Steitz, Jean A.; Verner, Betty S.
Increasing the amount of contact with older persons is often proposed as a way to inform young people about aging. This study compared adolescents' knowledge of aging with the amount and quality of contact they had with an older person and compared knowledge of aging in a 1978 sample of adolescents with knowledge in a 1985 sample. For the 1985…
Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji
Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…
Glover, Elbert D.; And Others
Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)
Nguyen, Ha; Knowles, James
Many developing countries are trying to expand health insurance to achieve universal coverage, yet enrolling informal sector workers and the rural population remains a challenge. A good knowledge of factors driving demand for health insurance among these groups is therefore important. The current study contributes to this body of knowledge by analyzing demand for school-age children and adolescent student (aged 6-20) health insurance, a major voluntary health insurance scheme in Vietnam. Data were drawn form the Vietnam National Health Survey (2001-2002). We found that demand increases significantly with the expected benefits of insurance as measured by proximity to and quality of a tertiary hospital. There is a strong socio-economic gradient both at the household and commune levels, with wealthier, more educated households in better-off communes significantly more likely to purchase insurance for their children. No clear evidence of adverse selection is observed whether health status is assessed objectively or subjectively. Finally, while female heads of household are generally more prone to purchase health insurance for their children, households prioritize young children, male children, and those children with more schooling in their purchase decision. Findings emphasize the need to understand the effects of both health system factors and intra-household dynamics in resource allocation to explain the demand for health insurance in developing countries.
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.
Chan, Lilian Y. O.
The young Chinese student is seldom psychologically or academically prepared for immigration to Canada. Difficulties confronting Chinese adolescent immigrants include cultural problems and language difficulties. (SW)
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen
This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…
Oluwole, David Adebayo
This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.
Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.
Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…
Wang, Ming-Te; Brinkworth, Maureen; Eccles, Jacquelynne
This study examined relations between effortful control, parent-adolescent conflict, and teacher-student relationships and the concurrent and longitudinal impact of these factors on adolescent depression and misconduct. In particular, we examined whether the risks of low effortful control and parent-adolescent conflict could be buffered by positive teacher-student relationships characterized by warmth and trust. Data were collected on 1,400 urban youths (52% female, 51% Black, 44% White) who reported on their effortful control at age 13 years and on their depressive symptoms and misconduct from ages 13-18. Teacher-student relationship data were collected from teacher-report at age 13 and parent-adolescent conflict data from parent-report at age 13. As hypothesized, regardless of gender, both early poor effortful control and conflictive parent-adolescent relationship were general risks for adolescents' depression and misconduct. Positive teacher-student relationships protected adolescents against depression and misconduct throughout ages 13-18. In addition, positive teacher-student relationships moderated the negative influences of adolescents' early poor effortful control and conflictive parent-adolescent relationships on misconduct and helped such at-risk adolescents to attain less behaviorally delinquent developmental trajectories over time.
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Epstein, Howard V.
Universities today attract a student population less homogeneous than those of past generations. The majority of all college students are women, and adults 25 years and older account for over 40% of all college enrollments. A study was conducted to examine inherent similarities and differences among college students with age a critical factor.…
Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…
Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel
Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…
Lin, Yii-nii; Chiu, Yi-hsing Claire; Lai, Pi-hui
This study describes the learning and development experiences of teacher education students after taking an introductory course on adolescent psychology. The instructor adopted the developmental instruction model (DIM) (Knefelkamp, 1998) in this study and facilitated students learn through experiential learning. Fifteen students (aged between 20…
Essau, Cecilia A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R.
Background Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Objective The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Method Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Results Childhood anxiety only predicted less years of completed education at age 30, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted income, unemployment, maladjustment, poor coping skills, more chronic stress and life events. Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) was the only disorder predicted by childhood anxiety, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted MDD, substance (SUD) and alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD) in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult MDD, SUD and AUD partially or completely mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. Limitations The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Conclusion Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through MDD, SUD and AUD. PMID:24456837
Lewis, Ashley D; Huebner, E Scott; Malone, Patrick S; Valois, Robert F
Situated within a positive psychology perspective, this study explored linkages between adolescent students' positive subjective well-being and their levels of engagement in schooling. Specifically, using structural equation modeling techniques, we evaluated the nature and directionality of longitudinal relationships between life satisfaction and student engagement variables. It was hypothesized that adolescents' life satisfaction and student engagement variables would show bidirectional relationships. To test this hypothesis, 779 students (53% female, 62% Caucasian) in a Southeastern US middle school completed a measure of global life satisfaction and measures of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement at two time points, 5 months apart. A statistically significant bidirectional relationship between life satisfaction and cognitive engagement was found; however, non-significant relationships were found between life satisfaction and emotional and behavioral student engagement. The findings provide important evidence of the role of early adolescents' life satisfaction in their engagement in schooling during the important transition grades between elementary and high school. The findings also help extend the positive psychology perspective to the relatively neglected context of education.
Sharma, Rahul; Grover, Vijay L.; Chaturvedi, Sanjay
Objective: To study the prevalence of suicidal behavior and its epidemiological correlates amongst adolescent students in south Delhi. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study in three schools and two colleges in south Delhi. Participants: A total of 550 adolescent students aged 14 to 19 years selected by cluster sampling. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, chi square test, bivariate logistic regression. Results: About 15.8% reported having thought of attempting suicide, while 28 (5.1%) had actually attempted suicide, both being more in females than in males. Statistically significant associations were observed with the age of the student, living status of parents, working status of mother, and whether the student was working part-time. The two variables found significant on multivariate analysis were female gender and the number of role models the student had ever seen smoking or drinking. Conclusion: The prevalence of suicide-risk behavior was found to be quite high and is a matter that should evoke public health concern. PMID:19771304
Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.
A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…
McCullum, Christine; Achterberg, Cheryl L.
Examines label use behavior among high school-aged adolescents (N=90) to uncover gender differences related to these behaviors. Results show that students were five times more likely to rely on front label/nutrition claims than nutrient labels. Females were more likely than males to use front label/nutrition claims. (RJM)
Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min
Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…
Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139
Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David
We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.
Li, Miao; Kirby, John R.
This study explored characteristics of reading comprehension difficulties among Chinese students learning English as a second language (ESL). Two hundred forty-six Grade 8 English-immersion students in China were administered a battery of reading-related and reading comprehension tests. Three groups of comprehenders matched on age, nonverbal…
Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz
The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…
Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384
Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.
Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…
Pérez De La Barrera, Citlalli
A cross-sectional study was carried out with the purpose of validating seven life skills scales reported in the literature as related to drug-abuse prevention, and which identify differences between these skills among non-user adolescent students and users of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and inhalants. The sample was made up of 425 adolescents, 196 (46.1%) male and 229 (53.9%) female. These participants were randomly selected from a private high school in the state of Morelos, and their mean age was 15.8 years, with a standard deviation of 1.97. To measure skills we used the scales validated in this survey, while patterns of drug use were measured with a scale based on the National Addiction Survey (2008) indicators. Results showed that students who did not use alcohol, tobacco, cannabis or inhalants scored higher in skills of empathy, future orientation and peer pressure resistance, compared to those who had used these substances in the last month. On the basis of these findings it would seem necessary to develop drug-abuse prevention programs for high school students based on a life skills training approach.
The dynamics of communicating with children change in adolescence. Children who, in elementary school, readily responded to and initiated conversations and interactions with adults, now display new mannerisms and tendencies, in a time when they question, challenge, and separate, and are less willing to admire or trust adults. As such, adults must…
Engels, Maaike C; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Bijttebier, Patricia; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine
Although teachers and peers play an important role in shaping students' engagement, no previous study has directly investigated transactional associations of these classroom-based relationships in adolescence. This study investigated the transactional associations between adolescents' behavioral engagement, peer status (likeability and popularity), and (positive and negative) teacher-student relationships during secondary education. A large sample of adolescents was followed from Grade 7 to 11 (N = 1116; 49 % female; M age = 13.79 years). Multivariate autoregressive cross-lagged modeling revealed only unidirectional effects from teacher-student relationships and peer status on students' behavioral engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships were associated with more behavioral engagement over time, whereas negative teacher-student relationships, higher likeability and higher popularity were related to less behavioral engagement over time. We conclude that teachers and peers constitute different sources of influence, and play independent roles in adolescents' behavioral engagement.
Pavlović, Miroslav; Zunić-Pavlović, Vesna; Glumbić, Nenad
This study investigated aggressive behaviour in Serbian adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) compared to typically developing peers. The sample consisted of both male and female adolescents aged 12-18 years. One hundred of the adolescents had ID, and 348 adolescents did not have ID. The adolescents were asked to complete the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and their teachers provided ratings of aggression for the adolescents using the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive-Proactive (C-SHARP). Results indicated that adolescents reported a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour than their teachers. Reactive aggression was more prevalent than proactive aggression in both subsamples. In the subsample of adolescents with ID, there were no sex or age differences for aggression. However, in the normative subsample, boys and older adolescents scored significantly higher on aggression. According to adolescent self-reports the prevalence of aggression was higher in adolescents without ID, while teachers perceived aggressive behaviour to be more prevalent in adolescents with ID. Scientific and practical implications are discussed.
Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; Feenstra, Dineke; Hutsebaut, Joost
Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand. Therefore we investigated which items of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems-118 (SIPP-118) were developmentally sensitive throughout adolescence and adulthood and which could be considered more age-specific markers requiring other content or thresholds over age groups. Applying item response theory (IRT) we detected differential item functioning (DIF) in 36% of the items in matched samples of 639 adolescents versus 639 adults. The DIF across age groups mainly reflected a different degree of symptom expressions for the same underlying level of functioning. The threshold for exhibiting symptoms given a certain degree of personality dysfunction was lower in adolescence for areas of personality functioning related to the Self and Interpersonal domains. Some items also measured a latent construct of personality functioning differently across adolescents and adults. This suggests that several facets of the SIPP-118 do not solely measure aspects of personality pathology in adolescents, but likely include more developmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record
This analysis (n?=?33), drawn from the findings of the author's larger mixed method research study, investigated bullying and harassment of adolescent male students (ages 13-18) pursuing dance study at the pre-professional level in the United States. Procedures for this analysis included review of primary and secondary sources from the…
Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Prasartkul, Pramote
This paper explores family and non-family factors contributing to happiness among students aged 15-18 in Thailand. Data come from the Social and Cultural Situation and Mental Health Survey (n = 905). Based on regression analysis, family factors are more important than non- family factors in explaining the variations in adolescents' happiness.…
The impeachment of a high school student council president highlights issues involved in an adolescent confrontation with adult authority. The school administration representing the adult majority tended to stereotype the council president as representing the rebellious, irresponsible adolescent minority. Adults in authority need to learn to play…
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Porto, Denise Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescent school students and identify its individual and contextual associated factors. METHODS The present research used data from the 2009 National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which included a sample of 59,699 9th grade students in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. The association between regular alcohol consumption and independent explanatory variables was measured by means of the Pearson’s Chi-square test, with a 0.05 significance level. The explanatory variables were divided into four groups based on affinity (sociodemographic; school and family context; risk factors; and protection factors). A multivariate analysis was carried out for each group, always adjusting for age and sex. Variables with p < 0.10 were used in the final multivariate analysis model. RESULTS The highest alcohol consumption in the preceding 30 days was independently associated with pupils aged 15 years (OR = 1.46) and over, female (OR = 1.72), white, children of mothers with higher education, studying in private school, students who had tried smoking (OR = 1.72) and drug use (OR = 1.81), with regular tobacco consumption (OR = 2.16) and those who have had sexual intercourse (OR = 2.37). The factors related to family were skipping school without parental knowledge (OR = 1.49), parents not knowing what children do in their free time (OR = 1.34), having fewer meals with their parents (OR = 1.22), reporting that parents do not care (OR = 3.05), or care little (OR = 3.39) if they go home drunk, and having suffered domestic violence (OR = 1.36). CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the importance of viewing alcohol consumption among adolescents as a complex, multifactorial and socially determined phenomenon. PMID:24789637
Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A
This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.
Damian, Lavinia E.; Stoeber, Joachim; Negru, Oana; Baban, Adriana
Perfectionism has been shown to predict individual differences in achievement goal orientations in university students, but research on perfectionism and goal orientations in school students is still very limited. Investigating 584 adolescent school students in a cross-sectional correlational design, the present study examined how self-oriented…
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Pereira, Rafaelly Fernandes; de Freitas, Maria Célia; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção
Qualitative research, based on the Theory of Social Representations, which aimed to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in a public school and a private on ageing, and to compare them between these two groups. Participants were 60 adolescents, 30 from the private school and 30 from the public school, who responded to semi-structured interviews in the period May-June 2012. The collected data were subjected to content analysis techniques, from which emerged three categories, namely: representations of ageing, the treatment of the elderly, and the recognition of oneself as a subject in the aging process. The adolescents' social representations have showed negative and positive aspects in relation to old age, marked by the influence of socio-cultural aspects.
Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly
BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945
Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia
The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.
Mansfield, Caroline F.
Student motivation during adolescence has become an increasingly important issue for educators and researchers. Using a goal theory perspective, researchers have investigated a range of goals (including achievement goals, social goals and future goals) that influence students' desire to achieve at school. The present study examines the range of…
Moore, David D.; Forster, Jerald R.
Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substance abuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…
Spiegel, Lisa A.
Learning activities that promote student pride in rural living include examining the misconceptions and prejudices associated with rural living, exploring the variables of a rural lifestyle, student research of their town's history, and reading books that positively portray rural living. Includes a bibliography of 69 adolescent books with rural…
Cabellon, Edmund T.; Junco, Reynol
This chapter describes the student affairs profession in the digital age. The authors explore new challenges educators and professionals face as new areas are added and expanded, how social networks and digital technology tools continue to evolve, and what skills are needed to engage with students in person and online.
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David
In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807
La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C
Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.
Henkel, Linda A.
The involvement of undergraduates in research on aging has benefits for the students and for the faculty mentors, as well as for their departments, their universities, and the field of gerontology at large. This article reports on the application of a 3-year Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) by the National Institute on Aging awarded to…
Sherrill, Andrew; Renk, Kimberly; Sims, Valerie K.; Culp, Anne
The grayest areas of defining child sexual abuse appear to involve the age and sex of the individuals involved, resulting in a potential for different attributions regarding child sexual abuse across individuals. As a result, this study examines the responses of 262 male and female college student participants after viewing a series of…
Wehman, Paul; Kregel, John
The second edition of Functional Curriculum for Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Age Students with Special Needs has an expanded framework for a functional and longitudinal curriculum for children and adolescents with disabilities and other special needs. These is a stronger demand than ever to provide a curriculum with everyday usefulness and…
Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759
Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica
In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The Adolescent Coping Scale was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students aged 12 to 13 years who had learning disabilities of an overall nonproductive coping style and in particular of the nonproductive strategies of ignoring the problem and not coping. Although there was no difference in overall productive or nonproductive coping style for 14- to 15-year-olds, the students in this age group who had learning disabilities reported higher use of the strategies of not coping and ignoring the problem. These findings are discussed in relation to a need for interventions that give students who have learning disabilities strategies that address the risk of a passive coping style.
Felice, M. E.; James, M.; Shragg, P.; Hollingsworth, D. R.
A low chronologic age (less than or equal to 15 years) and low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2 years) have been considered factors that increase medical complications among adolescent pregnant women. Gynecologic age (GA) is defined in this study as age in years at conception minus age at menarche. Two hundred twelve consecutive pregnant teenagers were followed prospectively in the Teen OB Clinic at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center, between August 1978 and July 1981. The clinic population consisted of 37.3 percent Whites, 35.8 percent Hispanics, 20.8 percent Blacks, and 6.1 percent other (mostly Indochinese). Sixty-eight percent of the patients were funded by MediCal. The patient population was divided by chronological age (CA) at conception into those 15 years or less or 16 years or older. A low chronological age was found to be a significant risk factor for premature rupture of membranes. Teenagers with a low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2) had a lower mean pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (Kg/M2) than teenagers with a higher gynecologic age. In this study, we did not find that a low CA or GA was correlated with a higher frequency of pregnancy-induced hypertension, prenatal medical problems, obstetrical problems at labor or delivery, or an excessive number of low-birthweight infants. PMID:6523906
Zayed, Mouchira; Ahmed, Dalia; Halawa, Eman Fawzy
Violence among female adolescents is a major public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the pattern and predicting factors of interpersonal violence among adolescent female students in a nursing high school in Cairo. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2011-2012 and included a total of 220 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical violence exposure at home, school and community among studied adolescents were 65.5, 30.4 and 25.9% respectively. Verbal violence was found in 55, 69 and 60% at home, school and community respectively. Finally 5 and 41.3% of studied students were exposed to sexual violence at home and community respectively. The highest violence exposure score was at school from teachers while the highest score of being violent was mainly towards the community. Multivariate regression analysis for violence scores revealed that younger students, students from urban residence and higher crowding index were significant predictors for total violence exposure and being violent scores. Prevention programmes should be given for all students especially high risk ones (young age, urban residence and high crowdness index families) and their families to address and overcome this problem.
The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.
Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo
Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.
McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D
The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.
Kim, Ryang Hui
This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…
Metzger, Aaron; Ferris, Kaitlyn
Domain-specific judgments about different forms of civic engagement were assessed in a sample 467 primarily White adolescents (M age = 15.26, range = 11-19). Adolescents reported on the obligatory nature and social praiseworthiness (respect) of different forms of civic involvement. Adolescents distinguished among four different categories of civic…
Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang
Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…
Peavey, Katherine Owen; Leff, Debra
Five adolescents with visual impairments participated in trust engendering activities in five separate peer focus groups. At the completion of the intervention, four of the students with visual impairments showed marked improvement in their social acceptance and had higher scores on the Social Skills Assessment Tool for Children with Visual…
Describes a model program that included 20 parents of adolescents with visual impairments in structured career-planning exercises. Students confirmed career choices, became more aware of career values, and were encouraged to explore future career alternatives. Parents suggested they had acquired understanding for their child's career choices. (CR)
Carhill, Avary; Suarez-Orozco, Carola; Paez, Mariela
This study aims to increase understanding of factors that account for academic English language proficiency in a sample of 274 adolescent first-generation immigrant students from China, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Central America, and Mexico. Previous research has shown the importance of English language proficiency in predicting academic…
McHugh, Rebecca Munnell; Horner, Christy Galletta; Colditz, Jason B.; Wallace, Tanner LeBaron
In urban secondary schools where underpreparation and dropping out are real world concerns, students understand that their relationships with teachers affect their learning. Using descriptive coding and thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore adolescents' perceptions of the "bridges" that foster and the "barriers"…
American School Health Association, Kent, OH.
The National Adolescent Student Health Survey (NASHS), initiated in 1985, is conducted to examine the health-related knowledge, practices, and attitudes of the nation's youth in the following health areas: AIDS; Nutrition; Consumer Health; Sexually Transmitted Disease; Drug and Alcohol Use; Suicide; Injury Prevention; and Violence. Findings…
Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui
Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963
Medina, Catherine; Luna, Gaye
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among school-aged students between the ages of 15 and 19. There is an increasing frequency of suicide and other self-destructive behaviors among Mexican American youth and students in special education classrooms for emotional and behavioral disabilities. Recognizing Mexican American youth in special education classes as a separate risk group, this study (a) identifies factors that contribute to suicide, (b) reviews the signs and characteristics associated with these factors, (c) interviews Mexican American students in special education who have either exhibited various characteristics of suicidal thoughts and/or have attempted suicide, (d) explores effective prevention programs, and (e) provides suggestions for school personnel. Interviews with five adolescent Mexican American special education students support previous research findings that depression, substance abuse, social and interpersonal conflict, family distress, and school stress are primary characteristics related to suicidal minority youth.
Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…
Hargrave, Terry D.; Brammer, Robert
This article examines communication and system issues in dealing with misconduct in adolescents. The initial focus is an analysis of the goals of misconduct, including attention, power, revenge, and display of inadequacy. The second focus encourages the school system to consider its own part in the problems of misconduct, by examining circular…
Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p < 0.001 (143 ± 55.4 vs. 145 ± 57.9 months). Most (65.5%) estimates were within 12 months of subjects’ chronological ages; 19% overestimated and 15.5% underestimated age by >12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126
Caspi, A; Henry, B; McGee, R O; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A
We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11, and by parents at ages 13 and 15. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems; Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys; and Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. These results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of later psychopathology.
Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes
Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061
Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed
Utilized the Family Environment Scale and the Experience Sampling Method to evaluate how family discord was related to adolescents' age, in 101 single-mother families. Mothers' reports of overall discord decreased across adolescence. In immediate interactions, boys reported feeling more anger towards their mothers with age, while girls reported…
Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally…
Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336
Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike
This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.
Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid
Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095
Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.
Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896
Lutov, Iu V; Seliatitskaia, V G; Epanchintseva, E A; Riabichenko, T I
The purpose of this investigation was to study the interrelation of andrological status with anthropometric and hormonal descriptions for age-specific features discovery of male sexual system pathological states at technical college students. 147 adolescents aged 15-17 years old were examined. Only 41 of them were found to have no abnormalities in their genital system development; in 35 adolescents sexual development was delayed; and 97 adolescents were found to have various andrological diseases (varicocele, phimosis, gynecomastia, testicular asymmetry, etc.) or clinical signs for development of these diseases. In 26 adolescences delayed sexual development was combined with the andrological pathology. The normal andrological status was usually accompanied with the highest frequency of low values of anthropometric indicators and indices that reflect the influence of various hormonal systems on the bodily constitution, as well as expressed anthropometricheterogeneity. In adolescents with andrological pathology or clinical signs for its development, in all anthropometric parameters the higher values were seen more frequently than low values against the background of highest group anthropometric homogeneity. Summative anthropometric characteristics of the adolescents group with delayed sexual development were between those of the adolescents groups with normal andrological status and andrological pathology The number of correlational relationships of anthropometric and hormonal indicators with the levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosteronesulphate was the lowest in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status as compared to their peers with delayed sexual development and andrological pathology. Only in the group of adolescents with normal andrological status the correlation analysis of data showed physiological influence of sexual hormones on anthropometric indicators. Thus, lower influence of sexual system hormones during this ontogenesis stage
Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Wen, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengcheng
This article assessed the measurement in variance of the Adolescent Student Burnout Inventory (ASBI) across gender and educational track, and investigated the main and interaction effects of gender and educational track on the facets of student burnout with a sample consisting of 2,216 adolescent students from China. Multigroup confirmatory factor…
Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225
Gottheil, E; Rieger, J A; Farwell, B; Lieberman, D
Adolescent students with drug problems were rostered by their schools at the program facility one-half day per week. Treatment was aimed at increasing communicativeness through art, video, music, group therapy, and individual counseling when appropriate. After 4 months, school personnel, students, and treatment staff indicated that drug taking had decreased and general adjustment improved. Statistically, the treatment group (N = 42) improved significantly more than a control group (N = 37) in school attendance. They also tended to do better in academic, behavior, and work habit grades although these differences did not reach statical significance. Further similar early intervention studies are warranted.
Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Gulley, Joshua M
Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed.
Ebert, Ellen Kress
This study used the Relevance of Science Education (ROSE) survey (Sjoberg & Schreiner, 2004) to examine topics of interest and perspectives of secondary science students in a large school district in the southwestern U.S. A situated learning perspective was used to frame the project. The research questions of this study focused on (a) perceptions students have about themselves and their science classroom and how these beliefs may influence their participation in the community of practice of science; (b) consideration of how a future science classroom where the curriculum is framed by the Next Generation Science Standards might foster students' beliefs and perceptions about science education and their legitimate peripheral participation in the community of practice of science; and (c) reflecting on their school science interests and perspectives, what can be inferred about students' identities as future scientists or STEM field professionals? Data were collected from 515 second year science students during a 4-week period in May of 2012 using a Web-based survey. Data were disaggregated by gender and ethnicity and analyzed descriptively and by statistical comparison between groups. Findings for Research Question 1 indicated that boys and girls showed statistically significant differences in scientific topics of interest. There were no statistical differences between ethnic groups although. For Research Question 2, it was determined that participants reported an increase in their interest when they deemed the context of the content to be personally relevant. Results for Research Question 3 showed that participants do not see themselves as youthful scientists or as becoming scientists. While participants value the importance of science in their lives and think all students should take science, they do not aspire to careers in science. Based on this study, a need for potential future work has been identified in three areas: (a) exploration of the perspectives and
The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…
Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas
Previous research has shown that interest in and concern about environmental issues tends to decrease in adolescence, but less is known about adolescents' broader consciousness of sustainable development, also including economic and social issues. This study investigates students' sustainability consciousness in the transition to adolescence. This…
Wang, Ming-Te; Brinkworth, Maureen; Eccles, Jacquelynne
This study examined relations between effortful control, parent-adolescent conflict, and teacher-student relationships and the concurrent and longitudinal impact of these factors on adolescent depression and misconduct. In particular, we examined whether the risks of low effortful control and parent-adolescent conflict could be buffered by…
Yode, Miangotar; LeGrand, Thomas
This study explores the relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and four indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescents aged 14 to 19 years in Burkina Faso, Malawi and Uganda. Analyses are conducted using data from National Surveys of Adolescents, organized in 2004. Multivariate analyses are performed using dichotomous logistic regression and ordered polychotomic logistic regression. Analyses show that initiation of sexual activity before age 14 is more likely to be associated with having a casual sex partner. It is less likely to be associated with condom use at first sexual relation or with systematic condom use in the past 12 months. These associations vary depending on adolescents' country and gender. Delaying onset of sexuality could be a surer and safer way to protect health during adolescence. However, sexual and reproductive health programs that advocate abstinence only are likely to have few positive effects on young people. To better implement this strategy, sexual education for adolescents should be integrated.
Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A
While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified.
Eicher, J B; Baizerman, S; Michelman, J
Through observation and interviews of high school students, the role of dress in a nonpsychiatric population was explored in order to provide data complementary to the first phase of a larger research project. Adolescent dress was examined in relation to three dimensions of the self: the public, private, and secret self. Due to the age of subjects and the length of contact with the interviewer, results provided most information about the public self, particularly descriptions of social types--categories based on appearance and behavior. These types included a modal, or "average," type and more extreme types including "punks," "freaks," and "nerds." Extreme social types appeared to offer valuable reference points for "average" adolescents in the development of their individual identities.
Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf
Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi
Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…
Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.
This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…
Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.
This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…
Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Weaver, Robert R.
Aging education is relatively new to the university, and our understanding of the perspectives students bring to aging populations is correspondingly limited. This investigation surveys 546 students at a midsized, Midwestern university to explore students' views toward elders, toward serving elders, and toward the relevance of aging education for…
Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira
Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…
Cortés Alfaro, A; García Roche, R G; Hernández Sánchez, M; Monterrey Gutiérrez, P; Fuentes Abreu, J
The observed increase of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in Cuba aroused the interest of carrying out a study aimed at exploring risky sexual behaviours and attitudes, and histories of STD. A crosswise descriptive study was undertaken using a randomized sample taken from the universe of adolescent students in the City of Havana during 1995-96 school year. The sample was made up by 2,793 teenagers aged 11-19 years (1,370 females and 1,423 males). Previously trained experts linked to this field collected data by means of a structured interview which had been drawn up for this end. It was confirmed that more than half of adolescent students did not use condom in their sexual intercourse 57% had more than one sexual partner along the year, 40% believed it was difficult to keep only one partner whereas 35% had more than one sexual partner at the same time. Risk and protected sexual habits were noticed, with 39% for oral-genital and 21.4% for genital-anal. 22% for the interviewed adolescent said they had histories of STD.
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio
The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…
This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media.
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Fearon, Danielle D.
The importance of student IEP participation has been indicated by both legislative mandates such as IDEA and research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine those variables that predict student IEP participation among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders as compared to adolescents with disabilities other than autism…
Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.
Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…
Kaplan, Jeremy S.; Lake, MaryBeth
Objective: Despite a documented shortage of child and adolescent psychiatrists, few studies have examined whether including child and adolescent psychiatry didactics in a medical school curriculum can stimulate appreciation and interest among students, possibly leading more students to choose careers in this specialty. Methods: The authors…
Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.
This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…
Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.
The present study analysed bullying in German adolescents with and without visual impairment. Ninety-eight adolescents with vision loss from schools for students with visual impairment, of whom 31 were blind and 67 had low vision, were compared with 98 sighted peers using a matched-pair design. Students with low vision reported higher levels of…
Age-appropriate communication style is a core condition in order to screen successfully for exploratory behaviours during adolescence. To offer the adolescent patient to see the doctor alone for some time and to provide assurance of confidentiality even with regard to their parents enhances the doctor-patient relationship and enables the communication about personal issues such as the consumption of psychoactive substances and other potentially harmful behaviours. In order to assure confidentiality even with regard to the adolescent's parents, an evaluation of the adolescent patient's rights for minor consent as well as the potential risk for self-harm and / or homicide has to be performed. Age-appropriate communication that includes conversation about psychoactive drugs and other harmful behaviours has the potential to improve the adolescents' health substantially.
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study were to assess bullying and its associated factors in school-going adolescents in Thailand. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2008, the prevalence of being bullied and its associated factors among adolescents (N=2758) was assessed. The study found an overall prevalence of being bullied on one or more days during the past 30 days of 27.8%, 32.9% among males and 23.2% among females. The predominant forms of being bullied were among boys being hit, kicked, pushed, shoved around, or locked indoors and among girls making fun of with sexual jokes, comments, and gestures. Among boys risk factors for having been bullied were younger age (adjusted odds ratio to (AOR): 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.65), having been in a physical fight (AOR: 3.64; 95% CI: 2.84-4.66), being physically inactive (AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.04-2.15), truancy (AOR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.13-2.45), and psychosocial distress (AOR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.14-3.74), and among girls risk factors for having been bullied were having been in a physical fight (AOR: 2.91; 95% CI: 2.00-4.24), lack of parental bonding (AOR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.99), and psychosocial distress (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.39-4.03). Results may inform school health programmes on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Thailand.
Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Derinöz, Okşan; Akkoyun, Esra Betül; Güçlü Pınarlı, Faruk; Bideci, Aysun
Objective: The aim of the present study was to document ovarian cyst frequency and characteristics as well as distribution of these parameters with respect to age in children and adolescents. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1009 girls between the ages of 5-18 years who presented to our pediatric emergency department (PED) with pelvic pain and therefore underwent pelvic ultrasound examination between June 2011 and May 2014. Results: In total, 132 of 1009 girls (13.1%) were identified as having ovarian cysts ≥1 cm in diameter. The frequency of ovarian cysts was found to be 1.8% (6/337) in children aged 5-9 years and 18.8% (126/672) in those aged 10-18 years. All the cysts detected in children aged 5-9 years were small (<3 cm) and simple with age-specific frequencies ranging between 1.5-2.7%. With the onset of adolescence, ovarian cyst frequency started to increase with age and ranged between 3.8-31.3% throughout adolescence. Age of peak ovarian cyst frequency was 15 years with a rate of 31.3%. Large ovarian cysts (>5 cm) were identified in 19 adolescents (15.1%) with most occurring during middle adolescence. Of the 19 adolescents, five were found to have cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies including cystadenoma (n=3) and ovarian torsion (n=2). Conclusion: In children aged 5-9 years, ovarian cysts were infrequent and small (<3 cm). Peak ovarian cyst frequency was detected at the age of 15 years. All patients diagnosed with cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies were adolescents having a cyst >5 cm in diameter with a complex appearance in most. PMID:28044991
Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M
Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.
Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C
This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.
Vasilenko, Sara A
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record
Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.
Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar
Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in
Fonseca, Antonio; Goncalves, Daniela; Martin, Ignacio
Society is ageing. In Europe, the ageing of the population is a recurrent and discussed theme. The impact of the ageing of the population is varied and transversal in different fields. The increase in the number of elderly people implies an increase in the levels of dependence and, consequently, more sanitary, physical, and human resources. Also,…
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.
Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes
Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.
Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
The aim of this study was to characterize the association between problem gambling severity and multiple health, functioning and gambling variables in adolescents aged 13–18 stratified by age of gambling onset. Survey data in 1624 Connecticut high school students stratified by age of gambling onset (≤11 years vs. ≥ 12 years) were analyzed in descriptive analyses and in logistic regression models. Earlier age of onset was associated with problem gambling severity as indexed by a higher frequency of at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). Most health, functioning and gambling measures were similarly associated with problem gambling severity in the earlier- and later-age-of-gambling-onset groups with the exception of participation in non-strategic forms of gambling, which was more strongly associated with ARPG in the earlier-onset (OR=1.74, 95%CI=[1.26, 2.39]) as compared to later-onset (OR=0.94, 95%CI=[0.60, 1.48]) group (Interaction OR=1.91, 95%CI=[1.18, 3.26]). Post-hoc analysis revealed that earlier-onset ARPG was more strongly associated with multiple forms of non-strategic gambling including lottery (instant, traditional) and slot-machine gambling. The finding that problem gambling severity is more closely associated with multiple non-strategic forms of gambling amongst youth with earlier onset of gambling highlights the relevance of these types of youth gambling. The extent to which non-strategic forms of gambling may serve as a gateway to other forms of gambling or risk behaviors warrants additional study, and efforts targeting youth gambling should consider how best to address non-strategic gambling through education, prevention, treatment and policy efforts. PMID:22410208
Lun, Man Wai
The increased number of older adults attributes to a rising need for future professionals to work in gerontology. Understanding the influence of students' career choices is important. A qualitative study was conducted after students' taking a gerontology course to explore students' knowledge and career preference in gerontology. The results were…
Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.
A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…
Allen, M T; Matthews, K A
The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.
Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy
Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.
Brumback, T Y; Arbel, Yael; Donchin, Emanuel; Goldman, Mark S
Entry into adolescence is marked by dramatic changes resulting from a dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial processes. Despite the complexity, development is often indexed only by age in event-related potential (ERP) studies. To broaden this approach, we address the effects of gender and pubertal development, along with age, in adolescents using a psychophysiological probe of decision making, the P300 component. Overall, girls exhibited shorter P300 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes compared to boys, suggesting more efficient information processing. In both genders, P300 latency and amplitude also diminished as age and pubertal status increased, again suggesting increasing efficiency of information processing with development. Our findings highlight the necessity of considering more than age when examining cognitive functioning in adolescents and, in particular, the necessity of considering gender whenever developmental issues are addressed.
Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and…
Fromuth, Mary Ellen; Holt, Aimee R.
This study explored whether student age influenced perceptions of teacher sexual misconduct. Participants (300 undergraduates) read scenarios depicting teacher sexual misconduct in which the student's age was varied (9, 12, 15), and then answered questions about their perceptions. Data were analyzed with 2 (respondent gender) x 2 (cross-gender…
Douglass, Carolinda; Henry, Beverly W.; Kostiwa, Irene M.
The Aging Game, a simulation activity, has been used successfully with medical students in the development of empathetic attitudes toward older adults. To date, the Aging Game has not been used extensively with allied health students. It has been viewed as too costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive. The purpose of this study was to examine the…
Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay
Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)
Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.
Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…
van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande
Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion.
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.
Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…
De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine
Throughout adolescence, there is an increase in rule-breaking behavior and a decrease in behavioral school engagement. The role of teacher-student relationship quality in the development of these adjustment problems remains understudied. This study examined how adolescent-reported teacher-student affiliation and dissatisfaction and parent-reported rule-breaking behavior and behavioral engagement impact one another throughout adolescence. In addition, we examined the moderating effect of genes by means of a Biologically Informed Multilocus genetic Profile Score (BIMPS), a composite score reflecting the cumulative effect of multiple dopaminergic genes, with a higher score indicating higher dopamine signaling in the adolescent brain. We used three-year longitudinal data from 1111 adolescents (51 % boys; M age = 13.79), and their parents. Cross-lagged analyses revealed a transactional process in which adolescents who display more rule-breaking behavior and less behavioral engagement experienced increased subsequent dissatisfaction with their teachers, which in turn further increased their adjustment problems. Also, adolescents with more adjustment problems experienced decreased subsequent affiliation with their teachers. The other way around, adolescents' behavioral engagement also benefitted from positive relationships with teachers. Multi-group analyses revealed genetic moderation for behavioral engagement, but not for rule-breaking. Specifically, adolescents who had a BIMPS score coding for moderate levels of dopamine signaling (instead of high or low signaling) were most affected in their behavioral engagement when they experienced dissatisfaction with their teachers. Our study findings may guide schools in implementing interventions to create a supportive class and school environment including positive, supportive teacher-student relationships and indicate that providing a such a supportive school environment is important for all adolescents.
Shen, Yuh-Ling; Peterson, Gary
This study examined how parental practices in mainland China influence adolescents' school performance, including school motivation and grade point average (GPA), when moderated by self-esteem and self-efficacy. Participating in the study were 497 students, ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, attending six public junior and senior high schools.…
Cameron, Jack R.; Plattor, Emma E.
Some uses of the mass media for educating the adolescent are discussed, and the fact that teachers have generally neglected using mass media devices is emphasized. Multisensory stimuli are seen to enhance the excitement and drama of the written page and to be essential to a concept of literacy broad enough to encompass all aspects of critical and…
Cha, Eun Seok; Kim, Kevin H; Doswell, Willa M
This study examined the mediating role of condom self-efficacy between the parent-adolescent relationship and the intention to use condoms with a submodel based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. Male students aged 18-25 years (n = 176) were recruited from a university in Seoul, South Korea, using a flyer and self-referral in 2004. A sample of 170 male students was retained for the final data analyses as six subjects had incomplete data on more than one instrument. Condom self-efficacy completely mediated the prediction of intention to use condoms by the quality of the mother-son relationship. However, condom self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms. Only an indirect effect between the quality of the father-son relationship and the intention to use condoms existed. The suggested sex education programs should develop culture-specific, theory-based, and family-based interventions in order to reduce risky sexual behavior among South Korean adolescents.
Saiphoklang, On-Anong; Wongboonsin, Kua; Wongboonsin, Patcharawalai; Perngparn, Usaneya; Cottler, Linda B
Carrying weapons is a significant social and public health problem worldwide, especially among adolescents. The present study examined the association between weapon carrying and related risk behaviors among Thai adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 2,588 high school and vocational school students aged 11 to 19 years from 26 schools in Bangkok, Thailand, was conducted in 2014. This study found that 7.8% of youth reported having carried a weapon in the past 12 months. The high prevalence of weapon carrying was reported by male students, and males were more likely to have reported carrying a weapon than females. The association between weapon carrying and the health risk behaviors like drinking, smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting were significant with higher odds of weapon carrying in all models. Among males, weapon carrying was related to drinking and smoking, any drug use, physical fighting, and school type. Among females, suicidal thoughts were significantly related along with drinking and smoking, any drug use, and physical fighting. Having a mother who used substances was significant only among females. These data could be used for further interventions about weapon carrying to reduce violence.
Wright, Darlene R.; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.
This study explores the relationship between social capital and adolescent violent behaviors for a national sample of secondary school students (N = 4,834). Cross-sectional data from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used to evaluate multivariate models examining the family school and neighborhood correlates of violent…
Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; White, Claire
Adolescents today have vastly different opportunities to learn and process information via pervasive digital technologies and social media. However, there is scant literature on the impact of these technologies on urban adolescents with lower socioeconomic status. This study of 531 urban students in grades 6-8 used a self-reported survey to…
Eicher, Joanne B.; And Others
Explored role of dress through observation and interviews of high school students. Examined adolescent dress in relation to public, private, and secret self. Obtained data on descriptions of various social types: average, punks, freaks, and nerds. Extreme social types appeared to offer valuable reference points for average adolescents in…
Brown, Richard L.; Matousek, Therese A.; Radue, Mary B.
Objective: The authors investigated the magnitude and cultural context of legal-age university students' provision of alcohol to underage students and how such alcohol provision might be deterred. Participants: 130 legal-age students at a midwestern university in the United States were randomly selected. Methods: The authors assessed 16 focus…
This article features SmartMusic Impact, an Internet-based application that can impact the way teachers assess student performance. Impact allows teachers to assign, evaluate, and keep a record of playing assignments using the SmartMusic Studio software package. Reaction to Impact has been very positive from the teachers, students, and parents who…
Marks, Susan Unok; Schrader, Carl; Longaker, Trish; Levine, Mark
Three portraits of adolescent students with Asperger's syndrome include descriptive details about the students as young children, their schooling experiences, their interests, and their social life experiences. Portraits were developed through interviews with the students, their parents, and focus groups with professionals providing services to…
Martino, Louis R.
Many young adolescent students are frustrated, reluctant learners that seem resigned to helplessness and other self-defeating behaviors. Telling students to try harder is not particularly effective. This article offers a goal-setting strategy to help youngsters become failure-avoiding, instead of failure-accepting, students. Teachers help students…
Russell, Stephen T.; McGuire, Jenifer K.; Lee, Sun-A; Larriva, Jacqueline C.; Laub, Carolyn
A growing body of research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students are often unsafe at school. Little research has examined school safety for students with LGBT parents. We examined adolescents' perceptions of school safety for students with LGBT parents using data from a survey of 2,302 California sixth through…
Background Increasing attention has been paid to the school food environment as a strategy to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the school food environment, students’ dietary intake, and obesity in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods In 2007/08, principal responses about the school environment (N = 174) were linked to grades 7-12 students (N = 11,385) from corresponding schools, who participated in the BC Adolescent Health Survey. Hierarchical mixed-effect regression analyses examined the association between the school food environment and student’s intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), food consumption, and body mass index. Analyses controlled for school setting, neighborhood education level and student’s age and sex. Results School availability of SSBs was positively associated with moderate (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02-1.30) and high (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.13-1.80) SSB intake as were less healthful school nutrition guidelines for moderate SSB consumers only (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.48-0.88). Availability of SSBs at school and its consumption were positively associated with student obesity (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.12-2.01 and OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 1.19-2.34, respectively) but not with overweight. In contrast, consumption of less healthful food was positively associated with overweight (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06). Conclusions The results of this study provide further evidence to support the important role of schools in shaping adolescents’ dietary habits. Availability and consumption of SSBs, but not less healthful foods, at school were associated with higher adolescent obesity highlighting that other environments also contribute to adolescent obesity. PMID:24666770
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience.
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these students are able to demonstrate academic resilience, which is satisfactory performance in cognitive or academic tasks in spite of their disadvantaged backgrounds. The review stresses the need for developing a caregiving relationship model for at-risk adolescent students in Malaysia. Such a model would allow educators to meet the students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience. PMID:25663734
McCormick, C M; Mongillo, D L; Simone, J J
We previously observed that social instability stress (SS: daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partners for 16 days) in adolescence, but not in adulthood, decreased context and cue memory after fear conditioning in male rats. Effects of stress are typically sex-specific, and so here we investigated adolescent and adult SS effects in females on the strength of acquired contextual and cued fear conditioning, as well as extinction learning, beginning either the day after the stress procedure or four weeks later. For SS in adolescence, SS females spent more time freezing (fear measure) during extinction than did controls, whereas SS in adulthood had no effect on any measure of fear conditioning. The results also indicated an effect of age: females in late adolescence show more rapid extinction of cue and better memory of extinction of context compared to adult females, which may indicate resilience to acute footshock in adolescence. Thus fear circuitry continues to mature into late adolescence, which may underlie the heightened plasticity in response to chronic stressors of adolescents compared to adults.
Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Gulley, Joshua M.
Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed. PMID:23754712
Gunasekera, Sashya; Houghton, Stephen; Glasgow, Kenneth; Boyle, Christopher
Setting clear achievable goals that enhance reputational status has been shown to direct the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. It appears to be the case that following transition from Intensive English Centres (IECs) into mainstream schooling, students from African refugee backgrounds experience…
Shah, Ruchita; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Anoop Krishna; Sen, Mahadev Singh
Social media activities have gained popularity amongst children and adolescents as a means of communication; giving them the opportunity for independence and social development as well as rendering them vulnerable to negative influences. In traditionally collectivistic societies like India, moving rapidly towards modernisation, not only is there a divide between parents and adolescents over the endorsement of these sites, but also regarding value systems related to autonomy and dating that are facilitated by such activities. We present cases of two adolescent girls to highlight adolescent parent conflict that arises in the age of social media in a cultural context. Further, the cases underscore that value systems and culture play an important role in resolution of such conflict.
Philliber, S G; Namerow, P B; Jones, J E
During the past decade, much has been written about adolescents' use of contraception and their experience of pregnancy. Few researchers, however, have distinguished between the experiences of older and younger adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to provide such a comparison. The data were collected during more than 7,000 visits made by 4,318 patients during almost 5 years of operation of an adolescent contraceptive service in the Washington Heights area of New York City. Characteristics of four groups--14 years and younger, 15-17 years, 18-19 years, and 20-21 years--were examined. The youngest teens initiated sexual intercourse 4 years earlier than the oldest group. Among those 14 or younger, 87 percent had never used contraception, and 9 percent had been pregnant. In the oldest group, more than two-thirds had used a contraceptive method, and three-fifths had already experienced a pregnancy. Results of multivariate analyses indicate that older teens are more likely to come to the clinic for contraception and to be consistent users of the first method of contraception that they select. On the other hand, younger teens are significantly more likely to revisit the clinic and to be pregnant at a second or later visit. PMID:3918321
Castilho, Silvia Diez; Nucci, Luciana Bertoldi; Hansen, Lucca Ortolan; Assuino, Samanta Ramos
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of weight excess in children and adolescents attending public and private schools of Campinas, Southeast Brazil, according to age group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 3,130 students from 2010 to 2012. The weight and the height were measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The students were classified by BMI Z-score/age curves of the World Health Organization (WHO)-2007 (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) and by age group (7-10, 11-14 and 15-18 years). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to verify variables associated to overweight and obesity. RESULTS: Among the 3,130 students, 53.7% attended public schools and 53.4% were girls. The prevalence of weight excess (overweight or obesity) was higher in private schools (37.3%) than in public ones (32.9%) and among males (37.5%), compared to females (32.7%; p<0.05). The chance of having weight excess in children aged 7-10 years was more than twice of those over 15 years old (OR 2.4; 95%CI 2.0-3.0) and it was 60% higher for the group with 11-14 years old (OR 1.6; 95%CI 1.3-2.0). The chance of being obese was three times higher in 7-10 years old children than in the adolescents with 15-18 years old (OR 4.4; 95%CI 3.3-6.4) and 130% higher than the group with 11-14 years old (OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.6-3.2). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of weight excess in Campinas keeps increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the younger age group. PMID:25119751
Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N
Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.
Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes
The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.
Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen
Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.
Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle
This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.
Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.
Ahern, Nancy R; Norris, Anne E
In contrast to adolescents attending traditional universities, adolescents attending community colleges represent a large but relatively unstudied population with respect to stress and mental health issues. The purpose of this study was to determine what factors increase and decrease stress in a sample of adolescent community college students (N = 166). Findings from a self-administered questionnaire indicated that students had moderate levels of stress and resilience. Contrary to predictions, males demonstrated statistically significant higher levels of stress than females, but as expected, resilience had a significant negative effect on stress (p < .05). Practice and research implications are discussed for nurses in pediatric settings.
Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…
Whiteside, Ursula; Cronce, Jessica M.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Larimer, Mary E.
Alcohol consumption and its attendant problems are prevalent among adolescents and young adult college students. Harm reduction has been found efficacious with heavy drinking adolescents and college students. These harm reduction approaches do not demand abstinence and are designed to meet the individual where he or she is in the change process. The authors present a case illustration of a harm reduction intervention, the Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS), with a heavy-drinking female college student experiencing significant problems as a result of her drinking. BASICS is conducted in a motivational interviewing style and includes cognitive-behavioral skills training and personalized feedback. PMID:20049906
Shek, Daniel T L; Wong, Keri K
Adolescent developmental issues, such as mental health problems, substance abuse, and egocentric behavior, of university students are examined. This conceptual review generally shows that although there are related issues among university students deserving greater attention, there is a general lack of systematic prevention or positive youth development programs adopting the principle of universal prevention. In contrast to the abundance of universal adolescent prevention and positive youth development programs specifically designed for high school students, similar programs are grossly lacking in the university educational context. This paper highlights the factors contributing to such negligence in university education and the possible strategies that can be adopted to help university students develop in a holistic manner.
Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.
Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821
Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel
Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334
Hartley, Jane E K
Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism.
Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine
Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.
Gregoryk, Kerry; Eighmy, Myron
This mixed method study described the interaction preferences among generational groups of undergraduate students and how these preferences factor into classroom interaction. The study utilized a two-phase process, starting with qualitative data gathered from focus groups. A published instrument was used to qualify participants for one of four…
Research findings, as well as newly adopted curriculum standards, continues to send a message to educators that the work of learning must be shifted from teachers to the ones doing the learning. That's because research and anecdotal evidence suggest that when students manage their own learning, they become more invested in their own academic…
Mallman, Mark; Lee, Helen
Research on the socially-situated nature of learning shows how practices and identities are affected by participation in communities, but very little is known about how mature-age students experience the relational dynamics of university. Based on data from a qualitative study of first-year students, we consider written accounts by older learners…
Wilson, Janie H.; Beyer, Denise; Monteiro, Heather
Student evaluations of teaching provide valued information about teaching effectiveness, and studies support the reliability and validity of such measures. However, research also illustrates potential moderation of student perceptions based on teacher gender, attractiveness, and even age, although the latter receives little research attention. In…
Mahoney, Robert E.; Knowles, Carmela Curatola
In this article, the authors present their opposing views on whether students need to memorize facts in the digital age. One author contends that it is foolhardy to expect students to develop procedural knowledge (processes) without the underlying declarative knowledge (facts). The other says that analyzing always takes precedence over memorizing…
West, Leo H. T.; And Others
Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…
Cottle, Nate R.; Glover, Rebecca J.
This study examined the ability of a lifespan course to create positive change in both knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging of undergraduate students. Additionally, we questioned whether students define the point at which one is considered to be old in similar ways. Findings indicated positive change in both knowledge and attitudes, but…
Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris
The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…
Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer
Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Are our current ways of talking about "the problem of adolescence" really that different than those of past generations? For the past decade, Act Your Age! has provided a provocative and now classic analysis of the accepted ways of viewing teens. By employing a groundbreaking "history of the present" methodology that resists traditional…
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
Reinke, Diane C.
The general purpose of this study was to examine the proportions of children and adolescents identified with behavioral, emotional and cognitive clinical findings and disabilities. Data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) were used in this study. Participants in this study included 7672 children aged 0 to 15…
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle
Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…
Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio
This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…
Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B
Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a
At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated.
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E
This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 4 1/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N=1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate paths from (a) background characteristics to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, (b) temperament to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, and (c) student-teacher relationship quality to risky behavior. Findings indicate that students' family income, gender, receipt of special services, and more difficult temperament were associated with risky behavior. In addition, student-teacher conflict was a mediator. Students with more difficult temperaments were more likely to report risky behavior and to have conflict in their relationships with teachers. More conflict predicted more risky behavior. Closer student-teacher relationships were associated with less risky behavior. Results suggest negative relationships, specifically student-teacher relationships, may increase the risk that certain adolescents will engage in risky behavior.
Objective To conduct a survey about teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to undergraduate medical students in German-speaking countries. Methods A questionnaire was sent to the 33 academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in Germany, Austria, and the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Results All departments responded. For teaching knowledge, the methods most commonly reported were lectures and case presentations. The most important skills to be taught were thought to be how to assess psychopathology in children and how to assess families. For elective courses, the departments reported using a wide range of teaching methods, many with active involvement of the students. An average of 34 hours per semester is currently allocated by the departments for teaching child and adolescent psychiatry to medical students. Required courses are often taught in cooperation with adult psychiatry and pediatrics. Achievement of educational objectives is usually assessed with written exams or multiple-choice tests. Only a minority of the departments test the achievement of skills. Conclusions Two ways of improving education in child and adolescent psychiatry are the introduction of elective courses for students interested in the field and participation of child and adolescent psychiatrists in required courses and in longitudinal courses so as to reach all students. Cooperation within and across medical schools can enable departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, despite limited resources, to become more visible and this specialty to become more attractive to medical students. Compared to the findings in earlier surveys, this survey indicates a trend towards increased involvement of academic departments of child and adolescent psychiatry in training medical students. PMID:20653973
Joseph, Gary; Baptista Menezes, Ana Maria; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.
Objective To evaluate the effect of menarche before 11 years of age on the incidence of wheezing/asthma in girls 11 to 18 years of age. Methods The study sample comprised 1,350 girls from a birth cohort that started in 1993 in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil; this cohort was followed until 18 years of age. We assessed wheezing by the question, “Have you ever had wheezing in the chest at any time in the past?,” from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Early menarche was defined as occurring before 11 years of age. We estimated the cumulative incidence of wheezing excluding from the analysis all those participants who reported wheezing before age of 11 years. We performed the chi-square test to assess the association between ever wheezing and independent variables. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate cumulative incidence ratios. Results The average age at menarche in the cohort girls was 12 years (95% CI: 11.1–12.1). The prevalence of early menarche before 11 years of age was 11% (95% CI: 9.7–12.3). The cumulative incidence of wheezing from 11 to 18 years of age was 33.5% (95% CI: 30.9– 36.0). The crude association between ever wheezing in adolescence and early menarche before age 11 was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96–1.48). After adjusting for early childhood and contemporaneous variables, no significant association for early menarche before 11 years of age and wheezing during adolescence was found (CIR: 1.18; CI95%: 0.93-1.49). Conclusion Early menarche before 11 years of age is not associated with an increased risk of wheezing during adolescence. PMID:26870751
Brown, P. Margaret; Cornes, Andrew
This study investigated the mental health problems of 89 deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) adolescents in New South Wales, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Participants completed the written (for oral students) or signed version for competent Australian Sign Language (Auslan) users version of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Students were educated in a…
Feinauer, Erika; Cutri, Ramona Maile
This study describes how 72 fifth-grade Latina/Latino students express their sense of belonging to their ethnic group. The purpose of this study is to help teachers gain specific understanding of the ways that pre-adolescent Latina/Latino students express belonging to their ethnic group, in order to become more effective at implementing culturally…
Ducote, Janice M.
A literature review was conducted to identify factors leading to career indecision among adolescents and college students and to examine existing programs designed to assist such students in selecting careers. According to the literature, many practitioners view career indecision as a normal task of development whereas others see indecision as…
Jelas, Zalizan M.; Azman, Norzaini; Zulnaidi, Hutkemri; Ahmad, Nor Aniza
The aim of this study was to examine the associations between learning support, student engagement and academic achievement among adolescents. We also examined the extent to which affective, behavioural and cognitive engagement play a mediating role in students' perceived learning support from parents, teachers and peers, and contribute to their…
A study was done of the association between the psychological sense of school membership (PSSM) and measures of motivation and achievement among urban adolescents. The study was conducted among 301 students in 2 multi-ethnic urban junior high schools. African American, White, and Hispanic American students each comprised roughly one-third of the…
Hollar, Christine Lynn
This study represents a paradigm shift in an attempt to examine early adolescent self-concept while in a student leadership role. Positive Youth Development intertwined with Personal Construct Theory and Social Learning Theory framed the study. Students from a rural Wisconsin high school participated in a two-day leadership retreat. The…
In this article I explore links between racism and 'whiteness' within hegemonic masculine discourses. I examine ways in which adolescent male students construct their own identities within a privileged white position. I acknowledge whiteness as a racial issue and interrogate different forms of whiteness through students' narratives. Adolescent…
Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J
While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.
Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira
Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…
Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.
Monitoring the Future (MTF), now in its 35th year, has become one of the nation's most relied-upon sources of information on changes taking place in licit and illicit psychoactive drug use among American adolescents, college students, young adults, and more recently, middle-aged adults. During the last three and a half decades, the study has…
Jia, Yueming; Way, Niobe; Ling, Guangming; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Chen, Xinyin; Hughes, Diane; Ke, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zuhong
This study explored students' perceptions of 3 dimensions of school climate (teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom) and the associations between these dimensions and adolescent psychological and academic adjustment in China and the United States. Data were drawn from 2 studies involving 706 middle school students (M = 12.26) from Nanjing, China, and 709 middle school students (M = 12.36) from New York City. Findings revealed that students in China perceived higher levels of teacher support, student-student support, and opportunities for autonomy in the classroom than students in the United States. Furthermore, students' perceptions of teacher support and student-student support were positively associated with adolescents' self-esteem and grade point average but negatively associated with depressive symptoms for both Chinese and American adolescents.
Mellor, David; McCabe, Marita; Rizzuto, Laura; Gruner, Alan
The current project explored issues related to respect for older people, and then developed, implemented, and evaluated an educational intervention program for adolescents to raise understanding and improve attitudes toward older people. In Study 1, 46 focus groups were conducted, with participants (n = 211) drawn from older people, carers of older people, and adolescents to inform on issues related to the expression of respect to older people. The emergent themes were used to inform the design of the educational program delivered to adolescents and evaluated in Study 2. A total of 118 year-9 students were allocated to an intervention or control condition. The intervention group participated in 4 educational sessions focused on developing understanding of and respect for older adults, and promoting positive interactions with older people. Participants in both conditions completed measures of knowledge and attitudes to aging to determine whether the intervention had effected change at post-program and at 6-months follow-up. Analyses indicated significant improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and social skills related to older people in the intervention group compared to the control group. The findings from these studies provide a better understanding of what constitutes respect for older people, and a method for improving this in adolescents.
Sobkin, V. S.; Abrosimova, Z. B.; Adamchuk, D. V.; Baranova, E. V.
The data presented in this article were obtained in a questionnaire survey of 2,893 students in the seventh, ninth, and eleventh grades of general education schools in Moscow. The survey was conducted by the Center of Sociology of Education of the Russian Academy of Education in 2002. Earlier publications by the same authors dealing with materials…
In an effort to use adolescents' enthusiasm about blogging to design more effective writing experiences, Read analyzed its appeal and found that blogging satisfied two of Maslow's "hierarchy of needs": relatedness needs and growth needs. By studying the blogs of 6 adolescents, Read also discovered that the process of writing in blogs helps…
Burney, DeAnna McKinnie
Four-hundred and eight 14 to 19-year-old adolescents in grades 9 through 12 participated in this study. The Adolescent Anger Rating Scale was used to assess differences in expressed anger among participants. Specific styles of anger were measured: reactive, instrumental, and anger control. Results of this study suggest that males demonstrate…
Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco
There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with less severe symptoms and better psychosocial functioning than presentation in childhood or younger adolescence. Ninety-four CAD (age 9-18) meeting Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome criteria participated in the study. The sample was divided and compared according to the age of presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (9-14 vs 15-18 years). The predictive value of age of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome presentation was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve calculations. The two Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome groups were homogeneous in terms of gender distribution, IQ scores and comorbid diagnoses. Older Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome patients showed better functioning and lower depressive scores. ROC curves revealed that severity of functional impairment was best predicted using an age of presentation cut-off of 14.9 years for social functioning and 15.9 years for role functioning. This study partially confirmed our hypothesis; older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome was associated with less functional impairment, but age was not associated with psychotic symptoms.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey (N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.
Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Martín, Alfredo Hidalgo-San
The study of pre-suicidal behaviors is important not only because of their association with suicide but also because of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Given the scarcity of information regarding this relationship in adolescence, the objective of this study was to analyze the association between suicidal-related behavior and QOL according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 14 and 18 years of age. A translated version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Spanish version of the Youth Quality of Life Research - Instrument version were used. Non-parametric tests were applied. Informed consent was obtained from parents and students, and ethical committee approval was sought. The developmental-transactional model of suicidal behavior in adolescents by Bridge et al. was used. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to show the suicidal-related behaviors associated with QOL. The behavior of having felt sad or hopeless generally presented the greatest effect sizes. The regression models showed that some suicidal-related behaviors increase the probability of a lower QOL even after adjusting for covariates.
Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the
Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of
Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.
Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…
Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal
There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.
Gbore, Lawrence Olu; Osakuade, Joseph Oluwatayo
This study investigated the effects of test-wiseness training in Mathematics on adolescent secondary school students' test anxiety. The research study adopted for the study was an experimental research that involved pretest, posttest and control groups design. One hundred and twenty (120) adolescent senior secondary school class three students of…
Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel
Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…
Kidger, Judi; Donovan, Jenny L; Biddle, Lucy; Campbell, Rona; Gunnell, David
Background Schools have been identified as an important place in which to support adolescent emotional health, although evidence as to which interventions are effective remains limited. Relatively little is known about student and staff views regarding current school-based emotional health provision and what they would like to see in the future, and this is what this study explored. Methods A random sample of 296 English secondary schools were surveyed to quantify current level of emotional health provision. Qualitative student focus groups (27 groups, 154 students aged 12-14) and staff interviews (12 interviews, 15 individuals) were conducted in eight schools, purposively sampled from the survey respondents to ensure a range of emotional health activity, free school meal eligibility and location. Data were analysed thematically, following a constant comparison approach. Results Emergent themes were grouped into three areas in which participants felt schools did or could intervene: emotional health in the curriculum, support for those in distress, and the physical and psychosocial environment. Little time was spent teaching about emotional health in the curriculum, and most staff and students wanted more. Opportunities to explore emotions in other curriculum subjects were valued. All schools provided some support for students experiencing emotional distress, but the type and quality varied a great deal. Students wanted an increase in school-based help sources that were confidential, available to all and sympathetic, and were concerned that accessing support should not lead to stigma. Finally, staff and students emphasised the need to consider the whole school environment in order to address sources of distress such as bullying and teacher-student relationships, but also to increase activities that enhanced emotional health. Conclusion Staff and students identified several ways in which schools can improve their support of adolescent emotional health, both within
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa
Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent.
Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva
Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674
Gustafsson, Per E; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne
While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n = 881, 82% of the original cohort). A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers' assessment of each student's isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health.
Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen
To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.
Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay
At an ungraded, democratically structured school, we documented 196 naturally occurring interaction sequences between adolescents (ages 12-19) and children (ages 4-11) who were at least four years younger than the adolescent. Children and adolescents appeared to be drawn together by common interests and play styles, personal attraction, and…
Uddin Ahamed, Nizam; Taha, Zahari; Alqahtani, Mahdi; Altwijri, Omar; Rahman, Matiur; Deboucha, Abdelhakim
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the amplitude of the EMG signal among five different age groups of adolescent's muscle. Fifteen healthy adolescents participated in this study and they were divided into five age groups (13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 years). Subjects were performed dynamic contraction during lifting a standard weight (3-kg dumbbell) and EMG signals were recorded from their Biceps Brachii (BB) muscle. Two common EMG analysis techniques namely root mean square (RMS) and mean absolute values (MAV) were used to find the differences. The statistical analysis was included: linear regression to examine the relationships between EMG amplitude and age, repeated measures ANOVA to assess differences among the variables, and finally Coefficient of Variation (CoV) for signal steadiness among the groups of subjects during contraction. The result from RMS and MAV analysis shows that the 17-years age groups exhibited higher activity (0.28 and 0.19 mV respectively) compare to other groups (13-Years: 0.26 and 0.17 mV, 14-years: 0.25 and 0.23 mV, 15-Years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV, 16-years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV respectively). Also, this study shows modest correlation between age and signal activities among all age group's muscle. The experiential results can play a pivotal role for developing EMG prosthetic hand controller, neuromuscular system, EMG based rehabilitation aid and movement biomechanics, which may help to separate age groups among the adolescents.
Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K
Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...
Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff
Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.
Blimling, Gregory S.
Why do so many traditionally aged college students engage in inappropriate behaviors, even when they are smart enough to know better? To answer this question, Gregory S. Blimling looks at some of the latest neuroscience research and, in doing so, introduces a new dimension to understanding psychosocial development in college…
Wilson, Julie R.
This dissertation was written in partial fulfillment of the doctoral degree requirements in Counseling Psychology at Capella University. This study was interested in exploring the growing population of nontraditionally aged college students. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that correlated with the academic success of this group…
Perry, Gary F.; Ettarh, Raj R.
Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to…
Ben Moudry has written a comprehensive overview of the current challenges facing parents, schools, administrators, and students regarding what he calls "handheld computers," commonly known as smart phones. His annotated statistics and description of American society in 2015 are frightening in their clarity, while the percentages and…
Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark
This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.
Perry, Gary F; Ettarh, Raj R
Managing a whole body donor program is necessary for facilitating a traditional dissection-based anatomy curriculum in medicine and health sciences. Factors which influence body donations to medical science can therefore affect dissection-based anatomy teaching. In order to determine whether age influences the attitudes of medical students to donations, this study surveyed, by Likert-type questionnaires, first-year graduate-entry medical students attending a dissection-based anatomy course. In contrast to attitudes among younger traditional-entry medical students, initial support for whole body donation by an unrelated stranger (83.8%), a family member (43.2%) or by the respondent (40.5%) did not decrease among graduate-entry medical students after exposure to dissection although there was a significant shift in strength of support for donation by stranger. This suggests that older medical students do not readily modify their pre-established attitudes to the idea of whole body donation after exposure and experience with dissection. Initial ambivalence among respondents to the idea of donation by family member was followed by opposition to this type of donation. These findings demonstrate that age modulates the influences on a priori attitudes to whole body donation that exposure to dissection causes in younger medical students.
Tonkin, Roger S
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275
Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M
The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging.
Wong, Joy; Salili, Farideh; Ho, S. Y.; Mak, K. H.; Lai, M. K.; Lam, T. H.
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the views of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents, parents and teachers on the same adolescent health issues. A total of 22 focus groups were conducted with Form 1 students (aged from 11 to 13) who attended the Basic Life Skills Training program organized by the Student Health Service, Department of Health…
Wu, Jiun-Yu; Hughes, Jan N
We tested the longitudinal measurement invariance of the Teacher Network of Relationships Inventory (TNRI), a teacher-report measure of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), on a sample of 784 academically at-risk students across ages 6 to 15 years by comparing the model for each subsequent year with that of the previous year(s). The TNRI was constructed with 22 items to form 3 correlated factors: Warmth, Conflict, and Intimacy. Cronbach's alphas ranged from .87 to .96 across 9 years. Both metric and scalar measurement invariance held for 9 years, indicating that scores on the TNRI have similar meaning across these ages. The TNRI also demonstrated measurement invariance across gender and race/ethnicity. Findings support that the TNRI is an appropriate measure for investigating substantive issues related to developmental changes in TSRQ from early childhood through adolescence, including gender and ethnic/racial differences in TSRQ across these ages. Based on repeated-measures ANOVAs, each scale decreased across the 9 years, although the growth patterns for scales differed somewhat: Conflict had a linearly decreasing pattern, Warmth declined most notably as students make the transition to adolescence, whereas Intimacy scores dropped off noticeably at the transition from early to late childhood. Research limitations and implications for practice are discussed.
Appanah, Thangi M; Hoffman, Nancy
The authors investigated the impact of the Deaf Student Editing Rubric (DSER) as a self-editing tool on the writing performance of prelingually profoundly deaf adolescent students whose first language is American Sign Language. The DSER was developed by the first author. The study participants included 15 Deaf students in 4 classrooms in grades 7-12. Writing samples were analyzed for all students, and the level of rubric use was assessed. Eight of the students were interviewed about their use of the DSER. Although all students in the sample increased their mean scores in word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions, results indicated that only the interviewed group showed significant improvement in their writing. Students' writing performance indicated that the DSER was most effective when students talked with an adult about their use of the rubric.
Gowen, L. Kris; Feldman, S. Shirley; Diaz, Rafael; Yisrael, Donnovan Somera
Sexual behaviors and attitudes of female adolescents were studied as a function of age of boyfriend. Boyfriend's age was dichotomized: similar-aged was defined as within 2 years of the girls' age; older aged was 3 or more years older than the girl. A school-based, ethnically diverse sample of 9th-grade girls (N = 146) who had been in a serious…
Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13–28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women’s involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024
Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income), WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment), unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities), grade repetition, low school performance (<10/20), and school dropout ideation at 16 years. Data were analyzed using logistic models. Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47%) with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours). Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78%) with further
Dalky, Heyam F; Al Momani, Maysa H; Al-Drabaah, Taghreed Kh; Jarrah, Samiha
The study aimed to assess adolescent patterns of eating habits, determine factors influencing these patterns, and identify male and female differences related to eating habits. Using a cross-sectional study approach, a sample of adolescents (N = 423) in randomly selected clusters chosen from government and private schools in the south of Jordan completed self-administered questionnaires relating to socio-demographic data and personal eating habits. Results showed that parents, peers, and mass media are contributing factors, with peer pressure likely outweighing parental guidance. Males were more likely to be influenced by peers than females, whereas females were more likely to be influenced by media-based advertising. Lower body mass indices correlate with eating breakfast, which a majority of adolescents reported they do not do. Interventions targeted toward improving eating and active behaviors should involve peers as well as parents.
Shaw, Julia T.
This article is based on a multiple embedded case study, the purpose of which was to explore adolescent choral students' perceptions of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) in three demographically contrasting choirs of an urban nonprofit children's choir organization. The case presented here focused on an after-school choir situated in a Puerto…
Borgese, Jolene; Heyler, Dick; Romano, Stephanie
For many secondary students, writing effectively is the most elusive of the critical literacy skills needed for college and career readiness. And for many teachers, revision is the most difficult part of the writing process to tackle. How can adolescent writers be guided to revisit their work, to identify the weaknesses in their writing drafts,…
Kan, Koon Hwee
Drawn from Merleau-Ponty's embodiment theory and Vygotsky's sociocultural learning theory as conceptual framework, this research investigated how Singapore adolescent students accrued and embodied meaning with school art. Combining the methods of microethnographic observations and phenomenological interviews to document the process of artistic…
Mertz, Maia Pank
This study investigated variations in the response to three short stories among adolescents, English teachers, and college students in English education. Adults' responses were correlated with variables such as teaching experience and graduate work. The study also sought to determine if there would be differences in response between high and low…
This essay explores how viewing a single Theatre for Young Audiences production might affect the attitudes, values, and/or beliefs of adolescent spectators. Data is drawn from a mixed-methods case study performed with middle school students who viewed a professional performance for young people, and is considered through the lens of cognitive…
McKnight-Eily, Lela; Arrazola, Rene; Merritt, Robert; Malarcher, Ann; Sirichotiratana, Nithat
This article examines the prevalence of current smoking and associated psychosocial correlates and whether these correlates differ by sex among adolescent students in Thailand. Data were analyzed from the Thailand Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and completed by Mathayom 1, 2, and 3…
Young adolescents are at a critical stage in their schooling. They are consolidating and improving their reading skills. By exploring what supports these 11- to 13-year-old students in reading from a wider systemic perspective, educators and policy-makers can better understand the complex factors which support reading development. This article…
Odongo, Alice Atieno; Aloka, Peter J. O.; Raburu, Pamela
The present study sought to establish the influence of parenting styles on adolescent academic achievement in day secondary schools in North Rachuonyo Sub-County, Kenya. Baumrind's theory of parenting style informed the study. The Concurrent Triangulation Design was used. The target population comprised 2409 day secondary students registered for…
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Wang, Hui-Ting
This study aimed to investigate the adverse personal, family, peer and school situations encountered by adolescent students who had returned to school after being suspended. This was a large-scale study involving a representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 8,494 adolescent students in Southern Taiwan were recruited in the study and completed the questionnaires. The relationships between their experiences of suspension from school and adverse personal, family, peer, and school situations were examined. The results indicated that 178 (2.1%) participants had been suspended from school at some time. Compared with students who had never been suspended, those who had experienced suspension were more likely to report depression, low self-esteem, insomnia, alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, low family support, low family monitoring, high family conflict, habitual alcohol consumption, illicit drug use by family members, low rank and decreased satisfaction in their peer group, having peers with substance use and deviant behaviors, low connectedness to school, and poor academic achievement. These results indicate that adolescent students who have returned to school after suspension encounter numerous adverse situations. The psychological conditions and social contexts of these individuals need to be understood in depth, and intervention programs should be developed to help them to adjust when they return to school and to prevent school dropouts in the future.
Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.
Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…
Emenheiser, David E.
Previous literature suggests that academic achievement and self-concept among adolescents in the general education population are positively related (e.g., Huang, 2011). For students with disabilities, however, the correlation between academic achievement and self-concept is sometimes negative and non-significant (Daniel & King, 1995; Feiwell,…
Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios
We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.
Brown, Stephen L; Coyne, Sarah M; Barlow, Alexandra; Qualter, Pamela
In adults, alcohol-related stimuli prime aggressive responding without ingestion or belief of ingestion. This represents either experiential or socially-and culturally-mediated learning. Using a laboratory-based competitive aggression paradigm, we replicated adult findings in 103 11-14 year old adolescents below the legal UK drinking age. Using a two-independent group design, priming with alcohol-related imagery led participants to deliver louder noise punishments in a competition task than priming with beverage-related images. This effect was stronger in participants scoring low on an internalization measure. Priming effects in relatively alcohol-naïve participants could constitute evidence of socio-cultural transmission of scripts linking alcohol use and aggression. The enhanced effect in lower internalization scorers suggests that alcohol priming might undermine behavioral inhibition processes in otherwise stable adolescents.
Matarazzo, Patrizia; Lala, Roberto; Andreo, Maria; Einaudi, Silvia; Altare, Franco; Viora, Elsa; Buzi, Fabio; De Luca, Filippo; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Rigon, Franco; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; de Sanctis, Luisa; de Sanctis, Carlo
Gonadal hyperfunction is the most frequent endocrine dysfunction in females with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). Peripheral precocious puberty is usually the first MAS manifestation in children, characterized by episodes of hypersecretion of estrogens with a consequent reduction in gonadotropin secretion. Little is known about the course of this endocrine disease in adolescence and during young adult life. The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian function in 10 females with MAS (age 11.4-20.1 years) to detect the persistence of autonomous ovarian hyperfunction throughout and following adolescence, after at least 1 year wash out of any treatment for precocious puberty. LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactin, androgen secretion, ovarian and breast sonography in luteal and follicular phases of some menstrual cycles were evaluated. We demonstrated the persistence of some ovarian autonomy, documented by hyperestrogenism and/or low or absent gonadotropin secretion and/or ovarian cysts.
Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael
Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.
Zhang, Fengying; Zhao, Li; Feng, Xianqiong; Hu, Xiuying
To investigate adolescent students' self-rated health status and to identify the influencing factors that affect students' health status. A stratified cluster sampling method and the Self-assessed General Health Questionnaires were used to enroll 503 adolescent students from Sichuan Province, Southwest part of China. Most adolescent students perceived their self-rated health as “Fair” (29.4%), “Good” (52.1%), or “Very Good” (16.3%). Regarding the sleep quality, most of them rated them as “Fair” (24.9%), “Good” (43.1%), or “Very Good” (19.7%), but 59.7% students reported to sleep less than 8 hours a day, even a few reported to sleep less than 6 hours (4.4%) or more than 9 hours (9.7%). A considerable number of students (41.1%) reported that they “Never” or just “Occasionally” participated in appropriate sports or exercises. As to the dietary habit, a significant number of students (15.7%) reported that they “Never” or “Occasionally” have breakfast. Students from different administrative levels of schools (municipal level, county level, and township level) rated differently (P < 0.05) in terms of their self-rated health, Health Behaviors, Sleeping, Dietary behaviors, Safety Awareness, and Drinking and Smoking behaviors. In general, Chinese teenage students perceived their own health status as fairly good. However, attention needs to be paid to health problems of some of the students, such as lack of sleep and exercise and inadequate dietary habits, etc. More concerns need to be addressed to students from different administrative levels of schools, and strategies should be put forward accordingly. PMID:27058576
Background Sex trafficking has been a long-standing concern in Nepal. Very little has been achieved, however, in terms of actual reduction in the number of victims despite numerous anti-sex trafficking programs. This situation may be attributable to a lack of empirical evidence upon which to formulate anti-sexual trafficking interventions. This study aimed to assess sex trafficking-related knowledge, awareness and attitudes, and factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns among adolescent female students in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between August–September 2013 among 292 adolescent female students (>10 years old) using systematic random sampling from three high schools in Sindhupalchowk district, Nepal. As an initial step, descriptive analyses were employed to characterize the data and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to explore factors associated with sex trafficking awareness and related attitudes. Results Seventy-six percent of sampled students reported that they were aware of sex trafficking and 94.6% indicated media (i.e., radio or television) as the primary sources of their knowledge. Fifty-one percent mentioned relatives/friends as mediators of sex trafficking, 60.4% reported promise for better jobs as the primary attraction behind sex trafficking, and 48.6% mentioned adolescent females as the most vulnerable group for sex trafficking. Over half (56.8%) of the respondents had positive attitudes towards the victims of sex trafficking and/or anti-sex trafficking campaigns. Age (OR = 3.38, 95% CI:2.51–4.55), parents’ occupation (OR = 3.89, 95% CI:1.58–9.58), and having a radio/TV at home (OR = 6.67, 95% CI:3.99–9.54) were significantly associated with awareness, whereas being younger (OR = 0.67, 95% CI:0.55–0.79) and having joint-family (OR = 2.67, 95% CI:1.49–4.80) were significantly associated with
O'Hanlon, Ann M.; And Others
Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz, Knowledge of Aging and the Elderly scale, and Aging Semantic Differential were completed by 387 college students aged 17-85. Knowledge scores were not related to measures of attitudes toward older adults. Older students had higher knowledge scores and more positive attitudes. (SK)
Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P
Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD.
Henry, Kimberly L; McDonald, James N; Oetting, Eugene R; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Beauvais, Fred
The objective was to assess the effect of early onset intoxication on subsequent alcohol involvement among urban American Indian youth. The data come from the American Indian Research (AIR) project, a panel study of urban Indian youth residing in King County, Washington. Data were collected annually from the adolescent and his/her primary caregiver from the 1988-89 school year to the 1996-97 school year, providing a total of nine waves of data. Early intoxication (by age 14) was related to delinquency, family history of alcohol abuse or dependence, poverty, broken family structure, less family cohesiveness, and more family conflict. The effects of these characteristics were, therefore, partialed out in testing effects of early intoxication on later alcohol involvement. Two-part latent growth models of alcohol use and alcohol problems were specified. Effects of early onset intoxication on these trajectories, as well as lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence by the transition to young adulthood, were examined. Findings indicate that adolescents who experienced their first intoxication early (by age 14), used alcohol more heavily from the ages of 16 to 18, experienced more problems related to the alcohol's use from the ages of 16 to 18, and were more likely to have a diagnosed alcohol disorder by the final wave of data collection. Congruent with similar studies in the general population, early intoxication appears to be associated with a deleterious course of alcohol involvement during adolescence and into the transition to young adulthood among urban American Indian youth. Implications for prevention are discussed.
The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:26437423
Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in adolescents using three different definitions for this age group. The evaluated sample consisted of 718 male and 743 female adolescents. Definitions by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al. and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for adolescents were used to estimate the prevalence of MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 8.5, 2.5 and 1.2% by de Ferranti et al., Cook et al. and IDF definitions, respectively. High fasting glucose component had the lower prevalence whereas high triglycerides levels component was the most prevalent. In obese adolescents, the prevalence of MetS was higher. MetS classification in adolescents strongly depends on the definition chosen. Further research is required for the evaluation of the current definitions (multicentric studies), and for addition or design of new and useful criteria.
Baker, Fiona C.; Willoughby, Adrian R.; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Franzen, Peter L.; Prouty, Devin; Javitz, Harold; Hasler, Brant; Clark, Duncan B.; Colrain, Ian M.
Study Objectives: To investigate age-related differences in polysomnographic and sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, considering sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, and scalp topography in a large group of adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA). Methods: Following an adaptation/clinical screening night, 141 healthy adolescents (12–21 y, 64 girls) had polysomnographic recordings, from which sleep staging and EEG measures were derived. The setting was the SRI International Human Sleep Laboratory and University of Pittsburgh Pediatric Sleep Laboratory. Results: Older age was associated with a lower percentage of N3 sleep, accompanied by higher percentages of N2, N1, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Older boys compared with younger boys had more frequent awakenings and wakefulness after sleep onset, effects that were absent in girls. Delta (0.3–4 Hz) EEG power in nonrapid eye movement NREM sleep was lower in older than younger adolescents at all electrode sites, with steeper slopes of decline over the occipital scalp. EEG power in higher frequency bands was also lower in older adolescents than younger adolescents, with equal effects across electrodes. Percent delta power in the first NREM period was similar across age. African Americans had lower EEG power across frequency bands (delta to sigma) compared with Caucasians. Finally, replacing age with pubertal status in the models showed similar relationships. Conclusions: Substantial differences in sleep architecture and EEG were evident across adolescence in this large group, with sex modifying some relationships. Establishment and follow-up of this cohort allows the investigation of sleep EEG-brain structural relationships and the effect of behaviors, such as alcohol and substance use, on sleep EEG maturation. Citation: Baker FC, Willoughby AR, de Zambotti M, Franzen PL, Prouty D, Javitz H, Hasler B, Clark DB, Colrain IM. Age-related differences in
Graham, Steve; Perin, Dolores
There is considerable concern that the majority of adolescents do not develop the competence in writing they need to be successful in school, the workplace, or their personal lives. A common explanation for why youngsters do not write well is that schools do not do a good job of teaching this complex skill. In an effort to identify effective…
van Goethem, Anne A J; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A G; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio
The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues and thinking about public responsibility towards these issues. In turn, moral understanding, along with being personally committed to act upon moral issues, were positively associated with identity. Extending the number of identity contexts tended to be related to being more likely to volunteer and to more volunteering involvement. Adolescents' identity integration was not related to how likely they were to volunteer, and was negatively related to their volunteering involvement. Clearer effects were found when differentiating between adolescent gender and age groups. Future research could examine this process over time, along with additional factors that may further explain adolescents' volunteering, and examine their age and gender specific effects.
Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; de Paiva, Haroldo Neves; de Oliveira Filho, Paulo Messias; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria
Objectives Social capital has been studied due to its contextual influence on health. However, no specific assessment tool has been developed and validated for the measurement of social capital among 12-year-old adolescent students. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a quick, simple assessment tool to measure social capital among adolescent students. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on a review of relevant literature. For such, searches were made of the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, International Database for Medical Literature and PubMed Central bibliographical databases from September 2011 to January 2014 for papers addressing assessment tools for the evaluation of social capital. Focus groups were also formed by adolescent students as well as health, educational and social professionals. The final assessment tool was administered to a convenience sample from two public schools (79 students) and one private school (22 students), comprising a final sample of 101 students. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using the Kappa coefficient and Cronbach's alpha coefficient, respectively. Content validity was determined by expert consensus as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results The final version of the questionnaire was made up of 12 items. The total scale demonstrated very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.71). Reproducibility was also very good, as the Kappa coefficient was higher than 0.72 for the majority of items (range: 0.63 to 0.97). Factor analysis grouped the 12 items into four subscales: School Social Cohesion, School Friendships, Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Trust (school and neighborhood). Conclusions The present findings indicate the validity and reliability of the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students. PMID:25093409
Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend
Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with
Ophir, Yaakov; Rosenberg, Hananel; Asterhan, Christa S C; Schwarz, Baruch B
Exposure to war is associated with psychological disturbances, but ongoing communication between adolescents and teachers may contribute to adolescents' resilience. This study examined the extent and nature of teacher-student communication on Social Network Sites (SNS) during the 2014 Israel-Gaza war. Israeli adolescents (N = 208, 13-18 yrs) completed information about SNS communication. A subset of these (N = 145) completed questionnaires on social rejection and distress sharing on SNS. More than a half (56%) of the respondents communicated with teachers via SNS. The main content category was 'emotional support'. Adolescents' perceived benefits from SNS communication with teachers were associated with distress sharing. Social rejection was negatively associated with emotional support and perceived benefits from SNS communication. We conclude that SNS communication between teachers and students may provide students with easy access to human connections and emotional support, which is likely to contribute to adolescents' resilience in times of war.
Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J
This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent offending in adolescence. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, undercontrolled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26 years, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most elevated on psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 years were less extreme but elevated on impulsive personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offenses. A third group of men who had been aggressive as children but not very delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offenders who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings support the theory of life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.
Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron
Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.
Maxwell, Lesli A.
This article reports on how the current must-have tools of adolescent social networks--cell phone text messaging, Web sites such as MySpace and Facebook, and e-mail--are being used by teachers and other school employees who prey on students to foster inappropriate relationships and perpetrate abuse. When the sexual abuse of students by educators…
López Larrosa, Silvia; Rodríguez-Arias Palomo, José Luis
Adolescents' drug use has huge social and personal implications, so it is essential to identify risk and protective factors. In this research, the CTCYS was used with 2440 adolescents to detect risk and protective factors for drug use in the community, family, school and peers/individual; differences in risk and protective factors by age and sex; and relationships between risk and protective factors and substance use. Protective factors are high. Risk factors are high in the community, the school and the individual. Older adolescents have more risks and less protection than the youngest; and there are sex differences, because males have less protection and more risks. The risk factors more closely related to drug use are availability of drugs in the community, family attitudes favourable to drug use, family history of antisocial behaviour, early start and use of drugs by friends, perceived risk and attitudes favourable to drug use. In the protective factors, the role played by social skills for alcohol use is important.
Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and
Onyewadume, Mary Adeola
This research investigated the incidence of HIV/AIDS anxiety among students in Botswana. The sample comprised 240 randomly selected students from six schools in three districts in Botswana, with data collected via a questionnaire. Percentages and Chi-square were used to analyze the extent to which the students were anxious about HIV/AIDS and if…
Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J
Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6–17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119
Ellerbock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.
Young adolescents have unique basic and developmental needs. Middle level educators are best able to reach and teach young adolescents when they understand students' needs and when the school environment, including its organizational structures and teacher practices, are responsive to these needs. Findings from a recently conducted qualitative…
Saunders, Stephen Allan
The lack of academic success by American adolescents has been of grave concern for both researchers and practitioners for many decades. While many American adolescents struggle in school, some students are at a greater risk than their peers based on personal characteristics such as race, socioeconomic status, and motivation. The low levels of…
Akanbi, Muritala Ishola; Augustina, Godwin; Theophilus, Anyio Bahago; Muritala, Muhammad; Ajiboye, Ajiboye Stephen
The study investigated the impact of substance abuse on adolescent on academic performance in colleges of education in Kwara State. The design used for the study was the survey. A sample of 150 adolescent students was randomly selected form selected departments in three colleges of education in the State. A validated instrument, Drug Habit…
Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea
This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…
This study examined how a sample of pre-university Singaporean adolescents (N=212) with an average age of 17 years 5 months attending a variety of junior colleges perceived and managed different sources of stress. Measures of stress included Behavior Profile, Life Events, School Stress Factors, Home-School Stress Conditions and Stress Symptoms.…
Pugliese, John A; Okun, Morris A
In the context of a model of health-related social control, we compared the associations among social control strategies, affective and behavioral reactions, and exercise for parental and peer influence agents. Late adolescent college students (n = 227) completed questionnaires that focused on social control from a parent or a peer who attempted to increase their exercising. Results from this cross-sectional study revealed that most relationships in the model were similar for parent and peer influence agents, however, (a) negative social control was a stronger predictor of reactance among parents than peers; (b) positive affect was a stronger predictor of attempts to change among peers than parents; and (c) positive affect predicted frequency of strenuous exercise only among parents. Decreasing parents' use of negative social control strategies and increasing adolescents' positive affective reactions to parental social control agents may be keys to promoting positive lifestyle changes in late adolescence.
Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari
Both sleep problems and depression are common problems in adolescence, but well-defined large epidemiological studies on the relationship are missing in this age group. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depression and several sleep parameters, including insomnia, in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-18 years, and to explore potential gender differences. A large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study, surveyed 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls) about sleep and depression. The sleep assessment included measures of the basic sleep parameters for weekdays and weekends. Depression was defined as scoring above the 90th percentile on the total score of Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). There was a large overlap between insomnia and depression in both genders and across depressive symptoms. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly shorter sleep duration and time in bed as well as significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Adolescents with insomnia had a 4- to 5-fold increased odds of depression compared to good sleepers. There was also a significant interaction between insomnia, sleep duration and depression, with a more than eightfold increase in odds of depression for those who met criteria for insomnia and who slept <6 h. These associations held for both genders, but were stronger in boys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to investigate sleep and insomnia in relation to depression among adolescents. The findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems and depression as a major public health issue.
Scharf, Sebastian H; Sterlemann, Vera; Liebl, Claudia; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V
Exposure to chronic stress during developmental periods is a risk factor for a number of psychiatric disorders. While the direct effects of stress exposure have been studied extensively, little is known about the long-lasting effects and the interaction with ageing. The same holds true for the treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which have been shown to prevent or reverse some stress-induced effects. Here, we studied the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence and the impact of chronic treatment with the SSRI paroxetine in adulthood and aged animals. Therefore, male CD1 mice at the age of 28 days were subjected to 7 weeks of chronic social stress. Treatment with paroxetine was performed per os with a dosage of 20 mg/g BW. We were able to reverse most of the effects of chronic social stress in adult mice (4 months old) and to some extend in aged animals (15 months old) with the SSRI treatment. Especially the regulation of the HPA axis seems to be affected in aged mice with a shift to the use of vasopressin. Our results demonstrate that chronic stress exposure and antidepressant treatment at the end of the developmental period can have a significant and long-lasting impact, highly relevant for healthy ageing.
Describes a successful cross-age tutoring experience in which a senior high school student with considerable reading difficulties tutored an eighth-grade learning-disabled student, resulting in improved reading skills and attitudes for both students. (SR)
Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Khandaker, Hameda; Villafane, Joseph J; Frankfurt, Maya
Bisphenol-A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. We recently showed that low dose BPA exposure during adolescence increases anxiety and impairs spatial memory independent of sex. In this study, six week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 males, n=24 females) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg bodyweight) of BPA or vehicle for one week. Serum corticosterone levels in response to a 1 h restraint stress and spine density were examined at age 7 (cohort 1) and 11 (cohort 2) weeks. Adolescent BPA exposure did not alter stress dependent corticosterone responses but decreased spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal CA1 region (CA1). Sex differences in spine density were observed on basal dendrites of the mPFC and CA1 with females having greater spine density than males. This sex difference was further augmented by both age and treatment, with results indicating that BPA-dependent decreases in spine density were more pronounced in males than females on mPFC basal dendrites. Importantly, the robust neuronal alterations were observed in animals exposed to BPA levels below the current U.S.E.P.A. recommended safe daily limit. These results are the first demonstrating that BPA given during adolescence leads to enduring effects on neural morphology at adulthood. Given that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of BPA through a variety of sources, the decreased spine density reported in both male and female rats after BPA exposure warrants further investigation.
Kumar, Naganandini Samapth; Eshwar, Shruthi; Deolia, Shravani
Introduction Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. Aim To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1000 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Six government and six private first grade colleges were selected by multi-stage random sampling. Cognitive ability was assessed using digit symbol substitution test and digit span test. Dental caries and periodontal status were recorded by extent of bleeding, presence of calculus, periodontal pockets, loss of attachments using Community Periodontal Index, decayed, missing and filled teeth surfaces using Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth and Surfaces Index. SES status was assessed using Kuppuswamy scale. Chi-square test was used to check the association of cognitive ability with oral health indicators and SES status. Regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of cognitive ability on oral health indicators after adjusting for SES and effect of SES status on oral health indicators after adjusting for indicators of cognitive ability. Results Significant association and negative correlation between cognitive ability and indicators for oral health was seen in the regression models. Cognitive ability attributed for nearly 30% changes in the indicators for oral health after adjusting for SES and SES attributed for nearly 25% variance in indicators for oral health after adjusting for cognitive ability. Conclusion There is a potential role of cognitive ability in
Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non
Christian, Maria E.
This study investigated how students over the age of 30--nontraditional students--performed in the university setting compared to traditional students (under age 30). Overall classroom performance was evaluated by teacher-made assessments for the two groups of students, who were enrolled in an undergraduate technical writing course during the…
Karlin, Nancy J.; Emick, Jessica; Mehls, Elizabeth Emick; Murry, Francie R.
This study considered two types of age discrimination (youth and elder) and related scale scores for 108 psychology students and 81 nursing students. The current study found that although the nursing students had a significantly larger number of courses related to aging, both nursing and psychology students reported low levels of age…
Yanci, Javier; Los Arcos, Asier; Grande, Ignacio; Gil, Eneko; Cámara, Jesús
The purposes of the study were to assess sprinting and agility performance characteristics and to determine the relationship between these two motor skills in elementary education students. Sprinting and agility performance were assessed in 176 children (88 boys and 88 girls) divided into three groups: Group 1 (G1, N = 98; 48 boys and 50 girls), from the first year of elementary education; Group 2 (G2, N = 38; 15 boys and 23 girls), from the second year of elementary education; Group 3 (G3, N = 40; 25 boys and 15 girls), from the third year of elementary education. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were found in agility ability among the groups and between G1-G3 and G2-G3 in the 5 and 15 m sprint. Regarding gender of the students of the same age, significant differences (p < 0.001) between boys and girls in group G1 and G2 were obtained in the 5 and 15 m sprint. The correlation between agility and acceleration was significant but moderate (0.3 < r < 0.7) in all groups (G1, G2, and G3), in most cases. When the gender factor was included, the results were heterogeneous. Assessing this correlation according to age and gender produced heterogeneous results. For this reason, we think that both are independent qualities and that age and gender are two factors that influence the correlation results.
Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.
Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662
Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Yagelski, Robert; Yu, Fang
This study examined the nature and frequency of error in high school native English speaker (L1) and English learner (L2) writing. Four main research questions were addressed: Are there significant differences in students' error rates in English language arts (ELA) and social studies? Do the most common errors made by students differ in ELA…
Gnagey, William J.
This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study of the motivational profiles of 524 students from grade 7 through the freshman year in college. A new Motivation Inventory was administered to all students. This instrument measures six classes of needs referred to by Abraham Maslow as physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem,…
Nunez, Jose Carlos; Gonzalez-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Rodriguez, Celestino; Valle, Antonio; Gonzalez-Cabanach, Ramon; Rosario, Pedro
In the present work, the hypothesis of the existence of diverse motivational profiles in students with learning difficulties (LD) and the differential implications for intervention in the classroom are analyzed. Various assessment scales (academic goals, self-concept, and causal attributions) were administered to a sample of 259 students with LD,…
Medina, Catherine; Luna, Gaye
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among school-aged students between the ages of 15 and 19. There is an increasing frequency of suicide and other self-destructive behaviors among Mexican American youth and students in special education classrooms for emotional and behavioral disabilities. Recognizing Mexican American youth in special…
House, J D
The relationship between achievement-related expectancies, academic self-concept, and mathematics performance of 191 academically underprepared adolescent students was examined. After the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, a significant main effect for academic self-concept was found; as expected, students with higher academic self-concept earned significantly higher mathematics grades. In addition, after the effects of prior achievement were controlled for, female students were found to earn significantly higher mathematics grades than did male students. A significant three-way (Sex x Ethnic Group x Achievement-Related Expectancies) interaction was also noted. Unlike in several previous studies, no significant racial differences in mathematics performance were found. These students had a similar socioeconomic status (SES), and the effects of prior academic achievement were controlled for, suggesting that racial and gender differences in mathematics achievement may be partially explained by prior schooling and SES background, as posited by Reyes and Stanic (1988).
Torres, Vasti; Gross, Jacob P. K.; Dadashova, Afet
Using survey information from undergraduate students who work while attending two urban commuter institutions in Indiana, this study explores evidence that on average undergraduates under 21 years of age worked more than 31 hours a week while also enrolled in a full course load. The findings in this study indicate that grade point average and…
Galanter, C A; Wasserman, G; Sloan, R P; Pine, D S
Developmental changes in the cardiovascular system could have an impact on risks associated with psychopharmacological interventions. Children may be more vulnerable to adverse cardiac events due to immaturity in autonomic control of the heart. These changes are incompletely understood and are characterized in this study. A consecutive series of 70 boys, aged 6-14 years, was recruited. Developmental variation in the autonomic nervous system was evaluated by assessing heart period variability (HPV), pulse, and blood pressure in response to orthostasis. Increased age correlated significantly with greater heart rate and diastolic blood pressure response to orthostasis. HPV at rest and in response to tilt did not significantly correlate with age. Boys with family histories of hypertension had a significantly greater blood pressure response to orthostasis. These findings suggest that developmental age-related changes in the sympathetic nervous system, as reflected by changes of pulse and blood pressure response to tilt, occur across this age range. Parasympathetic changes, as reflected by HPV, do not. In light of these findings, more research is needed on children's and adolescents' relative cardiac risk with psychotropic medications as opposed to adults'.
Yang, M S; Su, I H; Wen, J K; Ko, Y C
The prevalence and related risk factors of betel quid chewing among adolescent students were studied in a junior high school (group 1) and in a vocational school (group 2) in southern Taiwan. Group 1 consisted of 3548 participants (89.7% response rate) and group 2 of 1358 (97.6% response rate). The students were asked to complete a questionnaire anonymously. In the junior high school 1.9% of students including all grades (13-15 years old) and both sexes was found to be a current betel quid chewer and 14% was an ex-chewer, whereas 10.2% of vocational school students (16-18 years old) was a current chewer and 31% was an ex-chewer. The prevalence of betel chewing was significantly higher among boys than girls. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and alcohol drinker. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that male students who smoked tobacco, consumed alcohol and were friends or classmates of students who were betel quid chewers, were the likeliest adolescents to chew betel quid.
Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira; Muroya, Renata de Lima
This study aims to analyze the degree of knowledge adolescents have on STD/AIDS prevention, transmission, signs, and symptoms, and to contribute with the elaboration of educational actions in the University Extension Program called Corporality and Health Promotion. The research counted on 1,087 adolescents (40% females, 60% males) and was carried out in three elementary and high schools located in the municipality of Embu. A structured, multiple choice questionnaire was applied. Data indicated the achievement of the following results: as per the prevention, 92% of girls and 78% of boys referred to the use of condoms, while 42% of girls and 43% of boys affirmed to wash their genitalia after the sexual relation; 75% females and 52% males quoted television as their source of information. As per the knowledge of STD, girls and boys indicated not to have much information on the issue. Regarding STD healing programs, 57% females and 71% males affirmed not to have any knowledge on the issue; 5% of girls and 6% of boys thought AIDS to be curable. In a general perspective, we can conclude that girls were more familiar with the study's issues than boys.
Yang, Mu-Li; Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Chiou, Wen-Bin
Past studies suggest that the adaptive or maladaptive consequences of inflated self-estimate, one form of positive illusions, require further investigation. 308 freshmen at a junior college (164 women, 144 men; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.1) participated in a longitudinal study during a 2-yr. period. There were three assessments of short- and long-term effects of overly positive self-estimates on second-language achievement. Students' overestimation of subsequent performance appears to be associated with lower achievement. Those students with apparently inflated self-estimates performed marginally better on the first assessment but worse in the second and final assessments. Students with more accurate self-estimates showed improvement on all assessments. The findings suggested that overinflated self-estimates, i.e., positive illusions, among adolescent students might lead to a lower achievement over the long-term.
This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…
Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.
This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641
Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M
This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.
Background In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. Methods This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12–18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants’ mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants’ mental health status. Results In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Conclusions Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand’s Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized
Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M
This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and
Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min
Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357
Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min
Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.
Omidi, Razieh; Heidari, Kamal; Davari, Hossein; Espanani, Morteza; Poursalehi, Mojtaba; Naeini, Shokooh Eghtedari; Rastkerdar, Zeinabsadat; Azizi, Amir; Zakizadeh, Mohammadreza
Background: Violence is a global issue that has received considerable attention during recent years. Available research has suggested various factors, mostly family and social factors, to possibly affect violence. As previous studies have not examined the relationship between these factors and violent behaviors in adolescents, this study aimed to assess the relationship between environmental factors and violence in adolescents. Methods: This descriptive, correlational research used cluster sampling to select 5500 adolescent students from Isfahan Province (Iran). Data were collected through a 21-item researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was modified according to the relevant experts’ opinions and had Cronbach's alpha of 0.82. The collected data were analyzed by applying multiple regression analysis in SPSS (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Most participants (89.1%) lived in urban areas and about half (49.8%) of them were female. Linear regression test showed violent behaviors to have significant, inverse relationships with love and affection in the family (β = −0.097; P < 0.001) and watching drama and comedy movies (β = −0.128; P < 0.001 and β = −0.032; P = 0.030, respectively). There were significant, direct relationships between violent behaviors in adolescents and aggressive behaviors in the family (β =0.099; P < 0.001) and watching crime, police, and action movies (β =0.129; P < 0.001, detective movies β =0.043; P < 0.001, and β =0.061; P < 0.001, respectively). However, the incidence of violent behaviors was not significantly related with the effects of peers and presence of sports facilities. Conclusions: Our findings confirmed love and affection and healthy pastime (e.g. watching comedy and drama movies) in the family to reduce violent behaviors in adolescents. In contrast, aggressive behaviors in the family, watching crime, police, and action movies were found to increase violent behaviors in adolescents. PMID:26157573
Cohall, A; Kassotis, J; Parks, R; Vaughan, R; Bannister, H; Northridge, M
The purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the extent of knowledge possessed by young people residing in an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) and AIDS epicenter about STDs, including AIDS; and to determine whether knowledge levels varied by age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and/or previous health instruction. A total of 867 adolescents (472 females and 395 males) attending a large public high school in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Levels of knowledge about AIDS transmission and prevention were high (mean percentage correct = 91.8%). Nonetheless, adolescent respondents locked awareness about the prevalence of common STDs, had limited understanding of the ways in which these diseases can be transmitted and prevented, and were unaware of potentially serious sequelae resulting from exposure to infectious agents (e.g., infertility from chlamydial infections). Young people who had taken a health education course in which STDs were discussed did slightly better on the knowledge survey than did their peers. While the prevention of HIV infection is, and should be, a national priority, more concerted efforts are needed to better educate young people about other STDs in the overall context of sexual health.
de Minzi, Maria Cristina Richaud; Sacchi, Carla
The aim of the present work was to develop a loneliness scale for adolescents in order to assess their perceptions of the quality of their relationships with parents and peers. The scale was administered to 1,233 Argentine secondary school students, aged 13-16 years. Factor analyses (principal axes, oblimin solution) were conducted. Four factors…
Brown, P Margaret; Cornes, Andrew
This study investigated the mental health problems of 89 deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) adolescents in New South Wales, Tasmania, and Western Australia. Participants completed the written (for oral students) or signed version for competent Australian Sign Language (Auslan) users version of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Students were educated in a range of educational settings, had varying degrees of hearing loss, and used a range of communication modes. Results showed that, overall, DHH students reported increased levels of mental health problems compared with hearing peers. The broadband syndromes were more than 3 times more likely to be reported, while the narrowband syndromes were between 2 and 7 times more likely. A binary logistic regression analysis showed that the language used at home was a significant predictor of mental health problems. The implications of these findings for the social, emotional, and mental well-being of DHH students and the training of professionals are discussed.
Gerber, Markus; Feldmeth, Anne Karina; Lang, Christin; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe
Past research has shown that higher stress is associated with increased burnout symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test whether mental toughness protects against symptoms of burnout and whether mental toughness moderates the relationship between perceived stress and burnout over time. Fifty-four vocational students (M age = 18.1 yr., SD = 1.2; 27 males, 27 females) completed self-report questionnaires twice, 10 mo. apart. Perceived stress, mental toughness, and burnout were measured using the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ), the Mental Toughness Questionnaire (MTQ), and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure (SMBM). Students who perceived higher stress and lower mental toughness scores reported higher burnout symptoms. Although no significant interaction effects were found between stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout, the graphical inspection of the interactions indicated that among students with high stress, those with high mental toughness remained below the cutoff for mild burnout, whereas an increase in burnout symptoms was observable among peers with low mental toughness.
van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.
Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…
Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…
McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kover, Sara; Kim, Jee-Seon; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted
The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, we found statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and…
Kuo, Ben C. H.; Roysircar, Gargi
In a sample of 506 Chinese adolescents living in Canada from 3 cohort groups, age at the time of arrival in Canada, length of stay in Canada, socioeconomic status, and English reading ability predicted acculturation. The results of the study discussed in this article showed English reading ability and socioeconomic status predicted acculturative…
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Courville, Troy
This article examines invariance of the three-factor structure of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents across age band and gender within normative samples. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the three-factor model fits for all groups. In addition, invariance analysis shows no statistical differences in factor structure between…
Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.
Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…
Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…
Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.
Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…
Boyer, Susan J.; Bishop, Penny A.
Interdisciplinary teaming in middle schools has increased dramatically over the past few decades (McEwin, Dickinson & Jensen, 2003); nevertheless, students have rarely been consulted as important sources of insight into this practice (Dickinson & Erb, 1997) of two or more teachers sharing the responsibility for instruction, curriculum, and…
Sung, Yao-Ting; Chao, Tzu-Yang
The tools used for measuring examination stress have three main limitations: sample selected, sample sizes, and measurement contents. In this study, we constructed the Examination Stress Scale (ExamSS), and 4,717 high school students participated in this research. The results indicate that ExamSS has satisfactory reliability, construct validity,…
Li, Jia; Snow, Catherine; White, Claire
Modern teens have pervasively integrated new technologies into their lives, and technology has become an important component of teen popular culture. Educators have pointed out the promise of exploiting technology to enhance students' language and literacy skills and general academic success. However, there is no consensus on the effect of…
Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In addition to differences for the various operationalizations of prejudice, detailed findings revealed different age-related changes in prejudice toward higher versus lower status out-groups and positive effects of contact opportunities with the out-group on prejudice development. Results confirm that prejudice changes systematically with age during childhood but that no developmental trend is found in adolescence, indicating the stronger influence of the social context on prejudice with increasing age.
Lapointe, Judith M.; Legault, Frederic; Batiste, Seth J.
This study examined student perceptions of teacher behavior in three motivational variables (self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic value, and test anxiety in mathematics) for adolescents enrolled in three distinct schooling tracks. Questionnaires were administered to 111 learning disabled (LD), 224 average (AV) and 258 talented students (TA). Some…
Yablon, Yaacov Boaz; Addington, Lynn A.
While previous research suggests that students feel safe at school, little attention has been given to studying adolescent feelings of safety in various locations. Such direct comparisons would provide a context for evaluating and better understanding students' perceptions of safety at school. The present study examines this issue by comparing…
Shukla, Aditya N.; El-Hanafy, Mohammad Ghanim
To ascertain the educational, occupational and social aspirations, attitudes and motivation-structure of Iraqi adolescent girl students, a questionnaire was distributed to 137 randomly-selected students from 2 colleges at the University of Mosul. Respondents were predominantly urban-oriented, dormitory residents, unmarried, average in scholastic…
Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…
Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.
David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266
Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael
Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…
Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.
Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…
He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.
Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775
Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Osika, Walter; Bihagen, Erik; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott
It is unclear whether psychological resilience to stress in adolescence represents a persistent characteristic relevant to the subsequent risk for depression and anxiety in later adulthood. We aimed to test whether low psychological stress resilience assessed in adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving medication for depression and anxiety in middle age. We utilized Swedish register-based cohort study. Men born between 1952 and 1956 (n = 175,699), who underwent compulsory assessment for military conscription in late adolescence were followed to examine subsequent risk of pharmaceutically-treated depression and anxiety in middle age, from 2006 to 2009 corresponding to ages between 50 and 58 years, using Cox regression. The associations of stress resilience with prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytics medication through potential mediating factors cognitive and physical function and adult socioeconomic factors were calculated. Low stress resilience was associated with elevated risks for antidepressant (hazard ratio (HR):1.5 (95% CI 1.4 1.6)) and anxiolytics (HR:2.4 (CI 2.0 2.7)) medication. Adjustment for measures of childhood living circumstances attenuated the associations somewhat. Around a third of association with low stress resilience, and a half of that with moderate resilience, was mediated through cognitive and physical function in adolescence and adult socioeconomic factors. The magnitude of the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication was eliminated among those with low stress resilience. These results indicate that low stress resilience in adolescence is associated with an increased risk for antidepressant and anxiolytics medication over 30 years later, in part mediated through developmental factors in adolescence and socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood, and low stress resilience can diminish or eliminate the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant
Köroglu, Mihraç; Yigiter, Korkmaz
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the swimming training program on stress levels of the students ages 11-13. To this end, 60 students from Private Sahin School in the Sakarya city participated in the study voluntarily. 60 students were divided into two groups and each group was included 30 students. Stress Level Scale II…
Stone, C A
A group of 26 adolescents with learning disabilities (Grades 9 through 12), their parents, and their special education teachers were asked to rate the students' skills in each of 21 specific areas covering general ability, oral language, reading, written language, math, study skills, motivation, social skills, attention, and nonverbal skills. Correspondences in the absolute and relative ratings of parents, teachers, and students across the 21 skill areas were examined. The parents' ratings were consistent with those of the teachers in 16 areas and significantly lower than the teachers in 5 areas. The students' ratings were generally higher than those of their parents and teachers. The student-teacher differences were significant in 6 areas, whereas the student-parent differences were significant in 11 areas. Although generally lower in absolute terms than the ratings of their children, the parents' relative ratings were strikingly parallel to their children's ratings across skill areas (r = 80). Differences in the reference groups used for the ratings did not seem to account for the discrepant ratings. Possible implications of the differing perceptions of students' learning disabilities for students' self-esteem and academic progress are discussed.
Monahan, Janean Carter
A surgical experience can be stressful for any patient. When the patient is an adolescent, however, the surgical experience can create significant stress, which is related to normal adolescent development. Perioperative nursing care should address what adolescent patients perceive as stressful and should provide a safe environment so that a successful surgical outcome can be achieved. To accomplish this, a nursing model specific to perioperative nursing practice should be developed to guide nurses when providing care to adolescents. The Adolescent Perioperative System Stability Model based on the Neuman Systems Model provides a framework for defining scope of practice and organizing nursing care that is appropriate for the adolescent during a surgical experience. In addition to guiding nursing practice, this model provides direction and guidance for future studies of adolescents in the perioperative setting.
Latha, K. S.; Hegde, Supriya; Bhat, S. M.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.; Rai, Pooja
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine whether Body Mass Index (BMI) and the subjective perception of body weight, and body shape satisfaction predict level of self-esteem and depression among female college students. Method: The sample comprised of 124 female college students ranging in age from 16-21 years. Self perception of…
Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford
We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.
Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J
The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.
Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford
Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149
Correia, Divanise S; Cavalcante, Jairo C; Maia, Eulália M C
The purpose of this study was to analyze risk factors for abortion among female teenagers from 12 to 19 years of age in the city of Maceió, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted in ten schools. The sample was calculated by considering the number of admissions for postabortion curettage, obtained from the Information System of Hospitalization. Data were obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire divided into three basic blocks of data: sociodemographic, sexual life, and pregnancy/abortion. To analyze the data, the logistic regression model was used. The Forward Method was chosen to set the final model that minimizes the number of variables and maximizes the accuracy of the model. The significant analysis between the dichotomous variables provided eight significant variables. Two of them are protective for abortion: the ages 12-14 years and talking with parents about sex. After the logistic regression, the receipt of support for abortion was the most significant variable of all. The adolescent with an active sexual life, a previous pregnancy, who is married, and has received support for an abortion has a 99.74% probability for an abortion. The results of this study, demonstrating the importance of the group in adolescence, and the statistical significance of having a partner to support and approve the pregnancy appears as a preventive factor for abortion. It shows the importance of support and companionship for adolescent women.
Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L
Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.
Narayanan, Annalakshmi; Betts, Lucy R
The role of resilience in the relationship between bullying behaviors, victimization experiences, and self-efficacy was examined. Participants were 393 (191 young men, 202 young women) adolescents (M age = 15.88 years, SD = 0.64 years) from schools in Coimbatore, India, who completed scales to assess bullying behaviors and victimization experiences, resilience, and self-efficacy. Multigroup structural equation modeling, with separate groups created according to participant gender, revealed that resilience mediated the relationship between bullying behaviors and self-efficacy in young men. Young men engaged in bullying behaviors and experienced victimization more frequently than young women. The findings of the study have implication for designing intervention programs to enhance resilience among adolescents and young adults to enable them to manage bullying behaviors.
Recent developments of the Italian student body are marked by an increasing diversification of prevailing student profiles. The presence of new student groups is surveyed next to the groups which are the traditional target of national policies for higher education and student welfare. Examples of such traditional target groups are, amongst others:…
Eckerberg, Berndt; Lowden, Arne; Nagai, Roberta; Akerstedt, Torbjörn
During the last few decades, the incidence of sleep-onset insomnia, due to delay of circadian phase, has increased substantially among adolescents all over the world. We wanted to investigate whether a small dose of melatonin given daily, administered in the afternoon, could advance the sleep timing in teenagers. Twenty-one students, aged 14-19 yrs, with sleep-onset difficulties during school weeks were recruited. The study was a randomized, double blind, placebo (PL)-controlled crossover trial, lasting 5 wks. During the first 6 d in wks 2 and 4, the students received either PL or melatonin (1 mg) capsules between 16:30 and 18:00 h. During the first 6 d of wk 5, all students received melatonin. Wks 1 and 3 were capsule-free. In the last evening of each week and the following morning, the students produced saliva samples at home for later melatonin analysis. The samples were produced the same time each week, as late as possible in the evening and as early as possible in the morning. Both the student and one parent received automatic mobile text messages 15 min before saliva sampling times and capsule intake at agreed times. Diaries with registration of presumed sleep, subjective sleepiness during the day (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS) and times for capsule intake and saliva samplings were completed each day. Primary analysis over 5 wks gave significant results for melatonin, sleep and KSS. Post hoc analysis showed that reported sleep-onset times were advanced after melatonin school weeks compared with PL school weeks (p < .005) and that sleep length was longer (p < .05). After the last melatonin school week, the students fell asleep 68 min earlier and slept 62 min longer each night compared with the baseline week. Morning melatonin values in saliva diminished compared with PL (p < .001) and evening values increased (p < .001), indicating a possible sleep phase advance. Compared with PL school weeks, the students reported less wake up (p < .05), less school
Snyder, Rachel J; Zweig, Richard A
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and sexuality, and contact with elders. The current study found that psychology students demonstrated greater aging knowledge than medical students; however, both groups showed gaps in knowledge about sexuality. Married students had greater academic/clinical exposure and greater knowledge about aging but less permissive attitudes toward elderly sexuality. Generally, knowledge about aging was the strongest correlate of knowledge about sexuality. Level of knowledge about sexuality was not associated with attitudes. Attitudes toward sexuality and aging may be more strongly tied to demographic variables reflective of religious beliefs or adherence to sociocultural norms.
Somers, C L; Paulson, S E
The main goal of this study was to explore how parent-adolescent closeness and communication about sexuality were associated with three aspects of adolescent sexuality (sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors). Participants were 157 boys and girls in grades 9 to 12 from two suburban high schools in the Midwest. Canonical correlation analyses revealed two significant combinations of variables. First, younger age and less maternal and paternal communication were related to less sexual behavior and less sexual knowledge. Second, being younger and female and receiving less maternal communication was related to less sexual knowledge and more conservative attitudes. Contrary to expectation, higher levels of parental closeness in conjunction with parental communication did not have a significant influence on these adolescents' sexuality. Given the importance of both age and parental communication in predicting adolescent's sexuality in this study, implications concerning the timing of communication become evident.
Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea
Little is known about the effects of risk factors on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom over time. Here, we longitudinally studied the role of candidate genes, pre- and perinatal factors, and their interactions on ADHD symptoms between ages 10 and 18 years. Subjects were part of the general population or clinic-referred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1667). At mean ages of 11.1 (T1), 13.4 (T2), and 16.2 years (T3), ADHD symptoms were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear Mixed Models were used to examine the association of candidate genes (i.e., DRD4, DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, and MAOA), pre- and perinatal factors (i.e., index measure of various pregnancy and delivery complications, maternal smoking, maternal drinking, and low birth weight), and their interactions with ADHD symptoms across adolescence. Pregnancy and delivery complications were associated with a higher level of ADHD symptoms across all time points, but with a significantly declining influence over time (p = 0.006). We found no main effects of the candidate genes on ADHD symptoms throughout adolescence. The simultaneous presence of the low activity MAOA genotype and low birth weight (p < 0.001) and of the 5-HTTLPR LL-allele and respectively pregnancy and delivery complications (p = 0.04) and maternal smoking (p = 0.04) were associated with more ADHD symptoms particularly during early adolescence, and these influences significantly decreased over time. Findings suggest an age-dependent role of gene-environment interactions on ADHD symptoms across adolescence.
Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William; Holstein, Bjørn; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Richter, Matthias
Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross-national levels in over 30 countries in Europe and North America. We present an overview of HBSC papers published to date that examine FAS-related socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour, using data from the HBSC study. Findings suggest consistent inequalities in self-reported health, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together with ideas for future development of the measure.
Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan
The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…
Fritzer, Penelope; Ploger, Don
Discusses a social studies classroom unit for use with elementary students. Focuses on comparing the age of exploration and space age exploration. Provides background information on both explorations and compares the similarities and differences between the two. Includes suggestions and questions for using this interdisciplinary approach. (CMK)
Dute, Denise Jantine; Breda, João
Background European adolescents and students tend to have low levels of physical activity and eat unhealthy foods, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, which poses a public health challenge. Mobile apps play an important role in their daily lives, suggesting their potential to be used in health-promoting strategies. Objective This review aimed to explore how mobile apps can contribute to the promotion of healthy nutrition, physical activity, and prevention of overweight in adolescents and students. For the apps identified, the review describes the content, the theoretical mechanisms applied, and lessons learned. Methods The databases Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for English-language publications from January 2009 to November 2013. Studies were included if (1) the primary component of the intervention involves an app; (2) the intervention targets healthy nutrition, or physical activity, or overweight prevention; and (3) the target group included adolescents or students (aged 12-25 years). Results A total of 15 studies were included, which describe 12 unique apps. Ten of these apps functioned as monitoring tools for assessing dietary intake or physical activity levels. The other apps used a Web-based platform to challenge users to exercise and to allow users to list and photograph their problem foods. For 5 apps, the behavioral theory underpinning their development was clearly specified. Frequently applied behavior change techniques are prompting self-monitoring of behavior and providing feedback on performance. Apps can function self-contained, but most of them are used as part of therapy or to strengthen school programs. From the age of 10 years users may be capable of using apps. Only 4 apps were developed specifically for adolescents. All apps were tested on a small scale and for a short period. Conclusions Despite large potential and abundant usage by young people, limited research is available on apps and health
Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania
This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…
Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.
The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…
MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A
Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is
Sumter, S R; Bokhorst, C L; Miers, A C; Van Pelt, J; Westenberg, P M
During adolescence pubertal development is said to lead to an increase in general stress sensitivity which might create a vulnerability for the emergence of psychopathology during this period. However, the empirical evidence for increasing stress sensitivity is scarce and mixed. Biological responses (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase) were investigated during a social-evaluative stressor, the Leiden Public Speaking Task, in 295 nine to 17-year olds. Specific attention was paid to different elements of the task, that is anticipation to and delivery of the speech. Biological reactivity to the speech task increased with age and puberty, particularly during anticipation. Current findings support the idea that biological stress sensitivity increases during adolescence, at least in response to a social-evaluative situation. The increasing stress sensitivity appears related to both age and pubertal maturation, but unique contribution could not be distinguished. The importance of measuring anticipation is discussed.
De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Claes, Stephan; Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Verschueren, Karine
This study examined whether the dopamine transporter DAT1 and the dopamine receptor DRD4 genes moderate the effect of student-reported teacher-student relationship affiliation or dissatisfaction on parent-reported adolescent rule-breaking behavior and behavioral engagement. The sample included 1053 adolescents (51% boys, Mage=13.79) from grades 7 to 9. Regression analyses were conducted using Mplus while controlling for multiple testing and nested data. Adolescents who experienced stronger affiliation with their teachers were more engaged in school, whereas greater dissatisfaction predicted more rule-breaking behavior. In addition, a significant gene-environment interaction was found for both genes examined. The link between low teacher-student affiliation and low engagement was more pronounced for DAT1-10R homozygotes. The link between high teacher-student dissatisfaction and more rule-breaking was stronger for DRD4 non-long carriers. Implications for understanding the role of teacher-student relationships in adolescence and suggestions for future research are outlined.
Lurbe, Empar; Torró, María Isabel; Alvarez, Julio
Over the last years, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been introduced into the pediatric population, contributing to a significant increase in the bulk of knowledge of crucial clinically relevant issues. Guidelines have established the currently known conditions where ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful and where it will provide additional information in children and adolescents. How common and important the intra-individual differences are within clinical and ambulatory blood pressure is the keystone to the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as a diagnostic tool. By using not only office, but also ambulatory blood pressure, four possible situations arise. Two of these have values in agreement for normotension or hypertension. Two have values that are discrepant. The latter two are known as white coat and masked hypertension. The relationship with hypertension-induced organ damage, the prognostic value and the assessment of treatment goals are key issues of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. In children, the accurate identification of hypertension at the earliest possible age would, therefore, give health-care providers the opportunity to initiate preventive measures, thereby reducing the chance of developing end-organ damage and its attendant morbidity and mortality.
Glasgow, Jacqueline N.
Describes a project in which students in a college survey class on young adult literature were paired with students in a high school English class in a "buddy journal" project. Shows examples of this writing and of the assignments which used Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences to offer students multiple paths for responding to…
Moloney, Kevin; Stacey, Kaye
Examines Australian students' conceptions of ordering decimals. Fifty secondary students studied over 12 months showed little change in their misconceptions. Whole number misconceptions are important in earlier years but disappear with time. The fraction misconception persists however, being displayed by approximately 20% of year 10 students. The…
Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F
The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.
Shakibaei, Fereshteh; Alikhani, Mahmood; Mahaki, Behzad; Sichani, Naeimeh Karimian; Tabatabaei, Haleh Dormiani
Background: This study has carried out to find the recovery rate, depression recurrence, changing of diagnose into bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and appearing other psychiatric disorders including obsessive compulsive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), substance induced disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorders after 6 years among students having major depression disorder in Isfahan and its relation to some demographic factors. Materials and Methods: In this historical cohort study, 278 students studying in guidance school, in 2006 being 11–16-year-old and were diagnosed to have major depressive disorder participated. Data collection was done by completing children depression on inventory, Young Maria Rating Scale and also final diagnosis determination through interview by psychiatrists. To analyze the data, in addition to use descriptive statistics, multinomial and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the relationships. All the analyses were done using SPSS 20. Results: About 34.9 of adolescents have suffered from depression after 6 years. Depression in 12.2% has been changed into BMD. The BMD morbidity chance was less in girls rather than depression one. The ratio of drug abuse in girls was less than boys (odds ratio [OR] = 0.471, P = 0.046). Students received no treatment or only pharmacotherapy, were more caught by ODD in comparison with those cases who received both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (P = 0.005, 0.038 and OR = 4.29 and 5.88). Conclusion: About half of students after 6 years are caught by depression or BMD. It reveals the importance of this disorder and its role in making behavioral problems for adolescents in their future. PMID:27308266
Bodiba, P; Madu, S N; Ezeokana, J O; Nnedum, O A U
The study investigated the relationship between body mass index and self-concept among adolescent black female university students. The study used a mixed research design (quantitative and qualitative methods). Media images of handsome faces and beautiful bodies are used to sell almost everything, from clothes and cosmetic to luncheon, meats, and so on. These images reinforce the western cultural stereotype that women should be thin and shapely to be attractive. Thus, as some girls go through puberty they may become dissatisfied with their weight, and to a lesser extent, with their shape, thus, developing low self-concept or imae of themselves. It is in this context that the study was conceptualised. First year female students from three different Schools and Faculties at the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus, South Africa, participated in the study. Using the availability and convenient sampling method, 75 students were selected for this study. For the quantitative aspect of the study, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Measure was used to measure self-esteem. For the qualitative part, a topic guide was used for the focus group discussions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Pearson's Product Moment Correlation were used to analyse the quantitative data, while the phenomenological principle of open coding used for the thematic analysis. Results showed that there is a relationship between body mass and self-concept and that overweight participants tend to have a low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was perceived to be aggravated by a number of factors, like the attitude of the media and the society. Participants who are overweight also indicated that they are limited in certain activities of daily living (e.g., sports) as a result of their body mass. They expressed mixed feelings and frustration when it comes to such activities. The above results did not differ from those reported from western cultures. Support groups, life-skills programmes and psychotherapy should be
Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights.
Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence
Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267
Jones, Randall M.; Dick, Andrew J.; Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Ogletree, Mark
Erikson (1950) contends that the physical changes associated with puberty serve as a catalyst for adolescents to question childhood identifications and to consolidate these with current self-conceptions, personal ideologies, interpersonal values, and future aspirations. Erikson describes the adolescent identity crisis as the developmental period…
The aim of this study is to determine whether the approaches to learning and age are significantly correlated to grade point average (GPA) in early childhood education students. In addition, another purpose of this study is to determine whether approaches to learning and age predicted students' GPAs in the Early Childhood Education Department. The…
Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.
This study of 461 Colorado students (ages 7-18) with deafness or partial hearing investigated the students' psychoeducational development by age and hearing loss, including syntactic comprehension and production, reading comprehension, social maturity, speech intelligibility, and math calculation skills. Traditional standardized measures of…
Blue, Howard C.; Sanfilippo, Louis C.; Young, Christopher M.
College age students are in the midst of important psychosocial and neurobiological changes. The developmental fluidity of this period of life compels caution in diagnosing and treating depressive episodes, especially in discriminating between bipolar and non-bipolar depression. Treating college age students with depression requires adherence to…
Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.
Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…
Larm, Peter; Silva, Teresa C; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without
Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Hirsch, Christian
Orthodontic treatment is a common dental procedure in developed countries. However, the frequency and factors associated with treatment demand are different between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of orthodontic treatment in German children and adolescents and to analyse the influence of age, gender, and socio-economic status (SES; education and region) on the frequency of treatment. Subjects in a random population sample of 1538 German children and adolescents, aged 11-14 years, were interviewed at home in the autumn of 2008 regarding current orthodontic treatment and associated factors. Approximately one-third (33.5 per cent) of the subjects interviewed were undergoing orthodontic treatment at that time. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the likelihood of receiving orthodontic treatment was higher for girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.65], for high school pupils (OR = 1.19, 95 per cent CI: 1.06-1.34), and for children and adolescents living in the western part of Germany (OR = 1.45, 95 per cent CI: 1.00-2.08) and increased with age (OR = 1.13 per year, 95 per cent CI: 1.02-1.25). Subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment more often received prophylactic measures (OR = 2.06, 95 per cent CI: 1.63-2.59) compared with those not currently receiving orthodontic treatment. The frequency of orthodontic treatment in Germany largely depends on gender and SES.
Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M
Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.
Barney, David; Christenson, Robert
Elementary physical educators promote their content to help students learn in the psychomotor, affective, and cognitive domains. One of the best methods to reach this is by implementing appropriate instructional practices. For this study, 2,479 elementary-aged students participated. Students were surveyed (survey of 24 statements) to ascertain…
The number of school age international students and their parents matriculating in U.S. schools continues to increase. These students and their families have a myriad of unique needs that are multidimensional and continue to evolve as they transition into U.S. culture. Strategically placed to help these students become familiar with school…
Akelaitis, Arturas V.
The main purpose of the present study is to reveal the peculiarities of social skills expression of senior high school age students in physical education classes. The independent random sample consisted of 244 (15-16 years old) students and 258 (17-18 years old) students, of which there were 224 boys and 278 girls. L. Bulotaite and V. Gudžinskiene…
Karcher, Michael J.
In cross-age peer mentoring programs, high school students mentor younger students. Prior research demonstrates the positive effects for mentees as well as for mentors. This context-based, strengths-promoting intervention is designed to help school counselors foster high school students' leadership and collaboration skills while simultaneously…
Blackie, Norman K.
A 139-item questionnaire was constructed to account for additional variance in the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward the aged. This study was conducted to examine the effects of death anxiety on the attitudes and behaviors of student nurses toward old persons. To this end, 150 student nurses were surveyed. Eight scales were…
Luna, Alberto D.
Given the paucity of research on factors associated with motivation in learning disabled college students, the present study investigated the motivation levels in college students with learning disabilities. The Academic Motivation Scale (AMS) has been validated cross-nationally and across all educational age groups of students having various…
Kolahdooz, Fariba; Butler, Jennie L.; Christiansen, Karina; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Sheehy, Tony; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita
Objective To describe food and nutrient intake for low-income, urban African American children and adolescents to highlight the need for further nutrition intervention programs and appropriate tools to address overweight and obesity. Methods This was a cross sectional study using interviewer-administered single 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were low income African American boys and girls aged 5–16 years or their caregivers in Baltimore City. Frequency of food consumption and dietary intakes were analysed by gender and age groups. Results Eighty-one participants were included for analysis. Mean daily energy intakes exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from 10 to 71% across all gender-age groups: 2,304 kcal for children aged 5–8 years; 2,429 kcal and 2,732 kcal for boys and girls aged 9–13 years, respectively; and 3,339 kcal and 2,846 kcal for boys and girls aged 14–16 years, respectively. The most frequently reported consumed foods were sweetened drinks, chips, candies, and milk across all age groups. The majority of participants (79–100%) did not meet the DRIs for dietary fiber and vitamin E across all gender-age groups. Milk accounted for 14%, 17%, and 21% of energy, fat, and protein intake, respectively, among children 5–8 years of age, while pizza was the top source of energy, fat, and protein (11%, 13%, and 18%, respectively) among 14–16 year old adolescents. Sweetened drinks and sweetened juices were major sources of sugar, contributing 33% for 5–8 year olds, 29% for 9–13 year olds and 35% for 14–16 year olds. Conclusions Mean daily energy intake exceeded dietary recommendations across all gender-age groups. This study has provided previously unavailable information on diet and highlights foods to be targeted in nutrition intervention programs. PMID:25856051
The "over-age, under-credited" (OA/UC) student population is defined as high school students who are at least two years behind their peers in terms of age and credits earned toward a high school diploma. To date, few studies have examined the schooling of OA/UC students. The purpose of this study is to use the insights of six African…
Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Xie, Huilin; Yang, Beilei; Liu, Rui; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Mei, Bing; Wang, Zhaoxin
Accelerated urbanization and rising immigration to the big cities in China has resulted in education policies that produce disparate treatment of immigrant and non-immigrant students. The two types of students frequently wind up in different types of junior high schools. However, there is little research on whether disparities exist between students in public and private schools with regard to overweight. This study aims to address this gap through a comparison of the overweight status of junior high school students in public and private schools in Shanghai and explore the possible reasons for the observed differences. Students from two public and two private junior high schools were measured. In order to determine what factors might shape overweight among adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between overweight and personal characteristics, birth-related factors, levels of physical activity, diet, family socioeconomic status and school environment. Students in private schools proved more likely to be overweight (15.20%, p < 0.05) than public school students (10.18%). Similarly, gender, breastfeeding, parental care and number of classes excluding physical education per day were found to be significant factors. However, private school students were also influenced by gestational age (yes/no: OR = 4.50, p < 0.001), frequency of snacks (sometimes/often: OR = 0.53, p < 0.01) and family income (¥6001-12,000/below ¥6000: OR = 3.27, p < 0.05). Time for lunch was the sole risk factor for public school students in the study (p < 0.05). To reduce the unequal distribution of overweight students between the two types of schools, interventions that consider different multiple risk factors should be implemented.
Shi, Jianwei; Tan, Duxun; Xie, Huilin; Yang, Beilei; Liu, Rui; Yu, Dehua; Lu, Yuan; Mei, Bing; Wang, Zhaoxin
Accelerated urbanization and rising immigration to the big cities in China has resulted in education policies that produce disparate treatment of immigrant and non-immigrant students. The two types of students frequently wind up in different types of junior high schools. However, there is little research on whether disparities exist between students in public and private schools with regard to overweight. This study aims to address this gap through a comparison of the overweight status of junior high school students in public and private schools in Shanghai and explore the possible reasons for the observed differences. Students from two public and two private junior high schools were measured. In order to determine what factors might shape overweight among adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between overweight and personal characteristics, birth-related factors, levels of physical activity, diet, family socioeconomic status and school environment. Students in private schools proved more likely to be overweight (15.20%, p < 0.05) than public school students (10.18%). Similarly, gender, breastfeeding, parental care and number of classes excluding physical education per day were found to be significant factors. However, private school students were also influenced by gestational age (yes/no: OR = 4.50, p < 0.001), frequency of snacks (sometimes/often: OR = 0.53, p < 0.01) and family income (¥6001–12,000/below ¥6000: OR = 3.27, p < 0.05). Time for lunch was the sole risk factor for public school students in the study (p < 0.05). To reduce the unequal distribution of overweight students between the two types of schools, interventions that consider different multiple risk factors should be implemented. PMID:28257123
Lin, Jen-Jia; Ting, Tzu-Cheng
This study examined the relationship of built environments to physical activity among adolescents aged 12 to 14 years old. The study sample included 269 junior high school students studying in Nangang District, Taipei, Taiwan. Sample physical activity data were obtained by surveying adolescents using a self-administered short version of the…
Kelley, Paul; Lee, Clark
School start times for adolescents in the United States are typically too early to be healthy for this age group. There is significant evidence from the research literature that early starts have serious negative impacts on students. In particular, early education start times in adolescence cause chronic sleep deprivation, which damages both…
This study examined adolescents' perception of satisfaction from various life domains according to gender and parenting styles among 562 Turkish adolescents [53.2% girls; Mean (M) age = 14.1, Standard Deviation (SD) = 0.85]. The participants completed the multidimensional students' life satisfaction scale and the parenting style inventory. The…
Robinson, Candice L; Romero, José R; Kempe, Allison; Pellegrini, Cynthia
In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger-United States, 2017. The 2017 child and adolescent immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2016 immunization schedules, in three figures, and footnotes for the figures. These documents can be found on the CDC immunization schedule website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). These immunization schedules are approved by ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html), the American Academy of Pediatrics (https://www.aap.org), the American Academy of Family Physicians (https://www.aafp.org), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (http://www.acog.org). Health care providers are advised to use the figures and the combined footnotes together. The full ACIP recommendations for each vaccine, including contraindications and precautions, can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/index.html. Providers should be aware that changes in recommendations for specific vaccines can occur between annual updates to the childhood/adolescent immunization schedules. If errors or omissions are discovered within the child and adolescent schedule, CDC posts revised versions on the CDC immunization schedule website.
Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.
Studied relationship between adolescents' sleep/wake habits and daytime functioning. Found that self-reported total sleep times decreased from age 13 to 19 years. Struggling or failing students obtained less sleep, went to bed later, and had greater weekend delays of sleep than those with better grades. Students with inadequate sleep reported…
Kenny, Rachel; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda
The aim of this study was to examine positive and negative qualities in adolescents' interpersonal relationships and their relative importance in predicting emotional distress. Participants were 260 students from three schools in the Dublin area (119 girls; 141 boys), aged 12-18 years (M = 15.32, SD = 1.91). Students completed questionnaires…
Taylor, Robyn N; Parker, James D A; Keefer, Kateryna V; Kloosterman, Patricia H; Summerfeldt, Laura J
The present study examined the link between problematic gambling and gambling related cognitions (GRCs) in a large sample of adolescents with (N = 266) and without (N = 1,738) special education needs (SEN) between the ages of 14 and 18 years attending several high schools in eastern central Ontario. The adolescents with SENs were identified as having various learning disorders and/or internalizing and externalizing problems [e.g., attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)]. All adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire package that included the GRC Scale (GRCS; Raylu and Oei in Addiction 99:757-769, 2004), as well as measures of problem gambling, negative affect, and ADHD symptomatology. Results showed that adolescents with SEN hold more erroneous beliefs about gambling and had a higher risk of developing problematic patterns of gambling behaviour than their typically developing peers. Moreover, the GRCS subscales were found to be strong predictors of problem gambling among adolescents both with and without SEN, accounting for a substantial amount of the variance even when controlling for the effects of age, gender, ADHD, and negative affect. It is suggested that intervention and prevention programs aimed at adolescent gambling need to give particular attention to those with SEN.
Laditka, Sarah B.; Fischer, Mary; Laditka, James N.; Segal, David R.
Using an updated version of the Aging Semantic Differential, 534 younger, middle age, and older participants from a college community rated female and male targets categorized as ages 21-34 and 75-85. Participants also provided views about their own aging. Repeated measures of analysis of variance examined attitudinal differences by age and gender…
Thoren, Katharina; Heinig, Elisa; Brunner, Martin
A child's age in comparison to the age of her or his classmates (relative age) has been found to be an influential factor on academic achievement, particularly but not exclusively at the beginning of formal schooling. However, few studies have focused on the generalizability of relative age effects. To close this gap, the present study analyzes the generalizability across students with and without immigrant backgrounds, across three student cohorts that entered school under a changing law of school enrollment, and across classes. To this end, we capitalized on representative large-scale data sets from three student cohorts attending public schools in Berlin, the capital of Germany. We analyzed the data using a multilevel framework. Our results for the overall student sample indicate relative age effects for reading and mathematics in favor of the relatively older students in Grade 2 that become somewhat smaller in size in Grade 3. By Grade 8, relative age effects had vanished in reading and had even reversed in favor of the relatively young in mathematics. Furthermore, relative age effects were not found to be systematically different among students with and without immigrant backgrounds, student cohorts, or across classes. Taken together, these results empirically underscore the broad generalizability of the findings as found for the overall student population and replicate the pattern of findings on relative effects as identified by the majority of previous studies. PMID:27242593
Thoren, Katharina; Heinig, Elisa; Brunner, Martin
A child's age in comparison to the age of her or his classmates (relative age) has been found to be an influential factor on academic achievement, particularly but not exclusively at the beginning of formal schooling. However, few studies have focused on the generalizability of relative age effects. To close this gap, the present study analyzes the generalizability across students with and without immigrant backgrounds, across three student cohorts that entered school under a changing law of school enrollment, and across classes. To this end, we capitalized on representative large-scale data sets from three student cohorts attending public schools in Berlin, the capital of Germany. We analyzed the data using a multilevel framework. Our results for the overall student sample indicate relative age effects for reading and mathematics in favor of the relatively older students in Grade 2 that become somewhat smaller in size in Grade 3. By Grade 8, relative age effects had vanished in reading and had even reversed in favor of the relatively young in mathematics. Furthermore, relative age effects were not found to be systematically different among students with and without immigrant backgrounds, student cohorts, or across classes. Taken together, these results empirically underscore the broad generalizability of the findings as found for the overall student population and replicate the pattern of findings on relative effects as identified by the majority of previous studies.
Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat
Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.
Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…
Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga D.; Welch, Michael R.
A multi-level Durkheimian theory of familial and religious influences on adolescent alcohol use is developed and tested with hierarchical linear modeling of data from Icelandic schools and students. On the individual level, traditional family structure, parental monitoring, parental support, religious participation, and perceptions of divine…
Lassiter, Kerry S.; Matthews, T. Darin; Bell, Nancy L.; Maher, Carrie M.
Ninety-four college students were administered the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT). GAMA IQs were significantly and moderately correlated with KAIT Fluid, Crystallized and Composite IQs, supporting the convergent validity of this instrument. Although significant correlations…
Gillis, H. Lee, Ed.; Sirmans, Amanda, Ed.
Critical annotations of articles written in 1988 or 1989 and selected from "PSYCHSCAN: Clinical Psychology" are presented in this document. The annotations were written by college students in an undergraduate adolescent psychology class. The annotations are clustered under the following topics: (1) academics, including learning disabilities, sleep…
Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David; Borkowski, Thomas
Assesses the differential effects of the perceived benefits and costs associated with both condom use and unprotected sex on sexual risk behaviors of late adolescent college students (N=704). Analyses indicate that sexual risk behaviors are most related to situational temptation, self-efficacy for safer sex, and perceived benefits of unprotected…
Chang, Wei-Lung; Liu, Hsiang-Te; Lin, Tai-An; Wen, Yung-Sung
The purpose of this research was to study the relationship between family communication structure, vanity trait, and related consumption behavior. The study used an empirical method with adolescent students from the northern part of Taiwan as the subjects. Multiple statistical methods and the SEM model were used for testing the hypotheses. The…
Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul
There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…
Sanders, Jolene M
This research aims to uncover aspects of adolescent masculine development among adult substance abusers. In-depth interviews and the resulting narrative provide the data for this exploratory analysis. Three main areas of adolescent masculinities are discussed: substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, and recreation. The findings are interpreted in light of Connell's conceptualization of hegemonic masculinities. Based on this sample, masculinities are constructed via a menu of adolescent behaviors that are descriptive of a working class lifestyle. It is the cultural context that sets the stage for substance abuse and its meaning to identity formation in adolescence, as well as in adulthood. Substance abuse in adolescence, along with other forms of juvenile delinquency and recreation, is a means of achieving masculinity. Unfortunately, for these men the use of substance abuse to achieve masculinity in adolescence becomes problematic later in adulthood. This article concludes that to successfully recover from substance abuse and addiction, these men must revisit and reframe their adolescent constructions of masculinity to better fit the problems and challenges they face as adults.
Moloney, Kevin; Stacey, Kaye
This study examines Australian students' conceptions about ordering decimals. It builds upon previous work which established three common misconceptions. A longitudinal study of 50 secondary students over twelve months showed little change in their misconceptions. A second study traced the incidence of each misconception from Years 4 to 10 in a sample of 379 students. It was found that the whole number misconception was important in earlier years but disappeared with time. The fraction misconception persisted, being displayed by approximately twenty per cent of Year 10 students. The zero-rule misconception was uncommon. The diagnostic test, which substantially improved on one used in previous research, may be very useful for teachers.
Bauermeister, Jose A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C
Partner age is associated with youth's sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, it is not known whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, this study first describes the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, whether this model varied systematically by sex, mother's education, and high school dropout was tested. Third, whether age differences were associated with youth's self-acceptance, alcohol use, and employment trajectories over these two developmental periods was assessed. Finally, whether these associations had non-proportional effects over both periods was tested. This study modeled sex partners' age differences nonlinearly, with females being more likely to date older partners at baseline and over time. High school dropouts also reported older partners at baseline. Self-acceptance and the number of hours worked were associated with sex partners' age differences over time, with the effect decreasing over young adulthood years. Alcohol use frequency was also associated with having older partners over time. This study discusses the findings from a health perspective on youth's sexual development.
Fox, Matthew P.; Evans, Denise; Govindasamy, Darshini; Jamieson, Lise; Malete, Given; Mongwenyana, Constance; Technau, Karl
Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date) up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4). A total of 47 (38%) adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years) were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR) = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95). Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18) as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents. PMID:27867661
Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth
Background There is evidence that medical students are more aware of the benefits of psychotropic treatment than are members of the general public, and that the more knowledge students acquire about psychiatry and pharmacology, the more favorable their attitudes become towards psychotropic drugs and other treatments. Objectives This study among students investigates the relationship between certain aspects of personality and attitudes towards advising adolescents with psychosocial problems about the use of psychotropic medication. Methods Two groups of healthcare students were recruited from universities in Eastern France. 41 fourth-year medical students (MS) who had completed their psychiatry course, and 76 third-year psychology students (PS) in the faculty of human sciences. Respondents completed a self-administered instrument (20 brief case studies, and a personality inventory) at the end of a lecture. Participation was voluntary and unpaid. Results MS would recommend psychotropic drugs in 40% of the 20 cases, PS in 27%. MS who would prescribe psychotropic medication differed in personality profile from PS. MS with a tendency to experience anger and related states such as frustration, and who did not see fulfilling moral obligations as important were more likely to prescribe psychotropic drugs. Also more likely to recommend psychotropic drugs, but for different reasons, were PS who were susceptible to stress but not shy or socially anxious, who showed friendliness but little interest in others, and who lacked distance in their decision-making. Conclusion Health promotion is not simply a matter of educating those young people who take psychotropic drugs – health professionals must also question the criteria that inform their decisions. It is as important to investigate the attitudes of the future health professionals (advisers or prescribers) as it is to focus on consumer-related issues. PMID:17626618
Tips for working with students who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder include putting them in charge of something, providing structure, giving feedback, using logical consequences for unwanted behavior, being patient, teaching in novel ways, helping them with their gear, pairing them with another student, allowing blow-out time, and…
Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Kahn, Lauren E.; Merchant, Junaid S.; Peake, Shannon J.; Veroude, Kim; Masten, Carrie L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Mazziotta, John C.; Dapretto, Mirella
Self-evaluations undergo significant transformation during early adolescence, developing in parallel with the heightened complexity of teenagers’ social worlds. Intuitive theories of adolescent development, based in part on animal work, suggest that puberty is associated with neural-level changes that facilitate a “social reorientation” (Nelson, Leibenluft, McClure, and Pine, 2005). However, direct tests of this hypothesis using neuroimaging are limited in humans. This longitudinal fMRI study examined neurodevelopmental trajectories associated with puberty, self-evaluations, and the presumed social reorientation during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Participants (N = 27, M age = 10.1 and 13.1 years at timepoints one and two, respectively) engaged in trait evaluations of two targets (the self and a familiar fictional other), across two domains of competence (social and academic). Responses in ventromedial PFC increased with both age and pubertal development during self-evaluations in the social domain, but not in the academic domain. These results suggest changes in social self-evaluations are intimately connected with biology, not just peer contexts, and provide important empirical support for the relationship between neurodevelopment, puberty, and social functioning. PMID:23616547
D'Onofrio, B M; Murrelle, L; Eaves, L J; McCullough, M E; Landis, J L; Maes, H H
Research has consistently shown that religiousness is associated with lower levels of alcohol and drug use, but little is known about the nature of adolescent religiousness or the mechanisms through which it influences problem behavior in this age group. This paper presents preliminary results from the Mid-Atlantic School Age Twin Study, a prospective, population-based study of 6-18-year-old twins and their mothers. Factor analysis of a scale developed to characterize adolescent religiousness, the Religious Attitudes and Practices Inventory (RAPI), revealed three factors: theism, religious/spiritual practices, and peer religiousness. Twin correlations and univariate behavior-genetic models for these factors and a measure of belief that drug use is sinful reveal in 357 twin pairs that common environmental factors significantly influence these traits, but a minor influence of genetic factors could not be discounted. Correlations between the multiple factors of adolescent religiousness and substance use, comorbid problem behavior, mood disorders, and selected risk factors for substance involvement are also presented. Structural equation modeling illustrates that specific religious beliefs about the sinfulness of drugs and level of peer religiousness mediate the relationship between theistic beliefs and religious/spiritual practices on substance use. Limitations and future analyses are discussed.
dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837
Papay, Clare K.; Bambara, Linda M.
Transition programs based on college campuses for students with intellectual and other developmental disabilities (IDD) ages 18-21 provide an opportunity for age-appropriate inclusion when peers without disabilities graduate from high school at age 18. The purpose of the present study was to examine the general characteristics of postsecondary…
Kanter, Allison; Agliata, Daniel; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with young adults' concerns about age related changes in body image and their anticipated impact on psychosocial functioning. One hundred and sixty-seven college students completed the Body Image and Aging Survey, designed to assess age related issues in body image, the Peer Dieting Survey,…
Madrigal, Osiel; Schreiber, Deborah
This study provides empirical evidence that an information-age mindset exists; it is not necessarily age-specific; and it appears to be related to both the student's interaction with a digital environment over time, and the success or failure while online. Eight of ten identified information-age mindset attributes are significant, and represent…
Stahl, Sarah T.; Metzger, Aaron
This cross-sectional study examined the associations among perceived vulnerability to disease, aging knowledge, and ageism (positive and negative) in a sample of undergraduate students enrolled in a human development course (N = 649; M age = 19.94 years, SD = 2.84 years). Perceived vulnerability to disease and aging knowledge were associated with…
Yang, Stephanie; Hsu, Wan-Chen; Chen, Hsueh-Chih
With the growing number of older adults becoming a global concern, developed countries have focused on education as a means to promote successful aging. Previous research has focused on the effects of gender and age on learning satisfaction among senior students. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the interactive effects of age and…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Fraser, Ashley M; Dyer, W Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B
The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = .63, 50% female) taken from Time 2 of the Flourishing Families Project, 96% of whom had complete data for Time 4 (N = 266). Active monitoring was the most common approach at the first and second time points, while active monitoring and deference were equally common by the final time point. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that restrictive and active monitoring decreased over time, while deference increased. In addition, both adolescent and parent characteristics were predictive of initial levels of all three types of monitoring, and of change in restrictive monitoring. Discussion focuses on developmental implications of these findings.
Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph
The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.
Webb, Lindsey; Stegall, Sheri; Mirabile, Scott; Zeman, Janice; Shields, Ashley; Perry-Parrish, Carisa
Understanding of the role that positive emotions play in adolescent social development requires studying the normative development of these emotions. This research examined pride expression and management across adolescence, focusing on gender and developmental differences. Participants were 206 Caucasian youth (52.9% girls) in grades 5 (Mage = 11.10 years), 8 (Mage = 14.45), 11 (Mage = 17.26), and university (Mage = 19.61). Youth responded to two vignettes assessing reactions to pride-eliciting situations. Compared to boys, girls reported more intense pride experience and a higher likelihood of expressing pride. Increases across adolescence were found for self-efficacy in suppressing pride expression, and for expressing modesty in pride-eliciting situations. Older adolescents were less likely than younger adolescents to expect to receive a negative peer reaction when inhibiting pride. These results indicate the importance of gender-specific examinations of pride across adolescent development with implications for adaptive psychosocial functioning and positive psychology.
Background Population-based studies for prevalence of metabolic syndrome (M.S) in children and adolescents are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to assess the Prevalence of M.S and correlated factors among children and adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in Ahvaz. Methods In this descriptive-analytical population- based study, 2246 children and adolescents, 10–19 years old (1113 male and 1133 female) in Ahvaz, were evaluated. Anthropometry, biochemical measurement and blood pressure (BP) were assessed. Modified ATP III criteria 2005 were used for M.S. definition. Center for disease and Control preventions (CDC) percentile were applied to define cut off points of waist circumference and BP. Results Prevalence of M.S. was 9% (95% CI: 8-10%) with prevalence in male 11% (95% CI: 10-12%) and female 7% (95% CI 6-8%). Among individuals with M.S, triglyceride (TG) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were the most common components (33.5% and 24.1%, respectively). Prevalence of M.S was higher in overweight persons comparing to participants with at risk and normal weight group (in male: 24.1%, 14.3% and 9.9% respectively P = 0.0001), (in female: 22.6%, 18.3% and 4.5% respectively P = 0.0001). Among the correlated factors of M.S age (P = 0.0006), sex and BMI (P = 0.0001) had significant differences between subjects with and without M.S. whereas there was no significant difference between two groups in ethnicity, history of breast fed, birth weight neonatal ICU admission, maternal history(GDM, gestational HTN, Parity) and family history of HTN, obesity and DM (P > 0.05). Conclusion This study shows high prevalence of M.S in Children and Adolescents in south west of Iran (Ahvaz) especially in overweight persons. PMID:24860794
Contractor, Ateka A; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Ford, Julian D; Elhai, Jon D
A substantial body of evidence documents that the frequency and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are linked to such demographic variables as female sex (e.g., Kaplow et al., 2005) and age (e.g., Meiser-Stedman et al., 2008). Considerably less is known about relations between biological sex and age with PTSD's latent factor structure. This study systematically examined the roles that sex and age may play as candidate moderators of the full range of factor structure parameters of an empirically supported five-factor PTSD model (Elhai et al., 2011). The sample included 6591 trauma-exposed children and adolescents selected from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set. Confirmatory factor analysis using invariance testing (Gregorich, 2006) and comparative fit index difference values (Cheung and Rensvold, 2002) reflected a mixed pattern of test item intercepts across age groups. The adolescent subsample produced lower residual error variances, reflecting less measurement error than the child subsample. Sex did not show a robust moderating effect. We conclude by discussing implications for clinical assessment, theory building, and future research.
Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie
Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify. PMID:25525281
Putwain, David William
Despite a literature spanning over 50 years, there has been little test anxiety research conducted on samples of school-aged students drawn from the UK. As a consequence, little in known about the test anxious experience in the UK, and whether this experience is contextualized by features of the UK educational context. For this reason, the…
Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.
Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander
Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night.
Favart, Monik; Potocki, Anna; Broc, Lucie; Quémart, Pauline; Bernicot, Josie; Olive, Thierry
The goal of this study was to investigate the management of cohesion by children and adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) when writing a narrative in a communicative situation. Twelve children with SLI (from 7 to 11 years old) and 12 adolescents with SLI (from 12 to 18 years old) were chronological age-matched with 24 typically developing (TD) children and 24 TD adolescents. All participants attended mainstream classes: children in elementary schools and adolescents in middle and high schools. Analyses of cohesion focused on both density and diversity of connectives, punctuation marks and anaphors. Results attested that children with SLI were greatly impaired in their management of written cohesion and used specific forms previously observed in narrative speech such as left dislocations. By contrast, and not expected, the management of written cohesion by adolescents with SLI was close to that of their TD peers. The communicative writing situation we set up, which engaged participants to take into account the addressee, also made possible for adolescents with SLI to manage cohesion in writing.
Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Moyer, Michael S.; Gonzalez, Gerardo E.
The "Manifestation of Symptomatology Scale" (MOSS) is a norm-referenced, self-report instrument designed to assess characteristics of psychopathology among children and adolescents from 11 to 18 years of age. Although the MOSS has been used in several research studies within juvenile justice or disciplinary education contexts, the psychometric…
Stephenson, K G; Quintin, E M; South, M
While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older adolescents (ages 16-18). Compared to controls, the ASD group demonstrated reduced skin conductance response to music-evoked emotion. Younger groups, regardless of diagnosis, showed greater physiological reactivity to scary stimuli than to other emotions. There was a significant interaction of age group and diagnostic group in identifying scary music stimuli, possibly evidencing disrupted developmental trajectories in ASD for integrating physiological and cognitive cues that may underlie symptoms of anxiety.
Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós
The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.
Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Viruela, Ana M.; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós
The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121
Reading underachievement among adolescent students, particularly in urban areas, has been well documented in the literature. This reality points to two problems: Schools possess neither the capacity needed to prepare students for higher education and the workforce, nor the ability to help students view literacy as a tool for critical thinking,…
Collin, Simon; Karsenti, Thierry; Ndimubandi, Alexis; Saffari, Hamid
The objective of this article was to better understand the relationship between students' age and socioeconomic level, and its influence on students' digital uses. We conducted a quantitative study of 401 elementary and high school students in Quebec. Four independent variables were initially selected: two related to age (actual age and education…
Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image
Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie
There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.
del Carmen, Aguilar-Díaz Fatima; Javier, de la Fuente-Hernández; Aline, Cintra-Viveiro Cristina
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess urine fluoride concentration, nutritional status, and dental fluorosis in adolescent students living in the rural areas of Guanajuato, Mexico. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted including participants aged 11–20 years. The presence and severity of dental fluorosis was registered according to the Thylstrup and Fejerskov index (TFI) criteria. Anthropometric measures were also recorded. Urine sample of the first morning spot was recollected to assess urine fluoride concentration by using the potentiometric method with an ion-selective electrode. Water samples were also recollected and analyzed. Bivariate tests were performed to compare urine fluoride concentration according to different variables such as sex, body mass index, and TFI. Nonparametric tests were used. A logistic regression model was performed (SPSS® 21.0). Results: This study included 307 participants with a mean age of 15.6 ± 1.6; 62.5% of the participants showed normal weight. A total of 91.9% of the participants had dental fluorosis, and 61.6% had TFI > 4. Mean fluoride content in urine ranged between 0.5 and 6.65 mg/L, with a mean of 1.27 ± 1.2 mg/L. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration. The increment of urine fluoride was a related (OR = 1.40) to having severe dental fluorosis. Conclusions: Most of the studied population had moderate or severe dental fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentration was related to fluorosis severity and nutritional status. Underweight children showed greater urine fluoride concentration as well as severe dental fluorosis. PMID:28032042
Andre, Julia; Picchioni, Marco; Zhang, Ruibin; Toulopoulou, Timothea
Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years). Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6) bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10), the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40). Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8), left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40), and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31). These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.
Dayan, Gustavo H; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando; Izoton de Sadovsky, Ana Daniela; Rodrigues, Patricia Marques; Giuberti, Camila; Dietze, Reynaldo
Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue disease vaccine (CYD-TDV) was evaluated in children/adolescents in Brazil. In this observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II single-center study, children/adolescents (ages 9-16 years) were randomized to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6, and 12 months. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque neutralization test. Overall, 150 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV: N = 100; placebo: N = 50). Injection site pain and headache were the most common solicited injection site and systemic reactions. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were similar between groups. No serious AEs were vaccine-related. Geometric mean titers against all dengue virus serotypes increased with CYD-TDV vaccination and were 267, 544, 741, and 432 1/dil for serotypes 1-4, respectively, after dose 3, representing a mean fold increase from baseline of 5, 6, 6, and 20, respectively. CYD-TDV vaccination elicited a neutralizing antibody response against serotypes 1-4 and was well-tolerated in children/adolescents in a dengue-endemic region.
Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.
Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338
Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.
Ramezanian, Maryam; Soares, Joaquim; Khankeh, Hamid; Macassa, Gloria
Background: Socioeconomic status has been found to have a significant impact on the health as well as risk behaviors of adolescents across different contexts. This study was conducted to assess the effect of social relations adjusted by social class on physical and psychological well-being of adolescences in Teheran, Iran. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study and carried out on 1,742 adolescences living in Tehran during 2011. Adolescences were selected, using proportional stratified sampling method and a questionnaire was filled over an interview for data gathering. Data were analyzed, using SPSS18 logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of psychological symptoms was more than 24% and had a large range (24%-93%), while physical symptoms showed a lower prevalence with a smaller range (12%-33%). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between the adolescences gender and feeling the need for others’ help (p<0.001). Factors related to feeling the need for others help, anxiety, and worrying were the most prevalent among both boys and girls. In the section of family social relations, talking to the mother and talking to the father had the lowest and the highest prevalence among girls and boys, respectively. With respect to relations, the number of close friends and after school gathering time with close friends had the highest prevalence among girls, while the number of close friends and E-communication with close friends had the lowest and the highest prevalence among boys, respectively. Conclusion: The physical and psychological symptoms were common among adolescents from families with high socioeconomic status. PMID:28210612
Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali
Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p < 0.05). Each 10 μg/dL increment in serum zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p < 0.05). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.
This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.
Barker, Linda Toms; Chan, Vincent; Eucogco, Jasmine
Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of Pono Choices, a culturally responsive adolescent pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention program targeting middle school youths in Hawai‘i. Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial with the school as the unit of random assignment over 3 semesters between 2012 and 2013. The sample consisted of 36 middle schools and 2203 students. We administered student surveys to collect baseline outcomes, student demographic data, and outcomes at 12 months after baseline. Results. We found statistically significant effects for the knowledge assessment, which focused on basic understanding of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention. The average percentage of correct responses was 73.6 for the treatment group and 60.4 for the control group (P < .001). We did not find statistically significant effects on behavioral outcomes (initiation of sexual activity or engagement in high-risk sexual behavior) or on other nonbehavioral outcomes (attitudes, skills, intentions). Conclusions. Pono Choices had a statistically significant impact on knowledge of adolescent pregnancy and STI prevention among middle school students at 12 months after baseline, though it did not lead to detectable changes in behavioral outcomes within the 1-year observation period. These results call for an exploration of longer-term outcomes to assess effects on knowledge retention and behavioral changes. PMID:27689477
Thompsen, Philip A.
The issue of whether the nature of scholarship is being changed by electronic publishing was made clear to a graduate student when his telecommunication link to the world (his modem) failed. While the newer forms of academic communication offer impressive advantages over traditional publishing, scholars still feel compelled to retain somehow the…
Huang, Jefferson P.
For people who are currently under twenty-five years old, it is almost impossible to recall life before the Internet, as they have grown up knowing it to exist all along. For today's college students, the Internet and other new technologies are not only indispensable research tools, but a vehicle for socializing, entertainment, and even defining…
By vaunting the successes of the past while minimizing the failures, educators have painted an unreal, rosy picture that is now accepted as historical truth. This misconception hurts education by implying that school organization and curriculum can make no difference because today's students can't compare to those of long ago. (RM)
Rhoads, Robert A.
This book examines student activism in the 1990s and finds its sources in the struggle over multiculturalism and issues of social justice and equality. It is argued that identity politics is a reaction to the cultural hegemony reinforced through longstanding monocultural norms of the academy. A case study methodology used such data as formal and…
The purpose of this single-case study was to explore the lived experiences of a grade 6 teacher and students who used tablets as part of their classroom instruction. Malone and Lepper's taxonomy of intrinsic motivations for learning is used as a framework for examining whether and how this particular theory of motivation applies equally well for…
Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong
Some past studies find that older students have more confidence in using technology for learning than younger students but some other studies find the opposite result. However, it is found that there are a few researches studying on the age difference in the perception of using technology for learning in Hong Kong. Therefore, the aim of the study…
To determine the effects of the increasing enrollment of women and the greater mix in the age composition of student bodies in colleges, questionnaire responses were obtained from approximately 6,500 students in 27 nationally scattered junior and community colleges. Comparisons were made of the college perceptions and experiences of the women and…
Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan
The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…
Allen, Susan M.; And Others
Negative attitudes and stereotypic behaviors directed at the elderly were decreased among 49 seventh- and eighth-grade gifted students who participated in an intergenerational practicum in which student conducted reminscence interviews with elderly persons about significant events in their lives and learned about issues facing the aged. (CB)
Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson, C. Marie
School counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant…
Mercer, Jenny; Clay, James; Etheridge, Leanne
Engaging in term-time employment appears to be becoming a common feature of contemporary UK student life. This study examined the ways in which a cohort of full-time non-traditional aged students negotiated paid employment whilst pursuing a full-time higher education course in Wales. Taking a qualitative approach to explore this further,…
Anxiety symptoms expressed by elementary school-aged students was a problem in an elementary school south of Atlanta, Georgia. These behaviors were negatively impacting the performance and behaviors of fourth and fifth grade students in and out of the educational environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if teaching anxiety reduction…
This study, comparing the academic achievement levels of the students with different primary school entrance age, is in survey model. 60 students, at the second grade of a primary school centrally located in Tokat province in the year the study was conducted and were 60-66 and 73-84 months old when entered the primary school, were selected with…
Myers, George; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin
Explores ideas about the causes and consequences of urban and rural air pollution of secondary school students aged 11-16 years (n=786) using a questionnaire. Students thought the air in towns and cities was more polluted than the air in the countryside. (Author/SAH)
This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project, part of a doctoral thesis, which examines the impact of university study on a group of 20 female and male mature-age students at the University of Newcastle, Australia, who have entered university via a non-traditional pathway. These students are in the second to final years of…
Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.
Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…
Wray, Natalie; McCall, Louise
The research reported in this article explored the impact of the undergraduate placement experience on medical, nursing, and allied health students' perceptions of careers in aged care. Data were collected from undergraduate students (48) and graduates (26) via individual (46) and group (7) interviews; data were thematically analyzed.…
Timm, Joan Thrower; Gross, James R.
Previous investigations on Piagetian cognitive levels among college students both within and across academic disciplines have not addressed the issue of possible differences in cognitive levels between traditional undergraduates and older returning students. Piagetian cognitive levels were studied among traditional- and nontraditional-age college…
In this article, the author examines some issues linked to the impact of new technologies on teaching. In a 2003 survey, respondents stressed that the priority was to understand "how new media are changing student learning." There are by now numerous studies that attempt to assess how students conduct research and learn in the digital age, but…
Jones, Katherine J.; Vandenberg, Edward V.; Bottsford, Lisa
The authors describe the prevalence, formation, maintenance, and evaluation of student aging interest groups. They conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of the 46 academic medical centers funded by the Donald W. Reynolds Foundation. To evaluate their group of approximately 50 students, the authors conducted an electronic pretest and…
This article offers a five-level variable that highlights the level and the consistency of a student's educational "anticipations," and tests the explanatory power of this approach to the histories of traditional age community college students using the postsecondary transcript files of the NELS:88\\2000 longitudinal study. In logistic…
Curch, Lisa M
Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of media, popular culture, and prime-time animation in college teaching and addresses specific issues in, as well as examples of, how such programs can be used in college courses, particularly aging courses. The article also reports on a small survey of students who were exposed to such a teaching technique in an undergraduate aging course. Results showed that, in general, students were positive about viewing prime-time animation videos in class and indicated that they found the viewings and associated assignments helpful for learning about concepts and issues in aging.
Allen, Joseph P.; And Others
Examined long-term sequelae of severe adolescent psychopathology from the perspective of adult attachment theory. Compared 66 upper-middle-class adolescents who were psychiatrically hospitalized at age 14 for problems other than thought or organic disorders, to 76 socio-demographically similar high school students. When reviewed at age 25,…
Tullo, Ellen; Greaves, Laura; Wakeling, Luisa
As the number of older people in society increases, gaining an awareness of the needs of an aging population is important for university students from all academic backgrounds. Using a multidisciplinary approach to aging, we developed a new teaching module (NU-AGE [Newcastle University Aging Generations Education]) aimed at students enrolled in…
Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel
Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…
Reviewed nine contemporary novels (1971-86) to examine dominant themes evident in contemporary novels involving American Indian adolescents. In contrast to earlier novels, these contemporary novels reflected greater realism toward and less stereotyping of American Indians. Most salient themes dealt with prejudice and discrimination, hopelessness…
Nippold, Marilyn A.
This book focuses on the more advanced language abilities of upper grade youth and adolescents. It discusses how language develops from childhood to adulthood. The book compiles, integrates, and interprets the extensive research on this population for numerous topics. It is useful to anyone seeking an increased understanding of the relationships…
Blanc, Ann K.; Bruce, Judith
This special issue addresses an ambitious set of concerns around the experience of adolescents in the majority world: expanded models of development, successful models of intervention, and the impact of globalization. The papers, which vary widely in both substance and methodology, make a substantial contribution to pushing forward the boundaries…
Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.
The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…
Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…
Greydanus, Donald E., Ed.
The second in a three-volume series of childcare books developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics and Feeling Fine Programs, this reference book addresses medical and parenting concerns related to raising an adolescent. The book provides scientific information and advice on how to promote the physical, emotional, cognitive, and psychological…
The purpose of this study was to explore the transition process in congenital heart disease (CHD) care through the perceived needs and concerns of adolescents (pretransition) and the experiential insight from adults (post-transition), in order to inform future transition initiatives and information ...
Gabriels, Robin L., Ed.; Hill, Dina E., Ed.
Individuals with autism and their caregivers face unique challenges in later childhood and adolescence, yet this period is often neglected in the professional literature. This much-needed volume translates current research on the needs of this population into practical recommendations for clinicians and educators. Featuring vivid case examples and…
Adolescents who occupy virtual spaces construct identities for a dual audience, those intimate friends whose favor they seek and a broader public audience whose purpose for viewing cannot be known. The digital world of MySpace, Facebook, and Instant Messaging has simultaneously complicated and enhanced the process of identity construction. The…
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included…
Poulsen, Catherine; Picton, Terence W.; Paus, Tomas
Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize…
Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A
This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.
Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff
Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace.
Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.
A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…
Ferrario, Catherine G.; Freeman, Florida J.; Nellett, Gaile; Scheel, Jeanne
Ageism retards recruitment of healthcare professionals to work with older adults. Negative attitudes toward older adults were found in surveying four colleges of nursing (N = 117). Curriculum enhancements at one of the colleges used successful aging as an organizing framework, developed faculty as aging specialists, and required coursework and…
Villatte, Aude; Courtinat-Camps, Amélie; de Léonardis, Myriam
This study sought comprehension of several specifics concerning the self-concept of gifted high school students in France. Eighty-four gifted high school students (IQ = 130) between the ages of 13 and 18 were matched with 84 nongifted high school students possessing the same gender, family background, and academic characteristics. Each of these…
VonDras, Dean D.; Lor-Vang, Mai Nou
Seeking to extend curricula in a Psychology of Aging course, an online Internet test that assesses user's implicit attitudes was used as part of a learning activity to enhance students' awareness of age-bias in social perceptions. A pretest-posttest methodology examined the efficacy of this learning activity in three separate investigations.…
Curl, Angela L.; Simons, Kelsey; Larkin, Heather
The aging of the United States population is creating an increased need for social workers and other helping professionals with training in gerontology. Recent estimates indicate that less than 3% of MSW students are enrolled in an aging concentration, as compared to 19.0% enrolled in children/youth concentrations. This study (N=126) examines…
Piotrowski, Chris; Lathrop, Peter J.
Research on the topic of cyberbullying has proliferated over the past decade, particularly on its impact on school-aged children (see Piotrowski, 2011). However, there is limited research on the incidence and impact of cyberstalking, a related type of cyber-abuse, on college-age students. Thus, it would be of interest to examine the extent of…
Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…
This study was part of a larger on-going study that is examining the Pygmalion Principle for the practicum experiences of six mature-age student-teachers. The participants are former graduates with university degrees and aged from 36 to 49. They have extensive career backgrounds unrelated to classroom teaching. For this part of the larger study,…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.
Data summaries on college and university age distribution of New York State students in the fall of 1987 are presented. Information was obtained from the 1987-88 HEDS/IPEDS survey from NYSED-2.6, "Enrollment by Level, Age, Cohort, and Sex, Fall 1987." The 12 tables are as follows (all for institutions of higher education by institutional…
Curch, Lisa M.
Prime-time animation is a television genre that frequently reflects on issues that are significant in contemporary society, including aging issues. Using such programs to present aging-related content can be a constructive pedagogical device, offering a means of actively engaging students. This article provides a brief overview of the use of…
Yoshinaga-Itano, Christine; Downey, Doris M.
Studies of the written language of students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing addressed, among other topics, level of reading skills, development of language skills after age 12, and evidence of a critical age for language learning. Data collection methods, research outcomes, and an overview of other articles in the theme issue are discussed. (CR)
Frerichs, Marian L.
To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…