sites use content distribution networks and thus distribute some of the load by caching for performance reasons, nevertheless there is a central repository for user and application data. This centralized nature of OSNs has several drawbacks including scalability, privacy, dependence on a provider, need for being online for every transaction, and a lack of locality. There have thus been several efforts toward decentralizing OSNs while retaining the functionalities offered by centralized OSNs. A decentralized online social network (DOSN) is a distributed system for social networking with no or limited dependency on any dedicated central infrastructure. In this chapter we explore the various motivations of a decentralized approach to online social networking, discuss several concrete proposals and types of DOSN as well as challenges and opportunities associated with decentralization.

  14. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment.…

  15. Size, Composition and Utility of Support Networks for Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbera-Stein, Linda; Kraft, Joan Marie

    The normative transition from adolescent to adult is interrupted by adolescent motherhood. Many argue that obstacles presented by adolescent motherhood can be overcome with support of family, friends, and the baby's father. To examine the size of social networks and the perceived and actual support derived from such networks, data were obtained…

  16. [Social networks and medicine].

    PubMed

    Bastardot, F; Vollenweider, P; Marques-Vidal, P

    2015-11-01

    Social networks (social media or #SoMe) have entered medical practice within the last few years. These new media--like Twitter or Skype--enrich interactions among physicians (telemedicine), among physicians and patients (virtual consultations) and change the way of teaching medicine. They also entail new ethical, deontological and legal issues: the extension of the consultation area beyond the medical office and the access of information by third parties were recently debated. We develop here a review of some social networks with their characteristics, applications for medicine and limitations, and we offer some recommendations of good practice. PMID:26685647

  17. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  18. Social Networks and Health.

    PubMed

    Perdiaris, Christos; Chardalias, Konstantinos; Magita, Andrianna; Mechili, Aggelos E; Diomidous, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the social networks have been developed into an advanced communications tool, which is important for all people to contact each other. These specific networks do offer lots of options as well as plenty of advantages and disadvantages. The social websites are many in number and titles, such as the facebook, the twitter, the bandoo etc. One of the most important function-mechanisms for the social network websites, are the marketing tools. The future goal is suggested to be the evolution of these programs. The development of these applications, which is going to lead into a new era for the social digital communication between the internet users, all around the globe. PMID:26153011

  19. The Social Ecology of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Cai, Li; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John; DuRant, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A conceptual framework based on social ecology, social learning, and social control theories guided identification of social contexts, contextual attributes, and joint effects that contribute to development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Modeling of alcohol use, suggested by social learning theory, and indicators of the social bond, suggested by…

  20. Online Advertising in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherjeiran, Abraham; Bhatt, Rushi P.; Parekh, Rajesh; Chaoji, Vineet

    Online social networks offer opportunities to analyze user behavior and social connectivity and leverage resulting insights for effective online advertising. This chapter focuses on the role of social network information in online display advertising.

  1. Friending, IMing, and Hanging out Face-to-Face: Overlap in Adolescents' Online and Offline Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Stephanie M.; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Espinoza, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Many new and important developmental issues are encountered during adolescence, which is also a time when Internet use becomes increasingly popular. Studies have shown that adolescents are using these online spaces to address developmental issues, especially needs for intimacy and connection to others. Online communication with its potential for…

  2. The Social Network Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunus, Peter

    Online social networking is an important part in the everyday life of college students. Despite the increasing popularity of online social networking among students and faculty members, its educational benefits are largely untested. This paper presents our experience in using social networking applications and video content distribution websites as a complement of traditional classroom education. In particular, the solution has been based on effective adaptation, extension and integration of Facebook, Twitter, Blogger YouTube and iTunes services for delivering educational material to students on mobile platforms like iPods and 3 rd generation mobile phones. The goals of the proposed educational platform, described in this paper, are to make the learning experience more engaging, to encourage collaborative work and knowledge sharing among students, and to provide an interactive platform for the educators to reach students and deliver lecture material in a totally new way.

  3. Social Network Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plait, Philip

    2008-05-01

    Social networks are websites (or software that distributes media online) where users can distribute content to either a list of friends on that site or to anyone who surfs onto their page, and where those friends can interact and discuss the content. By linking to friends online, the users’ personal content (pictures, songs, favorite movies, diaries, websites, and so on) is dynamically distributed, and can "become viral", that is, get spread rapidly as more people see it and spread it themselves. Social networks are immensely popular around the planet, especially with younger users. The biggest social networks are Facebook and MySpace; an IYA2009 user already exists on Facebook, and one will be created for MySpace (in fact, several NASA satellites such as GLAST and Swift already have successful MySpace pages). Twitter is another network where data distribution is more limited; it is more like a mini-blog, but is very popular. IYA2009 already has a Twitter page, and will be updated more often with relevant information. In this talk I will review the existing social networks, show people how and why they are useful, and give them the tools they need to contribute meaningfully to IYA's online reach.

  4. Learned Social Hopelessness: The Role of Explanatory Style in Predicting Social Support during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Almost no research has examined the impact of explanatory style on social adjustment. We hypothesised that adolescents with a pessimistic style would be less likely to develop and maintain social support networks. Methods: Seven hundred and nineteen students (351 males and 366 females; 2 unknown; M[subscript AGE] = 12.28, SD = 0.49)…

  5. Psicologia social de la adolescencia (Social Psychology of the Adolescent).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havighurst, Robert J.

    An attempt is made (1) to define adolescence as a biological phenomenon, (2) to describe the characteristics of the adolescent in Latin America, and (3) to identify the adolescent within certain social and cultural groups of specific Latin American countries. The perspective of the four-part monograph is entirely sociological, and the report is…

  6. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  7. Parenting Practices and Adolescents Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoester, Chris; Haynie, Dana L.; Stephens, Crystal M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data on 11,044 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we examine the relationship between parenting practices and the composition of an adolescents friendship network. In general, parent-child relationship quality, selecting a neighborhood because of its schools, and parents supervision are negatively…

  8. Promoting Social Network Awareness: A Social Network Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadima, Rita; Ferreira, Carlos; Monguet, Josep; Ojeda, Jordi; Fernandez, Joaquin

    2010-01-01

    To increase communication and collaboration opportunities, members of a community must be aware of the social networks that exist within that community. This paper describes a social network monitoring system--the KIWI system--that enables users to register their interactions and visualize their social networks. The system was implemented in a…

  9. Growing up with Social Networks and Online Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This presentation examines child and adolescent social networking with an emphasis on how this unprecedented form of communication can be used to contribute to healthy growth and development. Most literature about child and adolescent relationships reflects yesterday's world, a time when face-to-face encounters were the only concern. Students saw…

  10. Social Networking, Workplace, and Entertainment Literacies: The Out-of-School Literate Lives of Newcomer Adolescent Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Using a New Literacy Studies perspective that recognizes multiple literacies that are meaningful within their sociocultural traditions, this collective case study investigated the range, form, and purpose of the out-of-school literacies of four Latina/o adolescent English learners. The qualitative methodology employed constructivist interviews,…

  11. A Social Operational Model of Urban Adolescents' Tobacco and Substance Use: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with tobacco use, social network quality (level of risk or protection in a network), and substance use (alcohol and/or illicit drugs) with a sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality would mediate the effect of tobacco use, accounting for PTSD symptoms and…

  12. Neurocognitive and Temperamental Systems of Self-Regulation and Early Adolescents' Social and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checa, Purificacion; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Rueda, M. Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the role of individual differences in neurocognitive and temperamental systems of self-regulation in early adolescents' social and academic competence. Measures used in the study included the Attention Network Test, the Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire, a peer-reported Social Status…

  13. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (β=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (β=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. PMID:25462651

  14. Social Information Processing in Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jesús; Saldaña, David; Rodríguez-Ortiz, Isabel R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the processing of social information in deaf and hearing adolescents. A task was developed to assess social information processing (SIP) skills of deaf adolescents based on Crick and Dodge's (1994; A review and reformulation of social information-processing mechanisms in children's social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101) reformulated six-stage model. It consisted of a structured interview after watching 18 scenes of situations depicting participation in a peer group or provocations by peers. Participants included 32 deaf and 20 hearing adolescents and young adults aged between 13 and 21 years. Deaf adolescents and adults had lower scores than hearing participants in all the steps of the SIP model (coding, interpretation, goal formulation, response generation, response decision, and representation). However, deaf girls and women had better scores on social adjustment and on some SIP skills than deaf male participants. PMID:27143715

  15. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  16. Risk factors associated with impact severity of cyberbullying victimization: a qualitative study of adolescent online social networking.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John F M; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl

    2014-05-01

    Cyberbullying victimization is associated with a range of emotional and behavioral outcomes for adolescents. However, previous research has shown that this type of victimization does not affect all individuals negatively. The factors that account for individual differences in reactions to the same online experiences are not well understood. Using a qualitative inductive approach, a set of strong themes relating to factors that either increased the severity of impact of cyberbullying victimization or buffered victims against the impact emerged from interviews with 25 adolescents aged 15-24 years. Themes related to publicity, anonymity of perpetrators, features of the medium, presence of bystanders, and individual level factors were identified as potential influences upon impact severity. The implications of these results for further research and for school/university cyberbullying prevention programs for victims, perpetrators, and bystanders are discussed. PMID:24611734

  17. Collaboration in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Asta, Luca; Marsili, Matteo; Pin, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The very notion of social network implies that linked individuals interact repeatedly with each other. This notion allows them not only to learn successful strategies and adapt to them, but also to condition their own behavior on the behavior of others, in a strategic forward looking manner. Game theory of repeated games shows that these circumstances are conducive to the emergence of collaboration in simple games of two players. We investigate the extension of this concept to the case where players are engaged in a local contribution game and show that rationality and credibility of threats identify a class of Nash equilibria—that we call “collaborative equilibria”—that have a precise interpretation in terms of subgraphs of the social network. For large network games, the number of such equilibria is exponentially large in the number of players. When incentives to defect are small, equilibria are supported by local structures whereas when incentives exceed a threshold they acquire a nonlocal nature, which requires a “critical mass” of more than a given fraction of the players to collaborate. Therefore, when incentives are high, an individual deviation typically causes the collapse of collaboration across the whole system. At the same time, higher incentives to defect typically support equilibria with a higher density of collaborators. The resulting picture conforms with several results in sociology and in the experimental literature on game theory, such as the prevalence of collaboration in denser groups and in the structural hubs of sparse networks. PMID:22383559

  18. Social information influences trust behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Jolles, Jelle; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Trust plays an integral role in daily interactions within adolescents' social environment. Using a trust game paradigm, this study investigated the modulating influence of social information about three interaction partners on trust behaviour in adolescents aged 12-18 (N = 845). After receiving information about their interaction partners prior to the task, participants were most likely to share with a 'good' partner and rate this partner as most trustworthy. Over the course of the task all interaction partners showed similar levels of trustworthy behaviour, but overall participants continued to trust and view the good partner as more trustworthy than 'bad' and 'neutral' partners throughout the game. However, with age the ability to overcome prior social information and adapt trust behaviour improved: middle and late adolescents showed a larger decrease in trust of the good partner than early adolescents, and late adolescents were more likely to reward trustworthy behaviour from the negative partner. PMID:26599529

  19. Online social networking and mental health.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  20. Online Social Networking and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305

  1. The impact of social media on children, adolescents, and families.

    PubMed

    O'Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin; Clarke-Pearson, Kathleen

    2011-04-01

    Using social media Web sites is among the most common activity of today's children and adolescents. Any Web site that allows social interaction is considered a social media site, including social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter; gaming sites and virtual worlds such as Club Penguin, Second Life, and the Sims; video sites such as YouTube; and blogs. Such sites offer today's youth a portal for entertainment and communication and have grown exponentially in recent years. For this reason, it is important that parents become aware of the nature of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy environments for children and adolescents. Pediatricians are in a unique position to help families understand these sites and to encourage healthy use and urge parents to monitor for potential problems with cyberbullying, "Facebook depression," sexting, and exposure to inappropriate content. PMID:21444588

  2. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  3. Applications of Social Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thilagam, P. Santhi

    A social network [2] is a description of the social structure between actors, mostly persons, groups or organizations. It indicates the ways in which they are connected with each other by some relationship such as friendship, kinship, finance exchange etc. In a nutshell, when the person uses already known/unknown people to create new contacts, it forms social networking. The social network is not a new concept rather it can be formed when similar people interact with each other directly or indirectly to perform particular task. Examples of social networks include a friendship networks, collaboration networks, co-authorship networks, and co-employees networks which depict the direct interaction among the people. There are also other forms of social networks, such as entertainment networks, business Networks, citation networks, and hyperlink networks, in which interaction among the people is indirect. Generally, social networks operate on many levels, from families up to the level of nations and assists in improving interactive knowledge sharing, interoperability and collaboration.

  4. Underage Children and Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeden, Shalynn; Cooke, Bethany; McVey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum age requirements for joining popular social networking services such as Facebook, many students misrepresent their real ages and join as active participants in the networks. This descriptive study examines the use of social networking services (SNSs) by children under the age of 13. The researchers surveyed a sample of 199…

  5. Adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context.

    PubMed

    Schriber, Roberta A; Guyer, Amanda E

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence has been characterized as a period of heightened sensitivity to social contexts. However, adolescents vary in how their social contexts affect them. According to neurobiological susceptibility models, endogenous, biological factors confer some individuals, relative to others, with greater susceptibility to environmental influences, whereby more susceptible individuals fare the best or worst of all individuals, depending on the environment encountered (e.g., high vs. low parental warmth). Until recently, research guided by these theoretical frameworks has not incorporated direct measures of brain structure or function to index this sensitivity. Drawing on prevailing models of adolescent neurodevelopment and a growing number of neuroimaging studies on the interrelations among social contexts, the brain, and developmental outcomes, we review research that supports the idea of adolescent neurobiological susceptibility to social context for understanding why and how adolescents differ in development and well-being. We propose that adolescent development is shaped by brain-based individual differences in sensitivity to social contexts - be they positive or negative - such as those created through relationships with parents/caregivers and peers. Ultimately, we recommend that future research measure brain function and structure to operationalize susceptibility factors that moderate the influence of social contexts on developmental outcomes. PMID:26773514

  6. Substance Use, Distress, and Adolescent School Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jane D.; Uemura, Ryotaro

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations of substance use, psychological distress, and mental health services receipt with the structure and content of adolescent school-based networks. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we found that substance use was associated with receiving more, but making fewer, peer…

  7. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…

  8. Microbial "social networks"

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is well understood that distinct communities of bacteria are present at different sites of the body, and that changes in the structure of these communities have strong implications for human health. Yet, challenges remain in understanding the complex interconnections between the bacterial taxa within these microbial communities and how they change during the progression of diseases. Many recent studies attempt to analyze the human microbiome using traditional ecological measures and cataloging differences in bacterial community membership. In this paper, we show how to push metagenomic analyses beyond mundane questions related to the bacterial taxonomic profiles that differentiate one sample from another. Methods We develop tools and techniques that help us to investigate the nature of social interactions in microbial communities, and demonstrate ways of compactly capturing extensive information about these networks and visually conveying them in an effective manner. We define the concept of bacterial "social clubs", which are groups of taxa that tend to appear together in many samples. More importantly, we define the concept of "rival clubs", entire groups that tend to avoid occurring together in many samples. We show how to efficiently compute social clubs and rival clubs and demonstrate their utility with the help of examples including a smokers' dataset and a dataset from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). Results The tools developed provide a framework for analyzing relationships between bacterial taxa modeled as bacterial co-occurrence networks. The computational techniques also provide a framework for identifying clubs and rival clubs and for studying differences in the microbiomes (and their interactions) of two or more collections of samples. Conclusions Microbial relationships are similar to those found in social networks. In this work, we assume that strong (positive or negative) tendencies to co-occur or co-infect is likely to have

  9. Internet use and web communication networks, sources of social support, and forms of suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents: different patterns between genders.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fang-Yi; Yang, Hao-Jan

    2015-04-01

    The relationships of Internet use, web communication, and sources of social support with adolescent self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in Taiwan were investigated. The study sample of 391 12 to 18-year-olds was selected from nine public high schools. Findings show that girls are more likely to have SITBs, except for suicide gestures. Web communication is a risk factor for SITBs in boys but not in girls. Family support is protective in both genders. Support from friends is protective and support from significant others was a risk factor for suicide plans in girls. Support from virtual social communities can have both positive and negative effects on adolescent SITBs, with different effects by gender. PMID:25255896

  10. Social Influence on Risk Perception During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Magis-Weinberg, Lucía; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of life in which peer relationships become increasingly important. Adolescents have a greater likelihood of taking risks when they are with peers rather than alone. In this study, we investigated the development of social influence on risk perception from late childhood through adulthood. Five hundred and sixty-three participants rated the riskiness of everyday situations and were then informed about the ratings of a social-influence group (teenagers or adults) before rating each situation again. All age groups showed a significant social-influence effect, changing their risk ratings in the direction of the provided ratings; this social-influence effect decreased with age. Most age groups adjusted their ratings more to conform to the ratings of the adult social-influence group than to the ratings of the teenager social-influence group. Only young adolescents were more strongly influenced by the teenager social-influence group than they were by the adult social-influence group, which suggests that to early adolescents, the opinions of other teenagers about risk matter more than the opinions of adults. PMID:25810453

  11. The Analysis of Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, A. James; Marsden, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    Many questions about the social organization of medicine and health services involve interdependencies among social actors that may be depicted by networks of relationships. Social network studies have been pursued for some time in social science disciplines, where numerous descriptive methods for analyzing them have been proposed. More recently, interest in the analysis of social network data has grown among statisticians, who have developed more elaborate models and methods for fitting them to network data. This article reviews fundamentals of, and recent innovations in, social network analysis using a physician influence network as an example. After introducing forms of network data, basic network statistics, and common descriptive measures, it describes two distinct types of statistical models for network data: individual-outcome models in which networks enter the construction of explanatory variables, and relational models in which the network itself is a multivariate dependent variable. Complexities in estimating both types of models arise due to the complex correlation structures among outcome measures. PMID:20046802

  12. Churn in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnstedt, Marcel; Hennessy, Tara; Chan, Jeffrey; Basuchowdhuri, Partha; Hayes, Conor; Strufe, Thorsten

    In the past, churn has been identified as an issue across most industry sectors. In its most general sense it refers to the rate of loss of customers from a company's customer base. There is a simple reason for the attention churn attracts: churning customers mean a loss of revenue. Emerging from business spaces like telecommunications (telcom) and broadcast providers, where churn is a major issue, it is also regarded as a crucial problem in many other businesses, such as online games creators, but also online social networks and discussion sites. Companies aim at identifying the risk of churn in its early stages, as it is usually much cheaper to retain a customer than to try to win him or her back. If this risk can be accurately predicted, marketing departments can target customers efficiently with tailored incentives to prevent them from leaving.

  13. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    PubMed

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators. PMID:20164062

  14. Connecting the invisible dots: reaching lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents and young adults at risk for suicide through online social networks.

    PubMed

    Silenzio, Vincent M B; Duberstein, Paul R; Tang, Wan; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Homan, Christopher M

    2009-08-01

    Young lesbian, gay, and bisexual (young LGB) individuals report higher rates of suicide ideation and attempts from their late teens through early twenties. Their high rate of Internet use suggests that online social networks offer a novel opportunity to reach them. This study explores online social networks as a venue for prevention research targeting young LGB. An automated data collection program was used to map the social connections between LGB self-identified individuals between 16 and 24 years old participating in an online social network. We then completed a descriptive analysis of the structural characteristics known to affect diffusion within such networks. Finally, we conducted Monte Carlo simulations of peer-driven diffusion of a hypothetical preventive intervention within the observed network under varying starting conditions. We mapped a network of 100,014 young LGB. The mean age was 20.4 years. The mean nodal degree was 137.5, representing an exponential degree distribution ranging from 1 through 4309. Monte Carlo simulations revealed that a peer-driven preventive intervention ultimately reached final sample sizes of up to 18,409 individuals. The network's structure is consistent with other social networks in terms of the underlying degree distribution. Such networks are typically formed dynamically through a process of preferential attachment. This implies that some individuals could be more important to target to facilitate the diffusion of interventions. However, in terms of determining the success of an intervention targeting this population, our simulation results suggest that varying the number of peers that can be recruited is more important than increasing the number of randomly-selected starting individuals. This has implications for intervention design. Given the potential to access this previously isolated population, this novel approach represents a promising new frontier in suicide prevention and other research areas. PMID:19540641

  15. Social Networking Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2010-01-01

    Just a few years ago, social networking meant little more to educators than the headache of determining whether to penalize students for inappropriate activities captured on Facebook or MySpace. Now, teachers and students have an array of social-networking sites and tools--from Ning to VoiceThread and Second Life--to draw on for such serious uses…

  16. A Social Networks in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klimova, Blanka; Poulova, Petra

    2015-01-01

    At present social networks are becoming important in all areas of human activities. They are simply part and parcel of everyday life. They are mostly used for advertising, but they have already found their way into education. The future potential of social networks is high as it can be seen from their statistics on a daily, monthly or yearly…

  17. Modeling the contribution of personality, social identity and social norms to problematic Facebook use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marino, Claudia; Vieno, Alessio; Pastore, Massimiliano; Albery, Ian P; Frings, Daniel; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2016-12-01

    Facebook is the most popular social networking site in the world providing the opportunity to maintain and/or establish relationships, to share media contents and experiences with friends, and to easily communicate with them. Despite the resources and the innovative social features offered by Facebook research has emerged indicating that its use may become problematic, with negative consequences on personal psycho-social well-being, especially among adolescents and young adults. The main aim of this study was to examine the unique contribution of personality traits and social influence processes (i.e. subjective norms, group norms, and social identity) to perceived frequency of Facebook Use and Problematic Facebook Use in a sample of adolescents. A total of 968 Italian adolescents participated in the study. Structural equation modeling showed that emotional stability, extraversion, conscientiousness and norms directly predicted Problematic Facebook Use, whereas gender, group norms and social identity predicted perceived frequency of Facebook use. In conclusion, both personal and social variables appear to explain perceived frequency of Facebook use and Problematic Facebook Use among adolescents, and should be taken into account by researchers and educational practitioners. PMID:27423098

  18. Adolescence and the social determinants of health.

    PubMed

    Viner, Russell M; Ozer, Elizabeth M; Denny, Simon; Marmot, Michael; Resnick, Michael; Fatusi, Adesegun; Currie, Candace

    2012-04-28

    The health of adolescents is strongly affected by social factors at personal, family, community, and national levels. Nations present young people with structures of opportunity as they grow up. Since health and health behaviours correspond strongly from adolescence into adult life, the way that these social determinants affect adolescent health are crucial to the health of the whole population and the economic development of nations. During adolescence, developmental effects related to puberty and brain development lead to new sets of behaviours and capacities that enable transitions in family, peer, and educational domains, and in health behaviours. These transitions modify childhood trajectories towards health and wellbeing and are modified by economic and social factors within countries, leading to inequalities. We review existing data on the effects of social determinants on health in adolescence, and present findings from country-level ecological analyses on the health of young people aged 10-24 years. The strongest determinants of adolescent health worldwide are structural factors such as national wealth, income inequality, and access to education. Furthermore, safe and supportive families, safe and supportive schools, together with positive and supportive peers are crucial to helping young people develop to their full potential and attain the best health in the transition to adulthood. Improving adolescent health worldwide requires improving young people's daily life with families and peers and in schools, addressing risk and protective factors in the social environment at a population level, and focusing on factors that are protective across various health outcomes. The most effective interventions are probably structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury. PMID:22538179

  19. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  20. Understanding Social Change in Conducting Research on Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2005-01-01

    In the present essay, we focus on G. Stanley Hall's contributions to the study of the role of social change for adolescent development. After introducing Hall's main ideas, we discuss recent demands adolescents face because of social change and how Hall's work could inform research on adolescent development in times of social change.

  1. Peer Contagion in Child and Adolescent Social and Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Tipsord, Jessica M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that “select” adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  2. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J; Tipsord, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the construct of peer contagion in childhood and adolescence and review studies of child and adolescent development that have identified peer contagion influences. Evidence suggests that children's interactions with peers are tied to increases in aggression in early and middle childhood and amplification of problem behaviors such as drug use, delinquency, and violence in early to late adolescence. Deviancy training is one mechanism that accounts for peer contagion effects on problem behaviors from age 5 through adolescence. In addition, we discuss peer contagion relevant to depression in adolescence, and corumination as an interactive process that may account for these effects. Social network analyses suggest that peer contagion underlies the influence of friendship on obesity, unhealthy body images, and expectations. Literature is reviewed that suggests how peer contagion effects can undermine the goals of public education from elementary school through college and impair the goals of juvenile corrections systems. In particular, programs that "select" adolescents at risk for aggregated preventive interventions are particularly vulnerable to peer contagion effects. It appears that a history of peer rejection is a vulnerability factor for influence by peers, and adult monitoring, supervision, positive parenting, structure, and self-regulation serve as protective factors. PMID:19575606

  3. Social Disadvantage and Network Turnover

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Research shows that socially disadvantaged groups—especially African Americans and people of low socioeconomic status (SES)—experience more unstable social environments. I argue that this causes higher rates of turnover within their personal social networks. This is a particularly important issue among disadvantaged older adults, who may benefit from stable networks. This article, therefore, examines whether social disadvantage is related to various aspects of personal network change. Method. Social network change was assessed using longitudinal egocentric network data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, a study of older adults conducted between 2005 and 2011. Data collection in Wave 2 included a technique for comparing respondents’ confidant network rosters between waves. Rates of network losses, deaths, and additions were modeled using multivariate Poisson regression. Results. African Americans and low-SES individuals lost more confidants—especially due to death—than did whites and college-educated respondents. African Americans also added more confidants than whites. However, neither African Americans nor low-SES individuals were able to match confidant losses with new additions to the extent that others did, resulting in higher levels of confidant network shrinkage. These trends are partly, but not entirely, explained by disadvantaged individuals’ poorer health and their greater risk of widowhood or marital dissolution. Discussion. Additional work is needed to shed light on the role played by race- and class-based segregation on group differences in social network turnover. Social gerontologists should examine the role these differences play in explaining the link between social disadvantage and important outcomes in later life, such as health decline. PMID:24997286

  4. The Possibilities of Network Sociality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Michele

    Technologically networked social forms are broad, extensive and in demand. The rapid development and growth of web 2.0, or the social web, is evidence of the need and indeed hunger for social connectivity: people are searching for many and varied ways of enacting being-together. However, the ways in which we think of, research and write about network(ed) sociality are relatively recent and arguably restricted, warranting further critique and development. This article attempts to do several things: it raises questions about the types of sociality enacted in contemporary techno-society; critically explores the notion of the networked individual and the focus on the individual evident in much of the technology and sociality literature and asks questions about the place of the social in these discussions. It argues for a more well-balanced and multilevelled approach to questions of sociality in networked societies. The article starts from the position that possibilities enabled/afforded by the technologies we have in place have an effect upon the ways in which we understand being in the world together and our possible actions and futures. These possibilities are more than simply supplementary; in many ways they are transformative. The ways in which we grapple with these questions reveals as much about our understandings of sociality as it does about the technologies themselves.

  5. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  6. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ‘three degrees of influence’ property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  7. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  8. Sexual Socialization during Early Adolescence: The Menarche.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete

    1986-01-01

    Explored early socialization of beliefs and attitudes toward menarche in 258 adolescents, aged 11 to 14 years, male and female pre- and postmenarcheal, from southern Italy. Results showed a consistent lack of accurate information by a high percentage of subjects, both male and female; negative beliefs were held only by girls, boys tended to ignore…

  9. Training Blind Adolescents in Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Social skills training four blind unassertive adolescent females include instructions, feedback, behavior rehearsal, modeling, and manual guidance. Most behaviors selected for modification changed markedly, although some decreased after four weeks, requiring "booster" sessions to promote a return to posttreatment levels. (Author/CL)

  10. Social Neuroscience of Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The social neuroscience of child and adolescent depression is inherently multidisciplinary. Depressive disorders beginning early in life can have serious developmental and functional consequences. Psychopathology research has described depression's defining clinical and contextual features, and intervention research has characterized its response…

  11. Social Networks and Gender Differences in the Life Space of Opportunity: Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Coates, Deborah

    1987-01-01

    Social networks are the linkages between social units, both persons and groups, with which an individual has contact. The articles in this special issue address the different types of people and their functions that make up the social networks of females and males from infancy into childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. (BJV)

  12. Online Identities and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  13. Arab Adolescents: Health, Gender, and Social Context.

    PubMed

    Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Bott, Sarah; Sassine, Anniebelle J

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the evidence about adolescent health in the Arab world, against the background of social, economic, and political change in the region, and with a particular focus on gender. For the literature review, searches were conducted for relevant articles, and data were drawn from national population- and school-based surveys and from the Global Burden of Disease project. In some parts of the Arab world, adolescents experience a greater burden of ill health due to overweight/obesity, transport injuries, cardiovascular and metabolic conditions, and mental health disorders than those in other regions of the world. Poor diets, insufficient physical activity, tobacco use, road traffic injuries, and exposure to violence are major risk factors. Young men have higher risks of unsafe driving and tobacco use and young women have greater ill-health due to depression. Several features of the social context that affect adolescent health are discussed, including changing life trajectories and gender roles, the mismatch between education and job opportunities, and armed conflict and interpersonal violence. Policy makers need to address risk factors behind noncommunicable disease among adolescents in the Arab region, including tobacco use, unhealthy diets, sedentary lifestyles, unsafe driving, and exposure to violence. More broadly, adolescents need economic opportunity, safe communities, and a chance to have a voice in their future. PMID:25770651

  14. Social Networking Sites and Contact Risks among Flemish Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandoninck, Sofie; d'Haenens, Leen; De Cock, Rozane; Donoso, Veronica

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how teenagers use social networking sites (SNS) and other online communication applications, to what extent they are exposed to online contact risks related to the use of these online tools and how they cope with these risks. A written survey was administered among 815 Flemish adolescents aged 14-19. The study controls for…

  15. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  16. Measurement of Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjoka, Mina

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the popularity of online social networks (OSN) has risen to unprecedented levels, with the most popular ones having hundreds of millions of users. This success has generated interest within the networking community and has given rise to a number of measurement and characterization studies, which provide a first step towards their…

  17. Stressing out the Social Network.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Lowry A; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2016-07-20

    In this issue of Neuron, Hultman et al. (2016) find that stress-induced abnormal social behavior reflects aberrant prefrontal regulation of downstream limbic networks. This illustrates how linking aberrant network dynamics to neuropsychiatric disorders may lead to new circuit-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:27477012

  18. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents' online personal information disclosure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Ang, Rebecca P; Lwin, May O

    2013-08-01

    The current study aims to understand the factors that influence adolescents' disclosure of personally identifiable information (PII) on social networking sites (SNSs). A survey was conducted among 780 adolescent participants (between 13 and 18) who were Facebook users. Structural equation modeling was used for analyzing the data and obtaining an overarching model that include cognitive, personality, and social factors that influence adolescents' PII disclosure. Results showed privacy concern as the cognitive factor reduces adolescents' PII disclosure and it serves as a potential mediator for personality and social factors. Amongst personality factors, narcissism was found to directly increase PII disclosure, and social anxiety indirectly decreases PII disclosure by increasing privacy concern. Amongst social factors, active parental mediation decreases PII disclosure directly and indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Restrictive parental mediation decreases PII disclosure only indirectly by increasing privacy concern. Implications of the findings to parents, educators, and policy makers were discussed. PMID:23849657

  19. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  20. Gaining Insight into Adolescent Vulnerability for Social Anxiety from Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Caouette, Justin D.; Guyer, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) markedly impairs daily functioning. For adolescents, SAD can constrain typical development precisely when social experiences broaden, peers’ opinions are highly salient, and social approval is actively sought. Individuals with extreme, impairing social anxiety fear evaluation from others, avoid social interactions, and interpret ambiguous social cues as threatening. Yet some degree of social anxiety can be normative and non-impairing. Furthermore, a temperament of behavioral inhibition increases risk for SAD for some, but not all adolescents with this temperament. One fruitful approach taken to understand the mechanisms of social anxiety has been to use neuroimaging to link affect and cognition with neural networks implicated in the neurodevelopmental social reorientation of adolescence. Although initial neuroimaging studies of adolescent SAD and risk for SAD underscored the role of fear-processing circuits (e.g., the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortex), recent work has expanded these circuits to include reward-processing structures in the basal ganglia. A growing focus on reward-related neural circuitry holds promise for innovative translational research needed to differentiate impairing from normative social anxiety and for novel ways to treat adolescent SAD that focus on both social avoidance and social approach. PMID:24239049

  1. Adolescent Tobacco Use in the Netherlands: Social Background, Education, and School Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huisman, Chip; van de Werfhorst, Herman G.; Monshouwer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article empirically examines the effect of social background, education, and school organization on adolescent tobacco use in the Netherlands. We test theories of norm enforcing and horizon expanding social networks and distinction by examining the relationship between daily smoking behavior and school organization. Using the 2007 Dutch…

  2. The Amygdala: An Agent of Change in Adolescent Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, K. Suzanne; Smyth, Joshua M.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    A unique component of adolescent development is the need to master new developmental tasks in which peer interactions become primary (for the purposes of becoming autonomous from parents, forming intimate friendships, and romantic/sexual partnerships). Previously, it has been suggested that the ability to master these tasks requires an important re-organization in the relation between perceptual, motivational, affective, and cognitive systems in a very general and broad way that is fundamentally influenced by the infusion of sex hormones during pubertal development (Scherf et al., 2012). Herein, we extend this argument to suggest that the amygdala, which is vastly connected with cortical and subcortical regions and contains sex hormone receptors, may lie at the heart of this re-organization. We propose that during adolescent development there is a shift in the attribution of relevance to existing stimuli and contexts that is mediated by the amygdala (e.g., heightened relevance of peer faces, reduced relevance of physical distance from parents). As a result, amygdala inputs to existing stable neural networks are re-weighted (increased or decreased), which destabilizes the functional interactions among regions within these networks and allows for a critical restructuring of the network functional organization. This process of network re-organization enables processing of qualitatively new kinds of social information and the emergence of novel behaviors that support mastery of adolescent-specific developmental tasks. PMID:23756154

  3. Predictors of Change in Self-Reported Social Networks among Homeless Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falci, Christina D.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Rose, Trina

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates changes in social network size and composition of 351 homeless adolescents over 3 years. Findings show that network size decreases over time. Homeless youth with a conduct disorder begin street life with small networks that remain small over time. Caregiver abuse is associated with smaller emotional networks due to fewer…

  4. Techno Generation: Social Networking amongst Youth in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basson, Antoinette; Makhasi, Yoliswa; van Vuuren, Daan

    Internet and cell phones can be considered as new media compared to traditional media types and have become a fundamental part of the lives of many young people across the globe. The exploratory research study investigated the diffusion and adoption of new media innovations among adolescents. It was found that new media have diffused at a high rate among South African adolescents who are not only the innovators in this area, but also changing their life styles to adapt to the new media. Social networking grew to prominence in South Africa especially among the youth. The protection of children from potential harmful exposure and other risks remain a concern and adequate measures need to be initiated and implemented for children to enjoy social networks and other forms of new media. The exploratory research study provided worthwhile and interesting insights into the role of the new media, in the lives of adolescents in South Africa.

  5. Suicide Ideation of Individuals in Online Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Naoki; Kurahashi, Issei; Onari, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Suicide explains the largest number of death tolls among Japanese adolescents in their twenties and thirties. Suicide is also a major cause of death for adolescents in many other countries. Although social isolation has been implicated to influence the tendency to suicidal behavior, the impact of social isolation on suicide in the context of explicit social networks of individuals is scarcely explored. To address this question, we examined a large data set obtained from a social networking service dominant in Japan. The social network is composed of a set of friendship ties between pairs of users created by mutual endorsement. We carried out the logistic regression to identify users’ characteristics, both related and unrelated to social networks, which contribute to suicide ideation. We defined suicide ideation of a user as the membership to at least one active user-defined community related to suicide. We found that the number of communities to which a user belongs to, the intransitivity (i.e., paucity of triangles including the user), and the fraction of suicidal neighbors in the social network, contributed the most to suicide ideation in this order. Other characteristics including the age and gender contributed little to suicide ideation. We also found qualitatively the same results for depressive symptoms. PMID:23638019

  6. Suicide ideation of individuals in online social networks.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Naoki; Kurahashi, Issei; Onari, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    Suicide explains the largest number of death tolls among Japanese adolescents in their twenties and thirties. Suicide is also a major cause of death for adolescents in many other countries. Although social isolation has been implicated to influence the tendency to suicidal behavior, the impact of social isolation on suicide in the context of explicit social networks of individuals is scarcely explored. To address this question, we examined a large data set obtained from a social networking service dominant in Japan. The social network is composed of a set of friendship ties between pairs of users created by mutual endorsement. We carried out the logistic regression to identify users' characteristics, both related and unrelated to social networks, which contribute to suicide ideation. We defined suicide ideation of a user as the membership to at least one active user-defined community related to suicide. We found that the number of communities to which a user belongs to, the intransitivity (i.e., paucity of triangles including the user), and the fraction of suicidal neighbors in the social network, contributed the most to suicide ideation in this order. Other characteristics including the age and gender contributed little to suicide ideation. We also found qualitatively the same results for depressive symptoms. PMID:23638019

  7. Assortative model for social networks.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Michele; Caldarelli, Guido; Pietronero, Luciano

    2004-09-01

    In this Brief Report we present a version of a network growth model, generalized in order to describe the behavior of social networks. The case of study considered is the preprint archive at cul.arxiv.org. Each node corresponds to a scientist, and a link is present whenever two authors wrote a paper together. This graph is a nice example of degree-assortative network, that is, to say a network where sites with similar degree are connected to each other. The model presented is one of the few able to reproduce such behavior, giving some insight on the microscopic dynamics at the basis of the graph structure. PMID:15524673

  8. Rumor evolution in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichao; Zhou, Shi; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2013-03-01

    The social network is a main tunnel of rumor spreading. Previous studies concentrated on a static rumor spreading. The content of the rumor is invariable during the whole spreading process. Indeed, the rumor evolves constantly in its spreading process, which grows shorter, more concise, more easily grasped, and told. In an early psychological experiment, researchers found about 70% of details in a rumor were lost in the first six mouth-to-mouth transmissions. Based on these observations, we investigate rumor spreading on social networks, where the content of the rumor is modified by the individuals with a certain probability. In the scenario, they have two choices, to forward or to modify. As a forwarder, an individual disseminates the rumor directly to their neighbors. As a modifier, conversely, an individual revises the rumor before spreading it out. When the rumor spreads on the social networks, for instance, scale-free networks and small-world networks, the majority of individuals actually are infected by the multirevised version of the rumor, if the modifiers dominate the networks. The individuals with more social connections have a higher probability to receive the original rumor. Our observation indicates that the original rumor may lose its influence in the spreading process. Similarly, a true information may turn out to be a rumor as well. Our result suggests the rumor evolution should not be a negligible question, which may provide a better understanding of the generation and destruction of a rumor.

  9. Social networks and environmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kalberg, Kolter; Leung, PingSun

    2016-01-01

    Social networks can profoundly affect human behavior, which is the primary force driving environmental change. However, empirical evidence linking microlevel social interactions to large-scale environmental outcomes has remained scarce. Here, we leverage comprehensive data on information-sharing networks among large-scale commercial tuna fishers to examine how social networks relate to shark bycatch, a global environmental issue. We demonstrate that the tendency for fishers to primarily share information within their ethnic group creates segregated networks that are strongly correlated with shark bycatch. However, some fishers share information across ethnic lines, and examinations of their bycatch rates show that network contacts are more strongly related to fishing behaviors than ethnicity. Our findings indicate that social networks are tied to actions that can directly impact marine ecosystems, and that biases toward within-group ties may impede the diffusion of sustainable behaviors. Importantly, our analysis suggests that enhanced communication channels across segregated fisher groups could have prevented the incidental catch of over 46,000 sharks between 2008 and 2012 in a single commercial fishery. PMID:27217551

  10. Social networks and environmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michele L; Lynham, John; Kalberg, Kolter; Leung, PingSun

    2016-06-01

    Social networks can profoundly affect human behavior, which is the primary force driving environmental change. However, empirical evidence linking microlevel social interactions to large-scale environmental outcomes has remained scarce. Here, we leverage comprehensive data on information-sharing networks among large-scale commercial tuna fishers to examine how social networks relate to shark bycatch, a global environmental issue. We demonstrate that the tendency for fishers to primarily share information within their ethnic group creates segregated networks that are strongly correlated with shark bycatch. However, some fishers share information across ethnic lines, and examinations of their bycatch rates show that network contacts are more strongly related to fishing behaviors than ethnicity. Our findings indicate that social networks are tied to actions that can directly impact marine ecosystems, and that biases toward within-group ties may impede the diffusion of sustainable behaviors. Importantly, our analysis suggests that enhanced communication channels across segregated fisher groups could have prevented the incidental catch of over 46,000 sharks between 2008 and 2012 in a single commercial fishery. PMID:27217551

  11. The Role of Socialization, Effortful Control, and Ego Resiliency in French Adolescents' Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Claire; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The relations among effortful control, ego resiliency, socialization, and social functioning were examined with a sample of 182 French adolescents (14-20 years old). Adolescents, their parents, and/or teachers completed questionnaires on these constructs. Effortful control and ego resiliency were correlated with adolescents' social functioning,…

  12. Members, isolates, and liaisons: meta-analysis of adolescents' network positions and their smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Smith, Rachel A

    2013-06-01

    Existing research finds that peer networks play an important role in adolescents' smoking behaviors. To evaluate this research, meta-analysis was utilized to investigate the relationship between social positions (e.g., group members vs. isolates vs. liaisons) in friendship networks and smoking behaviors. The results (N = 5,067, k = 8) showed that adolescents from multiple countries who are isolated in friendship networks are more likely to report smoking behaviors than those with friends (members or liaisons). The results also show that these differential odds of smoking based on network position has decreased over the past 15 years. PMID:23750772

  13. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  14. Navigating Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, DeAnna; Bartlett, Marilyn J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors note that when it comes to balancing free speech and schools' responsibilities, the online world is largely uncharted waters. Questions remain about the rights of both students and teachers in the world of social media. Although the lower courts have ruled that students' freedom of speech rights offer them some protection for…

  15. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  16. [Social drinking and adolescent parties].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H A; Verruno, C; Cinolo Vernengo, R

    1995-12-01

    A study carried out with 250 young students showed how much alcohol is socially accepted during young people parties. Significant differences were observed according to kind of alcoholic beverage, specially greater alcohol consumption of those of less alcoholic graduation. PMID:8762703

  17. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    PubMed

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  18. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers’ efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users’ locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation. PMID:26110402

  19. Purity homophily in social networks.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Morteza; Johnson, Kate; Hoover, Joe; Sagi, Eyal; Garten, Justin; Parmar, Niki Jitendra; Vaisey, Stephen; Iliev, Rumen; Graham, Jesse

    2016-03-01

    Does sharing moral values encourage people to connect and form communities? The importance of moral homophily (love of same) has been recognized by social scientists, but the types of moral similarities that drive this phenomenon are still unknown. Using both large-scale, observational social-media analyses and behavioral lab experiments, the authors investigated which types of moral similarities influence tie formations. Analysis of a corpus of over 700,000 tweets revealed that the distance between 2 people in a social-network can be predicted based on differences in the moral purity content-but not other moral content-of their messages. The authors replicated this finding by experimentally manipulating perceived moral difference (Study 2) and similarity (Study 3) in the lab and demonstrating that purity differences play a significant role in social distancing. These results indicate that social network processes reflect moral selection, and both online and offline differences in moral purity concerns are particularly predictive of social distance. This research is an attempt to study morality indirectly using an observational big-data study complemented with 2 confirmatory behavioral experiments carried out using traditional social-psychology methodology. PMID:26726910

  20. Privacy and Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Dianne M.; Duven, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Social networking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…

  1. Social Networking: Keeping It Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2011-01-01

    The need to maintain an unpolluted learning environment is no easy task for schools and districts that have incorporated social networking sites into their educational life. The staff and teachers at Blaine High School in Minnesota's Anoka-Hennepin District 11 had been considering the pros and cons of establishing a school Facebook page when the…

  2. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks.

    PubMed

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  3. Social inheritance can explain the structure of animal social networks

    PubMed Central

    Ilany, Amiyaal; Akçay, Erol

    2016-01-01

    The social network structure of animal populations has major implications for survival, reproductive success, sexual selection and pathogen transmission of individuals. But as of yet, no general theory of social network structure exists that can explain the diversity of social networks observed in nature, and serve as a null model for detecting species and population-specific factors. Here we propose a simple and generally applicable model of social network structure. We consider the emergence of network structure as a result of social inheritance, in which newborns are likely to bond with maternal contacts, and via forming bonds randomly. We compare model output with data from several species, showing that it can generate networks with properties such as those observed in real social systems. Our model demonstrates that important observed properties of social networks, including heritability of network position or assortative associations, can be understood as consequences of social inheritance. PMID:27352101

  4. Adolescent Use of Mobile Phones: A Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    F, J.; Pullen, Darren; Swabey, Karen

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence (e.g. ages 13-15) communication and connectedness with peers is an essential part of adolescents' self-formation; mobiles phones are a conduit that maintains both communication and connectedness among adolescents whereby social interactions and connectedness are not limited by place, context or time. To study mobile phone usage…

  5. Romantic Partner Selection and Socialization during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Valerie A.; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study examined romantic partner selection and socialization among a sample of 78 young adolescents (6th-8th graders). Independent assessments of adolescent and romantic partner adjustment were collected before and after relationships initiated via peer nomination and self-report. Prior to their relationship, adolescents and…

  6. Social structure of Facebook networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traud, Amanda L.; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.

    2012-08-01

    We study the social structure of Facebook “friendship” networks at one hundred American colleges and universities at a single point in time, and we examine the roles of user attributes-gender, class year, major, high school, and residence-at these institutions. We investigate the influence of common attributes at the dyad level in terms of assortativity coefficients and regression models. We then examine larger-scale groupings by detecting communities algorithmically and comparing them to network partitions based on user characteristics. We thereby examine the relative importance of different characteristics at different institutions, finding for example that common high school is more important to the social organization of large institutions and that the importance of common major varies significantly between institutions. Our calculations illustrate how microscopic and macroscopic perspectives give complementary insights on the social organization at universities and suggest future studies to investigate such phenomena further.

  7. Association of School Social Networks' Influence and Mass Media Factors with Cigarette Smoking among Asthmatic Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanamori, Mariano; Beck, Kenneth H.; Carter-Pokras, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Around 10% of adolescent students under 18 years have current asthma. Asthmatic adolescents smoke as much or more than non-asthmatic adolescents. We explored the association between exposure to mass media and social networks' influence with asthmatic student smoking, and variations of these exposures by sex. Methods: This study…

  8. Masculinity, Educational Achievement and Social Status: A Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean

    2011-01-01

    This study utilises a quantitative case study social network approach to explore the connection between masculinity and scholastic achievement in two secondary, all-boys schools in Australia. In both schools two social networks representing social status are explored: the "friendship" network as a measure of status that includes emotional…

  9. Social Anxiety and Social Adaptation among Adolescents at Three Age Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg, Ora

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…

  10. An Exploration of Young Adolescents' Social Achievement Goals and Social Adjustment in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Allison M.; Shim, S. Serena

    2008-01-01

    Two studies investigated the proposition that social achievement goals (different orientations toward social competence) are an important aspect of young adolescents' social motivation. Study 1 (N = 153 6th-grade students) established that different orientations toward developing or demonstrating social competence can be seen in young adolescents'…

  11. Social Networking: It's Not What You Think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kevin D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the current uses of the social networking sites available on the internet. It list some of the skills that are now considered obsolete and reviews the major social networking sites.

  12. Social Skills and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence: Social Support as a Mediator in Girls versus Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Wendy; Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Gustavson, Kristin; Mathiesen, Kristin S.

    2013-01-01

    The current population-based study of Norwegian adolescents examined gender-specific patterns in the prospective association between social skills in early adolescence (age 12.5; n = 566) and changes in depressive symptoms from early to late adolescence (age 16.5; n = 375). Further, a potential mediation effect of social support (from peers,…

  13. Young adolescents' perceived activity space risk, peer networks, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Mennis, Jeremy; Way, Thomas; Light, John; Rusby, Julie; Westling, Erika; Crewe, Stephanie; Flay, Brian; Campbell, Leah; Zaharakis, Nikola; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-07-01

    Adolescent substance use is a developmentally contingent social practice that is constituted within the routine social-environment of adolescents' lives. Few studies have examined peer networks, perceived activity space risk (risk of substance use at routine locations), and substance use. We examined the moderating influence of peer network characteristics on the relationship between perceived activity space risk and substance use among a sample of 250 urban adolescents. Significant interactions were found between peer networks and perceived activity space risk on tobacco and marijuana use, such that protective peer networks reduced the effect of activity place risk on substance use. A significant 3-way interaction was found on marijuana use indicating that gender moderated peer network's effect on activity space risk. Conditional effect analysis found that boys' peer networks moderated the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use, whereas for girls, the effect of perceived activity space risk on marijuana use was not moderated by their peer networks. These findings could advance theoretical models to inform social-environmental research among adolescents. PMID:26026598

  14. Cognitive Correlates of Social Phobia among Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined different cognitive phenomena in relation to social phobia among children (aged 7 to 11) and adolescents (aged 12-16) separately. Fifty socially phobic youths were compared to 30 normal control children on measures of social anxiety, social expectation as well as self-and observer-rated performance during two social tasks involving a…

  15. Topological evolution of virtual social networks by modeling social activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Dong, Junyu; Tang, Ruichun; Xu, Mantao; Qi, Lin; Cai, Yang

    2015-09-01

    With the development of Internet and wireless communication, virtual social networks are becoming increasingly important in the formation of nowadays' social communities. Topological evolution model is foundational and critical for social network related researches. Up to present most of the related research experiments are carried out on artificial networks, however, a study of incorporating the actual social activities into the network topology model is ignored. This paper first formalizes two mathematical abstract concepts of hobbies search and friend recommendation to model the social actions people exhibit. Then a social activities based topology evolution simulation model is developed to satisfy some well-known properties that have been discovered in real-world social networks. Empirical results show that the proposed topology evolution model has embraced several key network topological properties of concern, which can be envisioned as signatures of real social networks.

  16. Partition signed social networks via clustering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianshe; Zhang, Long; Li, Yong; Jiao, Yang

    2016-02-01

    Inspired by the dynamics phenomenon occurred in social networks, the WJJLGS model is modified to imitate the clustering dynamics of signed social networks. Analyses show that the clustering dynamics of the model can be applied to partition signed social networks. Traditionally, blockmodel is applied to partition signed networks. In this paper, a detailed dynamics-based algorithm for signed social networks (DBAS) is presented. Simulations on several typical real-world and illustrative networks that have been analyzed by the blockmodel verify the correctness of the proposed algorithm. The efficiency of the algorithm is verified on large scale synthetic networks.

  17. Interests diffusion in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore

    2015-10-01

    We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.

  18. Leveraging social networks for toxicovigilance.

    PubMed

    Chary, Michael; Genes, Nicholas; McKenzie, Andrew; Manini, Alex F

    2013-06-01

    The landscape of drug abuse is shifting. Traditional means of characterizing these changes, such as national surveys or voluntary reporting by frontline clinicians, can miss changes in usage the emergence of novel drugs. Delays in detecting novel drug usage patterns make it difficult to evaluate public policy aimed at altering drug abuse. Increasingly, newer methods to inform frontline providers to recognize symptoms associated with novel drugs or methods of administration are needed. The growth of social networks may address this need. The objective of this manuscript is to introduce tools for using data from social networks to characterize drug abuse. We outline a structured approach to analyze social media in order to capture emerging trends in drug abuse by applying powerful methods from artificial intelligence, computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling. First, we describe how to obtain data from social networks such as Twitter using publicly available automated programmatic interfaces. Then, we discuss how to use artificial intelligence techniques to extract content useful for purposes of toxicovigilance. This filtered content can be employed to generate real-time maps of drug usage across geographical regions. Beyond describing the real-time epidemiology of drug abuse, techniques from computational linguistics can uncover ways that drug discussions differ from other online conversations. Next, graph theory can elucidate the structure of networks discussing drug abuse, helping us learn what online interactions promote drug abuse and whether these interactions differ among drugs. Finally, agent-based modeling relates online interactions to psychological archetypes, providing a link between epidemiology and behavior. An analysis of social media discussions about drug abuse patterns with computational linguistics, graph theory, and agent-based modeling permits the real-time monitoring and characterization of trends of drugs of abuse. These

  19. Collaboration in the School Social Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz-Jones, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Social networks are fundamental to all people. Their social network describes how they are connected to others: close relationships, peripheral relationships, and those relationships that help connect them to other people, events, or things. As information specialists, school librarians develop a multidimensional social network that enables them…

  20. Organizational Application of Social Networking Information Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppert, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative research study using the Delphi method is to provide a framework for leaders to develop their own social networks. By exploring concerns in four areas, leaders may be able to better plan, implement, and manage social networking systems in organizations. The areas addressed are: (a) social networking using…

  1. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activities Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, JoAnn; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Jobe, Jared B.; Rung, Ariane L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school. Methods Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities. Results The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person. Conclusions Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls. PMID:19420391

  2. Social-Perspective Coordination and Gifted Adolescents' Friendship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masden, Catherine A.; Leung, Olivia N.; Shore, Bruce M.; Schneider, Barry H.; Udvari, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This research examined links among academic ability, social-perspective coordination, and friendship quality, within the context of gifted adolescents' friendships. The sample consisted of 120 early adolescents (59 girls, 61 boys), 81 of whom were identified as gifted. Academic ability, sex, and grade significantly predicted social-perspective…

  3. Social Integration and the Mental Health of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim's social integration theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative…

  4. Social-Emotional Adjustment of Integrated Hearing Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Elizabeth B.; Shade, Maureen

    1985-01-01

    Social-emotional adjustment patterns of eight mainstreamed hearing impaired adolescents were compared with identical measures of a matched group of eight normally hearing adolescents. No statistically significant differences between the groups were found. Results presented a picture of social and emotional well-being similar for both the hearing…

  5. Relationship of Family Socialization Processes to Adolescent Moral Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between family socialization processes, focusing on adaptability, cohesion, and parent-child communication, and adolescent moral thought. Used a sample of 271 Australian adolescents and their parents. Presents the findings. The results suggest that there is a relationship between family-socialization processes and…

  6. Patterns of Stress, Coping Styles and Social Supports among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latha, K. S.; Reddy, Hanumanth

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to assess the nature of stress, social support systems and coping styles among adolescents. Methods: 100 students in Pre University College (II year) of both genders in the age range of 16-19 years were assessed with the Adolescent Stress Scale, a semi-structured interview to elicit social support, and a self-report…

  7. Emotion Socialization in Adolescence: The Roles of Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Ann E.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the literature that examines the role of mothers and fathers in socializing emotion in their sons and daughters during adolescence. Within the context of this chapter, we focus on mother-father similarities, differences, and coordinated efforts in socializing the emotion of their adolescent children. Empirical…

  8. Social Class Privilege and Adolescent Women's Perceived Career Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapour, Anne Scott; Heppner, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceived career options of 10 White adolescent young women who experienced social class privilege in their families of origin. The model of contextual privilege and career selection for adolescent White women emerged from the data, and it describes how social class privilege, gender, achievement expectations,…

  9. Looking at the Social Activity for Adolescents with Orthopedic Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biastro, Leslie; Frank, Heather; Larwin, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with identified orthopedic impairments are often less likely to participate in social activities outside of the school setting. However, the adolescents who are able to participate in activities have higher social skills, more academic successes, and show more satisfaction in their roles as family member or friend. The aim of this…

  10. Social Isolation, Psychological Health, and Protective Factors in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lande, Jennifer A.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Christenson, Sandra L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships among social isolation, psychological health, and protective factors in adolescents. Feelings of social isolation may influence psychological health in adolescents, but protective factors such as family connectedness, school connectedness, and academic achievement may also play a key role. The sample…

  11. Aversive Peer Experiences on Social Networking Sites: Development of the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ)

    PubMed Central

    Landoll, Ryan R.; La Greca, Annette M.; Lai, Betty S.

    2012-01-01

    Cyber victimization is an important research area; yet, little is known about aversive peer experiences on social networking sites (SNSs), which are used extensively by youth and host complex social exchanges. Across samples of adolescents (n=216) and young adults (n=214), we developed the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ), and examined its psychometric properties, distinctiveness from traditional peer victimization, and associations with internalized distress. The SN-PEQ demonstrated strong factorial invariance and a single factor structure that was distinct from other forms of peer victimization. Negative SNS experiences were associated with youths’ symptoms of social anxiety and depression, even when controlling for traditional peer victimization. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of aversive peer experiences that occur via social media. PMID:24288449

  12. Aversive Peer Experiences on Social Networking Sites: Development of the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ).

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S

    2013-12-01

    Cyber victimization is an important research area; yet, little is known about aversive peer experiences on social networking sites (SNSs), which are used extensively by youth and host complex social exchanges. Across samples of adolescents (n=216) and young adults (n=214), we developed the Social Networking-Peer Experiences Questionnaire (SN-PEQ), and examined its psychometric properties, distinctiveness from traditional peer victimization, and associations with internalized distress. The SN-PEQ demonstrated strong factorial invariance and a single factor structure that was distinct from other forms of peer victimization. Negative SNS experiences were associated with youths' symptoms of social anxiety and depression, even when controlling for traditional peer victimization. Findings highlight the importance of examining the effects of aversive peer experiences that occur via social media. PMID:24288449

  13. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  14. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. PMID:25620319

  15. The Typical Developmental Trajectory of Social and Executive Functions in Late Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sophie Jane; Barker, Lynne Ann; Heavey, Lisa; McHale, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions and social cognition develop through childhood into adolescence and early adulthood and are important for adaptive goal-oriented behavior (Apperly, Samson, & Humphreys, 2009; Blakemore & Choudhury, 2006). These functions are attributed to frontal networks known to undergo protracted maturation into early adulthood…

  16. Social Norms and the Relationship between Cigarette Use and Religiosity among Adolescents in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryczynski, Jan; Ward, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the social dynamics that underlie the negative association between religiosity and cigarette use among U.S. adolescents. Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors used a theory-based conceptual model (vicarious learning networks [VLN]) to examine the role that key reference group norms…

  17. Patterns of Social Support in the Middle Childhood to Early Adolescent Transition: Implications for Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Mary J.; Levitt, Jerome; Bustos, Gaston L.; Crooks, Noel A.; Santos, Jennifer D.; Telan, Paige; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Milevsky, Avidan

    2005-01-01

    Children's social networks often include close family members, extended family members, and friends, but little is known about interindividual differences in the patterning of support from these sources. In this study, we used person-oriented analyses to differentiate patterns of support for children undergoing the transition to adolescence.…

  18. Social Support and Low-Income, Urban Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Roche, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the role of engaged parenting in explaining longitudinal associations between maternal perceptions of social network support and whether youth engage in delinquent behaviors during the transition into adolescence. The sample included 432 low-income, African American and Latino youth (49% female) and their mothers…

  19. Community dynamics in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Gergely; Barabási, Albert-László; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of community dynamics in large social networks, where the evolving communities are obtained from subsequent snapshots of the modular structure. Such cohesive groups of people can grow by recruiting new members, or contract by loosing members; two (or more) groups may merge into a single community, while a large enough social group can split into several smaller ones; new communities are born and old ones may disappear. We find significant difference between the behaviour of smaller collaborative or friendship circles and larger communities, eg. institutions. Social groups containing only a few members persist longer on average when the fluctuations of the members is small. In contrast, we find that the condition for stability for large communities is continuous changes in their membership, allowing for the possibility that after some time practically all members are exchanged.

  20. Friends First? The Peer Network Origins of Adolescent Dating

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Molloy, Lauren E.; Moody, James; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of dating partners in peer friendship networks has important implications for the diffusion of health-risk behaviors and adolescent social development. We derive two competing hypotheses for the friendship-romance association. The first predicts that daters are proximally positioned in friendship networks prior to dating and that opposite-gender friends are likely to transition to dating. The second predicts that dating typically crosses group boundaries and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to later date. We test these hypotheses with longitudinal friendship data for 626 9th grade PROSPER heterosexual dating couples. Results primarily support the second hypothesis: romantic partners are unlikely to be friends in the previous year or share the same cohesive subgroup, and opposite-gender friends are unlikely to transition into dating. PMID:27134511

  1. The importance of perceived care and connectedness with friends and parents for adolescent social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Van Zalk, Nejra; Van Zalk, Maarten

    2015-06-01

    Nonclinical social anxiety in adolescence can be highly problematic, as it likely affects current and especially new social interactions. Relationships with significant others, such as close friends, mothers, and fathers, could aid socially anxious adolescents' participation in social situations, thereby helping reduce feelings of social anxiety. We examined whether making friends as well as high friendship quality help reduce social anxiety over time, and whether friends', mothers', and fathers' care interact in reducing social anxiety. Using longitudinal data from 2,194 participants in a social network (48% girls; Mage  = 13.58) followed for 3 years, we estimated friendship selection and influence processes via a continuous time-modeling approach using SIENA. We controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, gender, age, and family structure. Our findings suggest that perceived care by friends mediated the effect of making friends on social anxiety. Perceptions of mother and father, as well as friend care and connectedness, respectively, did not interact in decreasing social anxiety. Nonetheless, care and connectedness with mothers, fathers, and friends jointly predicted decreases in social anxiety. Caring relationships with friends and parents each play a role in mutually protecting early adolescents against increasing in social anxiety over time. PMID:24957362

  2. TV and Teens: Television In Adolescent Social Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Richard; Johnston, Jerome

    1988-01-01

    Presents television as an instrument through which adolescents can gain social experience and strengthen social development. Examines the link between watching television and social relationships, discussing how television viewing can provide "blueprints" for behavior in social situations. Lists four steps for using television as a learning tool.…

  3. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  4. Social Media and Social Networking Applications for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Michelle Mei Ling

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to better understand the experiences of the youth and the educators with the tapping of social media like YouTube videos and the social networking application of Facebook for teaching and learning. This paper is interested in appropriating the benefits of leveraging of social media and networking applications like YouTube and…

  5. The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallia, Gorg, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    As technology is being integrated into educational processes, teachers are searching for new ways to enhance student motivation and learning. Through shared experiences and the results of empirical research, educators can ease social networking sites into instructional usage. "The Social Classroom: Integrating Social Network Use in…

  6. [The development of organization of medical social care of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chicherin, L P; Nagaev, R Ia

    2014-01-01

    The model of the subject of the Russian Federation is used to consider means of development of health protection and health promotion in adolescents including implementation of the National strategy of activities in interest of children for 2012-2017 approved by decree No761 of the President of Russia in June 1 2012. The analysis is carried out concerning organization of medical social care to this group of population in medical institutions and organizations of different type in the Republic of Bashkortostan. Nowadays, in 29 territories medical social departments and rooms, 5 specialized health centers for children, 6 clinics friendly to youth are organized. The analysis of manpower support demonstrates that in spite of increasing of number of rooms and departments of medical social care for children and adolescents decreasing of staff jobs both of medical personnel and psychologists and social workers occurs. The differences in priorities of functioning of departments and rooms of medical social care under children polyclinics, health centers for children and clinics friendly to youth are established. The questionnaire survey of pediatricians and adolescents concerning perspectives of development of adolescent service established significant need in development of specialized complex center. At the basis of such center problems of medical, pedagogical, social, psychological, legal profile related to specific characteristics of development and medical social needs of adolescents can be resolved. The article demonstrates organizational form of unification on the functional basis of the department of medical social care of children polyclinic and clinic friendly to youth. During three years, number of visits of adolescents to specialists of the center increases and this testifies awareness of adolescents and youth about activities of department of medical social care. The most percentage of visits of adolescents to specialists was made with prevention purpose. Among

  7. Adolescents' Educational Outcomes: Racial and Ethnic Variations in Peer Network Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goza, Franklin; Ryabov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the role of peer social capital in the school context, especially as a predictor of adolescents' academic outcomes. This study uses a nationally representative (N = 13,738, female = 51%), longitudinal sample and multilevel models to examine how peer networks impact educational achievement and attainment. Results…

  8. Will Learning Social Inclusion Assist Rural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Jillian

    2013-01-01

    Current research on social networks in some rural communities reports continuing demise despite efforts to build resilient communities. Several factors are identified as contributing to social decline including globalisation and rural social characteristics. Particular rural social characteristics, such as strong social bonds among members of…

  9. Distrust, social fragmentation and adolescents' health in the outer city: Beirut and beyond

    PubMed Central

    khawaja, marwan; Abdulrahim, Sawsan; Soweid, Rima AA; Karam, Dima

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the association between place and components of social capital among adolescents living in three impoverished communities outside of Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. We utilized a unique data set that includes a wide range of social capital items to assess the association between place, social capital and self rated health. The analyses were based on data collected by trained interviewers during the Spring of 2003 from a stratified random sample of 1,294 adolescents aged 13-19 years, drawn from a sampling frame constructed from area maps and detailed household listing of the target population. Descriptive statistics and odds ratios from logistic regression models were used to assess the strength of associations between (1) the social capital items and community of residence and (2) social capital, community and self-rated health controlling for age, sex and income. Findings show that distrust and social fragmentation were generally prevalent among adolescents living in impoverished suburban communities. Even though social networks, especially the presence of family and relatives, were strong, instrumental social exchange was relatively scarce. Social capital items varied significantly by community, and the stock of social capital in one of the three communities surveyed – the Palestinian refugee camp – was quite distinctive. Findings from logistic regression models showed that social capital as measured by a simple index is strongly associated with self-rated health status, controlling for community, age, sex and income. Some implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:16716477

  10. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. PMID:26792765

  11. Privacy in Social Networks: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, Elena; Getoor, Lise

    In this chapter, we survey the literature on privacy in social networks. We focus both on online social networks and online affiliation networks. We formally define the possible privacy breaches and describe the privacy attacks that have been studied. We present definitions of privacy in the context of anonymization together with existing anonymization techniques.

  12. Social Network Theory and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Alan J., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Social Network Theory and Educational Change" offers a provocative and fascinating exploration of how social networks in schools can impede or facilitate the work of education reform. Drawing on the work of leading scholars, the book comprises a series of studies examining networks among teachers and school leaders, contrasting formal and…

  13. An evolutionary model of social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, M.; Abell, P.

    2007-07-01

    Social networks in communities, markets, and societies self-organise through the interactions of many individuals. In this paper we use a well-known mechanism of social interactions — the balance of sentiment in triadic relations — to describe the development of social networks. Our model contrasts with many existing network models, in that people not only establish but also break up relations whilst the network evolves. The procedure generates several interesting network features such as a variety of degree distributions and degree correlations. The resulting network converges under certain conditions to a steady critical state where temporal disruptions in triangles follow a power-law distribution.

  14. Social Network Closure and Child Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Anne C.; Newsome, Deborah; Nickerson, Pamela; Bazley, Ronda

    2001-01-01

    Identified fourth graders' peer groups and measured social network closure--extent to which meaningful social relationships exist between children and their friends' parents and among parents whose children are friends. Found that higher social network closure related to higher academic achievement and lower parent-reported externalizing…

  15. Bayesian Networks for Social Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; White, Amanda M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Dalton, Angela C.; Brothers, Alan J.

    2011-03-28

    This paper describes a body of work developed over the past five years. The work addresses the use of Bayesian network (BN) models for representing and predicting social/organizational behaviors. The topics covered include model construction, validation, and use. These topics show the bulk of the lifetime of such model, beginning with construction, moving to validation and other aspects of model ‘critiquing’, and finally demonstrating how the modeling approach might be used to inform policy analysis. To conclude, we discuss limitations of using BN for this activity and suggest remedies to address those limitations. The primary benefits of using a well-developed computational, mathematical, and statistical modeling structure, such as BN, are 1) there are significant computational, theoretical and capability bases on which to build 2) ability to empirically critique the model, and potentially evaluate competing models for a social/behavioral phenomena.

  16. Peer Network Counseling with Urban Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Moderate Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael; Light, John; Campbell, Leah; Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Crewe, Stephanie; Way, Thomas; Saunders, Heather; King, Laura; Zaharakis, Nikola M; McHenry, Chantal

    2015-11-01

    Close peer networks can affect adolescents' health behaviors by altering their social environments, and thus their risk for and protection against substance use involvement. We tested a 20 minute intervention named Peer Network Counseling that integrates motivational interviewing and peer network strategies with 119 urban adolescents who reported occasional or problem substance use. Adolescents presenting at primary care clinic were randomized to intervention or control conditions and followed for 6 months. Mixed-effect latent growth models were used to evaluate intervention effects on trajectories of alcohol and marijuana use, offers to use substances, and moderation models to test for interactions between intervention condition and peer network characteristics. A significant intervention effect was found for boys for offers to use alcohol from friends (p<.05), along with a trend significant effect for alcohol use (p<.08). Intervention was more effective in reducing marijuana use, vs. control, for participants with more peer social support (p<.001) and with more peer encouragement for prosocial behavior (school, clubs, sports, religious activities); however, intervention did not affect these network characteristics. Results provide support to continue this line of research to test brief interventions that activate protective peer network characteristics among at-risk adolescents, while also raising some interesting gender-based intervention questions for future research. PMID:26234955

  17. Social bonds and internet pornographic exposure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mesch, Gustavo S

    2009-06-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension, probing whether pornography consumers differed from other Internet users, as well as the social characteristics of adolescent frequent pornography consumers. Data from a 2004 survey of a national representative sample of the adolescent population in Israel were used (n=998). Adolescent frequent users of the Internet for pornography were found to differ in many social characteristics from the group that used the Internet for information, social communication and entertainment. Weak ties to mainstream social institutions were characteristic of the former group but not of the latter. X-rated material consumers proved to be a distinct sub-group at risk of deviant behaviour. PMID:18694593

  18. Improved community model for social networks based on social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe-Ming; Wu, Zhen; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hao-Xian

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an improved community model for social networks based on social mobility. The relationship between the group distribution and the community size is investigated in terms of communication rate and turnover rate. The degree distributions, clustering coefficients, average distances and diameters of networks are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model possesses the small-world property and can reproduce social networks effectively and efficiently.

  19. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076

  20. The developmental psychopathology of social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A; Lagle, Kristy; Kraemer, Helena C; Killen, Joel D; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a developmental psychopathology approach for understanding adolescent social anxiety, parent-reported predictors of social anxiety were examined in a nonclinical sample of adolescents. Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from biological parents of 770 participants. Potential risk factors assessed included child characteristics: negative affect, shyness, separation anxiety disorder, and childhood chronic illness, as well as parent characteristics: major depression, panic disorder, and agoraphobia. Adolescent social anxiety was measured multiple times during high school. Findings indicate stability in social anxiety symptoms across time. Parent-reported, childhood negative affect, shyness, and chronic illness as well as parental panic disorder or agoraphobia were associated with adolescent social anxiety. Interactions were observed between parent-reported childhood shyness and gender and between parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness in the prediction of social anxiety. Parent-reported childhood shyness was a stronger predictor of adolescent social anxiety in females compared to males. The combined effect of subjects being positive for both parent-reported childhood shyness and parent-reported childhood chronic illness was greater than would be expected based on additive effects. This study provides support for a multifactorial and developmentally informed understanding of adolescent social anxiety. PMID:17348001

  1. Multitasking during social interactions in adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kathryn L.; Dumontheil, Iroise; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Multitasking is part of the everyday lives of both adolescents and adults. We often multitask during social interactions by simultaneously keeping track of other non-social information. Here, we examined how keeping track of non-social information impacts the ability to navigate social interactions in adolescents and adults. Participants aged 11–17 and 22–30 years old were instructed to carry out two tasks, one social and one non-social, within each trial. The social task involved referential communication, requiring participants to use social cues to guide their decisions, which sometimes required taking a different perspective. The non-social task manipulated cognitive load by requiring participants to remember non-social information in the form of one two-digit number (low load) or three two-digit numbers (high load) presented before each social task stimulus. Participants showed performance deficits when under high cognitive load and when the social task involved taking a different perspective, and individual differences in both trait perspective taking and working memory capacity predicted performance. Overall, adolescents were less adept at multitasking than adults when under high cognitive load. These results suggest that multitasking during social interactions incurs performance deficits, and that adolescents are more sensitive than adults to the effects of cognitive load while multitasking. PMID:26715991

  2. Structures and Dynamics of Social Networks: Selection, Influence, and Self-Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Go, Myong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies the social structures and dynamics of human networks: how peers at the micro level and physical environments at the macro level interact with the individual preferences and attributes and shape social dynamics. It is composed of three parts. The first essay, "Friendship Choices and Group Effects in Adolescent Smoking"…

  3. Social Networking Sites and Cognitive Abilities: Do They Make You Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Horton, John; Alloway, Ross G.; Dawson, Clare

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of social networking sites (SNS) on cognitive abilities and reported levels of social connectedness in adolescents. In order to provide a reliable measure of cognitive skills, standardized tests of verbal ability, working memory, and academic attainment were administered. Students also…

  4. Empathy development in adolescence predicts social competencies in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiger, Andrea E; Fend, Helmut A

    2015-04-01

    This 23-year study explored the predictive associations between empathy development in adolescence and self-reported social competencies and outcomes in adulthood. Participants were 1,527 adults aged 35 years (48.3% female). The predictor variable (adolescent empathy) was measured yearly at the ages of 12 to 16 years. The outcome variables (adult empathy, communication skills, social integration, relationship satisfaction, and conflicts in relationships) were measured at the age of 35 years. Five important results stand out. First, longitudinal measurement invariance was established for the measure of adolescent empathy. Second, empathy tended to increase during the adolescent years. Third, significant interindividual differences in level and change of adolescent empathy were found. Fourth, gender was related to level of adolescent empathy, favoring girls over boys. Fifth, not only level but also change in adolescent empathy predicted individual differences in social competencies in adulthood two decades later. These findings demonstrate that developmental processes that are relevant for adjustment reveal long-term social consequences beyond the adolescent years. PMID:24684661

  5. Social Withdrawal Subtypes during Early Adolescence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Julie C.; Raja, Radhi

    2011-01-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to examine the associations between three social withdrawal subtypes (shyness, unsociability, avoidance), peer isolation, peer difficulties (victimization, rejection, exclusion, low acceptance), and loneliness in India during early adolescence. Participants were 194 adolescents in Surat, India (M age=13.35…

  6. Autonomy and Adolescent Social Functioning: The Moderating Effect of Risk

    PubMed Central

    McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of risk on the relation between autonomy processes and family and adolescent functioning. The present sample comprised 131 adolescents from either a low-risk or high-risk social context, their mothers, and their peers. Observational ratings of autonomy processes within the mother-adolescent dyad were obtained, along with adolescent reports of the quality of the mother-adolescent relationship, and both adolescent and peer reports of the adolescent’s functioning. Consistent with past research, in low-risk families, behavior undermining autonomy was negatively related to relationship quality, and adolescents’ expressions of autonomy were linked with positive indices of social functioning. In high-risk families, however, undermining of autonomy was positively linked with mother-adolescent relationship quality, and adolescents’ expressions of autonomy were linked with negative indices of social functioning. Results are interpreted as demonstrating the ways in which the developmental task of attaining autonomy in adolescence is systematically altered depending on the level of risk and challenge in the adolescent’s social context. PMID:11280481

  7. Socialization Agents Influencing the Religious Identity of Religious Israeli Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2011-01-01

    Of all the dimensions of religiosity, where the Israeli religious adolescent is concerned, faith identity and religious behavior seem the most relevant. Research findings on the relative influence of various socialization agents on the religiosity of adolescents are ambiguous. The primary objective of this study was to compare the various agents…

  8. Sociodemographic Variables in Relation to Social Appearance Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gender, age, grade level, and the educational level of the mother and father on social appearance anxiety in Turkish adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study in which a simple random sampling method was used. Participants were 2,219 adolescents (1089 boys, 1130 girls) with a mean age of 12.76 years old (SD =…

  9. Ethnic Differences in Adolescents' Mental Distress, Social Stress, and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Heeseung; Meininger, Janet C.; Roberts, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Limited data on ethnic group differences among young adolescents exist regarding the prevalence of mental distress, social stress, and resources. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine ethnic differences among African American (AA), European American (EA), Hispanic American (HA), and Asian American adolescents in mental distress,…

  10. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multireporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents' social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a 3-year period, even after accounting for teens' baseline level of…

  11. Adolescent Risk-Taking and Social Meaning: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunstein, Cass R.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent risk-taking can be illuminated through an understanding of the development of the brain, of dual-processing theories, and of social norms and meanings. When adolescents take unjustified risks, it is often because of the weakness of their analytic systems, which provide an inadequate check on impulsive or ill-considered decisions. Social…

  12. Addressing Adolescent Needs for Socialization in the Distance Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawidowicz, Paula M.

    2000-01-01

    One important aspect of adolescent education, regardless of the learning environment, is learning acceptable human interaction, socialization styles, and cooperation mechanisms. However, when adolescent students attend cyber schools, they no longer receive those traditional opportunities to gain the human interactions required for such…

  13. Exploring Social Connectivity through the Use of Adolescent Queer Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Dwight C.

    2010-01-01

    In order for adolescents to undergo a healthy maturation into adulthood, they must be given common opportunities to reinvent themselves and to progress along stages of psychosocial development. Due to heterosexual conditioning and a lack of awareness of the need for social connectivity that may lead to intimacy, gay and lesbian adolescents lapse…

  14. Peer Perceptions of Social Skills in Socially Anxious and Nonanxious Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miers, Anne C.; Blote, Anke W.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using adult observers are inconsistent with regard to social skills deficits in nonclinical socially anxious youth. The present study investigated whether same age peers perceive a lack of social skills in the socially anxious. Twenty high and 20 low socially anxious adolescents (13-17 years old) were recorded giving a 5-min…

  15. Social Support and Well-Being at Mid-Life among Mothers of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of social support on the psychological well-being of mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 269). Quantity of support (number of social network members) as well as valence of support (positive support and negative support) were assessed using a modified version of the "convoy model" developed by…

  16. Friendships Moderate Psychosocial Maladjustment in Socially Anxious Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erath, Stephen A.; Flanagan, Kelly S.; Bierman, Karen L.; Tu, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Close mutual friendships may help protect socially anxious early adolescents against concurrent psychosocial risks. This study investigated whether close mutual friendships moderated associations among social anxiety and several indices of psychosocial maladjustment (loneliness, peer victimization, and low social self-efficacy) in early…

  17. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  18. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    PubMed

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare. PMID:27120815

  19. The Social Side of Information Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the social issues, including manners, security, crime (fraud), and social control associated with information networking, with emphasis on the Internet. Also addresses the influence of cellular phones, the Internet and other information technologies on society. (GR)

  20. Social status modulates neural activity in the mentalizing network

    PubMed Central

    Muscatell, Keely A.; Morelli, Sylvia A.; Falk, Emily B.; Way, Baldwin M.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Galinsky, Adam D.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Dapretto, Mirella; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2013-01-01

    The current research explored the neural mechanisms linking social status to perceptions of the social world. Two fMRI studies provide converging evidence that individuals lower in social status are more likely to engage neural circuitry often involved in ‘mentalizing’ or thinking about others' thoughts and feelings. Study 1 found that college students' perception of their social status in the university community was related to neural activity in the mentalizing network (e.g., DMPFC, MPFC, precuneus/PCC) while encoding social information, with lower social status predicting greater neural activity in this network. Study 2 demonstrated that socioeconomic status, an objective indicator of global standing, predicted adolescents' neural activity during the processing of threatening faces, with individuals lower in social status displaying greater activity in the DMPFC, previously associated with mentalizing, and the amygdala, previously associated with emotion/salience processing. These studies demonstrate that social status is fundamentally and neurocognitively linked to how people process and navigate their social worlds. PMID:22289808

  1. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569

  2. Mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization.

    PubMed

    Yun, Kyongsik; Chung, Dongil; Jang, Bosun; Kim, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2011-01-01

    Many mathematically gifted adolescents are characterized as being indolent, underachieving and unsuccessful despite their high cognitive ability. This is often due to difficulties with social and emotional development. However, research on social and emotional interactions in gifted adolescents has been limited. The purpose of this study was to observe differences in complex social strategic behaviors between gifted and average adolescents of the same age using the repeated Ultimatum Game. Twenty-two gifted adolescents and 24 average adolescents participated in the Ultimatum Game. Two adolescents participate in the game, one as a proposer and the other as a responder. Because of its simplicity, the Ultimatum Game is an apt tool for investigating complex human emotional and cognitive decision-making in an empirical setting. We observed strategic but socially impaired offers from gifted proposers and lower acceptance rates from gifted responders, resulting in lower total earnings in the Ultimatum Game. Thus, our results indicate that mathematically gifted adolescents have deficiencies in social valuation and mentalization. PMID:21483742

  3. Nervousness and Performance Characteristics as Predictors of Peer Behavior towards Socially Anxious Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blote, Anke W.; Duvekot, Jorieke; Schalk, Rozemarijn D. F.; Tuinenburg, Eveline M.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety in adolescents has frequently been linked to negative outcomes from social interactions. The present study investigated whether socially anxious adolescents are treated negatively by their classmates and which characteristics of socially anxious adolescents could explain negative social responses. Classroom observations of class…

  4. Social cognition in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in social cognition, accounted for by differences in IQ and language. Within the FXS group, IQ and language were related to social cognition; parent-reported social functioning was related to language and EFs; and self-reported social functioning was generally good and not related to cognitive or social cognition variables. Results suggest that intervention might focus on managing language and cognitive contributions to social functioning, rather than social cognition, and underscore the importance of considering parent and adolescent perspectives. (120 words) PMID:25007297

  5. Going Social: The Impact of Social Networking in Promoting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Neelesh Kumar; Verma, Ashish; Verma, Rama Shankar; Tiwari, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    The growth and the popularity of the Social networks has a high impact on the development of the students in the field of Personality, Attitudes, Knowledge and on its whole academic performance in classroom and society. This paper envisage on the impact of Social Network on Education and Training of the students.

  6. Social Software: Participants' Experience Using Social Networking for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelder, Cecil W.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking tools used in learning provides instructional design with tools for transformative change in education. This study focused on defining the meanings and essences of social networking through the lived common experiences of 7 college students. The problem of the study was a lack of learner voice in understanding the value of social…

  7. Developmental change in social responsibility during adolescence: An ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26619322

  8. Multiplex congruity: friendship networks and perceived popularity as correlates of adolescent alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents interact with their peers in multiple social settings and form various types of peer relationships that affect drinking behavior. Friendship and popularity perceptions constitute critical relationships during adolescence. These two relations are commonly measured by asking students to name their friends, and this network is used to construct drinking exposure and peer status variables. This study takes a multiplex network approach by examining the congruity between friendships and popularity as correlates of adolescent drinking. Using data on friendship and popularity nominations among high school adolescents in Los Angeles, California (N = 1707; five schools), we examined the associations between an adolescent's drinking and drinking by (a) their friends only; (b) multiplexed friendships, friends also perceived as popular; and (c) congruent, multiplexed-friends, close friends perceived as popular. Logistic regression results indicated that friend-only drinking, but not multiplexed-friend drinking, was significantly associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.51, p < 0.05). However, congruent, multiplexed-friend drinking also was associated with self-drinking (AOR = 3.10, p < 0.05). This study provides insight into how adolescent health behavior is predicated on the multiplexed nature of peer relationships. The results have implications for the design of health promotion interventions for adolescent drinking. PMID:24913275

  9. Developmental pathways of social avoidance across adolescence: the role of social anxiety and negative cognition.

    PubMed

    Miers, Anne C; Blöte, Anke W; Heyne, David A; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-12-01

    It is argued that the adolescent onset of social anxiety disorder (SAD) may be partly attributable to an increase in avoidance of social situations across this period. The current cohort-sequential study investigated developmental pathways of social avoidance in adolescence and examined the explanatory role of social anxiety and negative cognitive processes. A community sample of youth (9-21 years, N=331) participated in a four-wave study. Trajectory analyses revealed two pathways: an increased avoidance pathway and a low avoidance pathway. The pathways were hardly distinguishable at age 9 and they steadily diverged across adolescence. Logistic regression analyses showed that social anxiety and post-event rumination were significantly related to the increased avoidance pathway; anticipatory processing and self-focused attention were not. The findings suggest that adolescence is a key developmental period for the progression of social avoidance among youth who show relatively high levels of social anxiety and post-event rumination. PMID:25265547

  10. The developmental roots of social responsibility in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K

    2011-01-01

    Social responsibility is a value orientation, rooted in democratic relationships with others and moral principles of care and justice, that motivates certain civic actions. Given its relevance for building stronger relationships and communities, the development of social responsibility within individuals should be a more concerted focus for developmental scholars and youth practitioners. During childhood and adolescence, the developmental roots of individuals' social responsibility lie in the growth of executive function, empathy and emotion regulation, and identity. Efforts to cultivate children and adolescents' social responsibility in the proximal settings of their everyday lives should emphasize modeling prosocial behaviors, communicating concerns for others, and creating opportunities to practice civic skills. PMID:22147598

  11. Social competence: evaluation of assertiveness in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Castedo, Antonio López; Juste, Margarita Pino; Alonso, José Domínguez

    2015-02-01

    Relations between assertiveness in adolescents' social behavior and demographic variables were assessed in 4,943 Spanish adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, enrolled in 32 schools for Compulsory Secondary Education. Province of residence, school size, age, grade, and academic focus were statistically significant sources of variance in assertiveness scores. All effects were small. Patterns in responses indicate the items should be reviewed to improve the measure for adolescents, and as a tool for addressing teens' social competence in real life situations. PMID:25621673

  12. Multilayer weighted social network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Yohsuke; Török, János; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János

    2014-11-01

    Recent empirical studies using large-scale data sets have validated the Granovetter hypothesis on the structure of the society in that there are strongly wired communities connected by weak ties. However, as interaction between individuals takes place in diverse contexts, these communities turn out to be overlapping. This implies that the society has a multilayered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of interlayer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multilayer WSN model, where the indirect interlayer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved.

  13. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  14. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  15. Social Networks and Political Participation: How Do Networks Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chaeyoon

    2008-01-01

    Despite great interest in the role of social networks as channels of political mobilization, few studies have examined which types of social networks work more effectively in recruiting political activists. Using the Citizen Participation Study data, this study shows that contrary to the conventional wisdom in the literature, there is little…

  16. Trust transitivity in social networks.

    PubMed

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected "fringe" nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its "fringe" peers. PMID:21483683

  17. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  18. Trust Transitivity in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Richters, Oliver; Peixoto, Tiago P.

    2011-01-01

    Non-centralized recommendation-based decision making is a central feature of several social and technological processes, such as market dynamics, peer-to-peer file-sharing and the web of trust of digital certification. We investigate the properties of trust propagation on networks, based on a simple metric of trust transitivity. We investigate analytically the percolation properties of trust transitivity in random networks with arbitrary in/out-degree distributions, and compare with numerical realizations. We find that the existence of a non-zero fraction of absolute trust (i.e. entirely confident trust) is a requirement for the viability of global trust propagation in large systems: The average pair-wise trust is marked by a discontinuous transition at a specific fraction of absolute trust, below which it vanishes. Furthermore, we perform an extensive analysis of the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) web of trust, in view of the concepts introduced. We compare different scenarios of trust distribution: community- and authority-centered. We find that these scenarios lead to sharply different patterns of trust propagation, due to the segregation of authority hubs and densely-connected communities. While the authority-centered scenario is more efficient, and leads to higher average trust values, it favours weakly-connected “fringe” nodes, which are directly trusted by authorities. The community-centered scheme, on the other hand, favours nodes with intermediate in/out-degrees, in detriment of the authorities and its “fringe” peers. PMID:21483683

  19. Entrepreneurial Idea Identification through Online Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of social network websites may signal a change in the way the next generation of entrepreneurs identify entrepreneurial ideas. An important part of the entrepreneurship literature emphasizes how vital the use of social networks is to entrepreneurial idea identification, opportunity recognition, and ultimately new venture…

  20. Minority Traders in Thai Village Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Brian L.

    1980-01-01

    Examines social networks in three villages in rural Thailand. Demonstrates that Mon (merchant group) villagers, despite their cultural similarity to other Thais, are less strongly linked into the networks of villagers in which they trade. Suggests that ethnicity provides a vehicle for social distance which is beneficial for commerce. (Author/GC)

  1. Happiness is assortative in online social networks.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Johan; Gonçalves, Bruno; Ruan, Guangchen; Mao, Huina

    2011-01-01

    Online social networking communities may exhibit highly complex and adaptive collective behaviors. Since emotions play such an important role in human decision making, how online networks modulate human collective mood states has become a matter of considerable interest. In spite of the increasing societal importance of online social networks, it is unknown whether assortative mixing of psychological states takes place in situations where social ties are mediated solely by online networking services in the absence of physical contact. Here, we show that the general happiness, or subjective well-being (SWB), of Twitter users, as measured from a 6-month record of their individual tweets, is indeed assortative across the Twitter social network. Our results imply that online social networks may be equally subject to the social mechanisms that cause assortative mixing in real social networks and that such assortative mixing takes place at the level of SWB. Given the increasing prevalence of online social networks, their propensity to connect users with similar levels of SWB may be an important factor in how positive and negative sentiments are maintained and spread through human society. Future research may focus on how event-specific mood states can propagate and influence user behavior in "real life." PMID:21554117

  2. Gender Differences in Using Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…

  3. Enhancing Classroom Effectiveness through Social Networking Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurthakoti, Raghu; Boostrom, Robert E., Jr.; Summey, John H.; Campbell, David A.

    2013-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of social networking Web sites such as Ning.com as a communication tool in marketing courses, a study was designed with special concern for social network use in comparison to Blackboard. Students from multiple marketing courses were surveyed. Assessments of Ning.com and Blackboard were performed both to understand how…

  4. Social Networking on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finin, Tim; Ding, Li; Zhou, Lina; Joshi, Anupam

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to investigate the way that the semantic web is being used to represent and process social network information. Design/methodology/approach: The Swoogle semantic web search engine was used to construct several large data sets of Resource Description Framework (RDF) documents with social network information that were encoded using the…

  5. Offering a Job: Meritocracy and Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Trond; Saporta, Ishak; Seidel, Marc-David L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the impact of sex, race, and social networks in the hiring processes of a midsize, high-technology organization using information about applicants (n=35,229) from 1985-94. Reports that for gender, age and education account for all sex differences; for ethnic minorities, the hiring process is partly reliant on social networks. (CMK)

  6. Atypical Neural Networks for Social Orienting in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Deanna J.; Colich, Natalie; Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by significant social impairments, including deficits in orienting attention following social cues. Behavioral studies investigating social orienting in ASD, however, have yielded mixed results, as the use of naturalistic paradigms typically reveals clear deficits whereas computerized laboratory experiments often report normative behavior. The present study is the first to examine the neural mechanisms underlying social orienting in ASD in order to provide new insight into the social attention impairments that characterize this disorder. Using fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of social orienting in children and adolescents with ASD and in a matched sample of typically developing (TD) controls while they performed a spatial cueing paradigm with social (eye gaze) and nonsocial (arrow) cues. Cues were either directional (indicating left or right) or neutral (indicating no direction), and directional cues were uninformative of the upcoming target location in order to engage automatic processes by minimizing expectations. Behavioral results demonstrated intact orienting effects for social and nonsocial cues, with no differences between groups. The imaging results, however, revealed clear group differences in brain activity. When attention was directed by social cues compared to nonsocial cues, the TD group showed increased activity in frontoparietal attention networks, visual processing regions, and the striatum, whereas the ASD group only showed increased activity in the superior parietal lobule. Significant group × cue type interactions confirmed greater responsivity in task-relevant networks for social cues than nonsocial cues in TD as compared to ASD, despite similar behavioral performance. These results indicate that, in the autistic brain, social cues are not assigned the same privileged status as they are in the typically developing brain. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that the neural

  7. One Health in social networks and social media

    PubMed Central

    Mekaru, S.R.; Brownstein, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media’s strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting, the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  8. One Health in social networks and social media.

    PubMed

    Mekaru, S R; Brownstein, J S

    2014-08-01

    In the rapidly evolving world of social media, social networks, mobile applications and citizen science, online communities can develop organically and separately from larger or more established organisations. The One Health online community is experiencing expansion from both the bottom up and the top down. In this paper, the authors review social media's strengths and weaknesses, earlier work examining Internet resources for One Health, the current state of One Health in social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) and online social networking sites (e.g. LinkedIn and ResearchGate), as well as social media in One Health-related citizen science projects. While One Health has a fairly strong presence on websites, its social media presence is more limited and has an uneven geographic distribution. In work following the Stone Mountain Meeting,the One Health Global Network Task Force Report recommended the creation of an online community of practice. Professional social networks as well as the strategic use of social media should be employed in this effort. Finally, One Health-related research projects using volunteers (citizen science) often use social media to enhance their recruitment. Including these researchers in a community of practitioners would take full advantage of their existing social media presence. In conclusion, the interactive nature of social media, combined with increasing global Internet access, provides the One Health community with opportunities to meaningfully expand their community and promote their message. PMID:25707189

  9. Digital Social Network Mining for Topic Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradianzadeh, Pooya; Mohi, Maryam; Sadighi Moshkenani, Mohsen

    Networked computers are expanding more and more around the world, and digital social networks becoming of great importance for many people's work and leisure. This paper mainly focused on discovering the topic of exchanging information in digital social network. In brief, our method is to use a hierarchical dictionary of related topics and words that mapped to a graph. Then, with comparing the extracted keywords from the context of social network with graph nodes, probability of relation between context and desired topics will be computed. This model can be used in many applications such as advertising, viral marketing and high-risk group detection.

  10. African American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization and Racial Socialization as Distinct Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paasch-Anderson, Julie; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic socialization and racial socialization were examined as discrete concepts using a semistructured interview to assess message content for each form of socialization. We were interested in whether adolescents distinguished between these forms of socialization. Fifty-five African American 11th- and 12th-grade students were asked separate…

  11. Information filtering on coupled social networks.

    PubMed

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  12. Narcissism and social networking Web sites.

    PubMed

    Buffardi, Laura E; Campbell, W Keith

    2008-10-01

    The present research examined how narcissism is manifested on a social networking Web site (i.e., Facebook.com). Narcissistic personality self-reports were collected from social networking Web page owners. Then their Web pages were coded for both objective and subjective content features. Finally, strangers viewed the Web pages and rated their impression of the owner on agentic traits, communal traits, and narcissism. Narcissism predicted (a) higher levels of social activity in the online community and (b) more self-promoting content in several aspects of the social networking Web pages. Strangers who viewed the Web pages judged more narcissistic Web page owners to be more narcissistic. Finally, mediational analyses revealed several Web page content features that were influential in raters' narcissistic impressions of the owners, including quantity of social interaction, main photo self-promotion, and main photo attractiveness. Implications of the expression of narcissism in social networking communities are discussed. PMID:18599659

  13. Information Filtering on Coupled Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Da-Cheng; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Fu, Yan; Zhang, Kui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the coupled social networks (CSN), we propose a hybrid algorithm to nonlinearly integrate both social and behavior information of online users. Filtering algorithm, based on the coupled social networks, considers the effects of both social similarity and personalized preference. Experimental results based on two real datasets, Epinions and Friendfeed, show that the hybrid pattern can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also enlarge the recommendation coverage while adopting global metric. Further empirical analyses demonstrate that the mutual reinforcement and rich-club phenomenon can also be found in coupled social networks where the identical individuals occupy the core position of the online system. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the structure and function of coupled social networks. PMID:25003525

  14. Spectral Analysis of Rich Network Topology in Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Leting

    2013-01-01

    Social networks have received much attention these days. Researchers have developed different methods to study the structure and characteristics of the network topology. Our focus is on spectral analysis of the adjacency matrix of the underlying network. Recent work showed good properties in the adjacency spectral space but there are few…

  15. Social Milieu and Future Orientation: The Case of Kibbutz vs. Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seginer, Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Examines the effect of one social milieu factor (Israeli kibbutz vs. urban lifestyle) on adolescents' future orientation. Analysis of questionnaires from 114 kibbutz and 112 urban adolescents shows that kibbutz adolescents express fewer hopes for the future. (SKC)

  16. [Social consequences of birth in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Beck, A; Hoffellner, L

    1977-01-01

    234 Austrian women gave birth to a child in the years 1972--74 before the age of 18. 95 of them were invited to an interview and interrogated about changes in their life-situation due to the birth. The general attitude was, if they could choose again the date of the first pregnancy they would prefer after 20 years. No correlation was found between early menarche and early sexual intercourse. For 60 of the women pregnancy was the reason for their marriage. Most of the young women had experience with contraceptives, but did not use them for different reasons. After the birth of the child most of them took the pill, but there are 11 women left without any contraception, exposing themselves to the risk of a repeat pregnancy. Young age at birth has an impact upon pre-vocational training: either through interruption of the training or through total discontinuation of their education. A possible solution of the present unsatisfactory situation for young pregnant women and their social problems are interdisciplinary projects for the guidance of adolescents in some centers in the USA. PMID:595966

  17. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence. PMID:23051898

  18. Assessing Adolescent Social Competence Using the Social Responsiveness Scale: Should We Ask Both Parents or Will Just One Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Amanda M.; Murray, Michael J.; Smith, Laura A.; Arnold, Mariah

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of instruments designed to measure social competence of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The Social Responsiveness Scale is one of a few that can be used. This study compared differences between mother and father reports of social competence of adolescents. Data were collected from parents of 50 adolescents with and…

  19. Internet-Based Community Networks: Finding the Social in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. Faith

    In this chapter we explore the concept of community within social networks and the effect that this primarily social construct can have on the way in which we understand trust within an online network. To do this we analyse and compare a number of the definitions that are both traditionally used to identify online communities and which have developed with the advent of semantically described social networks. Taking these definitions we apply them to a number of groups within a visualisation of a social network and, using this case study, consider the differences that are apparent between the types of groups. Finally, we discuss how the social implications inherent within the definition of community interact with the trust and reputation systems that exist in such networks. In doing so, we focus on the social aspect of the social network and the ways in which the social and technical worlds entwine.

  20. An Introduction to Social Network Data Analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.

    The advent of online social networks has been one of the most exciting events in this decade. Many popular online social networks such as Twitter, LinkedIn, and Facebook have become increasingly popular. In addition, a number of multimedia networks such as Flickr have also seen an increasing level of popularity in recent years. Many such social networks are extremely rich in content, and they typically contain a tremendous amount of content and linkage data which can be leveraged for analysis. The linkage data is essentially the graph structure of the social network and the communications between entities; whereas the content data contains the text, images and other multimedia data in the network. The richness of this network provides unprecedented opportunities for data analytics in the context of social networks. This book provides a data-centric view of online social networks; a topic which has been missing from much of the literature. This chapter provides an overview of the key topics in this field, and their coverage in this book.

  1. Supported Employment: A Route to Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester-Jones, Rachel; Jones, Samantha; Heason, Sophie; Di'Terlizzi, Michele

    2004-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that social networks mediate social functioning, self-esteem, mental health and quality of life. This paper presents findings concerning changes in the social lives, skills, behaviour and life experiences of a group of people with intellectual disabilities (n = 18), who gained support from an employment agency to find…

  2. Peer Influences: The Impact of Online and Offline Friendship Networks on Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace C.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Soto, Daniel; Fujimoto, Kayo; Pentz, Mary Ann; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Valente, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Online social networking sites (SNSs) have become a popular mode of communication between adolescents. However, little is known about the effects of social online activity on health behaviors. The authors examine the use of SNSs between friends and the degree to which SNS activities relate to face-to-face peer influences and adolescent risk behaviors. Methods Longitudinal egocentric friendship network data along with adolescent social media use and risk behaviors were collected from 1,563 tenth grade students across five Southern California high schools. Measures of online and offline peer influences were computed and assessed using fixed effects models. Results The frequency of adolescent SNS use and the number of their closest friends on the same SNS were not significantly associated with risk behaviors. However, exposure to friends’ online pictures of partying or drinking was significantly associated with both smoking (β=.07, p<.001) and alcohol use (β=.08, p<.05). While adolescents with drinking friends had higher risk levels for drinking, adolescents without drinking friends were more likely to be affected by increasing exposure to risky online pictures (β=−.10, p<.10). Myspace and Facebook had demographically distinct user characteristics and had differential effects on risk behaviors. Conclusions Exposure to risky online content had a direct impact on adolescents’ risk behaviors and significantly interacted with risk behaviors of their friends. These results provide evidence that friends’ online behaviors should be considered a viable source of peer influence and that increased efforts should focus on educating adolescents on the negative effects of risky online displays. PMID:24012065

  3. Adolescent Social Issues: Using Media to Address Crucial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokoloff, Michele

    1987-01-01

    This article describes media resources available to help adolescents deal with a variety of social concerns, including substance abuse, dropouts, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), suicide, and pregnancy. A list of 56 companies that provide resources dealing with social issues is also provided. (LRW)

  4. Adolescent Fathers Involved with Child Protection: Social Workers Speak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Derrick M.; Watkins, Natasha D.; Walling, Sherry M.; Wilhelm, Sara; Rayford, Brett S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined adolescent paternity through structured interviews with their social workers. It adds to the literature by exploring if there were young men involved with the child protection services (CPS) system who are fathers, identifying their unique needs, and beginning discussions on working with these young men. CPS social workers from…

  5. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  6. Social Intelligence and Academic Achievement as Predictors of Adolescent Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijs, Noortje; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Segers, Eliane; Spijkerman, Renske

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of social intelligence and cognitive intelligence, as measured by academic achievement, on adolescent popularity in two school contexts. A distinction was made between sociometric popularity, a measure of acceptance, and perceived popularity, a measure of social dominance. Participants were 512, 14-15 year-old…

  7. Understanding Adolescent Parenting: The Dimensions and Functions of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Pamela S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents model of adolescent parenting, emphasizing multiple influences that social support has on maternal personality, health and nutritional status, cognitive readiness for parenting, and actual parenting behavior and child development. Concludes life span perspective is useful in evaluating teenage mother's social support needs and individual…

  8. The Psychological and Social Characteristics of Asian Adolescent Overdose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsbury, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Compared social and psychological features of Asian (n=13) and Caucasian (n=37) adolescents who had taken drug overdoses. Found that Asians were more socially isolated than Caucasians and that, despite Asians having low suicidal intent, they had higher rates of depression, hopelessness, long premeditation time, and previous overdose. (Author/NB)

  9. Developmental Change in Social Responsibility during Adolescence: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change--and predictors of that change--in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the…

  10. Treating Social Anxiety in Adolescents: Ten Group Therapy Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur-Elmer, Alison; McBride, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adolescents and concludes by offering a set of 10 group therapy lesson plans for SAD that therapists can use in their practice. The overview includes a description of social anxiety disorder and highlights various theories of anxiety. The…

  11. Social Interaction Research for Adolescents with Severe Handicaps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Ross, Robert; Haring, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Research on social interaction of severely disabled adolescents is reviewed. A conceptual model for research and instruction is based on the reciprocal exchange of responses between two interactants. Among topics addressed are peer initiation strategies, teaching disabled students to initiate, the environmental context, social scripts, and school…

  12. Social Contexts in Adolescent Smoking: Does School Policy Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piontek, D.; Buehler, A.; Rudolph, U.; Metz, K.; Kroeger, C.; Gradl, S.; Floeter, S.; Donath, C.

    2008-01-01

    According to an ecological perspective in psychology and in line with social cognitive theory, smoking behaviour is determined by different social contexts (for example, peers, family and school) providing adolescents with important role models. This paper investigates the effects of personal characteristics as well as family, peer and school…

  13. Adolescent Social Competence: Effectiveness in a Group Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Levy, Alissa K.; Hyson, Daniel M.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2000-01-01

    Examined the validity of an observational assessment of adolescent social competence within a group interaction during a revealed differences task. Found that ratings of task enjoyment, involvement, leadership, self-confidence in task, and global social competence showed strong correlations to counselor ratings and peer sociometrics and were…

  14. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  15. Perfectionism, Perspective Taking, and Social Connection in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Rice, Kenneth G.; Carboni, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Although studies examining multidimensional perfectionism among adolescents have increased over the past two decades, most continue to focus on psychological outcomes such as anxiety or depression. The purpose of this study was to examine two social outcomes that may differ among perfectionistic subtypes: "social perspective taking"…

  16. Ethnic, Social Class, and Gender Differences in Adolescent Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Cindy; Power, Thomas G.

    2003-01-01

    The independent effects of ethnicity and social class on multiple aspects of adolescent drinking were examined. African American, European American, and Mexican American high school students (1,134 females, 740 males) from three social classes completed measures of drinking frequency and quantity, drinking consequences, reasons for drinking, and…

  17. Models of social networks based on social distance attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguñá, Marián; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2004-11-01

    We propose a class of models of social network formation based on a mathematical abstraction of the concept of social distance. Social distance attachment is represented by the tendency of peers to establish acquaintances via a decreasing function of the relative distance in a representative social space. We derive analytical results (corroborated by extensive numerical simulations), showing that the model reproduces the main statistical characteristics of real social networks: large clustering coefficient, positive degree correlations, and the emergence of a hierarchy of communities. The model is confronted with the social network formed by people that shares confidential information using the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption algorithm, the so-called web of trust of PGP.

  18. Models of social networks based on social distance attachment.

    PubMed

    Boguñá, Marián; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Arenas, Alex

    2004-11-01

    We propose a class of models of social network formation based on a mathematical abstraction of the concept of social distance. Social distance attachment is represented by the tendency of peers to establish acquaintances via a decreasing function of the relative distance in a representative social space. We derive analytical results (corroborated by extensive numerical simulations), showing that the model reproduces the main statistical characteristics of real social networks: large clustering coefficient, positive degree correlations, and the emergence of a hierarchy of communities. The model is confronted with the social network formed by people that shares confidential information using the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) encryption algorithm, the so-called web of trust of PGP. PMID:15600707

  19. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  20. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. PMID:25631568

  1. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of ‘cultural models’ exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. PMID:25631568

  2. Social Network Analysis for Program Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Thomas W.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach. PMID:26110842

  3. Social network analysis for program implementation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Thomas W; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Czaja, Sara; Chu, Kar-Hai; Brown, C Hendricks

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of social network analysis theory and tools for implementation research. The social network perspective is useful for understanding, monitoring, influencing, or evaluating the implementation process when programs, policies, practices, or principles are designed and scaled up or adapted to different settings. We briefly describe common barriers to implementation success and relate them to the social networks of implementation stakeholders. We introduce a few simple measures commonly used in social network analysis and discuss how these measures can be used in program implementation. Using the four stage model of program implementation (exploration, adoption, implementation, and sustainment) proposed by Aarons and colleagues [1] and our experience in developing multi-sector partnerships involving community leaders, organizations, practitioners, and researchers, we show how network measures can be used at each stage to monitor, intervene, and improve the implementation process. Examples are provided to illustrate these concepts. We conclude with expected benefits and challenges associated with this approach. PMID:26110842

  4. Temporal fidelity in dynamic social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Pentland, Alex `Sandy'; Lehmann, Sune

    2015-10-01

    It has recently become possible to record detailed social interactions in large social systems with high resolution. As we study these datasets, human social interactions display patterns that emerge at multiple time scales, from minutes to months. On a fundamental level, understanding of the network dynamics can be used to inform the process of measuring social networks. The details of measurement are of particular importance when considering dynamic processes where minute-to-minute details are important, because collection of physical proximity interactions with high temporal resolution is difficult and expensive. Here, we consider the dynamic network of proximity-interactions between approximately 500 individuals participating in the Copenhagen Networks Study. We show that in order to accurately model spreading processes in the network, the dynamic processes that occur on the order of minutes are essential and must be included in the analysis.

  5. Benford's Law Applies to Online Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Benford's Law states that, in naturally occurring systems, the frequency of numbers' first digits is not evenly distributed. Numbers beginning with a 1 occur roughly 30% of the time, and are six times more common than numbers beginning with a 9. We show that Benford's Law applies to social and behavioral features of users in online social networks. Using social data from five major social networks (Facebook, Twitter, Google Plus, Pinterest, and LiveJournal), we show that the distribution of first significant digits of friend and follower counts for users in these systems follow Benford's Law. The same is true for the number of posts users make. We extend this to egocentric networks, showing that friend counts among the people in an individual's social network also follows the expected distribution. We discuss how this can be used to detect suspicious or fraudulent activity online and to validate datasets. PMID:26308716

  6. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  7. Analysis of Social Networks by Tensor Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Sergej; Staab, Steffen; Franz, Thomas

    The Social Web fosters novel applications targeting a more efficient and satisfying user guidance in modern social networks, e.g., for identifying thematically focused communities, or finding users with similar interests. Large scale and high diversity of users in social networks poses the challenging question of appropriate relevance/authority ranking, for producing fine-grained and rich descriptions of available partners, e.g., to guide the user along most promising groups of interest. Existing methods for graph-based authority ranking lack support for fine-grained latent coherence between user relations and content (i.e., support for edge semantics in graph-based social network models). We present TweetRank, a novel approach for faceted authority ranking in the context of social networks. TweetRank captures the additional latent semantics of social networks by means of statistical methods in order to produce richer descriptions of user relations. We model the social network by a 3-dimensional tensor that enables the seamless representation of arbitrary semantic relations. For the analysis of that model, we apply the PARAFAC decomposition, which can be seen as a multi-modal counterpart to common Web authority ranking with HITS. The result are groupings of users and terms, characterized by authority and navigational (hub) scores with respect to the identified latent topics. Sample experiments with life data of the Twitter community demonstrate the ability of TweetRank to produce richer and more comprehensive contact recommendations than other existing methods for social authority ranking.

  8. Online social networking and the experience of cyber-bullying.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Bridianne; Campbell, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Online social networking sites (SNS) are popular social tools used amongst adolescents and account for much of their daily internet activity. Recently, these sites have presented opportunities for youth to experience cyber-bullying. Often resulting in psychological distress, cyber-bullying is a common experience for many young people. Continual use of SNS signifies the importance of examining its links to cyber-bullying. This study examined the relationship between online social networking and the experience of cyber-bullying. A total of 400 participants (Mage=14.31 years) completed an online survey which examined the perceived definitions and frequency of cyber-bullying. Users of SNS reported significantly higher frequencies of stranger contact compared to non-users. Spearman's rho correlations determined no significant relationship between daily time on SNS and the frequency of stranger contact. This suggests that ownership of a SNS profile may be a stronger predictor of some cyber-bullying experiences compared to time spent on these sites. Findings encourage continued research on the nature of internet activities used by young adolescents and the possible exposure to online victimization. PMID:22954858

  9. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems. PMID:25219790

  10. Social network structures and bank runs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shouwei; Li, Jiaheng

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the impact of social network structures of depositors on bank runs. The analyzed network structures include random networks, small-world networks and scale-free networks. Simulation results show that the probability of bank run occurrence in random networks is larger than that in small-world networks, but the probability of bank run occurrence in scale-free networks drops from the highest to the lowest among the three types of network structures with the increase of the proportion of impatient depositors. The average degree of depositor networks has a significant impact on bank runs, but this impact is related to the proportion of impatient depositors and the confidence levels of depositors in banks.

  11. Modeling Social Network Topologies in Elementary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo; Canto-Lugo, Efrain; Viga-de Alva, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Complex networks are used to describe interactions in many real world systems, including economic, biological and social systems. An analysis was done of inter-student friendship, enmity and kinship relationships at three elementary schools by building social networks of these relationships and studying their properties. Friendship network measurements were similar between schools and produced a Poisson topology with a high clustering index. Enmity network measurements were also similar between schools and produced a power law topology. Spatial confinement and the sense of belonging to a social group played vital roles in shaping these networks. Two models were developed which generate complex friendship and enmity networks that reproduce the properties observed at the three studied elementary schools. PMID:23408976

  12. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  13. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  14. Fundamental structures of dynamic social networks.

    PubMed

    Sekara, Vedran; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-09-01

    Social systems are in a constant state of flux, with dynamics spanning from minute-by-minute changes to patterns present on the timescale of years. Accurate models of social dynamics are important for understanding the spreading of influence or diseases, formation of friendships, and the productivity of teams. Although there has been much progress on understanding complex networks over the past decade, little is known about the regularities governing the microdynamics of social networks. Here, we explore the dynamic social network of a densely-connected population of ∼1,000 individuals and their interactions in the network of real-world person-to-person proximity measured via Bluetooth, as well as their telecommunication networks, online social media contacts, geolocation, and demographic data. These high-resolution data allow us to observe social groups directly, rendering community detection unnecessary. Starting from 5-min time slices, we uncover dynamic social structures expressed on multiple timescales. On the hourly timescale, we find that gatherings are fluid, with members coming and going, but organized via a stable core of individuals. Each core represents a social context. Cores exhibit a pattern of recurring meetings across weeks and months, each with varying degrees of regularity. Taken together, these findings provide a powerful simplification of the social network, where cores represent fundamental structures expressed with strong temporal and spatial regularity. Using this framework, we explore the complex interplay between social and geospatial behavior, documenting how the formation of cores is preceded by coordination behavior in the communication networks and demonstrating that social behavior can be predicted with high precision. PMID:27555584

  15. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  16. Social Support and Social Networks in COPD: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Barton, Christopher; Effing, Tanya W; Cafarella, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to determine the size and nature of the evidence describing associations between social support and networks on health, management and clinical outcomes amongst patients with COPD. Searches of PubMed, PsychInfo and CINAHL were undertaken for the period 1966-December 2013. A descriptive synthesis of the main findings was undertaken to demonstrate where there is current evidence for associations between social support, networks and health outcomes, and where further research is needed. The search yielded 318 papers of which 287 were excluded after applying selection criteria. Two areas emerged in which there was consistent evidence of benefit of social support; namely mental health and self-efficacy. There was inconsistent evidence for a relationship between perceived social support and quality of life, physical functioning and self-rated health. Hospital readmission was not associated with level of perceived social support. Only a small number of studies (3 articles) have reported on the social network of individuals with COPD. There remains a need to identify the factors that promote and enable social support. In particular, there is a need to further understand the characteristics of social networks within the broader social structural conditions in which COPD patients live and manage their illness. PMID:26263036

  17. Disease dynamics in a dynamic social network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Claire; Albert, István; Grenfell, Bryan; Albert, Réka

    2010-07-01

    We develop a framework for simulating a realistic, evolving social network (a city) into which a disease is introduced. We compare our results to prevaccine era measles data for England and Wales, and find that they capture the quantitative and qualitative features of epidemics in populations spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results provide unique insight into how and why the social topology of the contact network influences the propagation of the disease through the population. We argue that network simulation is suitable for concurrently probing contact network dynamics and disease dynamics in ways that prior modeling approaches cannot and it can be extended to the study of less well-documented diseases.

  18. Learning in social networks and contraceptive choice.

    PubMed

    Kohler, H P

    1997-08-01

    A puzzling observation in the diffusion of modern fertility control is the persistent diversity in contraceptive practices across communities or social strata. I propose a model of "learning in social networks" to explain this diversity with the random dynamics of word-of-mouth communication. Women are uncertain about the merits of modern contraception and estimate the different qualities of available method based on imprecise information from network partners. Their contraceptive choices are determined by this estimate and by private knowledge about one's personal characteristics. This process of social learning leads to path-dependent adoption of fertility control within, and diversity in contraceptive practices across villages or social strata. PMID:9275246

  19. Unnecessary Roughness? School Sports, Peer Networks, and Male Adolescent Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which participation in high school interscholastic sports contributes to male violence. Deriving competing hypotheses from social control, social learning, and masculinity theories, I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test if (1) type of sport and (2) peer athletic…

  20. Geographies of an Online Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the “death of distance”, physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  1. Geographies of an Online Social Network.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Balázs; Varga, Attila; Ságvári, Bence; Jakobi, Ákos; Kertész, János

    2015-01-01

    How is online social media activity structured in the geographical space? Recent studies have shown that in spite of earlier visions about the "death of distance", physical proximity is still a major factor in social tie formation and maintenance in virtual social networks. Yet, it is unclear, what are the characteristics of the distance dependence in online social networks. In order to explore this issue the complete network of the former major Hungarian online social network is analyzed. We find that the distance dependence is weaker for the online social network ties than what was found earlier for phone communication networks. For a further analysis we introduced a coarser granularity: We identified the settlements with the nodes of a network and assigned two kinds of weights to the links between them. When the weights are proportional to the number of contacts we observed weakly formed, but spatially based modules resemble to the borders of macro-regions, the highest level of regional administration in the country. If the weights are defined relative to an uncorrelated null model, the next level of administrative regions, counties are reflected. PMID:26359668

  2. Searching social networks for subgraph patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogaard, Kirk; Kase, Sue; Roy, Heather; Nagi, Rakesh; Sambhoos, Kedar; Sudit, Moises

    2013-06-01

    Software tools for Social Network Analysis (SNA) are being developed which support various types of analysis of social networks extracted from social media websites (e.g., Twitter). Once extracted and stored in a database such social networks are amenable to analysis by SNA software. This data analysis often involves searching for occurrences of various subgraph patterns (i.e., graphical representations of entities and relationships). The authors have developed the Graph Matching Toolkit (GMT) which provides an intuitive Graphical User Interface (GUI) for a heuristic graph matching algorithm called the Truncated Search Tree (TruST) algorithm. GMT is a visual interface for graph matching algorithms processing large social networks. GMT enables an analyst to draw a subgraph pattern by using a mouse to select categories and labels for nodes and links from drop-down menus. GMT then executes the TruST algorithm to find the top five occurrences of the subgraph pattern within the social network stored in the database. GMT was tested using a simulated counter-insurgency dataset consisting of cellular phone communications within a populated area of operations in Iraq. The results indicated GMT (when executing the TruST graph matching algorithm) is a time-efficient approach to searching large social networks. GMT's visual interface to a graph matching algorithm enables intelligence analysts to quickly analyze and summarize the large amounts of data necessary to produce actionable intelligence.

  3. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention. PMID:26224584

  4. Social Status, Perceived Social Reputations, and Perceived Dyadic Relationships in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaly, Daryaneh; Schwartz, David; Gorman, Andrea Hopmeyer

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined social acceptance and popularity as correlates of perceived social reputations and perceived dyadic relationships in a cross-sectional sample of 418 6th and 7th grade students (approximate average age of 12 years). We assessed early adolescents' social status using peer nominations and measured their perceptions of…

  5. Social Media Use and Social Connectedness in Adolescents: The Positives and the Potential Pitfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kelly A.; Ryan, Tracii; Gray, DeLeon L.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Waters, Lea

    2014-01-01

    As social media use is rising among adolescents, the issue of whether this use leads to positive or negative outcomes warrants greater understanding. This article critically reviews the literature related to this important topic. Specifically, we examine how social media use affects social connectedness in terms of three elements of adolescent…

  6. The impact of social media on the sexual and social wellness of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cookingham, Lisa M; Ryan, Ginny L

    2015-02-01

    For most adolescents in the United States, the use of social media is an integral part of daily life. While the advent of the Internet has enhanced information dispersal and communication worldwide, it has also had a negative impact on the sexual and social wellness of many of its adolescent users. The objective of this review is to describe the role of social media in the evolution of social norms, to illustrate how online activity can negatively impact adolescent self-esteem and contribute to high-risk adolescent behaviors, to elucidate how this activity can result in real-world consequences with life-long results, and to provide guidance regarding social media use for those who care for adolescents. Although research is now aimed at use of social media for positive health and wellness interventions, much work needs to be done to determine the utility of these programs. Adolescent healthcare providers are important contributors to this new field of study and must resolve to stay informed and to engage this up-and-coming generation on the benefits and risks of social media use. PMID:25555296

  7. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  8. Social Networks in Improvement of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the “nodes” of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens’ associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs

  9. Social networks in improvement of health care.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Sivic, Suad; Toromanovic, Selim; Borojevic, Tea; Pandza, Haris

    2012-01-01

    Social network is a social structure made of individuals or organizations associated with one or more types of interdependence (friendship, common interests, work, knowledge, prestige, etc.) which are the "nodes" of the network. Networks can be organized to exchange information, knowledge or financial assistance under the various interest groups in universities, workplaces and associations of citizens. Today the most popular and widely used networks are based on application of the Internet as the main ICT. Depending on the method of connection, their field of activity and expertise of those who participate in certain networks, the network can be classified into the following groups: a) Social Networks with personal physical connectivity (the citizens' associations, transplant networks, etc.), b) Global social internet network (Facebook, Twitter, Skype), c) specific health internet social network (forums, Health Care Forums, Healthcare Industry Forum), d) The health community internet network of non professionals (DailyStrength, CaringBridge, CarePages, MyFamilyHealth), e) Scientific social internet network (BiomedExperts, ResearchGate, iMedExchange), f) Social internet network which supported professionals (HealthBoards, Spas and Hope Association of Disabled and diabetic Enurgi), g) Scientific medical internet network databases in the system of scientific and technical information (CC, Pubmed/Medline, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, ISI Web Knowledge, EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Social Science Index, etc.). The information in the network are exchanged in real time and in a way that has until recently been impossible in real life of people in the community. Networks allow tens of thousands of specific groups of people performing a series of social, professional and educational activities in the place of living and housing, place of work or other locations where individuals are. Network provides access to information related to education, health, nutrition, drugs, procedures

  10. The Social Context of Adolescent Smoking: A Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hipp, John R.; Timberlake, David S.

    2010-01-01

    We used a systems science perspective to examine adolescents' personal networks, school networks, and neighborhoods as a system through which emotional support and peer influence flow, and we sought to determine whether these flows affected past-month smoking at 2 time points, 1994–1995 and 1996. To test relationships, we employed structural equation modeling and used public-use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 6504). Personal network properties affected past-month smoking at both time points via the flow of emotional support. We observed a feedback loop from personal network properties to emotional support and then to past-month smoking. Past-month smoking at time 1 fed back to positively affect in-degree centrality (i.e., popularity). Findings suggest that networks and neighborhoods in this system positively affected past-month smoking via flows of emotional support. PMID:20466966

  11. Social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-08-01

    We recently observed that social interactions influence morphine responsiveness in adolescent males. Given sex-related differences in both social interactions and responses to morphine, the present study examines social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent female mice. Four experimental groups were examined: (1) morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10-40 mg/kg, s.c.) housed physically and visually separated from saline-treated mice ('morphine only'), (2) morphine-treated mice housed together with saline-treated mice ('morphine cage-mates (of saline)'), (3) saline-treated mice housed together with morphine-treated mice ('saline cage-mates (of morphine)'), and (4) saline-treated mice housed physically and visually separated from morphine-treated mice ('saline only'). Following the treatment period, mice were tested individually for their locomotor response to 20 mg/kg morphine (s.c.). There were no significant differences in morphine-induced hyper-locomotion between saline only and saline cage-mates (of morphine) female adolescent mice. Notably, morphine only mice exhibited significantly greater morphine sensitization as compared to morphine cage-mates (of saline). Thus, this study demonstrates social influences on morphine sensitization in adolescent females. Drug use during early adolescence is a key predictor of later drug abuse and dependence during adulthood. Thus, understanding the specific vulnerabilities to drug use in this age group may represent a first step in helping develop more effective treatment programs. PMID:20456874

  12. Stability and change of social goals in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Elisa M; Wright, Aidan G C; Colder, Craig R

    2014-10-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in social goals using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model across adolescence (ages 11-16). Five complementary definitions of stability were examined: structural, rank-order, absolute, individual, and ipsative. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of early adolescent problem behavior. Social goals were assessed during each wave, with data collection occurring at three annual intervals (Wave 1, ages 10-12). A community sample of adolescents (N = 387) was recruited. Adolescents were evenly split on gender, and a majority (82.7%) was White. Results suggest a modest increase in stability across social goals, yet significant interindividual heterogeneity. Although levels of Agentic and Communal factors increase over time, these patterns were driven by decreases in the Submissive and Separate octants. This offers evidence for the utility of examining lower-order facets of interpersonal dispositions, as it provides a nuanced picture of adolescent personality development. Furthermore, findings suggest that change and continuity in social goals may both be relevant in this developmental period. The difficulty is accounting for trait stability as well as change, and the IPC model may be particularly useful for meeting this challenge. PMID:23998889

  13. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  14. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  15. Social Networks and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Tobacco and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the composition of social networks contributes to sexual orientation disparities in substance use and misuse. Method: Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of adolescents (N = 20,745). Wave 1 collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories. Results: Same- and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of tobacco use in their peer networks than did opposite-sex–attracted youths, and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of alcohol use and misuse in their peer networks than opposite-sex–attracted youths. Among same- and both-sex–attracted youths, greater frequency/quantity of tobacco use in one’s social network predicted greater use of cigarettes. In addition, greater frequency/quantity of peers’ drinking and drinking to intoxication predicted more alcohol use and alcohol misuse in the both-sex–attracted group. These social network factors mediated sexual orientation–related disparities in tobacco use for both- and same-sex–attracted youths. Moreover, sexual orientation disparities in alcohol misuse were mediated by social network characteristics for the same-sex and both-sex–attracted youths. Importantly, sexual minority adolescents were no more likely to have other sexual minorities in their social networks than were sexual majority youths, ruling out an alternative explanation for our results. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of social networks as correlates of substance use behaviors among sexual minority youths and as potential pathways explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use outcomes. PMID:25486400

  16. Brand communities embedded in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zaglia, Melanie E

    2013-02-01

    Brand communities represent highly valuable marketing, innovation management, and customer relationship management tools. However, applying successful marketing strategies today, and in the future, also means exploring and seizing the unprecedented opportunities of social network environments. This study combines these two social phenomena which have largely been researched separately, and aims to investigate the existence, functionality and different types of brand communities within social networks. The netnographic approach yields strong evidence of this existence; leading to a better understanding of such embedded brand communities, their peculiarities, and motivational drivers for participation; therefore the findings contribute to theory by combining two separate research streams. Due to the advantages of social networks, brand management is now able to implement brand communities with less time and financial effort; however, choosing the appropriate brand community type, cultivating consumers' interaction, and staying tuned to this social engagement are critical factors to gain anticipated brand outcomes. PMID:23564989

  17. Rejection Sensitivity in Late Adolescence: Social and Emotional Sequelae

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Emily G.; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    This study used longitudinal, multi-reporter data, in a community sample, to examine the role of rejection sensitivity in late adolescents’ social and emotional development. Rejection sensitivity was linked to a relative increase in adolescent depressive and anxiety symptoms over a three-year period, even after accounting for teens’ baseline level of social competence. Additionally, reciprocal relationships emerged between rejection sensitivity and internalizing symptoms. Rejection sensitivity was also linked to relative decreases in peer-reports of teens’ social competence over a three-year period. Consistent with research on gendered socialization, males reported higher levels of rejection sensitivity than females at age 16 and 17. Results are interpreted as highlighting the importance of rejection sensitivity in understanding late adolescent social and emotional development. PMID:21113326

  18. A Developmental Study of Social Self-Conceptions in Adolescence: Impressions and Misimpressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzberger, Sharon, D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigates adolescents' perceptions of impressions held about them by important others, focusing on cross-sectional differences from early to late adolescence in the structure of social self-conceptions, on differences between parental and peer social self-conceptions and between individual and social self-conceptions, and on adolescents'…

  19. Adolescents and Suicide: Restoring the Kin Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutstein, Steven E.; Rudd, M. David

    This booklet describes Houston's Systemic Crisis Intervention Program (SCIP), an outpatient-based program for adolescents who have attempted suicide, used during the suicidal crisis period and based on the premise that children need a healthy kin system to serve as a buffer to the all too frequent crises of adolescence. The introduction presents…

  20. Information diffusion in structured online social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei; Zhang, Yini; Qiao, Fengcai; Wang, Hui

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, due to the word-of-mouth effect, online social networks have been considered to be efficient approaches to conduct viral marketing, which makes it of great importance to understand the diffusion dynamics in online social networks. However, most research on diffusion dynamics in epidemiology and existing social networks cannot be applied directly to characterize online social networks. In this paper, we propose models to characterize the information diffusion in structured online social networks with push-based forwarding mechanism. We introduce the term user influence to characterize the average number of times that messages are browsed which is incurred by a given type user generating a message, and study the diffusion threshold, above which the user influence of generating a message will approach infinity. We conduct simulations and provide the simulation results, which are consistent with the theoretical analysis results perfectly. These results are of use in understanding the diffusion dynamics in online social networks and also critical for advertisers in viral marketing who want to estimate the user influence before posting an advertisement.

  1. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  2. Direct and indirect effects of caregiver social support on adolescent psychological outcomes in two South African AIDS-affected communities

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M.; Wild, Lauren G.

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p<.001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  3. Direct and Indirect Effects of Caregiver Social Support on Adolescent Psychological Outcomes in Two South African AIDS-Affected Communities.

    PubMed

    Casale, Marisa; Cluver, Lucie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Kuo, Caroline; Lachman, Jamie M; Wild, Lauren G

    2015-06-01

    Caregiver social support has been shown to be protective for caregiver mental health, parenting and child psychosocial outcomes. This is the first known analysis to quantitatively investigate the relationship between caregiver social support and adolescent psychosocial outcomes in HIV-endemic, resource-scarce Southern African communities. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted over 2009-2010 with 2,477 South African adolescents aged 10-17 and their adult caregivers (18 years or older) in one urban and one rural community in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. Adolescent adjustment was assessed using adult caregiver reports of the Strengths and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), which measures peer problems, hyperactivity, conduct problems, emotional symptoms and child prosocial behavior. Hierarchical linear regressions and multiple mediation analyses, using bootstrapping procedures, were conducted to assess for: (a) direct effects of more caregiver social support on better adolescent psychosocial wellbeing; and (b) indirect effects mediated by better parenting and caregiver mental health. Direct associations (p < .001), and indirect associations mediated through better parenting, were found for all adolescent outcomes. Findings reinforce the importance of social support components within parenting interventions but also point to scope for positive intervention on adolescent psychosocial wellbeing through the broader family social network. PMID:25623784

  4. The effects of friendship network popularity on depressive symptoms during early adolescence: moderation by fear of negative evaluation and gender.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E

    2014-04-01

    We integrated a social network analysis and developmental perspectives to examine the effects of friendship network popularity on depressive symptoms during early adolescence. We explored whether the association between social status processes (i.e., friendship network popularity) and depressive symptoms was moderated by socio-cognitive aspects of peer relations (i.e., a fear of negative evaluation by peers) and gender. This longitudinal study was conducted with a sample of 367 adolescents (48.5 % female; M age = 11.9 years; 9 % European American, 19 % African American, 7 % Native American, 60 % Latino(a), 5 % other) attending sixth and seventh grades at Time 1. Results indicated that, for males with high levels of fear of negative evaluation, friendship network popularity was associated negatively with increases in depressive symptoms. Conversely, for females with high levels of fear of negative evaluation, friendship network popularity was associated positively with increases in depressive symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:23832253

  5. Social Networks and Daily Activities of Street Youth in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, Regina; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studied the social networks and daily activities of children and adolescents living or working on the streets of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Found that youngsters who lived at home and worked on the street appeared to be experiencing orderly development despite their impoverished circumstances. Youngsters who lived on the streets, however, showed…

  6. Academic Social Networking Brings Web 2.0 Technologies to the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taranto, Gregory; Dalbon, Melissa; Gaetano, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The middle grades are an exciting time for adolescents to explore, learn, and collaborate with one another (National Middle School Association, 2010). By incorporating an academic social network as part of the classroom experience, collaboration and active learning take on new forms, and a transformation from passive learning to active learning…

  7. Social Network Formation of Entering College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Harold I.

    The examination of the functioning of social networks has been used to understand how individual and environmental characteristics can mediate the availability of social support. To examine the relationship between personal attributes, psychosocial environmental attributes, and the interaction between these variables, 92 entering college freshmen…

  8. College Students' Social Networking Experiences on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pempek, Tiffany A.; Yermolayeva, Yevdokiya A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Millions of contemporary young adults use social networking sites. However, little is known about how much, why, and how they use these sites. In this study, 92 undergraduates completed a diary-like measure each day for a week, reporting daily time use and responding to an activities checklist to assess their use of the popular social networking…

  9. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  10. Facebook, Social Networking, and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Steven A.; Mulligan, Jamie R.; Ishida, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Brown (2012) asserts that faculty perceptions of Web 2.0 for teaching will influence its adoption. For example, social media's influence on educational delivery is growing (Hrastinski and Dennon 2012). Zulu et al. (2011) note that business educators are only beginning to understand social networking related to education. We report an exploratory…

  11. Spatial and Social Networks in Organizational Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineman, Jean D.; Kabo, Felichism W.; Davis, Gerald F.

    2009-01-01

    Research on the enabling factors of innovation has focused on either the social component of organizations or on the spatial dimensions involved in the innovation process. But no one has examined the aggregate consequences of the link from spatial layout, to social networks, to innovation. This project enriches our understanding of how innovation…

  12. District Policy and Teachers' Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Cynthia E.; Russell, Jennifer Lin

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers increasingly include provisions aimed at fostering professional community as part of reform initiatives. Yet little is known about the impact of policy on teachers' professional relations in schools. Drawing theoretically from social capital theory and methodologically from qualitative social network analysis, this article explores…

  13. Creating Socially Networked Knowledge through Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuk, Eric; Hoetzlein, Rama; Kim, David; Panko, Julia

    2012-01-01

    We report on the experience of creating a socially networked system, the Research-oriented Social Environment (RoSE), for representing knowledge in the form of relationships between people, documents, and groups. Developed as an intercampus, interdisciplinary project of the University of California, this work reflects on a collaboration between…

  14. Social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Van Hasselt, V B; Null, J A; Kempton, T; Bukstein, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present study provided an assessment of social skills and depression in adolescent substance abusers hospitalized in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Level of social skill was evaluated using the Adolescent Assertion Expression Scale and the Loneliness Scale. Depression and related problems were examined through administration of the Beck Depression Inventory. Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Comparisons with normative values and clinical cut-offs (by gender) indicated that female adolescent substance abusers were less submissive and more aggressive than normative counterparts; male substance abusers exhibited less assertiveness. In addition, mild to moderate levels of depression were evident in both female and male substance abusers. Further, results of correlational analyses revealed several significant relationships between measures of social skills and depression. Results are discussed in terms of: (a) the need for finer grained analyses of social functioning in adolescent substance abusers, (b) the potential value of skills intervention for a subgroup of these individuals, and (c) the need for longitudinal data to more clearly explicate patterns and sequencing of social (mal)adjustment, affective disorder, and onset of substance abuse in this population. PMID:8465682

  15. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L

    2011-10-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  16. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  17. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    PubMed

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:23875556

  18. Visual Matrix Clustering of Social Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; May, Richard A.

    2013-07-01

    The prevailing choices to graphically represent a social network in today’s literature are a node-link graph layout and an adjacency matrix. Both visualization techniques have unique strengths and weaknesses when applied to different domain applications. In this article, we focus our discussion on adjacency matrix and how to turn the matrix-based visualization technique from merely showing pairwise associations among network actors (or graph nodes) to depicting clusters of a social network. We also use node-link layouts to supplement the discussion.

  19. Online social networking: a primer for radiology.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Prasanth M; Seagull, F Jacob; Nagy, Paul

    2011-10-01

    Online social networking is an immature, but rapidly evolving industry of web-based technologies that allow individuals to develop online relationships. News stories populate the headlines about various websites which can facilitate patient and doctor interaction. There remain questions about protecting patient confidentiality and defining etiquette in order to preserve the doctor/patient relationship and protect physicians. How much social networking-based communication or other forms of E-communication is effective? What are the potential benefits and pitfalls of this form of communication? Physicians are exploring how social networking might provide a forum for interacting with their patients, and advance collaborative patient care. Several organizations and institutions have set forth policies to address these questions and more. Though still in its infancy, this form of media has the power to revolutionize the way physicians interact with their patients and fellow health care workers. In the end, physicians must ask what value is added by engaging patients or other health care providers in a social networking format. Social networks may flourish in health care as a means of distributing information to patients or serve mainly as support groups among patients. Physicians must tread a narrow path to bring value to interactions in these networks while limiting their exposure to unwanted liability. PMID:21360214

  20. How do online social networks grow?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Konglin; Li, Wenzhong; Fu, Xiaoming; Nagler, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Online social networks such as Facebook, Twitter and Gowalla allow people to communicate and interact across borders. In past years online social networks have become increasingly important for studying the behavior of individuals, group formation, and the emergence of online societies. Here we focus on the characterization of the average growth of online social networks and try to understand which are possible processes behind seemingly long-range temporal correlated collective behavior. In agreement with recent findings, but in contrast to Gibrat's law of proportionate growth, we find scaling in the average growth rate and its standard deviation. In contrast, Renren and Twitter deviate, however, in certain important aspects significantly from those found in many social and economic systems. Whereas independent methods suggest no significance for temporally long-range correlated behavior for Renren and Twitter, a scaling analysis of the standard deviation does suggest long-range temporal correlated growth in Gowalla. However, we demonstrate that seemingly long-range temporal correlations in the growth of online social networks, such as in Gowalla, can be explained by a decomposition into temporally and spatially independent growth processes with a large variety of entry rates. Our analysis thus suggests that temporally or spatially correlated behavior does not play a major role in the growth of online social networks. PMID:24940744

  1. Racial Socialization, Racial Identity, and Academic Attitudes Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Moderating Influence of Parent-Adolescent Communication.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sandra; McLoyd, Vonnie C; Hallman, Samantha K

    2016-06-01

    A significant gap remains in our understanding of the conditions under which parents' racial socialization has consequences for adolescents' functioning. The present study used longitudinal data to examine whether the frequency of communication between African American parents and adolescents (N = 504; 49 % female) moderates the association between parent reports of racial socialization (i.e., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) at 8th grade and adolescent reports of racial identity (perceived structural discrimination, negative public regard, success-oriented centrality) at 11th grade, and in turn, academic attitudes and perceptions. Parents' racial socialization practices were significant predictors of multiple aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with high levels of communication, but they did not predict any aspects of adolescents' racial identity in families with low levels of communication. Results highlight the importance of including family processes when examining the relations between parents' racial socialization and adolescents' racial identity and academic attitudes and perceptions. PMID:26369349

  2. Teachers, Networks and Social Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Kaleen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that school leaders and policymakers should attend to the social conditions within schools that promote instructional improvement and student achievement gains. This dissertation uses theoretical and empirical work on social capital to frame three aspects of the relationships among teachers. The three studies…

  3. Neighborhoods and Adolescent Health-Risk Behavior: An Ecological Network Approach1

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Christopher R.; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L.

    2014-01-01

    This study integrates insights from social network analysis, activity space perspectives, and theories of urban and spatial processes to present an innovative approach to neighborhood effects on health-risk behavior among youth. We suggest spatial patterns of neighborhood residents’ non-home routine activities may be conceptualized as ecological, or “eco”-networks, which are two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through socio-spatial overlap in routine activities. We further argue structural configurations of eco-networks are consequential for youth’s behavioral health. In this study we focus on a key structural feature of eco-networks—the neighborhood-level extent to which households share two or more activity locations, or eco-network reinforcement—and its association with two dimensions of health-risk behavior, substance use and delinquency/sexual activity. Using geographic data on non-home routine activity locations among respondents from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS), we constructed neighborhood-specific eco-networks by connecting sampled households to “activity clusters,” which are sets of spatially-proximate activity locations. We then measured eco-network reinforcement and examined its association with adolescent dimensions of health risk behavior employing a sample of 830 youth ages 12-17 nested in 65 census tracts. We also examined whether neighborhood-level social processes (collective efficacy and intergenerational closure) mediate the association between eco-network reinforcement and the outcomes considered. Results indicated eco-network reinforcement exhibits robust negative associations with both substance use and delinquency/sexual activity scales. Eco-network reinforcement effects were not explained by potential mediating variables. In addition to introducing a novel theoretical and empirical approach to neighborhood effects on youth, our findings highlight the importance of eco-network

  4. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Sherr, Lorraine; Mark Orkin, F; Meinck, Franziska; Lim Ah Ken, Patricia; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Wolfe, Jason; Vicari, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain haphazard, with evidence that social and structural deprivation is negatively impacting adolescents’ capacity to protect themselves and others. This paper examines the evidence for and potential of interventions addressing these structural deprivations. Discussion New evidence is emerging around social protection interventions, including cash transfers, parenting support and educational support (“cash, care and classroom”). These interventions have the potential to reduce the social and economic drivers of HIV risk, improve utilization of prevention technologies and improve adherence to ART for adolescent populations in the hyper-endemic settings of Southern and Eastern Africa. Studies show that the integration of social and economic interventions has high acceptability and reach and that it holds powerful potential for improved HIV, health and development outcomes. Conclusions Social protection is a largely untapped means of reducing HIV-risk behaviours and increasing uptake of and adherence to biomedical prevention and treatment technologies. There is now sufficient evidence to include social protection programming as a key strategy not only to mitigate the negative impacts of the HIV epidemic among families, but also to contribute to HIV prevention among adolescents and potentially to remove social and economic barriers to accessing treatment. We urge a further research and programming agenda: to actively combine

  5. Parenting Practices and the Development of Adolescents' Social Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Flanagan, Constance A.

    2012-01-01

    Social trust (ST) (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is a critical disposition for democratic governance. Yet there has been scant research on its developmental foundations. We assess factors related to ST in 11-18 year olds with survey data collected over two years from 1150 U.S. adolescents and their mothers.…

  6. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  7. Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677

  8. Social Support and Children's and Adolescents' Adaptation to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Taska, Lynn S.; Lewis, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes how social support helps explain variations in child and adolescent psychological distress at time of sexual-abuse discovery (N=154). Support from a parent was related to less psychological distress, whereas support from friends is related to increased adjustment difficulties. (Author/MKA)

  9. Social Cognitive Predictors of African American Adolescents' Career Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Julie L.; Wolfson, Jane L.; Seyala, Nazar D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of social cognitive variables on African American adolescents' interest in environmental science. The sample consisted of 132 (57 male, 75 female) high school seniors enrolled in an urban scientific and technical high school from which 95% of graduates continue in higher education. Results of the regression…

  10. Parental Management of Peer Relationships and Early Adolescents' Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship…

  11. Social Bonds and Internet Pornographic Exposure among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesch, Gustavo S.

    2009-01-01

    Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…

  12. Mass Media and Interpersonal Influence in Adolescent Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; And Others

    This study explores the consumer socialization process in adolescents with regard to mass media and interpersonal factors associated with the acquisition of consumer skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Questionnaires were completed by 300 consumer education students in three Grand Forks, North Dakota schools, assessing such variables as "consumer…

  13. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  14. Adolescent Fathers' Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Involvement with Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Bernd, Elisa; Whiteman, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between concurrent measures of adolescent fathers' parenting stress, social support, and fathers' care-giving involvement with the 3-month-old infant, controlling for fathers' prenatal involvement. The study sample consisted of 50 teenage father-mother dyads. Findings from multivariate regression…

  15. Community Structure in Online Collegiate Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traud, Amanda; Kelsic, Eric; Mucha, Peter; Porter, Mason

    2009-03-01

    Online social networking sites have become increasingly popular with college students. The networks we studied are defined through ``friendships'' indicated by Facebook users from UNC, Oklahoma, Caltech, Georgetown, and Princeton. We apply the tools of network science to study the Facebook networks from these five different universities at a single point in time. We investigate each single-institution network's community structure, which we obtain through partitioning the graph using an eigenvector method. We use both graphical and quantitative tools, including pair-counting methods, which we interpret through statistical analysis and permutation tests to measure the correlations between the network communities and a set of characteristics given by each user (residence, class year, major, and high school). We also analyze the single gender subsets of these networks, and the impact of missing demographical data. Our study allows us to compare the online social networks for the five schools as well as infer differences in offline social interactions. At the schools studied, we were able to define which characteristics of the Facebook users correlate best with friendships.

  16. Social Psychological Factors in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Steven J.; And Others

    Results emanating from smoking cessation programs suggest the necessity for a greater commitment to research for primary smoking prevention. Because of the early onset of smoking, more research must focus on adolescents and preadolescents who have not yet begun to smoke regularly. Three areas of concentrated study are proposed: (1) the initiation…

  17. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Mauricio; Armelini, Guillermo; Salvaj, Erica

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  18. Understanding Social Contagion in Adoption Processes Using Dynamic Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There are many studies in the marketing and diffusion literature of the conditions in which social contagion affects adoption processes. Yet most of these studies assume that social interactions do not change over time, even though actors in social networks exhibit different likelihoods of being influenced across the diffusion period. Rooted in physics and epidemiology theories, this study proposes a Susceptible Infectious Susceptible (SIS) model to assess the role of social contagion in adoption processes, which takes changes in social dynamics over time into account. To study the adoption over a span of ten years, the authors used detailed data sets from a community of consumers and determined the importance of social contagion, as well as how the interplay of social and non-social influences from outside the community drives adoption processes. Although social contagion matters for diffusion, it is less relevant in shaping adoption when the study also includes social dynamics among members of the community. This finding is relevant for managers and entrepreneurs who trust in word-of-mouth marketing campaigns whose effect may be overestimated if marketers fail to acknowledge variations in social interactions. PMID:26505473

  19. Efficacy of Peer Networks to Increase Social Connections among High School Students with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochman, Julia M.; Carter, Erik W.; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Harvey, Michelle N.; Gustafson, Jenny R.

    2015-01-01

    Although peer interaction takes on increased salience during adolescence, such social connections remain elusive for many high school students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This social isolation can be particularly prevalent within unstructured school contexts. In this study, we examined the effects of a lunchtime peer network intervention…

  20. Parental Ethnic Socialization and Adolescent Coping with Problems Related to Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Chavira, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Investigated ethnic socialization by parents of minority group adolescents and adolescents' ethnic identity and strategies for coping with stereotypes and discrimination. Interviewed 60 American-born adolescents drawn from 3 ethnic groups (Japanese, Mexican, African) and 1 parent of each adolescent. Discovered significant differences in parental…

  1. Recognizing Non-Verbal Social Cues Promotes Social Performance in LD Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Alicia; Sharon, Assia

    2013-01-01

    The research examined whether an educational intervention could enhance the ability of learning disabled (LD) adolescents to recognize non-verbal emotional messages and thus their social functioning. Most LD children have problems recognizing non-verbal cues, particularly emotional ones, and have social difficulties. The study examined the…

  2. Racial/Ethnic Socialization Messages, Social Support, and Personal Efficacy among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Owens, Delila

    2010-01-01

    Associations between ethnic socialization and a sense of personal efficacy were explored among African-American, Hispanic, and Caucasian adolescents. We found that those who reported greater intimacy with their mothers were more likely to perceive them as sources of race-related socialization messages. Consisting of primarily African-American and…

  3. A Social Process Mode of Adolescent Deviance: Combining Social Control and Differential Association Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Kristan Glasgow; Crosnoe, Robert; Dornbusch, Sanford M.

    2000-01-01

    Examined social factors associated with changes in two forms of adolescent deviance, substance use and delinquency using a model that combines social control and differential association perspectives. Results for approximately 2,000 high school students support the model and show that strong bonds to family, school, and community protect…

  4. The Political Socialization of Adolescent Children of Immigrants*

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Melissa; Muller, Chandra; Schiller, Kathryn S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to evaluate the adolescent political socialization processes that predict political participation in young adulthood, and whether these processes are different for children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation adolescents. We focus on socialization agents based in the family, community and school. Methods We use a nationally representative longitudinal survey of adolescents to evaluate the predictors of three measures of political participation: Voter registration, voting, and political party identification, and whether the process leading to political participation varies by immigrant status and race/ethnic group. Results We find that the parental education level of adolescents is not as predictive for many minority children of immigrants compared to white children of native-born parents for registration. Additionally, the academic rigor of the courses taken in high school has a greater positive estimated effect on the likelihood of registration and party identification for Latino children of immigrants compared to white 3rd-plus generation young adults. Conclusions The process of general integration into U.S. society for adolescent children of immigrants may lead to differing pathways to political participation in young adulthood, with certain aspects of their schooling experience having particular importance in developing political participation behaviors. PMID:24489413

  5. Neural network development in late adolescents during observation of risk-taking action.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Miyuki; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  6. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  7. Adolescent and adult risk-taking in virtual social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Anneke D. M.; Norman, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of experimental data addressing how peers influence adolescent risk-taking. Here, we examined peer effects on risky decision-making in adults and adolescents using a virtual social context that enabled experimental control over the peer “interactions.” 40 adolescents (age 11–18) and 28 adults (age 20–38) completed a risk-taking (Wheel of Fortune) task under four conditions: in private; while being observed by (fictitious) peers; and after receiving ‘risky’ or ‘safe’ advice from the peers. For high-risk gambles (but not medium-risk or even gambles), adolescents made more risky decisions under peer observation than adults. Adolescents, but not adults, tended to resist ‘safe’ advice for high-risk gambles. Although both groups tended to follow ‘risky’ advice for high-risk gambles, adults did so more than adolescents. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between the effects of peer observation and peer advice on risky decision-making. PMID:25566150

  8. Origin of Peer Influence in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Marta D.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2014-03-01

    Social networks pervade our everyday lives: we interact, influence, and are influenced by our friends and acquaintances. With the advent of the World Wide Web, large amounts of data on social networks have become available, allowing the quantitative analysis of the distribution of information on them, including behavioral traits and fads. Recent studies of correlations among members of a social network, who exhibit the same trait, have shown that individuals influence not only their direct contacts but also friends' friends, up to a network distance extending beyond their closest peers. Here, we show how such patterns of correlations between peers emerge in networked populations. We use standard models (yet reflecting intrinsically different mechanisms) of information spreading to argue that empirically observed patterns of correlation among peers emerge naturally from a wide range of dynamics, being essentially independent of the type of information, on how it spreads, and even on the class of underlying network that interconnects individuals. Finally, we show that the sparser and clustered the network, the more far reaching the influence of each individual will be.

  9. Social network predictors of latrine ownership.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Holly B; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2015-01-01

    Poor sanitation, including the lack of clean functioning toilets, is a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the developing world. We examine correlates of latrine ownership in rural India with a focus on social network predictors. Participants from 75 villages provided the names of their social contacts as well as their own relevant demographic and household characteristics. Using these measures, we test whether the latrine ownership of an individual's social contacts is a significant predictor of individual latrine ownership. We also investigate whether network centrality significantly predicts latrine ownership, and if so, whether it moderates the relationship between the latrine ownership of the individual and that of her social contacts. Our results show that, controlling for the standard predictors of latrine ownership such as caste, education, and income, individuals are more likely to own latrines if their social contacts own latrines. Interaction models suggest that this relationship is stronger among those of the same caste, the same education, and those with stronger social ties. We also find that more central individuals are more likely to own latrines, but the correlation in latrine ownership between social contacts is strongest among individuals on the periphery of the network. Although more data is needed to determine how much the clustering of latrine ownership may be caused by social influence, the results here suggest that interventions designed to promote latrine ownership should consider focusing on those at the periphery of the network. The reason is that they are 1) less likely to own latrines and 2) more likely to exhibit the same behavior as their social contacts, possibly as a result of the spread of latrine adoption from one person to another. PMID:24726688

  10. Dangerous Liaisons? Dating and Drinking Diffusion in Adolescent Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2011-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence. Yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating, and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks.…

  11. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  12. Group Colocation Behavior in Technological Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chloë; Lathia, Neal; Mascolo, Cecilia; Noulas, Anastasios; Blondel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks. PMID:25148037

  13. [Old age for adolescents: a social representations approach].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaelly Fernandes; de Freitas, Maria Célia; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research, based on the Theory of Social Representations, which aimed to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in a public school and a private on ageing, and to compare them between these two groups. Participants were 60 adolescents, 30 from the private school and 30 from the public school, who responded to semi-structured interviews in the period May-June 2012. The collected data were subjected to content analysis techniques, from which emerged three categories, namely: representations of ageing, the treatment of the elderly, and the recognition of oneself as a subject in the aging process. The adolescents' social representations have showed negative and positive aspects in relation to old age, marked by the influence of socio-cultural aspects. PMID:25271586

  14. The Analysis of Duocentric Social Networks: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David P.; Jackson, Grace L.; Green, Harold D.; Bradbury, Thomas N.; Karney, Benjamin R.

    2016-01-01

    Marriages and other intimate partnerships are facilitated or constrained by the social networks within which they are embedded. To date, methods used to assess the social networks of couples have been limited to global ratings of social network characteristics or network data collected from each partner separately. In the current article, the authors offer new tools for expanding on the existing literature by describing methods of collecting and analyzing duocentric social networks, that is, the combined social networks of couples. They provide an overview of the key considerations for measuring duocentric networks, such as how and why to combine separate network interviews with partners into one shared duocentric network, the number of network members to assess, and the implications of different network operationalizations. They illustrate these considerations with analyses of social network data collected from 57 low-income married couples, presenting visualizations and quantitative measures of network composition and structure. PMID:27182084

  15. Social Variations in Perceived Parenting Styles among Norwegian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elstad, Jon Ivar; Stefansen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented the associations between parenting and parenting styles and child and adolescent outcomes. Little is known, however, about the social structuring of parenting in contemporary Nordic welfare states. A possible hypothesis is that socioeconomic variations in parenting styles in present-day Norway will be small because of material affluence, limited income inequality, and an active welfare state. This study examines social variations in parenting as perceived by Norwegian adolescents (N = 1362), with a focus on four parenting style dimensions: responsiveness, demandingness, neglecting, and intrusive. Responsiveness seems to capture major divisions in parenting. Adolescents in families with fewer economic resources experienced their parents as somewhat less responsive, but responsiveness was not related to parents' education. Low parental education was on the other hand associated with perceptions of parents as neglecting and intrusive. Viewing parents as demanding did neither vary with parental education nor with family economy. Substantial variations in parenting styles persist in present-day Norway, and these variations correspond moderately with the families' placement in the social structure. Indicators of parenting and parenting styles may be useful indicators of some aspects of child and adolescent well-being. PMID:25132873

  16. Empathy in adolescence: Relations with emotion awareness and social roles.

    PubMed

    Rieffe, Carolien; Camodeca, Marina

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed at gaining a better understanding of the individual differences contributing to feelings of empathy in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the extent to which emotion awareness (e.g., recognizing and appreciating one's own and the emotions of others) and a tendency for certain social roles (e.g., helping or teasing peers when being bullied) are related to adolescents' levels of empathy. The sample was comprised of 182 adolescents aged between 11 and 16. Empathy and emotion awareness were assessed using self-report measures. Peer reports were used to indicate adolescents' different social roles: Bullying, defending the victim, and outsider behaviour. Outcomes demonstrated that evaluating one's own and the emotions of others, and more defending nominations were associated with both affective and cognitive empathy, whereas aspects of emotion awareness which are linked with internalizing symptoms were related to empathic distress, suggesting maladaptive emotion appraisal. Furthermore, outsider behaviour was associated with empathic distress, emphasizing a self-focused orientation. In contrast, more bullying was negatively associated with cognitive empathy. Overall, these outcomes demonstrate that, besides social roles, emotion awareness is an important factor for adaptive empathic reactions, whereas emotion dysregulation might cause distress when witnessing the negative feelings of others. PMID:26778274

  17. Associations of maternal and adolescent religiosity and spirituality with adolescent alcohol use in Chile: Implications for social work practice among Chilean social workers

    PubMed Central

    Adaniya, Fernando Andrade; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Han, Yoonsun

    2013-01-01

    To inform social work practice with adolescents who may consume alcohol, we examined if alcohol use among Chilean adolescents varied as a function of their mothers’ and their own religiosity and spirituality. Data were from 787 Chilean adolescents and their mothers. Adolescent spirituality was a protective factor against more deleterious alcohol use. Parental monitoring and alcohol using opportunities mediated the associations. The practice of religious behaviors by themselves without meaningful faith were not associated with alcohol use among adolescents. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25729092

  18. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  19. Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yap, Marie B. H.; Allen, Nicholas B.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relations among maternal socialization of positive affect (PA), adolescent emotion regulation (ER), and adolescent depressive symptoms. Two hundred early adolescents, 11-13 years old, provided self-reports of ER strategies and depressive symptomatology; their mothers provided self-reports of socialization responses to…

  20. Longitudinal Investigation of the Associations between Adolescents' Popularity and Cyber Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michelle F.

    2014-01-01

    As adolescents become increasingly immersed in electronic technologies, popular adolescents may act in similar ways online as they do offline. This longitudinal study employed peer nominations and self-reports to examine perceived popularity and social preference in relation to cyber social behaviors among 256 adolescents during the fall (T1) and…

  1. The Self-Esteem, Perceived Social Support and Hopelessness in Adolescents: The Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savi Cakar, Firdevs; Karatas, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a developed model to explain a causal relationship between adolescent's self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness is tested. The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between self-esteem, perceived social support and hopelessness in adolescents. A total of 257 adolescents, including 143 female and 114…

  2. An Evaluation of the Applicability of the Tripartite Constructs to Social Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…

  3. Build your own social network laboratory with Social Lab: a tool for research in social media.

    PubMed

    Garaizar, Pablo; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2014-06-01

    Social networking has surpassed e-mail and instant messaging as the dominant form of online communication (Meeker, Devitt, & Wu, 2010). Currently, all large social networks are proprietary, making it difficult to impossible for researchers to make changes to such networks for the purpose of study design and access to user-generated data from the networks. To address this issue, the authors have developed and present Social Lab, an Internet-based free and open-source social network software system available from http://www.sociallab.es . Having full availability of navigation and communication data in Social Lab allows researchers to investigate behavior in social media on an individual and group level. Automated artificial users ("bots") are available to the researcher to simulate and stimulate social networking situations. These bots respond dynamically to situations as they unfold. The bots can easily be configured with scripts and can be used to experimentally manipulate social networking situations in Social Lab. Examples for setting up, configuring, and using Social Lab as a tool for research in social media are provided. PMID:24061930

  4. Distinction and connection between contact network, social network, and disease transmission network.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Lanzas, Cristina

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we discuss the distinction and connection between three closely related networks in animal ecology and epidemiology studies: the contact, social, and disease transmission networks. We provide a robust theoretical definition and interpretation of these three networks, demonstrate that social and disease transmission networks can be derived as spanning subgraphs of contact network, and show examples based on real-world high-resolution cattle contact structure data. Furthermore, we establish a modeling framework to track potential disease transmission dynamics and construct transmission network based on the observed animal contact network. PMID:27544246

  5. Multiobjective blockmodeling for social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael; Doreian, Patrick; Steinley, Douglas; Satornino, Cinthia B

    2013-07-01

    To date, most methods for direct blockmodeling of social network data have focused on the optimization of a single objective function. However, there are a variety of social network applications where it is advantageous to consider two or more objectives simultaneously. These applications can broadly be placed into two categories: (1) simultaneous optimization of multiple criteria for fitting a blockmodel based on a single network matrix and (2) simultaneous optimization of multiple criteria for fitting a blockmodel based on two or more network matrices, where the matrices being fit can take the form of multiple indicators for an underlying relationship, or multiple matrices for a set of objects measured at two or more different points in time. A multiobjective tabu search procedure is proposed for estimating the set of Pareto efficient blockmodels. This procedure is used in three examples that demonstrate possible applications of the multiobjective blockmodeling paradigm. PMID:25106397

  6. Disease Dynamics in a Dynamic Social Network

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Claire; Albert, István; Grenfell, Bryan; Albert, Réka

    2010-01-01

    We develop a framework for simulating a realistic, evolving social network (a city) into which a disease is introduced. We compare our results to prevaccine era measles data for England and Wales, and find that they capture the quantitative and qualitative features of epidemics in populations spanning two orders of magnitude. Our results provide unique insight into how and why the social topology of the contact network influences the propagation of the disease through the population. We argue that network simulation is suitable for concurrently probing contact network dynamics and disease dynamics in ways that prior modeling approaches cannot and it can be extended to the study of less well-documented diseases. PMID:20563303

  7. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual's decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual's local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the "majority illusion," leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  8. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual’s decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual’s local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the “majority illusion,” leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  9. Social Trust Prediction Using Heterogeneous Networks

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, JIN; NIE, FEIPING; HUANG, HENG; TU, YI-CHENG; LEI, YU

    2014-01-01

    Along with increasing popularity of social websites, online users rely more on the trustworthiness information to make decisions, extract and filter information, and tag and build connections with other users. However, such social network data often suffer from severe data sparsity and are not able to provide users with enough information. Therefore, trust prediction has emerged as an important topic in social network research. Traditional approaches are primarily based on exploring trust graph topology itself. However, research in sociology and our life experience suggest that people who are in the same social circle often exhibit similar behaviors and tastes. To take advantage of the ancillary information for trust prediction, the challenge then becomes what to transfer and how to transfer. In this article, we address this problem by aggregating heterogeneous social networks and propose a novel joint social networks mining (JSNM) method. Our new joint learning model explores the user-group-level similarity between correlated graphs and simultaneously learns the individual graph structure; therefore, the shared structures and patterns from multiple social networks can be utilized to enhance the prediction tasks. As a result, we not only improve the trust prediction in the target graph but also facilitate other information retrieval tasks in the auxiliary graphs. To optimize the proposed objective function, we use the alternative technique to break down the objective function into several manageable subproblems. We further introduce the auxiliary function to solve the optimization problems with rigorously proved convergence. The extensive experiments have been conducted on both synthetic and real- world data. All empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. PMID:24729776

  10. Social Network Sites as Educational Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Alireza; Rajabali, Farnaz; Yazdanfar, Fatemeh; Azarbad, Reza; Nodeh, Majid Rezaei; Siamian, Hasan; Vahedi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: in this present era, the technology development has established certain type of communication. Nowadays education as the fundamental principle in transferring cognition to the learners has found various methods. Recently the concept that social networks could be effective tool in easing the achievement to the educational goals has been under attention. Therefore, this investigation is trying to find out whether, the social networks could play role on the process of education among students? Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was performed on 1000 students from 7 medical universities in 2015. The data collection tool was questionnaire that was approved Cronbach’s alpha: was 0.85. Meanwhile its validity was confirmed too. The obtained data were analyzed by the descriptive statistic, ANOVA, Turkey and used X2 SPSS-19. Results: In this investigation, 940 subjects were under study. 85% used daily the social network. The highest usage was attributed to the Telegram. 52% preferred image suitable for transferring of information. Even though, 73% believed that these networks have significant effects on coordinating of students with in university charges. Conclusion: Considering the findings of the present study, it is proposed that the universities integrate the social networks in the education programs and recognize it as the awareness factor, therefore benefit it in the educational affairs. PMID:27147807

  11. Pain tolerance predicts human social network size

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Katerina V.-A.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2016-01-01

    Personal social network size exhibits considerable variation in the human population and is associated with both physical and mental health status. Much of this inter-individual variation in human sociality remains unexplained from a biological perspective. According to the brain opioid theory of social attachment, binding of the neuropeptide β-endorphin to μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is a key neurochemical mechanism involved in social bonding, particularly amongst primates. We hypothesise that a positive association exists between activity of the μ-opioid system and the number of social relationships that an individual maintains. Given the powerful analgesic properties of β-endorphin, we tested this hypothesis using pain tolerance as an assay for activation of the endogenous μ-opioid system. We show that a simple measure of pain tolerance correlates with social network size in humans. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that μ-opioid receptor signalling has been elaborated beyond its basic function of pain modulation to play an important role in managing our social encounters. The neuroplasticity of the μ-opioid system is of future research interest, especially with respect to psychiatric disorders associated with symptoms of social withdrawal and anhedonia, both of which are strongly modulated by endogenous opioids. PMID:27121297

  12. Pain tolerance predicts human social network size.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katerina V-A; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Personal social network size exhibits considerable variation in the human population and is associated with both physical and mental health status. Much of this inter-individual variation in human sociality remains unexplained from a biological perspective. According to the brain opioid theory of social attachment, binding of the neuropeptide β-endorphin to μ-opioid receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) is a key neurochemical mechanism involved in social bonding, particularly amongst primates. We hypothesise that a positive association exists between activity of the μ-opioid system and the number of social relationships that an individual maintains. Given the powerful analgesic properties of β-endorphin, we tested this hypothesis using pain tolerance as an assay for activation of the endogenous μ-opioid system. We show that a simple measure of pain tolerance correlates with social network size in humans. Our results are in line with previous studies suggesting that μ-opioid receptor signalling has been elaborated beyond its basic function of pain modulation to play an important role in managing our social encounters. The neuroplasticity of the μ-opioid system is of future research interest, especially with respect to psychiatric disorders associated with symptoms of social withdrawal and anhedonia, both of which are strongly modulated by endogenous opioids. PMID:27121297

  13. The Application of Social Network Analysis to Team Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…

  14. A Developmental Analysis of Children's Social Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegler, Julie A.; Bogat, G. Anne

    Although much investigation of adult social support networks has been done, little attention has been paid to children's social support networks. Childhood patterns of social support probably influence adult patterns. A study was conducted to describe the social networks of third through sixth grade children. It also tests the validity of a new…

  15. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  16. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  17. Social Networks of Educated Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Denis S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Duncan, Larry W.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are obligate lethal parasitoids of insect larvae that navigate a chemically complex belowground environment while interacting with their insect hosts, plants, and each other. In this environment, prior exposure to volatile compounds appears to prime nematodes in a compound specific manner, increasing preference for volatiles they previously were exposed to and decreasing attraction to other volatiles. In addition, persistence of volatile exposure influences this response. Longer exposure not only increases preference, but also results in longer retention of that preference. These entomopathogenic nematodes display interspecific social behavioral plasticity; experienced nematodes influence the behavior of different species. This interspecific social behavioral plasticity suggests a mechanism for rapid adaptation of belowground communities to dynamic environments. PMID:26404058

  18. Massive Social Network Analysis: Mining Twitter for Social Good

    SciTech Connect

    Ediger, David; Jiang, Karl; Riedy, Edward J.; Bader, David A.; Corley, Courtney D.; Farber, Robert M.; Reynolds, William

    2010-10-11

    Social networks produce an enormous quantity of data. Facebook consists of over 400 million active users sharing over 5 billion pieces of information each month. Analyzing this vast quantity of unstructured data presents challenges for software and hardware. We present GraphCT, a Graph Characterization Tooklit for massive graphs representing social network data. On a 128-processor Cray XMT, GraphCT estimates the betweenness centrality of an artificially generated (R-MAT) 537 million vertex, 8.6 billion edge graph in 55 minutes. We use GraphCT to analyze public data from Twitter, a microblogging network. Twitter's message connections appear primarily tree-structured as a news dissemination system. Within the public data, however, are clusters of conversations. Using GraphCT, we can rank actors within these conversations and help analysts focus attention on a much smaller data subset.

  19. Hierarchical social networks and information flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Luis; F. F. Mendes, Jose; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2002-12-01

    Using a simple model for the information flow on social networks, we show that the traditional hierarchical topologies frequently used by companies and organizations, are poorly designed in terms of efficiency. Moreover, we prove that this type of structures are the result of the individual aim of monopolizing as much information as possible within the network. As the information is an appropriate measurement of centrality, we conclude that this kind of topology is so attractive for leaders, because the global influence each actor has within the network is completely determined by the hierarchical level occupied.

  20. Sex-Specific Relationships among Attachment Security, Social Values, and Sensation Seeking in Early Adolescence: Implications for Adolescents' Externalizing Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarracino, Diego; Presaghi, Fabio; Degni, Silvia; Innamorati, Marco

    2011-01-01

    In early adolescence, attachment security reflects not only the quality of ongoing relationships with parents, but also how adolescents process social relationships with "others"--that is, their "social value orientation"--with possible implications for adolescents' risk-taking. In this study, a sample of Italian early adolescents were…

  1. Adolescent impulsivity phenotypes characterized by distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Robert; Conrod, Patricia J; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bellgrove, Mark A; Büchel, Christian; Byrne, Mark; Cummins, Tarrant D R; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Lalor, Edmund C; Lathrop, Mark; Loth, Eva; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Spanagel, Rainer; Stephens, David N; Struve, Maren; Thyreau, Benjamin; Vollstaedt-Klein, Sabine; Robbins, Trevor W; Schumann, Gunter; Garavan, Hugh

    2012-06-01

    The impulsive behavior that is often characteristic of adolescence may reflect underlying neurodevelopmental processes. Moreover, impulsivity is a multi-dimensional construct, and it is plausible that distinct brain networks contribute to its different cognitive, clinical and behavioral aspects. As these networks have not yet been described, we identified distinct cortical and subcortical networks underlying successful inhibitions and inhibition failures in a large sample (n = 1,896) of 14-year-old adolescents. Different networks were associated with drug use (n = 1,593) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms (n = 342). Hypofunctioning of a specific orbitofrontal cortical network was associated with likelihood of initiating drug use in early adolescence. Right inferior frontal activity was related to the speed of the inhibition process (n = 826) and use of illegal substances and associated with genetic variation in a norepinephrine transporter gene (n = 819). Our results indicate that both neural endophenotypes and genetic variation give rise to the various manifestations of impulsive behavior. PMID:22544311

  2. Computational Statistical Methods for Social Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David R.; Krivitsky, Pavel N.; Schweinberger, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We review the broad range of recent statistical work in social network models, with emphasis on computational aspects of these methods. Particular focus is applied to exponential-family random graph models (ERGM) and latent variable models for data on complete networks observed at a single time point, though we also briefly review many methods for incompletely observed networks and networks observed at multiple time points. Although we mention far more modeling techniques than we can possibly cover in depth, we provide numerous citations to current literature. We illustrate several of the methods on a small, well-known network dataset, Sampson’s monks, providing code where possible so that these analyses may be duplicated. PMID:23828720

  3. A Dynamic Model of Adolescent Friendship Networks, Parental Influences, and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Timberlake, David S.; Hipp, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Peer and parental influences are critical socializing forces shaping adolescent development, including the co-evolving processes of friendship tie choice and adolescent smoking. This study examines aspects of adolescent friendship networks and dimensions of parental influences shaping friendship tie choice and smoking, including parental support, parental monitoring, and the parental home smoking environment using a Stochastic Actor-Based model. With data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health of youth in grades 7 through 12, including the In-School Survey, the first wave of the In-Home survey occurring 6 months later, and the second wave of the In-Home survey, occurring one year later, this study utilizes two samples based on the social network data collected in the longitudinal saturated sample of sixteen schools. One consists of twelve small schools (n = 1,284, 50.93 % female), and the other of one large school (n = 976, 48.46 % female). The findings indicated that reciprocity, choosing a friend of a friend as a friend, and smoking similarity increased friendship tie choice behavior, as did parental support. Parental monitoring interacted with choosing friends who smoke in affecting friendship tie choice, as at higher levels of parental monitoring, youth chose fewer friends that smoked. A parental home smoking context conducive to smoking decreased the number of friends adolescents chose. Peer influence and a parental home smoking environment conducive to smoking increased smoking, while parental monitoring decreased it in the large school. Overall, peer and parental factors affected the coevolution of friendship tie choice and smoking, directly and multiplicatively. PMID:25239115

  4. Adoption of Social Networking in Education: A Study of the Use of Social Networks by Higher Education Students in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mukhaini, Elham M.; Al-Qayoudhi, Wafa S.; Al-Badi, Ali H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of social networks is a growing phenomenon, being increasingly important in both private and academic life. Social networks are used as tools to enable users to have social interaction. The use of social networks (SNs) complements and enhances the teaching in traditional classrooms. For example, YouTube, Facebook, wikis, and blogs provide…

  5. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  6. Social support, family functioning and parenting competence in adolescent parents.

    PubMed

    Angley, Meghan; Divney, Anna; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace

    2015-01-01

    Depression is known to mediate the association between low social support and parenting competence in adult mothers, but this relationship is rarely assessed in adolescent mothers and fathers. The primary aim of this study was to identify the association between social support, family functioning and social capital on parenting competence, including self-efficacy and satisfaction in adolescent mothers and their partners. Secondary aims included identifying potential partner effects (e.g. whether a partner's social support influenced the respondent's parenting efficacy). Data was obtained from a subset of participants from a longitudinal study of pregnant adolescent females and their partners. Couples completed individual structured interviews via audio computer-assisted self-interview during pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum. To measure the influence of support on parenting outcomes, multi-level modeling was used to assess the Actor-Partner Interdependence model, which examines responses from both members of a dyad in a single analysis. Greater social support was associated with increased parenting self-efficacy (B = 0.062, p = 0.006) and parenting satisfaction (B = 0.111, p < 0.001). Higher family functioning was also associated with greater parenting satisfaction (B = 0.05, p = 0.035). Greater partner family functioning was associated with higher parenting satisfaction (B = 0.047, p = 0.026). This study found the importance of a strong support structure during pregnancy on perceived parenting competence in the early postpartum period for young mothers and fathers. Both social support and family functioning during pregnancy were associated with a greater sense of parenting competence, and these associations were mediated by parental depression. The results of this study underscore the importance of providing social support for young expectant fathers as well as mothers. PMID:24833286

  7. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Jose L; Srinivasan, Ravi; Brownstein, John S; Galvani, Alison P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2016-07-01

    As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors-sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals-in three complex social networks-a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals-early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness-we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0). For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information. PMID:27415615

  8. Using Social Networking in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Elizabeth Blakesley

    2009-01-01

    With celebrities discussing Twitter on television talk shows, Facebook being used by people to share pictures of their grandchildren, and academic seminars being delivered in Second Life, it is hard to get through a day without being faced with some sort of social networking tool. Librarians often talk about the importance of outreach and of…

  9. Social Networks, Teacher Beliefs, and Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aston, Michelle; Hyle, Adrienne E.

    This study examined the social networks of teachers' strong and weak ties and the impact of those associations upon their beliefs about the realities of elementary education in terms of the knowledge and skills that influenced those realities: school context, general pedagogy, specific subject matter pedagogy, nature of the learner, and self as…

  10. Parental Social Networks and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homel, R.; Burns, A.

    This paper looks at the relationship between parents' social networks and aspects of child development. It has often been suggested that parents' links with kin, neighbors, friends, and local and non-local organizations are likely to have many effects on their children's development. These effects, however, have never been systematically…

  11. Exploring Social Networking: Developing Critical Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While schools have been using computers within their classrooms for years now, there has been a purposeful ignoring of the growing power of social networks such as Facebook and Twitter. Many schools ban students from accessing and using sites such as Facebook at school and many English and literacy teachers ignore or deny their value as a teaching…

  12. Tractable Analysis for Large Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Social scientists usually are more interested in consumers' dichotomous choice, such as purchase a product or not, adopt a technology or not, etc. However, up to date, there is nearly no model can help us solve the problem of multi-network effects comparison with a dichotomous dependent variable. Furthermore, the study of multi-network…

  13. Libraries' Place in Virtual Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Brian S.

    2007-01-01

    Do libraries belong in the virtual world of social networking? With more than 100 million users, this environment is impossible to ignore. A rising philosophy for libraries, particularly in blog-land, involves the concept of being where the users are. Simply using new media to deliver an old message is not progress. Instead, librarians should…

  14. Unravelling the Social Network: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Despite the widespread popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) amongst children and young people in compulsory education, relatively little scholarly work has explored the fundamental issues at stake. This paper makes an original contribution to the field by locating the study of this online activity within the broader terrain of social…

  15. The Benefits and Limitations of Social Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The Center for the Digital Future at the University of Southern California surveys 2,000 households each year to find out how online technology affects Internet users. Findings in the latest report show social networks are increasing and a majority of users report feeling as strongly about their communities online as their real-world communities.…

  16. Social Networking: A Collaborative Open Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toetenel, Lisette

    2014-01-01

    Studies undertaken since the introduction of Web 2.0 have focussed mainly on open educational resources (OERs) such as email, blogging and virtual learning environments. No consistent efforts have been undertaken to study the use of social networking sites as a tool for learning in the second language classroom. This study examined the use of…

  17. Social Network Predictors of Bullying and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouttapa, Michele; Valente, Tom; Gallaher, Peggy; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined whether bullies, victims, and aggressive victims (those who are both bullies and victims) differed on classroom social network variables, gender, and ethnicity. Survey data were collected from a primarily Latino and Asian sample of 1,368 Southern California 6th graders (mean age = 11.3 years). Logistic regression analyses were…

  18. Social Networking Postings: Views from School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Marlynn M.; Lake, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous recent media accounts indicate that teachers are being fired, put on probation, or otherwise censured because of information found on their social networking sites (SNS). While the literature in business, psychology, and pharmacy shows initial investigations of the impact of SNS information on hiring decisions, this area has not been…

  19. Security and Privacy in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, Leucio Antonio; Manulis, Mark; Strufe, Thorsten

    Social Network Services (SNS) are currently drastically revolutionizing the way people interact, thus becoming de facto a predominant service on the web, today.1 The impact of this paradigm change on socioeconomic and technical aspects of collaboration and interaction is comparable to that caused by the deployment of World Wide Web in the 1990s.

  20. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  1. Electronic Social Networks, Teaching, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between electronic social networks, teaching, and learning. Previous studies have shown a strong positive correlation between student engagement and learning. By extending this work to engage instructors and add an electronic component, our study shows possible teaching improvement as well. In particular,…

  2. Social Dynamics within Electronic Networks of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Thomas A., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic networks of practice (eNoP) are special types of electronic social structures focused on discussing domain-specific problems related to a skill-based craft or profession in question and answer style forums. eNoP have implemented peer-to-peer feedback systems in order to motivate future contributions and to distinguish contribution…

  3. Social Networking Sites as a Learning Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Casado, Noelia; Cegarra Navarro, Juan Gabriel; Wensley, Anthony; Tomaseti-Solano, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Over the past few years, social networking sites (SNSs) have become very useful for firms, allowing companies to manage the customer-brand relationships. In this context, SNSs can be considered as a learning tool because of the brand knowledge that customers develop from these relationships. Because of the fact that knowledge in…

  4. Social Network Structures among Groundnut Farmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thuo, Mary; Bell, Alexandra A.; Bravo-Ureta, Boris E.; Okello, David K.; Okoko, Evelyn Nasambu; Kidula, Nelson L.; Deom, C. Michael; Puppala, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Groundnut farmers in East Africa have experienced declines in production despite research and extension efforts to increase productivity. This study examined how social network structures related to acquisition of information about new seed varieties and productivity among groundnut farmers in Uganda and Kenya.…

  5. "Cloudworks": Social Networking for Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conole, Grainne; Culver, Juliette

    2009-01-01

    Can we apply the best of Web 2.0 principles to an educational context? More specifically can we use this as a means of shifting teaching practice to a culture of sharing learning ideas and designs? This paper describes a new social networking site, "Cloudworks", which aims to provide a mechanism for sharing, discussing and finding learning and…

  6. Ethical Considerations of Social Networking for Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratt, William Edgar Vernon

    2010-01-01

    The use of online social networking websites has increased among Canadians in recent years. There are many professional and ethical implications for counsellors who use these sites (Boyd, 2007). Although they offer advantages to counsellors, their use can also raise issues around ethical conduct. Because the counselling literature has not yet…

  7. Social Networking Tools for Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Samuel Kai-Wah; Du, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    This is an exploratory study investigating the use of social networking tools in academic libraries, examining the extent of their use, library staff's perceptions of their usefulness and challenges, and factors influencing decisions to use or not to use such tools. Invitations to participate in a web-based survey were sent to 140 university…

  8. Social Networking Services in E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Peter; Rothe, Hannes

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the findings of a study conducted on the use of the social networking service NING in a cross-location e-learning setting named "Net Economy." We describe how we implemented NING as a fundamental part of the setting through a special phase concept and team building approach. With the help of user statistics, we examine…

  9. Protecting Personal Information on Social Networking Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Almost everyone uses social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn. Since Facebook is the most popular site in the history of the Internet, this article will focus on how one can protect his/her personal information and how that extends to protecting the private information of others.

  10. Effects of deception in social networks

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Gerardo; Govezensky, Tzipe; Dunbar, Robin; Kaski, Kimmo; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2014-01-01

    Honesty plays a crucial role in any situation where organisms exchange information or resources. Dishonesty can thus be expected to have damaging effects on social coherence if agents cannot trust the information or goods they receive. However, a distinction is often drawn between prosocial lies (‘white’ lies) and antisocial lying (i.e. deception for personal gain), with the former being considered much less destructive than the latter. We use an agent-based model to show that antisocial lying causes social networks to become increasingly fragmented. Antisocial dishonesty thus places strong constraints on the size and cohesion of social communities, providing a major hurdle that organisms have to overcome (e.g. by evolving counter-deception strategies) in order to evolve large, socially cohesive communities. In contrast, white lies can prove to be beneficial in smoothing the flow of interactions and facilitating a larger, more integrated network. Our results demonstrate that these group-level effects can arise as emergent properties of interactions at the dyadic level. The balance between prosocial and antisocial lies may set constraints on the structure of social networks, and hence the shape of society as a whole. PMID:25056625

  11. The Power of the Like in Adolescence: Effects of Peer Influence on Neural and Behavioral Responses to Social Media.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Lauren E; Payton, Ashley A; Hernandez, Leanna M; Greenfield, Patricia M; Dapretto, Mirella

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a unique way in which adolescent peer influence occurs on social media. We developed a novel functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm to simulate Instagram, a popular social photo-sharing tool, and measured adolescents' behavioral and neural responses to likes, a quantifiable form of social endorsement and potential source of peer influence. Adolescents underwent fMRI while viewing photos ostensibly submitted to Instagram. They were more likely to like photos depicted with many likes than photos with few likes; this finding showed the influence of virtual peer endorsement and held for both neutral photos and photos of risky behaviors (e.g., drinking, smoking). Viewing photos with many (compared with few) likes was associated with greater activity in neural regions implicated in reward processing, social cognition, imitation, and attention. Furthermore, when adolescents viewed risky photos (as opposed to neutral photos), activation in the cognitive-control network decreased. These findings highlight possible mechanisms underlying peer influence during adolescence. PMID:27247125

  12. Influence of reciprocal links in social networks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  13. Influence of Reciprocal Links in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Sun, Gui-Quan; Tang, Ming; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Zi-Ke

    2014-01-01

    How does reciprocal links affect the function of real social network? Does reciprocal link and non-reciprocal link play the same role? Previous researches haven't displayed a clear picture to us until now according to the best of our knowledge. Motivated by this, in this paper, we empirically study the influence of reciprocal links in two representative real datasets, Sina Weibo and Douban. Our results demonstrate that the reciprocal links play a more important role than non-reciprocal ones in information diffusion process. In particular, not only coverage but also the speed of the information diffusion can be significantly enhanced by considering the reciprocal effect. We give some possible explanations from the perspectives of network connectivity and efficiency. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding and application of the reciprocal effect in directed online social networks. PMID:25072242

  14. Managing Trust in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Touhid; Josang, Audun; Xu, Yue

    In recent years, there is a dramatic growth in number and popularity of online social networks. There are many networks available with more than 100 million registered users such as Facebook, MySpace, QZone, Windows Live Spaces etc. People may connect, discover and share by using these online social networks. The exponential growth of online communities in the area of social networks attracts the attention of the researchers about the importance of managing trust in online environment. Users of the online social networks may share their experiences and opinions within the networks about an item which may be a product or service. The user faces the problem of evaluating trust in a service or service provider before making a choice. Recommendations may be received through a chain of friends network, so the problem for the user is to be able to evaluate various types of trust opinions and recommendations. This opinion or recommendation has a great influence to choose to use or enjoy the item by the other user of the community. Collaborative filtering system is the most popular method in recommender system. The task in collaborative filtering is to predict the utility of items to a particular user based on a database of user rates from a sample or population of other users. Because of the different taste of different people, they rate differently according to their subjective taste. If two people rate a set of items similarly, they share similar tastes. In the recommender system, this information is used to recommend items that one participant likes, to other persons in the same cluster. But the collaborative filtering system performs poor when there is insufficient previous common rating available between users; commonly known as cost start problem. To overcome the cold start problem and with the dramatic growth of online social networks, trust based approach to recommendation has emerged. This approach assumes a trust network among users and makes recommendations

  15. Social networks as embedded complex adaptive systems.

    PubMed

    Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Clancy, Thomas R

    2010-09-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 15th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, the authors discuss healthcare social networks as a hierarchy of embedded complex adaptive systems. The authors further examine the use of social network analysis tools as a means to understand complex communication patterns and reduce medical errors. PMID:20798616

  16. How social and genetic factors predict friendship networks

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Fletcher, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the genotype of one individual in a friendship pair is predictive of the genotype of his/her friend. These results provide tentative support for the genetic homophily perspective, which has important implications for social and genetic epidemiology because it substantiates a particular form of gene–environment correlation. This process may also have important implications for social scientists who study the social factors related to health and health-related behaviors. We extend this work by considering the ways in which school context shapes genetically similar friendships. Using the network, school, and genetic information from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we show that genetic homophily for the TaqI A polymorphism within the DRD2 gene is stronger in schools with greater levels of inequality. Our results suggest that individuals with similar genotypes may not actively select into friendships; rather, they may be placed into these contexts by institutional mechanisms outside of their control. Our work highlights the fundamental role played by broad social structures in the extent to which genetic factors explain complex behaviors, such as friendships. PMID:23045663

  17. Disease Surveillance on Complex Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Jose L.; Srinivasan, Ravi; Brownstein, John S.; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2016-01-01

    As infectious disease surveillance systems expand to include digital, crowd-sourced, and social network data, public health agencies are gaining unprecedented access to high-resolution data and have an opportunity to selectively monitor informative individuals. Contact networks, which are the webs of interaction through which diseases spread, determine whether and when individuals become infected, and thus who might serve as early and accurate surveillance sensors. Here, we evaluate three strategies for selecting sensors—sampling the most connected, random, and friends of random individuals—in three complex social networks—a simple scale-free network, an empirical Venezuelan college student network, and an empirical Montreal wireless hotspot usage network. Across five different surveillance goals—early and accurate detection of epidemic emergence and peak, and general situational awareness—we find that the optimal choice of sensors depends on the public health goal, the underlying network and the reproduction number of the disease (R0). For diseases with a low R0, the most connected individuals provide the earliest and most accurate information about both the onset and peak of an outbreak. However, identifying network hubs is often impractical, and they can be misleading if monitored for general situational awareness, if the underlying network has significant community structure, or if R0 is high or unknown. Taking a theoretical approach, we also derive the optimal surveillance system for early outbreak detection but find that real-world identification of such sensors would be nearly impossible. By contrast, the friends-of-random strategy offers a more practical and robust alternative. It can be readily implemented without prior knowledge of the network, and by identifying sensors with higher than average, but not the highest, epidemiological risk, it provides reasonably early and accurate information. PMID:27415615

  18. Social networking profile correlates of schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Bailey, Drew H; Cicero, David C; Kerns, John G

    2012-12-30

    Social networking sites, such as Facebook, are extremely popular and have become a primary method for socialization and communication. Despite a report of increased use among those on the schizophrenia-spectrum, few details are known about their actual practices. In the current research, undergraduate participants completed measures of schizotypy and personality, and provided access to their Facebook profiles. Information from the profiles were then systematically coded and compared to the questionnaire data. As predicted, social anhedonia (SocAnh) was associated with a decrease in social participation variables, including a decrease in number of friends and number of photos, and an increase in length of time since communication with a friend, but SocAnh was also associated with an increase in profile length. Also, SocAnh was highly correlated with extraversion. Relatedly, extraversion uniquely predicted the number of friends and photos and length of time since communication with a friend. In addition, perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) was associated with an increased number of "black outs" on Facebook profile print-outs, a measure of paranoia. Overall, results from this naturalistic-like study show that SocAnh and extraversion are associated with decreased social participation and PerMag with increased paranoia related to information on social networking sites. PMID:22796101

  19. Social networking profile correlates of schizotypy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Bailey, Drew H.; Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Social networking sites, such as Facebook, are extremely popular and have become a primary method for socialization and communication. Despite a report of increased use among those on the schizophrenia-spectrum, few details are known about their actual practices. In the current research, undergraduate participants completed measures of schizotypy and personality, and provided access to their Facebook profiles. Information from the profiles were then systematically coded and compared to the questionnaire data. As predicted, social anhedonia (SocAnh) was associated with a decrease in social participation variables, including a decrease in number of friends and number of photos, and an increase in length of time since communication with a friend, but SocAnh was also associated with an increase in profile length. Also, SocAnh was highly correlated with extraversion. Relatedly, extraversion uniquely predicted the number of friends and photos and length of time since communication with a friend. In addition, perceptual aberration/magical ideation (PerMag) was associated with an increased number of “black outs” on Facebook profile print-outs, a measure of paranoia. Overall, results from this naturalistic-like study show that SocAnh and extraversion are associated with decreased social participation and PerMag with increased paranoia related to information on social networking sites. PMID:22796101

  20. Googling Social Interactions: Web Search Engine Based Social Network Construction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Pan-Jun; Ahn, Yong-Yeol; Jeong, Hawoong

    2010-01-01

    Social network analysis has long been an untiring topic of sociology. However, until the era of information technology, the availability of data, mainly collected by the traditional method of personal survey, was highly limited and prevented large-scale analysis. Recently, the exploding amount of automatically generated data has completely changed the pattern of research. For instance, the enormous amount of data from so-called high-throughput biological experiments has introduced a systematic or network viewpoint to traditional biology. Then, is “high-throughput” sociological data generation possible? Google, which has become one of the most influential symbols of the new Internet paradigm within the last ten years, might provide torrents of data sources for such study in this (now and forthcoming) digital era. We investigate social networks between people by extracting information on the Web and introduce new tools of analysis of such networks in the context of statistical physics of complex systems or socio-physics. As a concrete and illustrative example, the members of the 109th United States Senate are analyzed and it is demonstrated that the methods of construction and analysis are applicable to various other weighted networks. PMID:20657762