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Sample records for adolescent suicidal behavior

  1. Pathways of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munzer, Jane; And Others

    Suicide attempts and suicidal ideation among adolescents have been increasing faster than those for adults. This study addresses three questions on adolescent suicidal behavior: (1) Why do some adolescents with psychiatric disorders have a history of suicidal behaviors and some do not?; (2) How do intrapsychic and interpersonal underpinnings of…

  2. Sleep and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen

    2004-11-01

    Suicide risk begins to increase during adolescence. Adolescents do not get enough sleep and are also at risk for many sleep disturbances. This study examined the association between sleep patterns and sleep problems and adolescent suicidal behavior. A questionnaire survey of adolescents attending school was conducted in one prefecture of Shandong Province, People's Republic of China. A total of 1,362 adolescents attending school (mean age 14.6 years, 60% males) participated in the survey. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire that asked about sleep patterns, sleep problems, suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics of the family and adolescent. Overall, 19.3% of the sample reported having suicidal ideation, 10.5% having suicide attempts in the past 6 months, 16.9% having insomnia symptoms, 2.3% having taken hypnotic medication, and 48.9% having experience of nightmares in the past month. Mean night sleep duration was 7.6 hours (SD = 0.8). Logistic regression analyses showed that sleeping less than 8 hours at night (OR = 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-7.81) and frequent nightmares (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.76-3.35) were significantly associated with increased risk for suicide attempts after adjustment for age, sex, father's occupation, and depressive symptoms and that nightmares (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.20-2.38) were also significantly related to suicidal ideation. These findings demonstrate the association between short sleep duration and nightmares and suicidal behavior and highlight the potential role of sleep intervention in the prevention of adolescent suicide.

  3. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression and suicidality

    PubMed Central

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Wolff, Jennifer; Uhl, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis CBT has emerged as a well-established treatment for depression in children and adolescents but treatment trials for adolescents with suicidality are few in number, and their efficacy to date is rather limited. Although a definitive treatment for adolescent suicide attempters has yet to be established, the limited literature suggests that suicidal thoughts and behavior should be directly addressed for optimal treatment outcome. This chapter reviews the rationale underlying the use of CBT for the treatment of depression and suicidality in adolescents, the literature supporting the efficacy of CBT for depressed adolescents, and whether CBT for depression reduces suicidal thoughts and behavior. A description of some of the core cognitive, affective, and behavioral techniques used in CBT treatments of suicidal ideation and behavior in depressed adolescents is included. PMID:21440850

  4. Suicidal Behavior among Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…

  5. The interpersonal theory of suicide and adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, S; Feldman, D; Snir, A; Apter, A; Carli, V; Hoven, C W; Wasserman, C; Sarchiapone, M; Wasserman, D

    2015-09-01

    Joiner's interpersonal theory of suicide (IPTS) proposes that suicide results from the combination of a perception of burdening others, social alienation, and the capability for self-harm. The theory gained some empirical support, however the overall model has yet to be tested. This study aimed to test the main predictions of IPTS in a large community sample of Israeli adolescents. 1196 Israeli Jewish and Arab high-school pupils participating in the SEYLE project completed a self-report questionnaire measuring perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, health risk behaviors, and non-suicidal self-injury (risk variables), and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (outcome measures). The data were tested in cross-sectional regression models. Consistent with IPTS, perceived burdensomeness was found to interact with thwarted belongingness, predicting suicidal ideation. Depression mediated most of the effect of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness on suicidal ideation. Acquired capability for self-harm, as measured by health risk behaviors and direct non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors, predicted suicide attempt. However, this mechanism operated independently from ideation rather than in interaction with it, at variance with IPTS-based predictions. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about causality and directionality. Proxy measures were used to test the interpersonal theory constructs. The findings support some of the IPTS predictions but not all, and imply two separate pathways for suicidal behavior in adolescents: one related to internalizing psychopathology and the other to self-harm behaviors. This conceptualization has clinical implications for the differential identification of adolescents at risk for suicidal behavior and for the development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use: Developmental Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Michael A; Mathias, Charles W; Richard, Dawn M; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Dougherty, Donald M

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent suicidal behaviors and substance use are disturbingly common. Research suggests overlap of some of the etiological mechanisms for both adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use, yet clear understanding of the complex relations between these behaviors and their causal underpinnings is lacking. A growing body of evidence and a diathesis model (Mann et al. 1999; Mann, 2003) highlight the importance of impulse control as a proximal risk factor for adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. This literature review extends current theory on the relationships between adolescent suicidal behavior and substance use by: (1) examining how, when, and to what extent adolescent development is affected by poor impulse control, stressful life events, substance use behavior, and biological factors; (2) presenting proposed causal mechanisms by which these risk factors interact to increase risk for suicidal behaviors and substance use; and (3) proposing specific new hypotheses to extend the diathesis model to adolescents at risk for suicide and substance use. More specifically, new hypotheses are presented that predict bidirectional relationships between stressful life events and genetic markers of 5-HT dysregulation; substance use behavior and impulsivity; and substance use behavior and suicide attempts. The importance of distinguishing between different developmental trajectories of suicidal and substance use behaviors, and the effects of specific risk and protective mechanisms are discussed. Use of new statistical approaches that provide for the comparison of latent growth curves and latent class models is recommended to identify differences in developmental trajectories of suicidal behavior and substance use. Knowledge gained from these prospective longitudinal methods should lead to greater understanding on the timing, duration, and extent to which specific risk and protective factors influence the outcomes of suicidal behavior and substance use. In turn

  7. Spirituality Moderates Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Talib, Mansor Abu; Abdollahi, Abbas

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem for adolescents, and it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicide among adolescent students. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the associations between hopelessness, depression, spirituality, and suicidal behavior, and to examine spirituality as a moderator between hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among 1376 Malaysian adolescent students. The participants completed measures of depression, hopelessness, daily spiritual experience, and suicidal behavior. Structural equation modeling indicated that adolescent students high in hopelessness and depression, but also high in spirituality, had less suicidal behavior than others. These findings reinforce the importance of spirituality as a protective factor against hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among Malaysian adolescent students.

  8. Suicidal Behavior and Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Janice A.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of insights of parents of gifted adolescent boys (N=8) who committed suicide found retrospective clues for potential suicide such as: lack of recognition/acceptance of individuality; effects of competition on self-esteem; lack of coping skills; and suicidal behavior of friends. (CB)

  9. Parent-reported suicidal behavior and correlates among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Sun, Zhenxiao; Yang, Yanyun

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal risk begins to increase during adolescence and is associated with multiple biological, psychological, social, and cultural factors. This study examined the prevalence and psychosocial factors of parent-reported suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. A community sample of 1920 adolescents in China participated in an epidemiological study. Parents completed a structured questionnaire including child suicidal behavior, illness history, mental health problems, family history, parenting, and family environment. Multiple logistic regression was used for data analysis. Overall, 2.4% of the sample talked about suicide in the previous 6 months, 3.2% had deliberately hurt themselves or attempted suicide, and 5.1% had either suicidal talk or self-harm. The rate of suicidal behavior increased as adolescents aged. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with elevated risk for suicidal behavior: depressive/anxious symptoms, poor maternal health, family conflict, and physical punishment of parental discipline style. Suicidal behavior was reported by parents. No causal relationships could be made based on cross-sectional data. The prevalence rate of parent-reported suicidal behavior is markedly lower than self-reported rate in previous research. Depressive/anxious symptoms and multiple family environmental factors are associated with suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.

  10. Latina Adolescents Health Risk Behaviors and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: Results from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2001-2013.

    PubMed

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2017-06-01

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more common in Latina adolescents than White or African-American adolescents. Several health risk behaviors have been identified as being associated with Latina adolescent suicides. However, to date, no study has identified the consistency and stability of these risk behaviors over time. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behaviors Survey from 2001 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors in Latina adolescents. Our analysis found the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied significantly over the 13-year study span, decreasing from 2001 to 2009 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The analyses found 11 health risk behaviors that were significantly associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts that did not vary over time. The stability of these 11 health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors could be useful to school personnel to identify early at risk Latina adolescents who may benefit from school and community mental health resources.

  11. Parent-Adolescent Agreement Concerning Adolescents' Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaus, Nicole M.; Mobilio, Andrea; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Information on history of suicidal thoughts and behaviors is critical in risk assessment, and multi-informant assessment has been recommended. Despite this, relatively little is known about parent-adolescent agreement regarding adolescent suicidality. To examine the extent and predictors of such agreement, 448 psychiatrically hospitalized…

  12. Factors relating to adolescent suicidal behavior: a cross-sectional Malaysian school survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Paul C Y; Lee, Lai Kah; Wong, Kam Cheong; Kaur, Jagmohni

    2005-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine factors relating to adolescent suicide behavior. This was a cross-sectional school survey of 4,500 adolescent students based on a structured questionnaire. Data were collected using the supervised self-administered questionnaire (modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance in the Malaysian National Language, Bahasa Malaysia). Seven percent (312 of 4,454) of the adolescent students had seriously considered attempting suicide. Among the adolescents, 4.6% had attempted suicide at least once during the 12 months preceding the survey. Female adolescents were more likely to put their suicidal thoughts into suicidal action than were male adolescents. Malay and Indian people are more likely than the Chinese to respond, "Felt sad and hopeless." However, Malay adolescents had the lowest rate of attempted suicide. Based on multiple logistic regression, factors significantly related to urban adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Number of days felt unsafe to go to school," "Riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol," "Physical fight," and "Number of days absent from school." In comparison, factors relating to rural adolescents' suicide behavior are "Felt sad or hopeless," "Physical fight," "Physical fight resulting in injury," and "Drive a vehicle after drinking alcohol." Adolescent suicide behavior should be viewed as a serious problem. Measures can be taken to prevent suicide by looking at the factors significantly linked to suicidal behavior among adolescents. Steps can then be taken to identify adolescents who have serious suicidal ideation so that intervention can be taken to reduce the suicidal rate.

  13. [Validation of a path model on adolescents' suicidal ideation and violent behavior].

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the fitness of a path model on the relationship among stress, self-esteem, aggression, depression, suicidal ideation, and violent behavior for adolescents. The subjects consisted of 1,177 adolescents. Data was collected through self-report questionnaires. The data was analyzed by the SPSS and AMOS programs. Stress, self-esteem, aggression, and depression showed a direct effect on suicidal ideation for adolescents, while stress, self-esteem, and aggression showed an indirect effect on suicidal ideation for adolescents. Stress, self-esteem, aggression, and suicidal ideation showed a direct effect on violent behavior for adolescents, while stress, self-esteem, aggression, and depression showed an indirect effect on violent behavior for adolescents. The modified path model of adolescent's suicidal ideation and violent behavior was proven correct. These results suggest that adolescent's suicidal ideation and violent behavior can be decreased by reducing stress, aggression, and depression and increasing self-esteem. Based on the outcomes of this study, it is necessary to design an intervention program that emphasizes reducing stress, aggression, and depression and increasing self-esteem in order to decrease adolescents' suicide ideation and violence.

  14. Adolescent substance use behavior and suicidal behavior for boys and girls: a cross-sectional study by latent analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-12-08

    Adolescent suicidal behavior may consist of different symptoms, including suicidal ideation, suicidal planning and suicidal attempts. Adolescent substance use behavior may contribute to adolescent suicidal behavior. However, research on the relationships between specific substance use and individual suicidal behavior is insufficient, as adolescents may not use only one substance or develop only one facet of suicidal behavior. Latent variables permit us to describe the relationships between clusters of related behaviors more accurately than studying the relationships between specific behaviors. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore how adolescent substance use behavior contributes to suicidal behavior using latent variables representing adolescent suicidal and substance use behaviors. A total of 13,985 adolescents were recruited using a stratified random sampling strategy. The participants indicated whether they had experienced suicidal ideation, planning and attempts and reported their cigarette, alcohol, ketamine and MDMA use during the past year. Latent analysis was used to examine the relationship between substance use and suicidal behavior. Adolescents who used any one of the above substances exhibited more suicidal behavior. The results of latent variables analysis revealed that adolescent substance use contributed to suicidal behavior and that boys exhibited more severe substance use behavior than girls. However, there was no gender difference in the association between substance use and suicidal behavior. Substance use behavior in adolescents is related to more suicidal behavior. In addition, the contribution of substance use to suicidal behavior does not differ between genders.

  15. Effects of Statewide Job Losses on Adolescent Suicide-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the impact of statewide job loss on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Methods. We used 1997 to 2009 data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to estimate the effects of statewide job loss on adolescents’ suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide plans. Probit regression models controlled for demographic characteristics, state of residence, and year; samples were divided according to gender and race/ethnicity. Results. Statewide job losses during the year preceding the survey increased girls’ probability of suicidal ideation and suicide plans and non-Hispanic Black adolescents’ probability of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, and suicide attempts. Job losses among 1% of a state’s working-age population increased the probability of girls and Blacks reporting suicide-related behaviors by 2 to 3 percentage points. Job losses did not affect the suicide-related behaviors of boys, non-Hispanic Whites, or Hispanics. The results were robust to the inclusion of other state economic characteristics. Conclusions. As are adults, adolescents are affected by economic downturns. Our findings show that statewide job loss increases adolescent girls’ and non-Hispanic Blacks’ suicide-related behaviors. PMID:25122027

  16. Familism, parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors and suicide attempts among adolescent Latinas.

    PubMed

    Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts.

  17. Acutely Suicidal Adolescents Who Engage in Bullying Behavior: 1-Year Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Method Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Results At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Conclusion Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. PMID:23790201

  18. Acutely suicidal adolescents who engage in bullying behavior: 1-year trajectories.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-07-01

    Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Overweight status, self-perception, and suicidal behaviors among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dave, Dhaval; Rashad, Inas

    2009-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in the USA. The suicide rate for individuals 15-19 years of age, while having declined since the early 1990s, has recently shown signs of an increasing trend. The prevalence of being overweight has also steadily risen among adolescents, and has tripled since 1960. This study utilizes data from the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System (1999-2007) to explore the relationship between the perception of being overweight and suicidal behaviors. Studies have shown a high degree of correlation between overweight status, depressive disorders, and suicidal behaviors. This study analyzes these indicators in conjunction with individuals' perception of their weight. The empirical methodology is based on simultaneous-equations models and stratified samples to gauge whether the link between overweight indicators and suicide is causal or whether it is driven by other factors. Results indicate that body dissatisfaction, as measured by the perception of being overweight, has a strong impact on all suicidal behaviors for girls. It raises the risk of suicide ideation by 6.1 percentage points, suicide attempt by 3.6 percentage points, and a serious suicide attempt by 0.5 percentage points. Results are generally insignificant for males. Conditional on overweight perception, actual weight does not generally have an independent effect on suicidal behaviors. Policies aimed at reducing the prevalence of overweight among adolescents may further reduce suicidal behaviors by limiting overweight perception, especially among girls. However, the independent role of perception also highlights the importance of educating youths and fostering healthy attitudes regarding body image.

  20. Human figure drawings in the evaluation of severe adolescent suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Zalsman, G; Netanel, R; Fischel, T; Freudenstein, O; Landau, E; Orbach, I; Weizman, A; Pfeffer, C R; Apter, A

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the reliability of using certain indicators derived from human figure drawings to distinguish between suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. Ninety consecutive admissions to an adolescent inpatient unit were assessed. Thirty-nine patients were admitted because of suicidal behavior and 51 for other reasons. All subjects were given the Human Figure Drawing (HFD) test. HFD was evaluated according to the method of Pfeffer and Richman, and the degree of suicidal behavior was rated by the Child Suicide Potential Scale. The internal reliability was satisfactory. HFD indicators correlated significantly with quantitative measures of suicidal behavior; of these indicators specifically, overall impression of the evaluator enabled the prediction of suicidal behavior and the distinction between suicidal and nonsuicidal inpatients (p < .001). A group of graphic indicators derived from a discriminant analysis formed a function, which was able to identify 84.6% of the suicidal and 76.6% of the nonsuicidal adolescents correctly. Many of the items had a regressive quality. The HFD is an example of a simple projective test that may have empirical reliability. It may be useful for the assessment of severe suicidal behavior in adolescents.

  1. A Prospective Study of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior Following Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Identifies specific predictors of suicidal behavior in 100 adolescents during a 6-month follow-up period after psychiatric hospitalization. Eighteen percent reported suicidal behavior during the follow-up period, and this behavior was associated with suicidal thoughts, family dysfunction, and dysthymia. It was not associated with initial…

  2. Identifying Adolescents at Highly Elevated Risk for Suicidal Behavior in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Berona, Johnny; Czyz, Ewa; Horwitz, Adam G.; Gipson, Polly Y.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The feasibility and concurrent validity of adolescent suicide risk screening in medical emergency departments (EDs) has been documented. The objectives of this short-term prospective study of adolescents who screened positive for suicide risk in the ED were: 1) to examine adolescents' rate of suicidal behavior during the 2 months following their ED visits and compare it with reported rates for psychiatric samples; and 2) to identify possible predictors of acute risk for suicidal behavior in this at-risk sample. Method: Participants were 81 adolescents, ages 14–19 years, seeking services for psychiatric and nonpsychiatric chief complaints, who screened positive for suicide risk because of recent suicidal ideation, a suicide attempt, and/or depression plus alcohol or substance misuse. A comprehensive assessment of suicidal behavior, using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, was conducted at baseline and 2 month follow-up. Results: Six adolescents (7.4%) reported a suicide attempt and 15 (18.5%) engaged in some type of suicidal behavior (actual, aborted, or interrupted suicide attempt; preparatory behavior) during the 2 months following their ED visit. These rates suggest that this screen identified a high-risk sample. Furthermore, adolescents who screened positive for suicidal ideation and/or attempt plus depression and alcohol/substance misuse were most likely to engage in future suicidal behavior (38.9%). Conclusions: In this study, use of a higher screen threshold (multiple suicide risk factors) showed promise for identifying highly elevated acute risk for suicidal behavior. PMID:25746114

  3. Menarche, menstrual problems and suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Wang, Xin-Ting; Bo, Qi-Gui; Zhang, Dao-Ming; Qi, Zhen-Biao; Liu, Xianchen; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-02-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual cycle. Menstrual problems, such as dysmenorrheal menorrhagia, oligomenorrhea, and irregular cycle are common in female adolescents. This research aims to examine the associations between age at menarche and menstrual problems and suicidal behavior among Chinese female adolescents. An epidemiological survey of 5831 female adolescents from eight high schools of three counties of Shandong province, China, was conducted. A self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire was used to collect information. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between menstruation and suicidality. The mean age of the sample was 15.02 (SD=1.44) years. Of the sample, 5,231 (90.0%) had experienced their first menstrual cycle, and 23.2%, 10.4%, and 4.5% of the sample reported having had suicidal ideation, plan and attempt, respectively. In multivariate models, menarche at ≤11 years was associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation (OR=1.41, 95%CI: 1.10-1.81) and menarche at 12 years was associated with suicide plan (OR=1.23, 95%CI: 1.00-1.51). Irregular menstrual cycle was significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation (OR=1.40, 95%CI: 1.05-1.86) and menstrual period less than or equal to 4 days was significantly associated with increased risk of suicide plan (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.66). This cross-sectional study cannot establish the causal directions between menstrual problems and suicidality in adolescents. Our study suggests that earlier menarche, irregular menstrual cycle and short menstrual period are associated with suicidal behavior in female adolescents. Further research is warranted to examine the causal relationship between menstrual problems and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, GyuYoung; Ham, Ok Kyung

    2018-04-10

    Suicidal ideation poses a serious threat to the well-being of adolescents and is the strongest risk factor for suicide. Indeed, Korea ranks first among Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries regarding the age-standardized suicide rates. In the present study, we examined multiple levels of factors associated with the suicidal ideation of adolescents in Korea by applying the Ecological Models of Health Behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 860 adolescents. The instruments included the Beck Depression Inventory and the Adolescent Mental Health and Problem Behavior Questionnaire. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression. Sixteen percent of participants reported suicidal ideation. Intrapersonal (sleep disturbance, Internet game addiction, destructive behavior, and depressive symptoms) and interpersonal factors (family conflicts and peer victimization) were associated with suicidal ideation. Because multiple factors were associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents, both intrapersonal (sleep disturbance, Internet game addiction, and depression) and interpersonal factors (family conflicts and peer problems) should be considered in the development of suicide-prevention programs. These programs could include campaigns changing the norms (permissive attitudes toward school violence) and the development of strict and rigorous school non-violence policies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  7. Suicidal behavior and related traits among inpatient adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Shoval, Gal; Feld-Olspanger, Joy; Nahshoni, Eitan; Gothelf, Doron; Misgav, Sagit; Manor, Iris; Apter, Alan; Zalsman, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in adolescents with first-episode schizophrenia (FES). The aim of this pilot study was to compare suicide-related traits between subjects with FES and those with other psychopathologies to evaluate risk factors for suicidal behavior. Twenty-five inpatient adolescents with FES and a control group of 28 psychiatric inpatients matched for sex and age were assessed for depression, anger, criminal behavior, aggression, and suicidal ideation, risk, and potential. The adolescents with FES had significantly lower depression (P = .003), anger (P = .025), and criminal behavior (P = .022) than did the controls. However, although suicide ideation was greater in the subjects with FES (P = .003), suicide risk was significantly lower than that in controls (P = .004). Decreased levels of both depression and anger as part of affective constriction in the group with schizophrenia could explain why the increased suicide ideation did not lead to a higher suicide risk in these inpatients. This study highlights the importance of distinguishing between suicidal ideation and actual suicide risk. We demonstrated that thoughts of suicide do not necessarily translate into an actual risk of suicidal behavior in adolescents with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Suicide in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Bouvard, M P; Doyen, C

    1996-12-01

    With 1500 death each year, suicide does represent the second cause of death in young people (between 15 and 25 years). There is a clear increase of suicide rate during adolescence, with an higher rate of suicide attempts in females, but an higher mortality in boys. Suicidal behaviors in adolescents are clinically characterized by impulsivity, rhythmicity (during schooling) and seasonality. Risks factors are numerous. However, psychiatric disorders represent the main one, especially depressive states, conduct disorders and their association. In adolescents familial and environment events may have an important role in suicidal behaviors, especially the role of imitation behavior. These different factors interact and constitute dynamic models. The role of each factor can be involved differently considering the sex. Dangerosity of suicide in adolescents should not be under-estimated, as it has been the case in the past. It is particularly true if we consider the high rate of recidive (approximatively 50%) in this population. These data emphasized the importance of a careful evaluation of all suicidal adolescents more precisely of depressive symptoms and aggressive and/or delinquent behavior and of prevention.

  9. Body Weight and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent Females: The Role of Self-Perceptions.

    PubMed

    Minor, Travis; Ali, Mir M; Rizzo, John A

    2016-03-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents and recent data indicate that the suicide rate, particularly for young girls, is increasing. Excess body weight among adolescents has also been documented widely over the last two decades and is considered one of the most pressing public health concerns today. Previous literature has examined the relationship between actual body weight and suicidal behavior, but there is little evidence on self-perception of weight and suicidal behaviors. This study examines the relationship between body weight and suicidal behaviors using a rich longitudinal data set of a large nationally-representative sample of female adolescents to account for a number of confounding factors. The study explores the relationship, not only between actual weight status and suicidal behaviors, but also between self-perception of weight and suicidal behaviors. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents in the United States, the study ascertains the effect of body weight status on suicidal behaviors by estimating endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects to account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders. Actual body weight status was calculated using interviewer-measured height and weight. The study also used a measure of self-perceived weight status to compare how actual versus self-perceived weight status affects suicidal behavior. Thinking about committing suicide and attempting to commit suicide in the past 12 months were utilized as dichotomous measures of suicidal behaviors. Potential mediators between suicidal behaviors and weight status such as family history of suicide, participation in risky health behaviors and parental characteristics were also controlled for in the analysis. The analytical sample consists of 5,430 adolescent females aged 11 to 18. The results suggest that both self-perceived and measured weight status (overweight or obese) increase a female adolescent

  10. Depression and suicidal behavior in adolescent inpatients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Apter, Alan; Horesh, Netta; Gothelf, Doron; Zalsman, Gil; Erlich, Zippy; Soreni, Noam; Weizman, Abraham

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence and correlations of suicidal behavior in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among adolescent psychiatric inpatients. A total of 348 adolescents, representing consecutive admissions to an adolescent inpatient unit, were assessed. Of these, 40 patients had OCD, 118 had schizophrenia, 59 had an affective disorder, 81 had a conduct disorder and 50 had an eating disorder. In addition, 87 normal community controls were assessed. All subjects were assessed for suicidal behavior by the Childhood Suicide Potential Scale (CSPS), for depression by the Beck Depression Inventory, for impulsiveness by the Impulse Control Scale, for anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Scale and for aggression by the Yudowsky Overt Aggression Scale. All the psychiatrically ill subjects, including those with OCD, had high levels of depression, anxiety and impulsiveness, which were far higher than those of the controls. The rate of attempted suicide was, however, much lower in the OCD subjects. In addition, there was a significant inverse correlation between suicidal behavior levels on the CSPS and depression in the OCD subjects, while all other subjects showed the expected significant positive correlation between level of suicidal behavior and depression. This study looked at a referred population and generalization to outpatient and community samples cannot be made. Distinguishing between the primary and the comorbid diagnosis is difficult and some findings are based on small sample size and therefore may be vulnerable to type I error. Although suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms are common in OCD adolescent inpatients, they seem to be protected against suicide attempts. The inverse relationship between suicidal behavior and depression may mean that suicidal behavior is, in some ways, qualitatively different from that seen in other psychiatrically ill adolescents.

  11. Autobiographical memory, interpersonal problem solving, and suicidal behavior in adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Arie, Miri; Apter, Alan; Orbach, Israel; Yefet, Yael; Zalsman, Gil; Zalzman, Gil

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to test Williams' (Williams JMG. Depression and the specificity of autobiographical memory. In: Rubin D, ed. Remembering Our Past: Studies in Autobiographical Memory. London: Cambridge University Press; 1996:244-267.) theory of suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults by examining the relationship among suicidal behaviors, defective ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories, impaired interpersonal problem solving, negative life events, repression, and hopelessness. Twenty-five suicidal adolescent and young adult inpatients (16.5 y +/- 2.5) were compared with 25 nonsuicidal adolescent and young adult inpatients (16.5 y +/- 2.5) and 25 healthy controls. Autobiographical memory was tested by a word association test; problem solving by the means-ends problem solving technique; negative life events by the Coddington scale; repression by the Life Style Index; hopelessness by the Beck scale; suicidal risk by the Plutchik scale, and suicide attempt by clinical history. Impairment in the ability to produce specific autobiographical memories, difficulties with interpersonal problem solving, negative life events, and repression were all associated with hopelessness and suicidal behavior. There were significant correlations among all the variables except for repression and negative life events. These findings support Williams' notion that generalized autobiographical memory is associated with deficits in interpersonal problem solving, negative life events, hopelessness, and suicidal behavior. The finding that defects in autobiographical memory are associated with suicidal behavior in adolescents and young adults may lead to improvements in the techniques of cognitive behavioral therapy in this age group.

  12. [Family dysfunction in adolescents with suicidal behavior and in adolescents with conduct disorders].

    PubMed

    Ivanović-Kovacević, Svetlana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Misić-Pavkov, Gordana

    2005-01-01

    The period of life known as adolescence generally refers to transition from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents' progress toward autonomy involves remaining connected with, as well as separated from parents. Young people and their parents usually have mixed feelings about adolescent autonomy and attachment. An estimated 50% of children born in the 80-s have spent part of their developmental years in single-parent households. Divorce is almost always a stressful event in children's lives. Youthful suicide rate has increased dramatically and is the third leading cause of death among 15-19 year olds. Conduct disorder is one of the mostfrequently diagnosed conditions in adolescents. Suicidal adolescents and adolescents with conduct disorder are much more likely than their peers to have grown up in disrupted, disorganized homes with lack of attachment between parents and their children. This prospective study was carried out during 2002, 2003, and 2004. The research included 60 adolescents treated at the Center for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Novi Sad, 30 with diagnosed conduct disorder and 30 with suicidal behavior. Along with other kinds of distress, suicidal adolescents have experienced an escalation of family problems a few months prior to attempted suicide. Divorce and life in singe-parent households is almost always a stressful period in children's lives. Conduct disorder and suicidal behavior represent a desperate cryfor help. Conclusion Most adolescents in both groups live in single-parent households. These young people have frequently passed into adolescence with little reason to feel that they could rely on their parentsfor support, or on their home as a place of sanctuary.

  13. Predictive Validity of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale for Short-Term Suicidal Behavior: A Danish Study of Adolescents at a High Risk of Suicide.

    PubMed

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Erlangsen, Annette; Teasdale, Thomas William; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Larsen, Kim Juul

    2017-07-03

    Using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), we examined the predictive and incremental predictive validity of past-month suicidal behavior and ideation for short-term suicidal behavior among adolescents at high risk of suicide. The study was conducted in 2014 on a sample of 85 adolescents (90.6% females) who participated at follow-up (85.9%) out of the 99 (49.7%) baseline respondents. All adolescents were recruited from a specialized suicide-prevention clinic in Denmark. Through multivariate logistic regression analyses, we examined whether baseline suicidal behavior predicted subsequent suicidal behavior (actual attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, including preparatory acts, aborted, interrupted and actual attempts; mean follow-up of 80.8 days, SD = 52.4). Furthermore, we examined whether suicidal ideation severity and intensity incrementally predicted suicidal behavior at follow-up over and above suicidal behavior at baseline. Actual suicide attempts at baseline strongly predicted suicide attempts at follow-up. Baseline suicidal ideation severity and intensity did not significantly predict future actual attempts over and above baseline attempts. The suicidal ideation intensity items deterrents and duration were significant predictors of subsequent actual attempts after adjustment for baseline suicide attempts and suicidal behavior of any type, respectively. Suicidal ideation severity and intensity, and the intensity items frequency, duration and deterrents, all significantly predicted any type of suicidal behavior at follow-up, also after adjusting for baseline suicidal behavior. The present study points to an incremental predictive validity of the C-SSRS suicidal ideation scales for short-term suicidal behavior of any type among high-risk adolescents.

  14. An Exploratory Study of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescent Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816

  15. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior Among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behaviors among adolescents in the United States. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12–17, N=19,301) of the 2000 NHSDA were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors and related socio-demographic, family and individual factors was obtained in the survey. The rate of past year suicide attempt among adolescents with lifetime ecstasy use was almost double that of adolescents who had used other drugs only, and nine times that of adolescents with no history of illicit drug use. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, controlling for related factors, the effect of ecstasy use remained significant. Adolescent ecstasy users may require enhanced suicide prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:21631573

  16. Dialectical Behavior Therapy with Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alec L.; Rathus, Jill H.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2006-01-01

    Filling a tremendous need, this highly practical book adapts the proven techniques of dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) to treatment of multiproblem adolescents at highest risk for suicidal behavior and self-injury. The authors are master clinicians who take the reader step by step through understanding and assessing severe emotional…

  17. Self-Harm and Suicidal Behaviors in Hong Kong Adolescents: Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present paper examined the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of adolescent deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal behavior in a representative sample of 3,328 secondary school students in Hong Kong. With reference to the previous year, 32.7% of the students reported at least one form of DSH, 13.7% of the respondents had suicide thoughts, 4.9% devised specific suicidal plans, and 4.7% had actually attempted suicide. Adolescent girls had significantly higher rates of DSH and suicidal behavior than did adolescent boys. Having remarried parents was related to an increased likelihood of DSH and suicide. While high levels of family functioning, overall positive youth development, and academic and school performance predicted low rates of DSH and suicidal behavior, cognitive and behavioral competencies were unexpectedly found to be positively associated with DSH and suicidal behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22566783

  18. Adolescent Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Goldstein, Tina R.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    This review examines the descriptive epidemiology, and risk and protective factors for youth suicide and suicidal behavior. A model of youth suicidal behavior is articulated, whereby suicidal behavior ensues as a result of an interaction of socio-cultural, developmental, psychiatric, psychological, and family-environmental factors. On the basis of…

  19. [Association of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use with suicidal behavior in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Salvo G, Lilian; Castro S, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Suicide and suicide attempts are public health problems. Their prevention requives the detection of predictor factors. To determine the predictive valué of loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use on suicidal behavior in adolescents. Suicidal behavior, Loneliness (UCLA), Impulsivity (Barratt) scales and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), were applied to 763 high school students aged 14 to 19 years (49% males), living in Chillan, Chile. Nineteen percent of participants had attempted suicide and 34.3% had suicidal ideation. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use were directly related to suicidal behavior. These predictors explained 31 % of the suicidal behavior. The most important risk factor was loneliness, followed by femóle gender, impulsivity and alcohol use. Loneliness, impulsivity and alcohol use are risk factors for suicide among adolescents. Women are at higher risk than men.

  20. [CHALLENGES IN THE INTERVENTION OF PUERTO RICAN ADOLESCENTS THAT SHOW SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR].

    PubMed

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.

  1. [Suicidal behaviors among young adults: risk factors during development from early childhood to adolescence].

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Laucht, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are prevalent among young people. Numerous risk factors have been implicated in their development. In the framework of the longitudinal Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, 311 young adults (143 males, 168 females) aged 19-23 years were investigated in order 1) to determine the significance of different risk factors during development in predicting suicidal behaviors in young adulthood, 2) to identify potential risk factors discriminating between suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and 3) to examine whether the effect of early risk factors was mediated by later occurring predictors. Young adults with suicidal behaviors displayed a number of abnormalities during development, including high load of early family adversity, suicidal ideation and psychiatric problems in childhood and adolescence, as well as low self esteem, poor school functioning, higher levels of novelty seeking, and enhanced affiliations with deviant peers in adolescence. Independent contributions to predicting suicidal behaviors in young adults were provided by early family adversity, suicidal ideation during childhood and adolescence, and low self esteem (with regard to suicidal ideation) and novelty seeking (with regard to suicide attempt), respectively. The impact of early adversity was mediated by child and adolescent externalizing disorders and low self esteem in adolescence. Possible implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors are discussed.

  2. Suicide-related behaviors and anxiety in children and adolescents: a review.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan M; Castellanos, Daniel; Pettit, Jeremy W

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews empirical evidence of the association between suicide-related behaviors and anxiety among children and adolescents. It begins with a review of suicide-related behaviors and anxiety, discusses methodological issues related to measurement, and reviews empirical findings published since the last review of this topic in 1988. Evidence is summarized on four criteria necessary to establish anxiety as a causal risk factor for suicide-related behaviors among children and adolescents. There is consistent evidence for a significant association between anxiety and suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 1). Evidence that the influence of anxiety on suicide-related behaviors is not due to a third variable (Criterion 2) is mixed and hindered by methodological limitations. The literature is also unclear as to whether anxiety temporally precedes suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 3). Finally, this review found no evidence to support or refute anxiety's stability independent of and across instances of suicide-related behaviors (Criterion 4). Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  4. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific coping behaviors of behavioral disengagement and self-blame were predictive of higher levels of depression; depression and using emotional support were predictive of suicidal ideation. Results suggest that specific behaviors within the broad coping categories of emotion-focused coping (e.g., self-blame) and avoidant coping (e.g., behavioral disengagement) account for these categories’ associations with depression and suicidal ideation. Specific problem-focused coping strategies did not independently predict lower levels of depression or suicidal ideation. It may be beneficial for interventions to focus on eliminating maladaptive coping behaviors in addition to introducing or enhancing positive coping behaviors. PMID:21074841

  5. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  6. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  7. A 6-year Longitudinal Study of Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors among Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Law, Ben M F; Shek, Daniel T L

    2016-02-01

    To examine the trajectories of self-harm and suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong and to investigate the related predictors, including gender, family nonintactness, economic disadvantage, positive youth development, and family functioning. We used quantitative data from a large sample of adolescent participants. Participants initially joined this study when they were in grade 7 (wave 1), and they were followed from grade 8 (wave 2) to grade 12 (wave 6). The participants consisted of 2023 grade 12 students from 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. A multistage cluster random sampling method was adopted. Self-harm and suicidal behaviors. The trajectories of self-harm and suicidal behaviors in general declined from grade 7 to grade 12. Regarding the effect of gender, whereas adolescent girls showed a higher prevalence for self-harm and suicidal behaviors at baseline and other waves, adolescent boys showed a pronounced decline in self-harm rates. Adolescents from nonintact families were more likely to self-harm or engage in suicidal behaviors at wave 6. Economic disadvantage at wave 4 predicted higher suicidal behavior among adolescents but not self-harm at wave 6. Regarding positive youth development, several protective factors that include cognitive-behavioral competencies, prosocial attributes, general positive youth development qualities, and positive identity could help reduce self-harm and suicidal behaviors at different time points. Regarding the role of family functioning, more family conflicts predicted higher suicidality in adolescence (self-harm and suicidal behaviors), and family communication affected self-harming behaviors at wave 6. The trajectories of self-harm and suicidal behaviors decline from early to late adolescence among Chinese adolescents. Positive youth development and constructive family functioning are critical to help reduce suicidal behaviors. Regarding increased risk, more attention should be paid to adolescent girls

  8. Connectedness and Perceived Burdensomeness among Adolescents at Elevated Suicide Risk: An Examination of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Opperman, Kiel; Czyz, Ewa K.; Gipson, Polly Y.; King, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior emphasizes the constructs of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and acquired capacity, which warrant investigation in adolescents at-risk for suicide due to interpersonal stressors. Methods This study examined one component of the interpersonal theory of suicidal behavior, “suicidal desire” (suicidal ideation), in 129 adolescents (12–15 years) recruited from a general medical emergency department who screened positive for bully victimization, bully perpetration, or low interpersonal connectedness. Results Greater perceived burdensomeness combined with low family connectedness was a significant predictor of suicidal ideation. Conclusion This suggests the importance of addressing connectedness and perceptions of burdensomeness in prevention and early intervention efforts with at-risk adolescents. PMID:25751375

  9. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; <2.5% refusal). Random selection of census enumeration areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perception of behavioral contagion of adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Range, L M; Goggin, W C; Steede, K K

    1988-01-01

    In order to assess perceptions of behavioral contagion of suicide (what people thought a disturbed adolescent would do if the teen knew about a suicide in the community), and to assess actor-observer differences in such perceptions, 142 college students were asked to view a videotaped vignette of a distressed high school student, and then to assess her potential for committing suicide, running away, entering therapy, or abusing alcohol. Subjects who were told that the teenager knew of two recent suicides in the community (contagion group) rated the young woman as more likely to commit suicide or run away than did the subjects who were not told of the suicides (noncontagion group). Subjects who were instructed to imagine that they were the teenager (actors) blamed situational factors, and in particular the teen's parents, more for her distress than did subjects who were instructed just to rate the teenager on the videotape (observers). Contagion/actors rated suicide as more likely than did any other group. Apparently, people believe that behavioral contagion occurs when a suicide is reported, and they especially perceive themselves to be influenced by such information.

  11. Child/Adolescent Abuse and Suicidal Behavior: Are They Sex Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Gilad; Levav, Itzhak; Gross, Raz

    2012-01-01

    The association between childhood and adolescent abuse and suicidal behavior, and the possible contribution of abuse to sex differences in non lethal suicidal behavior, was investigated. Data were extracted from the Israel-based component of the WHO World Mental Health Survey (Kessler & Utsun, 2008a). Increased risk for ideation, plan, and…

  12. The relationship of weight-related attitudes with suicidal behaviors in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Su; Lee, Kayoung

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between weight-related attitudes and suicidal behavior after consideration of depressive mood in Korean adolescents. The study population consisted of a nationally representative sample of 74,698 adolescents (n = 39,466 boys, 35,232 girls) in middle and high school who completed the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) in 2007. Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships between measures of weight-related and self-reported suicidal behavior, controlling for demographics, depressive mood, stress perception, level of school achievement, and substance use. Suicide attempts were surveyed among those reported to have suicidal ideation (n = 7,579 boys, 10,204 girls). Significantly more girls than boys reported suicidal ideation (29 vs. 19%) and suicide attempts (7.7 vs. 4.5%). Factors significantly associated with suicidal ideation were overestimation of weight (vs. correct estimation) and behaviors to lose or gain weight (vs. no weight control) among boys and overestimation of weight and attempting to lose weight among girls. In contrast, the odds of suicide attempts were significantly higher among boys who tried to lose, gain, or maintain their weight (vs. no weight control) and girls who underestimated their weight (vs. correct estimation) and tried to lose weight (vs. no weight control). Boys and girls classified as overweight or at risk for overweight were significantly less likely to report suicide attempts compared to those classified as underweight. Weight-related attitudes, such as incorrect weight perception and weight control behaviors, seem to be useful indicators for identifying Korean adolescents who are at risk for suicidal behaviors.

  13. Specific Coping Behaviors in Relation to Adolescent Depression and Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Adam G.; Hill, Ryan M.; King, Cheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    The coping strategies used by adolescents to deal with stress may have implications for the development of depression and suicidal ideation. This study examined coping categories and specific coping behaviors used by adolescents to assess the relation of coping to depression and suicidal ideation. In hierarchical regression models, the specific…

  14. The Role of Sleep Disturbance in Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Self-Injurious Behavior among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Courtney-Seidler, Elizabeth A; German, Miguelina; Miller, Alec L

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between different sleep disturbances and self-harm thoughts and behaviors was examined among 223 adolescents presenting to a community clinic for mood disorders and suicidal and nonsuicidal self-injurious behaviors. Two-thirds of the adolescents reported nightly, severe sleep complaints. Relative to adolescents without significant sleep complaints, patients with severe sleep complaints at the time of clinic entry endorsed significantly more engagement in nonsuicidal self-injury. Middle insomnia and circadian reversal were both significant predictors of suicide attempts. Terminal insomnia was significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Results support the importance of assessing sleep difficulties among adolescents at risk for suicide. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  15. Epidemiology of Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Scottye J.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people in the U.S. and represents a significant public health problem worldwide. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior. Recent Findings The suicide rate among children and adolescents in the U.S. has increased dramatically in recent years and has been accompanied by substantial changes in the leading methods of youth suicide, especially among young girls. Much work is currently underway to elucidate the relationships between psychopathology, substance use, child abuse, bullying, internet use, and youth suicidal behavior. Recent evidence also suggests sex-specific and moderating roles of gender in influencing risk for suicide and suicidal behavior. Summary Empirical research into the causal mechanisms underlying youth suicide and suicidal behavior is needed to inform early identification and prevention efforts. PMID:19644372

  16. Dissociable Patterns of Neural Activity during Response Inhibition in Depressed Adolescents with and without Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lisa A.; Batezati-Alves, Silvia C.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Segreti, AnnaMaria; Akkal, Dalila; Hassel, Stefanie; Lakdawala, Sara; Brent, David A.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Impaired attentional control and behavioral control are implicated in adult suicidal behavior. Little is known about the functional integrity of neural circuitry supporting these processes in suicidal behavior in adolescence. Method: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used in 15 adolescent suicide attempters with a history of…

  17. Prevention Starts With Awareness: Adoptive Adolescents at High Risk for Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Leslie

    2017-09-01

    Adolescents are at higher risk for suicide attempts than other age groups. Suicide is now the second leading cause of death in the United States for ages 12 to 18; moreover, the risk of suicide is significantly higher for adoptive teens. In fact, adoptive teenagers have a four times higher rate of suicide attempts than biological children, perhaps due to the underlying nature of adoption, which can involve a pervasive sense of grief and loss for the adoptee. Unresolved anger and sadness from feelings of abandonment-especially when transitioning to adolescence-can cause a seemingly functional child to dissociate through self-harm and eventually demonstrate suicidal behavior. Little evidence-based research exists on the risk factors for adoptive teens who resort to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is vitally important for school nurses to understand the emotional stressors that adolescent adoptees face throughout life to help identify teens at risk for suicide. School districts and registered nurses are well positioned to address this critical health issue through education, assessment, and intervention.

  18. [Suicidal Behavior and Attention Decifit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents of Medellin (Colombia), 2011-2012].

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Bernal, Diana; Bonfante-Olivares, Laura; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem. In Colombia, teenagers are considered a group at high risk for suicidal behavior. To explore the possible association between suicidal behavior and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents of Medellin. Observational, cross-sectional, analytical study. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied to a total of 447 adolescents and the sociodemographic, clinical, familiar, and life event variables of interest were analyzed. The descriptive analysis of qualitative variables are presented as absolute values and frequencies, and the age was described with median [interquartile range]. A logistic regression model was constructed with explanatory variables that showed statistical association. Data were analyzed with SPSS® software version 21.0. Of the total, 59.1% were female, and the median age was 16 [14-18] years. Suicidal behavior was presented in 31% of females and 23% of males. Attention deficit was present in 6.3% of adolescents. The logistic regression analysis showed that the variables that best explained the suicidal behavior of adolescents were: female sex, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and cocaine use. The diagnosis and early intervention of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children may be a useful strategy in the prevention of suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Parenting behavior and the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide: a mediated moderation analysis with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cero, Ian; Sifers, Sarah K

    2013-09-25

    Multiple features of parenting have been associated with development of suicide-related behaviors in adolescents. However, findings are inconsistent on which aspects of parenting are protective or harmful and why. This investigation sought to reconcile these discrepancies through the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS), which argues that suicide ideation and the capability to attempt suicide are etiologically distinct. Responses of 200 Midwestern public school students to the Profiles of Student Life: Attitudes and Behavior survey were analyzed using mediated moderation analysis. Participant sex significantly moderated the relationships between parenting variables and suicide attempts and these relationships were accounted for by IPTS variables. Specifically, the effect of parental support on suicide attempts was twice as strong for girls. Self-esteem mediated this interaction (b=-.011, SE(boot)=.008, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). Conversely, the effect of parental boundaries on suicide attempts was significant for boys, but not for girls, and was mediated by exposure to violence (b=.029, SE(boot)=.021, p<.05, κ(2)=.07). This study involved retrospective report with proxy-measures of IPTS constructs. Future research should consider multiple informants and additional measures. Findings highlight potential mechanisms by which parenting behaviors could influence sex differences in adolescent suicide-relate behaviors, and that some parenting behavior is associated with reduced adolescent suicide attempts. Findings also suggest the IPTS is able to account for previously identified inconsistencies in the effects of parenting behaviors on adolescent suicide-related behaviors. Implications for theory and intervention are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Internet Addiction among Adolescents May Predict Self-Harm/Suicidal Behavior: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pei-Yin; Yeh, Chin-Bin

    2018-06-01

    To explore the role of Internet addiction in the development of self-harm/suicidal behavior among adolescents after 1-year of follow-up. We conducted this 1-year, prospective cohort study of 1861 adolescents (mean age 15.93 years) attending a senior high school in Taiwan; 1735 respondents (93.2%) were classified as having no history of self-harm/suicidal attempts in the initial assessment and were referred to as the "noncase" cohort. The Chen Internet Addiction Scale was used to identify individuals with Internet addiction. The participants were evaluated for self-harm/suicidal behavior again 1 year later and the "noncase" cohort was selected for statistical analysis. To examine the relationship between Internet addiction and self-harm/suicidal behavior, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Internet addiction at baseline as the predictor for newly developed self-harm/suicidal behavior in the next year, after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The prevalence rate of Internet addiction at baseline was 23.0%. There were 59 students (3.9%) who were identified as having developed new self-harm/suicidal behaviors on follow-up assessments. After controlling for the effects of potential confounders, the relative risk of newly emerging self-harm/suicidal behavior for participants who were classified as Internet addicted was 2.41 (95% CI 1.16-4.99, P = .018) when compared with those without Internet addiction. Our findings indicate that Internet addiction is prospectively associated with the incidence of self-harm/suicidal behavior in adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Suicidal Adolescents and their Integration with Individual Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Heilbron, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    A considerable research base underscores the importance of family functioning in the risk for and treatment of adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This paper reviews the extant empirical literature documenting associations between features of the family context and adolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A case example is provided to…

  2. Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: Associations with Preadolescent Physical Abuse and Selected Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salzinger, Suzanne; Rosario, Margaret; Feldman, Richard S.; Ng-Mak, Daisy S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether preadolescent physical abuse raises the risk of adolescent suicidal behavior, to examine potential mediators and moderators of the relationship between preadolescent abuse and adolescent suicidality, and to examine whether distal (preadolescent) risk factors add to proximal (adolescent) factors in predicting…

  3. Dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents with repeated suicidal and self-harming behavior: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mehlum, Lars; Tørmoen, Anita J; Ramberg, Maria; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Laberg, Stine; Larsson, Bo S; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2014-10-01

    We examined whether a shortened form of dialectical behavior therapy, dialectical behavior therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) is more effective than enhanced usual care (EUC) to reduce self-harm in adolescents. This was a randomized study of 77 adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm treated at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics who were randomly allocated to either DBT-A or EUC. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, and symptoms of borderline personality disorder were made at baseline and after 9, 15, and 19 weeks (end of trial period), and frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department visits over the trial period were recorded. Treatment retention was generally good in both treatment conditions, and the use of emergency services was low. DBT-A was superior to EUC in reducing self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms. Effect sizes were large for treatment outcomes in patients who received DBT-A, whereas effect sizes were small for outcomes in patients receiving EUC. Total number of treatment contacts was found to be a partial mediator of the association between treatment and changes in the severity of suicidal ideation, whereas no mediation effects were found on the other outcomes or for total treatment time. DBT-A may be an effective intervention to reduce self-harm, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Clinical trial registration information-Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://ClinicalTrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals' vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model-for teenagers at least-matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure - and content - of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality.

  5. Cyber bullying and physical bullying in adolescent suicide: the role of violent behavior and substance use.

    PubMed

    Litwiller, Brett J; Brausch, Amy M

    2013-05-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent behavior, substance use, and unsafe sexual behavior were tested as mediators between two forms of bullying, cyber and physical, and suicidal behavior. Data were taken from a large risk-behavior screening study with a sample of 4,693 public high school students (mean age = 16.11, 47 % female). The study's findings showed that both physical bullying and cyber bullying associated with substance use, violent behavior, unsafe sexual behavior, and suicidal behavior. Substance use, violent behavior, and unsafe sexual behavior also all associated with suicidal behavior. Substance use and violent behavior partially mediated the relationship between both forms of bullying and suicidal behavior. The comparable amount of variance in suicidal behavior accounted for by both cyber bullying and physical bullying underscores the important of further cyber bullying research. The direct association of each risk behavior with suicidal behavior also underscores the importance of reducing risk behaviors. Moreover, the role of violence and substance use as mediating behaviors offers an explanation of how risk behaviors can increase an adolescent's likelihood of suicidal behavior through habituation to physical pain and psychological anxiety.

  6. Body weight perception, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Sik; Cho, Youngtae; Cho, Sung-Il; Lim, In-Sook

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) in the relation between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCBs; eg, fasting, using diet pills, or laxatives), and between BMI and suicidal ideation. It also explored the correlation between exposure to multiple UWCBs and suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents. Data on BMI, BWP, UWCBs, and suicidal ideation were obtained from the 2006 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, a school-based survey conducted on a nationally representative sample of students in grades 7-12 (36,463 boys and 33,433 girls). Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. BMI was significantly associated with both UWCB and suicidal ideation among boys and girls, even after controlling for covariates. However, the significance and magnitude of the association between BMI and UWCB were considerably attenuated when BWP was added to the model. When BWP was included, the association between overweight BMI status and suicidal ideation became nonsignificant in both sexes, whereas the association between underweight BMI status and suicidal ideation remained significant among boys. Adolescent boys and girls engaging in multiple UWCBs were at greater risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts. This study suggests that BWP represents a potential mediator between BMI and UWCB, and between BMI and suicidal ideation among both boys and girls. Thus, school programs addressing issues related to BWP should be developed and targeted at adolescents to reduce the potential risks for both UWCB and suicidal behavior.

  7. Racial Differences in Adolescents' Answering Questions About Suicide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Lowry, Lynda S; Wuensch, Karl L

    2015-01-01

    The present purpose was to examine racial differences in response rate and serious behavioral suicide risk based on the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Data from 15,245 adolescents (YRBS, 2011) were included. Survey items pertaining to making suicidal plans and attempting suicide were included. Significant differences in responding and content emerged, especially with regard to suicide attempts. Racial minority adolescents are at elevated risk for serious suicidal behaviors and are more likely to omit items pertaining to suicide attempts. African American adolescents rarely reported having attempted suicide, but they also frequently failed to respond to that question.

  8. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  9. Differences in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a…

  10. Relationship between Religious Coping and Suicidal Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molock, Sherry Davis; Puri, Rupa; Matlin, Samantha; Barksdale, Crystal

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether hopelessness and depression were risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in African American adolescents and looked at whether religious participation and religious coping protected these students from suicidality. Participants were 212 African American high school students (133 females, 79 males). The…

  11. Suicidal-related behaviors and quality of life according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rasmussen, Carlos; Martín, Alfredo Hidalgo-San

    2015-11-01

    The study of pre-suicidal behaviors is important not only because of their association with suicide but also because of their impact on quality of life (QOL). Given the scarcity of information regarding this relationship in adolescence, the objective of this study was to analyze the association between suicidal-related behavior and QOL according to gender in adolescent Mexican high school students. This cross-sectional study was conducted with participants between 14 and 18 years of age. A translated version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and the Spanish version of the Youth Quality of Life Research - Instrument version were used. Non-parametric tests were applied. Informed consent was obtained from parents and students, and ethical committee approval was sought. The developmental-transactional model of suicidal behavior in adolescents by Bridge et al. was used. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to show the suicidal-related behaviors associated with QOL. The behavior of having felt sad or hopeless generally presented the greatest effect sizes. The regression models showed that some suicidal-related behaviors increase the probability of a lower QOL even after adjusting for covariates.

  12. Clustering of Adolescent Dating Violence, Peer Violence, and Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Simon, Thomas R.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2008-01-01

    To understand the co-occurrence of multiple types of violence, the authors developed a behavioral typology based on self-reports of suicidal behaviors, physical violence, and psychological abuse. Using a sample of dating adolescents from a high-risk school district, they identified five clusters of behaviors among the 1,653 students who reported…

  13. Comparative study of the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Izutsu, Takashi; Imamura, Fumi; Chiba, Yasuhiko; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2009-04-01

    The present study examined the prevalence of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse history in delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents aged 15-17 years. Results showed that delinquent adolescents, particularly girls, more frequently reported histories of suicidal behavior and sexual abuse than non-delinquent adolescents.

  14. Attachment Styles and Suicide-Related Behaviors in Adolescence: The Mediating Role of Self-Criticism and Dependency

    PubMed Central

    Falgares, Giorgio; Marchetti, Daniela; De Santis, Sandro; Carrozzino, Danilo; Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C.; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Insecure attachment and the personality dimensions of self-criticism and dependency have been proposed as risk factors for suicide in adolescents. The present study examines whether self-criticism and dependency mediate the relationship between insecure attachment styles and suicidality. A sample of 340 high-school students (73.2% females), ranging in age from 13 to 20 years (M = 16.47, SD = 1.52), completed the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised. The results partially support the expected mediation effects. Self-criticism, but not dependency, mediates the link between insecure attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and suicide-related behaviors. Implications for suicide risk assessment and management are discussed. PMID:28344562

  15. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants' relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying.

  16. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Juvenile Detention: Role of Adverse Life Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Jefferis, Eric; Kavadas, Angela; Alemagno, Sonia A.; Shaffer-King, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family) on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. Materials and Methods The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. Results Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation) and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt). In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08–3.63) and homelessness (1.51; 1.17–1.94) were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22–4.08), homelessness (1.49; 1.12–1.98), and running away from home (1.38; 1.06–1.81) were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41–25.37) to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. Conclusions Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention. PMID:24586756

  17. Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cognitive, emotive, and cognitive-behavioral correlates of suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Lai Yuk Ching; Shek, Daniel Tan Lei

    2010-03-05

    Utilizing Daniel Goleman's theory of emotional competence, Beck's cognitive theory, and Rudd's cognitive-behavioral theory of suicidality, the relationships between hopelessness (cognitive component), social problem solving (cognitive-behavioral component), emotional competence (emotive component), and adolescent suicidal ideation were examined. Based on the responses of 5,557 Secondary 1 to Secondary 4 students from 42 secondary schools in Hong Kong, results showed that suicidal ideation was positively related to adolescent hopelessness, but negatively related to emotional competence and social problem solving. While standard regression analyses showed that all the above variables were significant predictors of suicidal ideation, hierarchical regression analyses showed that hopelessness was the most important predictor of suicidal ideation, followed by social problem solving and emotional competence. Further regression analyses found that all four subscales of emotional competence, i.e., empathy, social skills, self-management of emotions, and utilization of emotions, were important predictors of male adolescent suicidal ideation. However, the subscale of social skills was not a significant predictor of female adolescent suicidal ideation. Standard regression analysis also revealed that all three subscales of social problem solving, i.e., negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, and impulsiveness/carelessness style, were important predictors of suicidal ideation. Theoretical and practice implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Self-Psychology, Shame, and Adolescent Suicide: Theoretical and Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Barry W.; Kunkel, Mark A.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses role of shame in adolescent suicidal behaviors using psychoanalytic self-psychology of Heinz Kohut as theoretical foundation. Describes shame as central component of suicidal behavior within context of adolescence. Offers theoretical explanation of adolescent suicidal behavior from self-psychology perspective. Presents suggestions for…

  20. Bullying behavior is related to suicide attempts but not to self-mutilation among psychiatric inpatient adolescents.

    PubMed

    Luukkonen, Anu-Helmi; Räsänen, Pirkko; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the association of bullying behavior with suicide attempts and self-mutilation among adolescents. The study sample consisted of 508 Finnish adolescents (age 12-17 years) admitted to psychiatric inpatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses and variables measuring suicidal behavior (i.e. suicide attempts and self-mutilation) and bullying behavior (i.e. a victim, a bully or a bully-victim) were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of being a victim, a bully or both a bully and a victim on suicide attempts and self-mutilation. After adjusting for age, school factors, family factors and psychiatric disorders, there was a higher risk of suicide attempts in girls who were victims of bullying (OR=2.07, CI=1.04-4.11, p=0.037) or who bullied others (OR=3.27, CI=1.08-9.95, p=0.037). Corresponding associations were not found for boys; nor was any association of bullying behavior with self-mutilation found among either sex. Among girls, being bullied or bullying others are both potential risk factors for suicidal behavior. Psychiatric assessment and treatment should thus be considered not only for victims of bullying, but also for bullies. Suicide-prevention programs should also routinely include interventions to reduce bullying. However, the generalization of our findings to all adolescents is limited because our study sample consisted of psychiatric adolescent patients. In addition, some of the possible findings might have remained statistically insignificant due to the small sample size among adolescents who had performed suicide attempts or self-mutilation. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviors among at-risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Walsh, Elaine

    2009-08-01

    If and how family support and self-esteem might interact to protect against adolescent suicide risk is not well understood. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the moderating effect of family support on the relationship between self-esteem and suicide risk behaviors among potential high school dropouts (N = 849), using questionnaires and in-depth assessment interviews. Family support moderated the impact of self-esteem on suicide risk; the ameliorating effect of self-esteem was stronger among adolescents with low versus high family support. Self-esteem influences adolescent suicide risk behaviors for youth with low as well as high family support. Interventions designed to strengthen both self-esteem and support resources are appropriate.

  2. Problem solving moderates the effects of life event stress and chronic stress on suicidal behaviors in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Grover, Kelly E; Green, Kelly L; Pettit, Jeremy W; Monteith, Lindsey L; Garza, Monica J; Venta, Amanda

    2009-12-01

    The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of stress and problem-solving skills on suicidal behaviors among 102 inpatient adolescents. As expected, life event stress and chronic stress each significantly predicted suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Problem solving significantly predicted suicidal ideation, but not suicide attempt. Problem solving moderated the associations between life event stress and suicidal behaviors, as well as between chronic stress and suicidal ideation, but not chronic stress and suicide attempt. At high levels of stress, adolescents with poor problem-solving skills experienced elevated suicidal ideation and were at greater risk of making a nonfatal suicide attempt. The interactive effects decreased to non-significance after controlling for depressive symptoms and hopelessness. Clinical implications are discussed.

  3. Impulsive aggression, delay discounting, and adolescent suicide attempts: effects of current psychotropic medication use and family history of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Sheftall, Arielle H; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V; Brent, David A

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13-18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=-0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are affected by impulsive aggression.

  4. The Structure of Co-Occurring Bullying Experiences and Associations with Suicidal Behaviors in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Yoon, Yoewon; Kwon, Ahye; Oh, Seunga; Lee, Soyoung Irene; Ha, Kyunghee; Shin, Yun Mi; Song, Jungeun; Park, Eun Jin; Yoo, Heejung; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study had two main goals: to examine the structure of co-occurring peer bullying experiences among adolescents in South Korea from the perspective of victims and to determine the effects of bullying on suicidal behavior, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, among adolescents. Method This study used data gathered from 4,410 treatment-seeking adolescents at their initial visits to 31 local mental health centers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. The structure of peer bullying was examined using latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants’ relevant experiences. Then, a binomial logistic regression adjusted by propensity scores was conducted to identify relationships between experiences of being bullied and suicidal behaviors. Results The LCA of experiences with bullying revealed two distinct classes of bullying: physical and non-physical. Adolescents who experienced physical bullying were 3.05 times more likely to attempt suicide than those who were not bullied. Victims of (non-physical) cyber bullying were 2.94 times more likely to attempt suicide than were those who were not bullied. Conclusions Both physical and non-physical bullying were associated with suicide attempts, with similar effect sizes. Schools and mental health professionals should be more attentive than they currently are to non-physical bullying. PMID:26619356

  5. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in rural South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among young people in Southern Africa, but prevention programs are largely absent. This survey aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Limpopo. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to establish a representative sample of 591 adolescents. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Findings show that suicidal ideation is prevalent among adolescents. The psychosocial factors perceived social support and negative feelings about the family and the behavioral factors forced sexual intercourse and physical violence by the partner were found to increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Depression mediated the relationship between these psychosocial and behavioral risk factors and suicidal ideation. This study increased our understanding of the psychosocial and behavioral predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation. The findings provide target points for future intervention programs and call for supportive structures to assist adolescents with suicidal ideation.

  6. Sleep and youth suicidal behavior: a neglected field.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Buysse, Daniel J

    2006-05-01

    Sleep undergoes substantial changes during adolescence and suicide risk begins to increase during this period as well. This review focuses on recent literature on the relationship between sleep and suicidal behavior and proposes directions for future research. Adolescent sleep is characterized by widespread sleep restriction, irregular sleep schedules, daytime sleepiness, and elevated risk for sleep disturbances. More research on adolescent sleep and psychosocial impairment, psychiatric disorders, and suicidal behavior has been conducted. Suicidal psychiatric patients had more sleep disturbances including insomnia, hypersomnia, or nightmares than nonsuicidal patients. Shorter rapid eye movement latency and increased rapid eye movement activity have been noted to be a marker of suicidality in psychiatric patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that insomnia, nightmares, and sleep insufficiency are associated with elevated risk for suicide. Although the link between insomnia and suicidal behavior appears to be mediated by depression, existing data suggest an independent predictive role of nightmares in future suicidal behavior. Sleep loss or disturbances are likely to signal an increased risk of future suicidal action in adolescents. Large-scale prospective studies and neurobiological studies are needed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between sleep, psychopathology, and youth suicidal behavior.

  7. Teaching medical professionals and trainees about adolescent suicide prevention: five key problems.

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

  8. Life Is Precious: Views of Adolescents and Their Mothers on Methods to Reduce Suicidal Behavior in Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humensky, Jennifer L.; Gil, Rosa M.; Mazzula, Silvia; Diaz, Samantha; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Life is Precious (LIP) was developed to help reduce suicidal behavior in Latina adolescents. As part of an external evaluation of the LIP program, we conducted focus groups with adolescent participants and mothers to learn whether participants and families believe that the activities of LIP address risks for suicidal behavior. Four focus groups…

  9. Impulsive Aggression, Delay Discounting, and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Effects of Current Psychotropic Medication Use and Family History of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V.; Brent, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Methods: Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results: Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=−0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. Conclusions: In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are

  10. Adolescent suicide as a public health threat.

    PubMed

    Bloch, D S

    1999-01-01

    Adolescent suicide patterns. To raise awareness of the seriousness of adolescent suicidal behavior by reviewing international research on adolescent suicide and evaluating the prospects for identification and intervention. Published literature. Adolescent suicide research is complicated and often contradictory, but it does provide some insight into prevalence, risk factors, screening tools, and interventions. For completers, the problem may be intractable. But a few broad-based identification and prevention efforts show promise, and psychotherapy is a proven success. Even if suicide rates remain high, treatment of attempters should prevent further self-harm and reduce the completion rate, and thus should be funded.

  11. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  12. Sleep Complaints as Risk Factor for Suicidal Behavior in Severely Depressed Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria-Cecilia; Boronat, Alexandre C; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Fu-I, Lee

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the association between sleep complaints and suicidal behaviors among severely depressed children and adolescents. The sample was 214 youths (56.1% males, mean age 12.5 years) with diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder consecutively recruited from a university-based outpatient clinic specialized in mood disorders. The structured interview for children and adolescents was applied to participants. The Children's Depression Rating Scale-revised version-scored the severity of depression, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale assessed the global functioning. Subgroups of patients were compared for psychopathological association by means of logistic regression, in accordance with presence and absence of sleep complaints and suicidality. The frequency of sleep complaints and suicidal behaviors was, respectively, 66.4% and 52.3%, and both symptoms were observed in 37.9% of patients. Initial insomnia was the most frequent manifestation (58%), followed by night awakening (36%), daytime sleepiness (31%), and early awakening (29.9%). Significant association between sleep disturbance and suicidal behavior was found (odds ratio range of 2.3-10.8). Sleep disturbances are potential warning manifestations of suicidal behaviors in depressed youth. Possibly, the severity of the active affective episode likely underlies in both sleep complaints and suicidal behaviors among depressed underage patients. © 2016 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt Among Adolescents in Western Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Kukoyi, Omobolawa Y.; Shuaib, Faisal M.; Campbell-Forrester, Sheila; Crossman, Lisabeth; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although extensive studies on adolescent suicidal behavior have been conducted in developed countries such as the United States, little data exist on risk factors for suicide among adolescents in culturally and socially disadvantages settings, such as Jamaica. Aims To conduct a preliminary investigation of risk factors associated with suicide ideation and attempt among youths in Western Jamaica. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 342 adolescents aged 10–19 years from 19 schools. Results Multivariate analysis showed that a history of self-violence, violent thoughts toward others, mental health diagnoses other than depression, and a history of sexual abuse were positively associated with suicide attempt. Sexual abuse, mental health diagnoses other than depression, self-violence, and ease of access to lethal substances/weapons were positively associated with suicide ideation. Conclusions We found a relatively high prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among adolescents living in Western Jamaica. An accurate understanding of the prevailing risk factors for suicide attempts will promote a more sympathetic approach to victims and facilitate prevention efforts. PMID:21190930

  14. Impaired Decision Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Remy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison…

  15. The prospective relationship between sleep problems and suicidal behavior in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Wong, Maria M; Brower, Kirk J

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has found a longitudinal relationship between sleep problems and suicidal behavior while controlling for depression and other important covariates in a high risk sample of adolescents and controls. In this paper, we replicated this longitudinal relationship in a national sample and examined whether the relationship was partially mediated by depression, alcohol-related problems and other drug use. Study participants were 6504 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD HEALTH). In bivariate analyses, sleep problems (i.e., having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep) at Wave 1 were associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts at Waves 1, 2, and 3 (W1, 2 and 3). In multivariate analyses, controlling for depression, alcohol problems, illicit drug use, and important covariates such as gender, age, and chronic health problems, sleep problems at a previous wave predicted suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts at a subsequent wave. In mediation analyses, W2 depression significantly mediated the effect of W1 sleep problems on W3 suicide thoughts. Moreover, W2 suicidal thoughts also significantly mediated the effect of W1 sleep problems on W3 suicidal attempts. Sleep problems appear to be a robust predictor of subsequent suicidal thoughts and attempts in adolescence and young adulthood. Having trouble falling sleeping or staying asleep had both direct and indirect effects (via depression and suicidal thoughts) on suicidal behavior. Future research could determine if early intervention with sleep disturbances reduces the risk for suicidality in adolescents and young adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brausch, Amy M; Gutierrez, Peter M

    2010-03-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a sample of 373 high school students with a mean age of 15.04 (SD = 1.05). The sample was 48% female and the distribution of ethnicity was as follows: 35% Caucasian, 37.2% African-American, 16% Multi-ethnic, 9.2% Hispanic, and 2.3% Asian. The sample was divided into three groups: no history of self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI in addition to a suicide attempt. Differences in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, social support, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and disordered eating were explored. Results indicated significant differences between the three groups on all variables, with the no self-harm group reporting the lowest levels of risk factors and highest levels of protective factors. Further analyses were conducted to examine specific differences between the two self-harm groups. Adolescents in the NSSI group were found to have fewer depressive symptoms, lower suicidal ideation, and greater self-esteem and parental support than the group that also had attempted suicide. The clinical implications of assessing these specific psychosocial correlates for at-risk adolescents are discussed.

  17. Emotional face recognition in adolescent suicide attempters and adolescents engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Karen E; Jones, Richard N; Cushman, Grace K; Galvan, Thania; Puzia, Megan E; Kim, Kerri L; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the bio-behavioral mechanisms underlying and differentiating suicide attempts from non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Adolescents who attempt suicide or engage in NSSI often report significant interpersonal and social difficulties. Emotional face recognition ability is a fundamental skill required for successful social interactions, and deficits in this ability may provide insight into the unique brain-behavior interactions underlying suicide attempts versus NSSI in adolescents. Therefore, we examined emotional face recognition ability among three mutually exclusive groups: (1) inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide (SA, n = 30); (2) inpatient adolescents engaged in NSSI (NSSI, n = 30); and (3) typically developing controls (TDC, n = 30) without psychiatric illness. Participants included adolescents aged 13-17 years, matched on age, gender and full-scale IQ. Emotional face recognition was evaluated using the diagnostic assessment of nonverbal accuracy (DANVA-2). Compared to TDC youth, adolescents with NSSI made more errors on child fearful and adult sad face recognition while controlling for psychopathology and medication status (ps < 0.05). No differences were found on emotional face recognition between NSSI and SA groups. Secondary analyses showed that compared to inpatients without major depression, those with major depression made fewer errors on adult sad face recognition even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Further, compared to inpatients without generalized anxiety, those with generalized anxiety made fewer recognition errors on adult happy faces even when controlling for group status (p < 0.05). Adolescent inpatients engaged in NSSI showed greater deficits in emotional face recognition than TDC, but not inpatient adolescents who attempted suicide. Further results suggest the importance of psychopathology in emotional face recognition. Replication of these preliminary results and examination of the role

  18. A Prospective Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior Among Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)—with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury—predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. PMID:25263410

  19. A Prospective Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior Among Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)—with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury—predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. PMID:26872965

  20. Sensation Seeking as Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Background High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. Methods A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. Results High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. Limitations The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. Conclusions The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. PMID:22921521

  1. Curbing Adolescent Suicide: Conditions, Symptomatic Behaviors, and Intervention Tactics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Mary Nan

    Increasing numbers of adolescents are experiencing deep depression and instances of adolescent suicide are increasing at a rate 10 times faster than for adults. Predisposition to suicide can be classified into three categories: biophysical, situational, and syndromatic. Adolescents suffering biophysical disorders are most easily identified by…

  2. Ethnic and racial differences in mental health service utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nestor, Bridget A.; Cheek, Shayna M.; Liu, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined racial/ethnic differences in mental health treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Method Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants included 4,176 depressed adolescents with suicidal ideation and behavior in the previous year. Weighted logistic regressions were estimated to examine whether adolescent racial/ethnic minorities had lower rates of past-year treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior in inpatient or outpatient settings, while adjusting for age, depressive symptom severity, family income, and health insurance status. Results Among adolescents with any suicidal ideation and behavior, and suicide attempts specifically, non-Hispanic blacks and Native Americans were less likely than whites to receive outpatient treatment, and multiracial adolescents were less likely to be admitted to inpatient facilities. Apart from Hispanics, racial/ethnic minorities were generally less likely to receive mental health care for suicidal ideation, particularly within psychiatric outpatient settings. A pattern emerged with racial/ethnic differences in treatment receipt being greatest for adolescents with the least severe suicidal ideation and behavior. Limitations The cross-sectional data limits our ability to form causal inferences. Conclusion Strikingly low rates of treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior were observed across all racial/ethnic groups. Certain racial/ethnic minorities may be less likely to seek treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior when symptoms are less severe, with this gap in treatment use narrowing as symptom severity increases. Native Americans were among the racial/ethnic groups with lowest treatment utilization, but also among the highest for rates of suicide attempts, highlighting the pressing need for strategies to increase mental health service use in this particularly vulnerable

  3. Ethnic and racial differences in mental health service utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Bridget A; Cheek, Shayna M; Liu, Richard T

    2016-09-15

    This study examined racial/ethnic differences in mental health treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. Data were drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants included 4176 depressed adolescents with suicidal ideation and behavior in the previous year. Weighted logistic regressions were estimated to examine whether adolescent racial/ethnic minorities had lower rates of past-year treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior in inpatient or outpatient settings, while adjusting for age, depressive symptom severity, family income, and health insurance status. Among adolescents with any suicidal ideation and behavior, and suicide attempts specifically, non-Hispanic blacks and Native Americans were less likely than whites to receive outpatient treatment, and multiracial adolescents were less likely to be admitted to inpatient facilities. Apart from Hispanics, racial/ethnic minorities were generally less likely to receive mental health care for suicidal ideation, particularly within psychiatric outpatient settings. A pattern emerged with racial/ethnic differences in treatment receipt being greatest for adolescents with the least severe suicidal ideation and behavior. The cross-sectional data limits our ability to form causal inferences. Strikingly low rates of treatment utilization for suicidal ideation and behavior were observed across all racial/ethnic groups. Certain racial/ethnic minorities may be less likely to seek treatment for suicidal ideation and behavior when symptoms are less severe, with this gap in treatment use narrowing as symptom severity increases. Native Americans were among the racial/ethnic groups with lowest treatment utilization, but also among the highest for rates of suicide attempts, highlighting the pressing need for strategies to increase mental health service use in this particularly vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Collective efficacy, family attachment, and urban adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2010-09-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14-25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents' suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim's classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents' suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory.

  5. Suicidal Tendency Among Adolescents With Adjustment Disorder.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with adjustment disorder (AD) are at risk of presenting suicidal symptoms. Certain personality traits are linked to suicidal tendencies. There is a lack of information about the link between suicide and personality patterns in adolescents with AD. To identify the personality characteristics that predispose to or prevent the development of suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescents with AD. We recruited 108 adolescents with AD at a public mental health center near Barcelona (Spain). They were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (IRIS) to assess suicidal symptoms, as well as the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) and the 16PF Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (16PF-APQ) to appraise personality features. Doleful personality emerged as the principal risk for suicidal symptoms. The conforming personality pattern exerted a protective effect, and emotional stability was associated with low levels of suicidal tendencies. Among the Big Five factors, anxiety had the highest explanatory power for suicidal tendencies. Certain personality characteristics are associated with heightened or reduced risk of suicidal tendencies in adolescents with AD. Their identification is important for clinicians designing treatment programs for these patients.

  6. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  7. Adolescent self-injurers: Comparing non-ideators, suicide ideators, and suicide attempters

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika C.; Glenn, Catherine R.; Gilman, Stephen E.; Pridgen, Bryan; Gold, Joseph; Auerbach, Randy P.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidality are serious health concerns; however, factors that contribute to the transition from NSSI to suicide ideation and suicide attempts are unclear. To address this gap, we investigated whether demographic characteristics, child maltreatment, and psychiatric factors are associated with the level suicidality among adolescents with a history of self-injury. Participants were three groups of adolescent inpatient self-injurers (n = 397, 317 female), aged 13–18 years (M = 15.44, SD = 1.36): (a) non-ideators (n = 96; no current suicide ideation and no lifetime suicide attempts), (b) suicide ideators (n = 149; current ideation and no lifetime attempts), and (c) suicide attempters (n = 152; current ideation and at least one lifetime attempt). Participants completed interviews assessing psychiatric diagnoses, suicidality, and NSSI characteristics, as well as questionnaires on childhood trauma, psychiatric symptoms, and risky behavior engagement. Depression severity was associated with greater odds being a suicide ideator (p < 0.001, OR = 1.04) and an attempter (p < 0.001, OR = 1.05) compared to a non-ideator. Suicide attempters used more NSSI methods and reported greater risky behavior engagement than non-ideators (p = 0.03, OR = 1.29 and p = 0.03, OR = 1.06, respectively) and ideators (p = 0.015, OR = 1.25 and p = 0.04, OR = 1.05, respectively); attempters used more severe NSSI methods (e.g., burning). Our results identify a wide range of risk markers for increasing lethality in a sample at high risk for suicide mortality; future research is needed to refine risk assessments for adolescent self-injurers and determine the clinical utility of using risk markers for screening and intervention. PMID:27716512

  8. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Decreasing Suicidal Ideation and Hopelessness of the Adolescents with Previous Suicidal Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Ali; Sharifi, Bahare; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT) for suicide prevention in decreasing suicidal ideation and hopelessness in a sample of depressed 12 to 18 year-old adolescents who had at least one previous suicidal attempt. Methods In a clinical trial, 30 depressed adolescents who attempted suicide in the recent 3 months were selected using simple sampling method and divided randomly into intervention and wait-list control groups. Both groups received psychiatric interventions as routine. The intervention group received a 12 session (once a week) of CBT program according to the package developed by Stanley et al, including psychoeducational interventions and individual and family skills training modules. All of the patients were evaluated by Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Beck's hopelessness Inventory, and Beck's Depression Inventory before the intervention and after 12 weeks. Findings There were significant differences between the two groups regarding the scores of the above mentioned scales after 12 weeks. Fifty-four to 77 percent decreases in the mean scores of the used scales were observed in the invention group. There were no significant changes in the scores of the control wait-list group. The differences between pre- and post-intervention scores in the intervention group were significant. Conclusion CBT is an effective method in reducing suicidal ideation and hopelessness in the depressed adolescents with previous suicidal attempts. PMID:24427502

  9. Suicide attempts and behavioral correlates among a nationally representative sample of school-attending adolescents in the Republic of Malawi.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Masood A; Lloyd, Jennifer; Acquah, Emmanuel; Celedonia, Karen L; L Wilson, Michael

    2016-08-19

    Suicide is among the top causes of adolescent mortality worldwide. While correlates of suicidal behavior are better understood and delineated in upper-income countries, epidemiologic knowledge of suicidal behavior in low-income countries remains scant, particularly in the African continent. The present study sought to add to the epidemiologic literature on suicidal behavior in Africa by examining the behavioral correlates of suicide attempts among Malawi adolescents. A cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample extracted from publically-available data was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to discern associations between suicide attempts and a host of behavioral variables. 2225 records were included in the study. At the multivariate level, suicide attempters had significantly higher odds of being anxious, being physically bullied, having sustained a serious injury and having a greater number of lifetime sexual partners. Alcohol use (at an early age and within the past 30 days) was also associated with suicide attempts. These findings have the potential to guide public health interventions geared toward suicide prevention in Africa and other, similar regions, as well as provide the impetus for future epidemiologic studies on suicidal behavior in low-income countries.

  10. Impaired Decision-Making in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M.; Cannon, Elizabeth A.; Sheftall, Arielle H.; Reynolds, Brady; Campo, John V.; Pajer, Kathleen A.; Barbe, Rémy P.; Brent, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Decision-making deficits have been linked to suicidal behavior in adults. However, it remains unclear whether impaired decision-making plays a role in the etiopathogenesis of youth suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making processes in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Method Using the Iowa Gambling Task, the authors examined decision-making in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13–18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically-matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Results Overall, suicide attempters performed significantly worse on the Iowa Gambling Task than comparison subjects. This difference in overall task performance between the groups persisted in an exact conditional logistic regression analysis that controlled for affective disorder, current psychotropic medication use, impulsivity, and hostility (adjusted odds ratio=0.96, 95% confidence interval=0.90–0.99, p<.05). A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant group-by-block interaction, demonstrating that attempters failed to learn during the task, picking approximately the same proportion of disadvantageous cards in the first and final blocks of the task. In contrast, comparison subjects picked proportionately fewer cards from the disadvantageous decks as the task progressed. Within the attempter group, overall task performance did not correlate with any characteristic of the index attempt or with the personality dimensions of impulsivity, hostility, and emotional lability. Conclusions Similar to findings in adults, impaired decision-making is associated with suicidal behavior in adolescents. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the temporal relationship between decision-making processes and suicidal behavior and help frame potential targets for early identification and preventive interventions to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior. PMID:22449645

  11. A prospective examination of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior among psychiatric adolescent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Ewa K; Berona, Johnny; King, Cheryl A

    2015-04-01

    The challenge of identifying suicide risk in adolescents, and particularly among high-risk subgroups such as adolescent inpatients, calls for further study of models of suicidal behavior that could meaningfully aid in the prediction of risk. This study examined how well the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS)--with its constructs of thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and an acquired capability (AC) for lethal self-injury--predicts suicide attempts among adolescents (N = 376) 3 and 12 months after hospitalization. The three-way interaction between PB, TB, and AC, defined as a history of multiple suicide attempts, was not significant. However, there were significant 2-way interaction effects, which varied by sex: girls with low AC and increasing TB, and boys with high AC and increasing PB, were more likely to attempt suicide at 3 months. Only high AC predicted 12-month attempts. Results suggest gender-specific associations between theory components and attempts. The time-limited effects of these associations point to TB and PB being dynamic and modifiable in high-risk populations, whereas the effects of AC are more lasting. The study also fills an important gap in existing research by examining IPTS prospectively. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. San Diego Suicide Study: The Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Charles L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Detailed data on the 14 adolescent cases from San Diego Suicide Study are presented and comparisons made to other studies. Data are presented that suggest that vast majority of adolescents who commit suicide have had relatively long histories of disturbed behavior and psychiatric symptoms (most typically depression and/or substance abuse).…

  13. The Relation Between Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Systematic Review and Critical Examination of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Weismoore, Julie T.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research suggests that child maltreatment (CM) is associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. These studies, however, have not been critically examined and summarized in a manner that allows us to draw firm conclusions and make recommendations for future research and clinical work in this area. In this review, we evaluated all of the research literature to date examining the relationship between CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts. Results generally suggest that childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect are associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts across community, clinical, and high-risk samples, using cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs. In most studies, these associations remain significant when controlling for covariates such as youth demographics, mental health, family, and peer-related variables. When different forms of CM are examined in the same multivariate analysis, most research suggests that each form of CM maintains an independent association with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, a subset of studies yielded evidence to suggest that sexual abuse and emotional abuse may be relatively more important in explaining suicidal behavior than physical abuse or neglect. Research also suggests an additive effect—each form of CM contributes unique variance to adolescent suicide attempts. We discuss the current limitations of this literature and offer recommendations for future research. We conclude with an overview of the clinical implications of this research, including careful, detailed screening of CM history, past suicidal behavior, and current suicidal ideation, as well as the need for integrated treatment approaches that effectively address both CM and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:23568617

  14. Ecological correlates of adolescent attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1990-01-01

    Rates of adolescent attempted suicide were correlated with social indicators over the electoral wards of Edinburgh (Scotland). Rates were found to be higher in wards where child neglect and misbehavior were more common. Rates of attempted suicide in the total population also were related to the housing pattern/social class of the wards. The importance of identifying similarities and differences in the patterns of suicidal behavior of adolescents and adults was noted.

  15. [Suicidal ideation, self-directed violence and depression among Chilean school adolescents].

    PubMed

    Barroilhet, Sergio; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Guajardo, Viviana; Martínez, Vania; Vöhringer, Paul; Araya, Ricardo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-07-01

    Suicidal behaviors and depression are prevalent phenomena among adolescents, and are considered a public health problem. To determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors and the relationship between both phenomena, in a representative sample of students from ninth grade in Santiago, Chile. We recruited a probability sample of 2,597 adolescents who answered a questionnaire with questions about suicidal behavior and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation and planning was 21 and 14%, respectively. The prevalence for the past two weeks was 6.7 and 4.4% for suicidal ideation and planning, respectively. Autolytic behaviors, once in lifetime and in the past week were referred by 26 and 4% of respondents, respectively. In one third of these, self-harm coincided with recent suicide ideation or planning. All levels of suicidal behavior were more frequently reported by women. Clinically significant depressive symptoms were present in 23.5% of adolescents. Females doubled male rates. Severe depressive symptoms were present in 9.4% of the sample. A higher level of suicidal behavior correlated with more severe forms of depression. Sixty percent of adolescents who reported recent self-harm, had clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Two thirds of them had severe symptoms. Suicidal behavior in Chilean adolescents is prevalent, and there is an association between this behavior and the level of depression. The school is a good place to identify and develop preventive measures for teenagers.

  16. Assessment of Psychiatrically Hospitalized Suicidal Adolescents: Self-Report Instruments as Predictors of Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huth-Bocks, Alissa C.; Kerr, David C. R.; Ivey, Asha Z.; Kramer, Anne C.; King, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity and clinical utility of the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior, and Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) were examined longitudinally among suicidal adolescents. Method: Between 1998 and 2000, 289 psychiatrically hospitalized, suicidal youth, ages 12 to 17 years,…

  17. Suicidal thoughts during early adolescence: prevalence, associated troubles and help-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Choquet, M; Menke, H

    1990-02-01

    A total of 1600 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 16 living in a county bordering on Paris were interviewed concerning their health, their use of drugs, both legal and illegal, their behavior, and their seeking of health care. Fourteen percent of the boys and 23% of the girls had already thought about suicide and 5% and 10% (respectively) proclaimed having thought about it frequently. Young adolescents who thought about suicide, the girls as well as the boys, had more health problems (fatigue, nightmares, insomnia), used more drugs (including tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs, psychotropic medicine) and had more delinquent behavior (robbery, running away from home, racketeering). Furthermore, the girls had problems in school (absenteeism and being left back). In general, youngsters with suicidal thoughts resorted to violence in a variety of ways. Although these youngsters spoke less readily about their personal problems, they more frequently sought physical health care (doctors, nurses, social workers). This discrepancy between their difficulty in communication and their readiness to ask for physical care is a clear indication of their need to be helped.

  18. Behavioral and emotional responses to interpersonal stress: A comparison of adolescents engaged in non-suicidal self-injury to adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kerri L; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Puzia, Megan E; Wegbreit, Ezra; Tone, Erin B; Spirito, Anthony; Dickstein, Daniel P

    2015-08-30

    Prominent theoretical models and existing data implicate interpersonal factors in the development and maintenance of suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). However, no known study has yet used computerized behavioral tasks to objectively assess responses to interpersonal conflict/collaboration among teens engaged in NSSI or having made a suicide attempt. The current study, therefore, compared interpersonal functioning indexed by the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) task among three mutually exclusive groups, adolescents (ages 13-17): engaged in NSSI only without history of a suicide attempt (n=26); who made a suicide attempt without history of NSSI (n=26); and typically developing controls (n=26). Participants also completed the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure to assess their general sensitivity to/awareness of others' behaviors and feelings. No significant between-group differences were found in PD task performance; however, compared to typically developing control participants and those who had made a suicide attempt, the NSSI group reported significantly more stress during the task. Additionally, NSSI participants rated themselves as more interpersonally sensitive compared to both attempters and typically developing controls. Given the lack of knowledge about whether these groups either differentially activate the same circuitry during stressful interpersonal interactions or instead rely on alternative, compensatory circuits, future work using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. School and Community Violence and Victimization as Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Slater, Evan D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which violent behavior and peer victimization were associated with suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts in a nationally representative sample of 11,113 adolescents who completed the 2005 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Boys were more likely to be involved in physical fighting and weapon carrying, whereas girls were…

  20. Suicidal feelings interfere with help-seeking in bullied adolescents [corrected].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimodera, Shinji; Togo, Fumiharu; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Being bullied is associated with the manifestation of suicidal feelings, which sharply increase in middle(-late) adolescence. Whether or not bullied middle(-late) adolescents with suicidal feelings seek help is therefore a critical issue, given that help-seeking plays a key role in the prevention of suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of bullying, suicidal feelings and the interaction between these two factors on help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Japanese middle(-late) adolescents (aged 15-18 years; n = 9484) were studied using self-report questionnaires. The rate of adolescents who actually sought help was examined for bullying status and suicidal feelings. The rate of adolescents who sought help was significantly higher when they were bullied (p<0.001) and also when they had mild suicidal feelings (p<0.001), but not when they displayed serious suicidal feelings. In the case of adolescents who were bullied, however, having suicidal feelings significantly decreased the rate of help-seeking (OR = 0.47, p<0.05 and OR = 0.32, p = 0.002 for having mild and serious suicidal feelings, respectively). The decrease was remarkable when suicidal feelings were serious. Specifically, the decrease was significant in seeking help from peers and family members, who are the most frequent source of the help for adolescents, when they had serious suicidal feelings (OR = 0.21, p<0.01 and OR = 0.13, p<0.001, respectively). Suicidal feelings may interfere with help-seeking behavior, which could be critical in suicide prevention in bullied middle(-late) adolescents.

  1. Not only body weight perception but also body mass index is relevant to suicidal ideation and self-harming behavior in Japanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Kuni; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Shimodera, Shinji; Nishida, Atsushi; Inoue, Ken; Watanabe, Norio; Oshima, Norihito; Akechi, Tatsuo; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    Whether a low body mass index (BMI) is directly associated with a high risk of suicidal ideation or self-harming behavior in adolescents is still inconclusive. This study has, therefore, evaluated the relevance of BMI to suicidal ideation and self-harming behavior after controlling for body weight perception (BWP) and other potential confounding factors. BMI, BWP, suicidal ideation, and self-harming behavior were all assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to 18,104 Japanese adolescents. Potential confounding factors were also evaluated. The data were then analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Low BMI was associated with suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm when controlling for sex, age, drug use, emotional distress, and BWP. Low BMI may be an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harming behavior in Japanese adolescents.

  2. Child and Adolescent Clinical Features Preceding Adult Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Serra, Giulia; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; De Chiara, Lavinia; Napoletano, Flavia; Koukopoulos, Alexia; Sani, Gabriele; Faedda, Gianni L; Girardi, Paolo; Reginaldi, Daniela; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this study was to identify the predictive value of juvenile factors for adult suicidal behavior. We reviewed clinical records to compare factors identified in childhood and adolescence between adult suicidal versus nonsuicidal major affective disorder subjects. Suicide attempts occurred in 23.1% of subjects. Age-at-first-symptom was 14.2 vs. 20.2 years among suicidal versus nonsuicidal subjects (p < 0.0001). More prevalent in suicidal versus non-suicidal subjects by multivariate analysis were: depressive symptoms, hyper-emotionality, younger-at-first-affective-episode, family suicide history, childhood mood-swings, and adolescence low self-esteem. Presence of one factor yielded a Bayesian sensitivity of 64%, specificity of 50%, and negative predictive power of 86%. Several juvenile factors were associated with adult suicidal behavior; their absence was strongly associated with a lack of adult suicidal behavior.

  3. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…

  4. Suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, NoorAni; Cheong, Siew Man; Ibrahim, Nurashikin; Rosman, Azriman

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation. © 2014 APJPH.

  5. Factors Associated with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt among School-Going Urban Adolescents in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Nam, Eun Woo; Kim, Ha Yun; Kim, Jong Koo

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, and associated factors among school-going urban adolescents in Peru. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of 916 secondary school adolescents in 2014. A structured questionnaire adapted from Global School-based Student Health Survey was used to obtain information. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models at 5% level of significance. Overall, 26.3% reported having suicidal ideation, and 17.5% reported having attempted suicide during the past 12 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, smoking and sexual intercourse initiation were significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation, while female sex, being in a fight, being insulted, being attacked, perceived unhappiness, alcohol and illicit drug use were related to suicide attempt. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts observed in the survey area is relatively high. Female adolescents are particularly vulnerable to report suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Interventions that address the issue of violence against adolescents, fighting with peers, health risk behaviors particularly initiation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use and encourage supportive role of parents may reduce the risk of suicidal behaviors. PMID:26610536

  6. Negative Life Events and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: A Critical Analysis from the Stress Process Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandin, Bonifacio; Chorot, Paloma; Santed, Miguel A.; Valiente, Rosa M.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Empirical evidence relating negative life events and adolescent suicidal behavior is reviewed. The contribution of life events tends to be moderate or weak. A stress process model is presented. Past research has not incorporated mediating and moderating variables into pathways that link psychosocial stressors and suicidal outcomes, providing a…

  7. Asperger syndrome related suicidal behavior: two case studies.

    PubMed

    Kocourkova, Jana; Dudova, Iva; Koutek, Jiri

    2013-01-01

    Asperger syndrome hinders adaptation to developmental challenges during childhood and adolescence, particularly with regard to interpersonal relationships. Individuals with Asperger syndrome display lack of empathy and limited ability to understand social and emotional exchanges with other people. Individuals with Asperger syndrome are significantly exposed to the risk of suicidal behavior, especially during adolescence. The authors describe cases of suicidal behavior in two adolescent boys with Asperger syndrome.

  8. Triggers for suicidal behavior in depressed older adolescents and young adults: do alcohol use disorders make a difference?

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo; Sperling, Dahlia; Stanley, Barbara H; Carballo, Juan J; Shoval, Gal; Zalsman, Gil; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is a major social and medical problem. Alcohol use disorders with comorbid major depression represent an especially high-risk profile for suicidal behavior, repeated suicidal behavior and completed suicide. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics, prevalence of interpersonal triggers and the number of triggers for suicidal behavior in depressed late adolescents and young adults with or without comorbid alcohol use disorders. 18-26-year-old subjects were recruited through advertising and referrals and participated in mood disorders research in a university hospital. Thirty-eight depressed suicide attempters without a history of any alcohol or substance abuse/dependence and 29 depressed suicide attempters with comorbid alcohol abuse or dependence participated in the study. Demographic and clinical parameters including parameters related to suicidal behavior were examined and recorded. There was no difference with regard to demographic parameters between the two groups. Depressed suicide attempters with comorbid alcohol use disorders had higher aggression and impulsivity scale scores and were more likely to be tobacco smokers compared to their counterparts without alcohol use disorders. Additionally, there was a trend towards higher lethality of suicide attempts in subjects with alcohol use disorders compared to the other group. We found no difference in the prevalence of interpersonal triggers or in the number of triggers for suicidal behavior between the two groups. It appears that among 18-26-year-old depressed suicide attempters, individuals with comorbid alcohol use disorders are more impaired with regard to aggressiveness and impulsivity compared to persons without comorbid alcohol abuse/dependence.

  9. Determinants of adolescent suicidal ideation: rural versus urban.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on disparities between rural and urban adolescents as they pertain to suicidal behavior is limited; identifying these distinctions could be pivotal in the decision of how to efficiently allocate scarce resources to reduce youth suicide rates. This study aimed to identify dissimilarities in predictors of suicidal ideation across the rural/urban threshold, as ideation is one of the most important predictors of suicide. Given that substance abuse is generally considered one of the strongest risk factors for suicidal behavior, a secondary aim was the isolation of the differences in usage of particular substances between rural and urban adolescents, and their effects on the likelihood of suicidal ideation, which is something that previous studies have had difficulty addressing. A global test determined that individual predictors of suicidal ideation differed across rural and urban adolescents, and simply including a rural/urban indicator in a multiple regression would result in biased estimates. Therefore, this paper assessed rural/urban differences among a comprehensive list of traditionally perceived risk and protective factors via bivariate analyses and separate multiple full-information-maximum-likelihood regressions, which account for missing data. Somewhat contrary to the extant literature, the findings indicate important differences among predictors of suicidal ideation for rural and urban youths. These differences should be taken into consideration when developing plans to combat adolescent suicide. The results further indicate that analyzing potential predictors of suicidal ideation for rural and urban adolescents via bivariate analyses alone, or a rural/urban indicator in a multiple regression, is not sufficient. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Collective Efficacy, Family Attachment, and Urban Adolescent Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Maimon, David; Browning, Christopher R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate among American adolescents between the ages of 14–25 has dramatically increased during the last 50 years, and this fact has been the focus of extensive social-scientific investigation. To date, however, research focusing on the joint effects of mental health, family, and contextual-level predictors on adolescents’ suicidal behaviors is scarce. Drawing on Durkheim’s classic macro-level approach to suicide and collective efficacy theory, we use data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effect of informal social controls on adolescents’ suicide attempts. Analyzing reports from 990 youth, we examine the hypothesis that neighborhood-level collective efficacy and family-level integration and social control independently affect suicide attempts. We also examine the extent to which they interact in their effects on suicidal behavior. Overall, results from multilevel logit models support the Durkheimian expectation that family attachment reduces the probability that adolescents will attempt suicide. The effect of collective efficacy is interactive in nature. Specifically, we find that collective efficacy significantly enhances the protective effect of family attachment and support on adolescent suicidal behaviors. We discuss findings within the context of social control theory. PMID:20943592

  11. Bullying Victimization and Suicide Ideation and Behavior Among Adolescents in Europe: A 10-Country Study.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Shira; Brunstein Klomek, Anat; Apter, Alan; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hadlaczky, Gergö; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Balazs, Judit; Kereszteny, Agnes; Brunner, Romuald; Kaess, Michael; Bobes, Julio; Saiz, Pilar; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Banzer, Raphaela; Corcoran, Paul; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Postuvan, Vita; Podlogar, Tina; Sisask, Merike; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2017-08-01

    To examine risk and protective factors moderating the associations between three types of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, and relational bullying) with suicide ideation/attempts in a large representative sample of European adolescents. We analyzed cross-sectional data on 11,110 students (mean age = 14.9, standard deviation = .89) recruited from 168 schools in 10 European Union countries involved in the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study. A self-report questionnaire was used to measure victimization types, depression, anxiety, parental and peer support, and suicide ideation and attempts. For each outcome, we applied hierarchical nonlinear models controlling for sociodemographics. Prevalence of victimization was 9.4% physical, 36.1% verbal, and 33.0% relational. Boys were more likely to be physically and verbally victimized, whereas girls were more prone to relational victimization. Physical victimization was associated with suicide ideation, and relational victimization was associated with suicide attempts. Other associations between victimization and suicidality (ideation/attempts) were identified through analysis of interactions with additional risk and protective factors. Specifically, verbal victimization was associated with suicide ideation among adolescents with depression who perceived low parental support. Similarly, low peer support increased the associations between verbal victimization and suicide ideation. Verbal victimization was associated with suicide attempts among adolescents with anxiety who perceived low parental support. Findings support the development of prevention strategies for adolescent victims of bullying who may be at elevated risk for suicide ideation/behavior, by taking into account gender, the type of bullying, symptomatology, and availability of interpersonal support. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts Associated with Co-occurring Depression and Conduct Disorders in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Stoep, Ann Vander; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct disorders as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct disorder were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were tracked through multiple assessments carried out over the middle school years. Compared to adolescents with depression symptoms only, conduct disorder symptoms only, or low psychopathology, those with co-occurring depression and conduct disorder symptoms had the highest risk for subsequent suicidal ideation, recurrent suicidal behaviors, and suicide attempts. PMID:21463356

  13. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents.

  14. The Role of Shame in Adolescent Suicide: A Self-Psychological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shreve, Barry W.; Kunkel, Mark A.

    Using the psychoanalytic self-psychology of Heinz Kohut as the theoretical foundation, this article discusses the role of shame in adolescent suicidal behaviors. Shame is described as an essential aspect of adolescent suicidal behavior because of the significance of the stage of adolescence in the development of the healthy self. Normal…

  15. Adolescent Suicide. The Trauma of Adolescent Suicide. A Time for Special Leadership by Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Richard A.

    This monograph was written to help principals and other school personnel explore the issues of adolescent suicide and its prevention. Chapter 1 presents statistics on the incidence of adolescent suicides and suicide attempts. Chapter 2, Causes of Suicide, reviews developmental tasks of adolescence, lists several contributors to adolescent suicide,…

  16. Childhood Predictors of Deliberate Self-Harm Behavior and Suicide Ideation in Korean Adolescents: A Prospective Population-Based Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun Mi; Chung, Young Ki; Lim, Ki Young; Lee, Young Moon; Oh, Eun Young

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of adolescence suicidality in a longitudinal study. Additionally, the prevalence of deliberate self-harm behavior and suicide ideation at age 7 and during middle school were examined. Initial assessment data was obtained from 1998 to 2000, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006 when the original subjects became middle school students. The addresses and names of 1,857 subjects were located from the original data; they were 910 boys and 947 girls. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), which was administered by the parents of the children, and by various demographic and psychosocial factors. They were reassessed using self reports on the Korea Youth Self Report (K-YSR); in particular, replies to items related to self-harm behavior and suicide ideation were recorded. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors of gender, economic status, the overall amount of behavior problems, the tendency to internalizing and externalizing problems, somatic problems, thought problems, delinquent behavior, and aggressive behavior were independent predictors of adolescent suicide ideation and self-harm behavior. The importance of total behavior problems suggested that adolescent difficulty is a consequence of an accumulation of various risk factors. Accordingly, clinicians must consider a range of internalizing and externalizing issues, especially overall adaptation, for suicide intervention. PMID:19399261

  17. Insufficient Sleep and Suicidality in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Seog Ju

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between the behaviorally induced insufficient sleep and suicidality among adolescents. Design: A population-based, cross-sectional survey. Setting: General community. Participants: A sample of 8,530 students (grades 7-11) was recruited in the Republic of Korea. The participants were 8,010 students who completed all questionnaires. Intervention: N/A. Measurements: The survey included the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and questionnaires about sleep (weekday/weekend sleep schedule/duration, insomnia and snoring). Results: Adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) had higher SSI scores than those who slept ≥ 7 hours on weekdays, even after controlling for age, sex, and BDI score (F = 11.71, P < 0.001). After controlling for age and sex, longer weekend oversleep and shorter weekday sleep duration predicted a higher SSI score (β = 0.19, P < 0.001; β = 0.37, P < 0.001). The association between weekend oversleep and SSI score remained significant even after additionally controlling for BDI and ESS scores and presence of insomnia and snoring (β = 0.07, P < 0.01). Conclusion: BISS was found to be associated with increased suicidality. Weekend oversleep was associated with suicidality independently of depression, daytime sleepiness, snoring, and insomnia. The study findings suggest that chronic sleep restriction among adolescents may increase suicidal risk. Citation: Lee YJ; Cho SJ; Cho IH; Kim SJ. Insufficient sleep and suicidality in adolescents. SLEEP 2012;35(4):455-460. PMID:22467982

  18. Sexual Orientation in Adolescents Who Commit Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationship between suicidal behavior and homosexuality in adolescence in an unselected, matched sample. Found no evidence that suicide is a common characteristic of gay youth, or that when suicide does occur among gay teenagers, that it is a direct consequence of stigmatization or lack of support. (JBJ)

  19. Suicide and Suicide Attempts in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shain, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents 15 to 19 years old. This report updates the previous statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics and is intended to assist pediatricians, in collaboration with other child and adolescent health care professionals, in the identification and management of the adolescent at risk for suicide. Suicide risk can only be reduced, not eliminated, and risk factors provide no more than guidance. Nonetheless, care for suicidal adolescents may be improved with the pediatrician's knowledge, skill, and comfort with the topic, as well as ready access to appropriate community resources and mental health professionals. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A): a clinical Trial for Patients with suicidal and self-injurious Behavior and Borderline Symptoms with a one-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To date, there are no empirically validated treatments of good quality for adolescents showing suicidality and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior. Risk factors for suicide are impulsive and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, depression, conduct disorders and child abuse. Behind this background, we tested the main hypothesis of our study; that Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents is an effective treatment for these patients. Methods Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) has been developed by Marsha Linehan - especially for the outpatient treatment of chronically non-suicidal patients diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. The modified version of DBT for Adolescents (DBT-A) from Rathus & Miller has been adapted for a 16-24 week outpatient treatment in the German-speaking area by our group. The efficacy of treatment was measured by a pre-/post- comparison and a one-year follow-up with the aid of standardized instruments (SCL-90-R, CBCL, YSR, ILC, CGI). Results In the pilot study, 12 adolescents were treated. At the beginning of therapy, 83% of patients fulfilled five or more DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder. From the beginning of therapy to one year after its end, the mean value of these diagnostic criteria decreased significantly from 5.8 to 2.75. 75% of patients were kept in therapy. For the behavioral domains according to the SCL-90-R and YSR, we have found effect sizes between 0.54 and 2.14. During treatment, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior reduced significantly. Before the start of therapy, 8 of 12 patients had attempted suicide at least once. There were neither suicidal attempts during treatment with DBT-A nor at the one-year follow-up. Conclusions The promising results suggest that the interventions were well accepted by the patients and their families, and were associated with improvement in multiple domains including suicidality, non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, emotion dysregulation and

  1. Correlates of Suicidal Behavior in a Juvenile Detention Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Mace, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Identifies the correlates of current suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts among 555 adolescents. Results indicate that suicidal behavior in delinquent boys was associated with depression and decreased social connection, whereas suicidal behavior in delinquent girls was associated with impulsivity and instability. Current ideation was…

  2. Differences between non-suicidal self injury and suicide attempt in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sugai; Yan, Jing; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Cuizhen; Situ, Minging; Du, Na; Fu, Xueyin; Huang, Yi

    2014-04-01

    Self-harm behaviors are predominant health risks among adolescents. This study aimed to elucidate the lifetime prevalence and differences in social psychological factors between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA) among Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from 2131 middle school students with a mean age of 13.92 (SD 1.63) years (49.1% girls). Participants were asked to self-report NSSI and SA over their lifetime. Post hoc tests pairwise comparisons and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate differences and similarities between subjects with NSSI and attempted suicide. The prevalence of lifetime NSSI and SA endorsed by the participants were 23.2% and 3.2%, respectively, and the co-occurrence of these two behaviors (NSSI+SA) was reported to 2.3%. Boys were comparable with girls in the prevalence rate of NSSI, but not in the rate of SA. It revealed that single-child was not the risk factor for self-harm behavior in Mainland China, but lower higher family cohesion and adaptability. Factors that distinguished the NSSI+SA group from the NSSI only group were female gender, lower grade, impulsivity, health risk behaviors and family cohesion. Being female gender, single-parent family, depressive symptoms and impulsivity were factors differentiating attempted suicide from NSSI. Our findings suggest that Chinese adolescents engaging both in NSSI and SA had severe suicidal attempts and were different from those who engaged in NSSI alone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts associated with co-occurring depression and conduct problems in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; McCauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were tracked through multiple assessments carried out over the middle school years. Compared to adolescents with depression symptoms only, conduct problem symptoms only, or low psychopathology, those with co-occurring depression and conduct problem symptoms had the highest risk for subsequent suicidal ideation, recurrent suicidal behaviors, and suicide attempts. © 2011 The American Association of Suicidology.

  4. A Factorial Representation of Suicidal Ideation among Academically Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Jerrell C.; Cross, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Suicidal ideation assessment has been employed as an early screening method for identifying adolescents who are at risk for engaging in suicidal behaviors. While recent evidence has emerged that gifted adolescents do not have a higher rate of suicidal ideation, research on the psychological and personality characteristics of gifted youth have…

  5. Testing Alternative Explanations for the Associations Between Parenting and Adolescent Suicidal Problems

    PubMed Central

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    Although studies have established associations between parenting characteristics and adolescent suicidality, the strength of the evidence for these links remains unclear, largely because of methodological limitations, including lack of accounting for possible child effects on parenting. This study addresses these issues by using autoregressive cross-lag models with data on 802 adolescents and their parents across 5 years. Observed parenting behaviors predicted change in adolescent suicidal problems across one-year intervals even after controlling for adolescents’ effects on parenting. Nurturant-involved parenting continued to demonstrate salutary effects after controlling for adolescent and parent internalizing psychopathology: over time, observed nurturant-involved parenting reduced the likelihood of adolescent suicidal problems. This study increases the empirical support implicating parenting behaviors in the developmental course of adolescent suicidality. PMID:24244079

  6. An Investigation of Differences Between Self-Injurious Behavior and Suicide Attempts in a Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from 390 high school students were collected to examine potential differences between adolescents who had attempted suicide and those who engaged in self-injurious behavior on measures of depression, suicidal ideation, and attitudes toward life and death. Significant differences were found between controls and the self-harm groups on all…

  7. Maternal and paternal personality profiles of adolescent suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Bolat, Nurullah; Kadak, Tayyib; Eliacik, Kayi; Sargin, Enis; Incekas, Secil; Gunes, Hatice

    2017-02-01

    Personality features have been correlated with suicidal behaviors in recent decades. Given its neurobiological background, Cloninger's model of personality, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), may help to identify the maternal and paternal personality dimensions associated with adolescent suicide attempts. The present study is the first that specifically compares the temperament and character profiles of both mothers and fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters with a control group, by considering the influence of demographic and clinical factors. The study group comprised 117 parents of 71 adolescent suicide attempters and 119 parents of 71 age- and gender-matched adolescents without a suicide attempt included as a control group. The TCI and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were applied to the parents in both groups. Logistic regression analysis, which was performed to adjust confounding factors, demonstrated significantly higher scores for harm avoidance among the mothers and lower scores of self-directedness among the fathers of the adolescent suicide attempters. New psychotherapeutic modalities considering the high-risk parental personality traits would be beneficial to support parent-adolescent relationships and may have a preventative effect on adolescent suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation and violent behavior in adolescents with social phobia in Metropolitan Lima, Perú.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Roxana; Morón, Giannina; Padilla, Martín; Alarcón, Renato D

    2014-09-01

    Social phobia and violent behavior are both important mental health problems among adolescent populations in different parts of the world. This study attempts to evaluate possible connections between social phobia, homicidal/violent thoughts, suicidal ideation, and subsequent violent behavior among adolescents living in the metropolitan area of Lima, Perú. A sample of 991 adolescents, part of the 2002 Epidemiological Study in Metropolitan Lima, conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health "Honorio Delgado-Hideyo Noguchi" (INSM "HD-HN") was studied. Social phobia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical assessment and the use of MINI, and suicidal ideation, homicidal/violent thoughts, and violent behavior were identified through the Mental Health Questionnaire. Odds ratio (OR) statistical analyses adjusted by logistic regression controlling for age and gender were performed. Variables associated with social phobia were homicidal thoughts in the last month (OR: 5.19, confidence interval [CI] at 95% 4.95-5.40), an impulse to hit known (OR: 1.56; 95% CI, 1.53-1.59) and unknown (OR: 3.98, 95% CI,3.89-4.07) persons, the wish to take revenge for a past offense (OR: 2.60, 95% CI 2.54-2.64), getting involved in fights with different kinds of weapons (OR: 1,78, 95% CI 1.70-1.87), suicidal ideation throughout lifetime (OR: 4.74, 95% CI 4.65-4.83), and life prevalence of suicidal attempt (OR: 5.39, 95% CI 5.23-5.55). Social phobia in adolescents of this Peruvian sample seems to be closely associated with both homicidal/violent thoughts, violent behavior, and suicidal ideation. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Parental Displacement and Adolescent Suicidality: Exploring the Role of Failed Belonging

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Katherine A.; Selby, Edward A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that events causing displacement from parents—such as parental death, abandonment of the adolescent, or divorce—represent a risk factor for adolescent suicide, but research to date has not established a theoretical model explaining the association between parental displacement and adolescent suicidal behavior. The current studies examined the construct of failed belonging proposed by the interpersonal theory of suicide as one factor that may link parental displacement with adolescent suicide. Study 1 found that low levels of belonging mediated the association between parental displacement and adolescent suicide attempts in a large urban community sample of older adolescents between the ages of 18 and 23. In Study 2, parental displacement interacted with low belonging to predict suicide attempts, such that adolescents (average age 16.6 years; (SD = 1.2) who experienced both displacement and low levels of belonging had the highest risk for suicide. PMID:22023272

  10. Parental displacement and adolescent suicidality: exploring the role of failed belonging.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Katherine A; Selby, Edward A; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that events causing displacement from parents--such as parental death, abandonment of the adolescent, or divorce--represent a risk factor for adolescent suicide, but research to date has not established a theoretical model explaining the association between parental displacement and adolescent suicidal behavior. The current studies examined the construct of failed belonging proposed by the interpersonal theory of suicide as one factor that may link parental displacement with adolescent suicide. Study 1 found that low levels of belonging mediated the association between parental displacement and adolescent suicide attempts in a large, urban community sample of older adolescents between the ages of 18 and 23. In Study 2, parental displacement interacted with low belonging to predict suicide attempts, such that adolescents (average age = 16.6 years; SD = 1.2) who experienced both displacement and low levels of belonging had the highest risk for suicide.

  11. Insufficient sleep and suicidality in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In Hee; Kim, Seog Ju

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between the behaviorally induced insufficient sleep and suicidality among adolescents. A population-based, cross-sectional survey. General community. A sample of 8,530 students (grades 7-11) was recruited in the Republic of Korea. The participants were 8,010 students who completed all questionnaires. N/A. The survey included the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), a modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and questionnaires about sleep (weekday/weekend sleep schedule/duration, insomnia and snoring). Adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) had higher SSI scores than those who slept ≥ 7 hours on weekdays, even after controlling for age, sex, and BDI score (F = 11.71, P < 0.001). After controlling for age and sex, longer weekend oversleep and shorter weekday sleep duration predicted a higher SSI score (β = 0.19, P < 0.001; β = 0.37, P < 0.001). The association between weekend oversleep and SSI score remained significant even after additionally controlling for BDI and ESS scores and presence of insomnia and snoring (β = 0.07, P < 0.01). BISS was found to be associated with increased suicidality. Weekend oversleep was associated with suicidality independently of depression, daytime sleepiness, snoring, and insomnia. The study findings suggest that chronic sleep restriction among adolescents may increase suicidal risk.

  12. Depression, delinquency, and suicidal behaviors among college students.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rebecca L; Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Liu (2004) investigated the interaction between delinquency and depression among adolescents and found that delinquency moderated the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviors. This study also explored the relationship between depression, delinquency, and suicidal behaviors, although delinquency was expected to mediate, as opposed to moderate, the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviors. The participants comprised 354 college students. The students completed a series of questionnaires measuring delinquent behavior, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Contrary to Liu's (2004) findings, delinquency was found not to moderate but rather to partially mediate the relationship between depression and suicidal behaviors. The findings suggest that for some college students, depression is associated with delinquent behaviors, which, in turn, are associated with suicidal behaviors.

  13. Bullying, Depression, and Suicidality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Schonfeld, Irvin S.; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between bullying behavior and depression, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts among adolescents. Method: A self-report survey was completed by 9th-through 12th-grade students (n = 2342) in six New York State high schools from 2002 through 2004. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association…

  14. Prospective predictors of adolescent suicidality: 6-month post-hospitalization follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S.; Weinstock, L. M.; Andover, M. S.; Sheets, E. S.; Selby, E. A.; Spirito, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine prospective predictors of suicide events, defined as suicide attempts or emergency interventions to reduce suicide risk, in 119 adolescents admitted to an in-patient psychiatric unit for suicidal behaviors and followed naturalistically for 6 months. Method Structured diagnostic interviews and self-report instruments were administered to adolescent participants and their parent(s) to assess demographic variables, history of suicidal behavior, psychiatric disorders, family environment and personality/temperament. Results Baseline variables that significantly predicted time to a suicide event during follow-up were Black race, high suicidal ideation in the past month, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), borderline personality disorder (BPD), low scores on positive affectivity, and high scores on aggression. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, only Black race, CSA, positive affect intensity and high aggression scores remained significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest the following for adolescent populations: (1) in a very high-risk population, risk factors for future attempts may be more difficult to ascertain and some established risk factors (e.g. past suicide attempt) may not distinguish as well; and (2) cross-cutting constructs (e.g. affective and behavioral dysregulation) that underlie multiple psychiatric disorders may be stronger predictors of recurrent suicide events than psychiatric diagnoses. Our finding with respect to positive affect intensity is novel and may have practical implications for the assessment and treatment of adolescent suicide attempters. PMID:22932393

  15. Victimization by peers and adolescent suicide in three US samples.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Jennifer Wyatt; Fang, Xiangming

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the association between victimization by peers and suicidal ideation and behavior in 3 samples of adolescents in the United States. This study was a secondary analysis of data from 3 cohorts of adolescents: (1) a nationally representative survey of adolescents in grade 7 through 12, Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, conducted by the Carolina Population Center in 1994-1995; (2) a nationally representative survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2005; and (3) a survey in a high-risk community conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2004. Controlling for differences in age, sex, race/ethnicity, and depressive symptomology, adolescents reporting more frequent victimization by peers were more likely to report suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-2.15) to 3.83 (95% CI = 2.78-5.27) for the different outcome measures and data sets. Our results provide further support for the need for effective prevention of peer victimization. Inclusion of questions about victimization experiences might aid formal and informal suicide screening efforts.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ying Ying; Lim, Kuang Hock; Teh, Chien Huey; Kee, Chee Cheong; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Lim, Kuang Kuay; Khoo, Yi Yi; Tee, Eng Ong; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Ibrahim, Normala

    2016-08-05

    Suicidal ideation, defined as thoughts, ideas and the desire to commit suicide, is becoming a major public health problem among adolescents. Indeed, suicidal ideation is known as a key predictor of future suicide risk. This study aims to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia. This study used data from the 2013 Malaysian adolescent health risk behavior (MyAHRB) study, a cross-sectional school survey conducted in Peninsular Malaysia among school-going adolescents aged 16-17 years (n=2789). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. The overall prevalence of suicidal ideation among the adolescents was 6.2%. The prevalence was significantly higher among females than males (7.6% vs. 4.7%; p=0.002). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that adolescents who were females [odds ratio (OR)=2.02; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-2.92] or of Indian ethnicity (OR=2.32; 95% CI: 1.35-3.98) were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Loneliness (OR=2.54; 95% CI: 1.57-4.11), anxiety or worry (OR=2.70; 95% CI: 1.70-4.31), no close friends (OR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.43-5.14), and lack of supportive peers (OR=1.69; 95% CI: 1.15-2.47) were identified as risk factors for adolescents' suicidal ideation. Adolescents who ever had sexual intercourse (OR=2.70; 95% CI: 1.48-4.92) and had been in a physical fight (OR=2.45; 95% CI: 1.62-3.70) were also reported to have higher risks of suicidal ideation. This study provides evidence on risk factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Targeted mental health and health risk behavioral interventions for high-risk adolescents are recommended.

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories and Predictors of Adolescent Suicidal Ideation and Attempts Following Inpatient Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Nock, Matthew K.; Simon, Valerie; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Remarkably little is known regarding the temporal course of adolescent suicidal ideation and behavior, the prediction of suicidal attempts from changes in suicidal ideation, or the prediction of suicidal attempts after accounting for suicidal ideation as a predictor. A sample of 143 adolescents 12-15 years old was assessed during psychiatric…

  18. Impact of bullying victimization on suicide and negative health behaviors among adolescents in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Romo, Matthew L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of bullying victimization, suicidal ideation, suicidal attempts, and negative health behaviors (current tobacco use, recent heavy alcohol use, truancy, involvement in physical fighting, and unprotected sexual intercourse) in five different Latin American countries and determine the association of bullying victimization with these outcomes, exploring both bullying type and frequency. Study data were from Global School-based Student Health Surveys from Bolivia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Peru, and Uruguay, which covered nationally representative samples of school-going adolescents. The surveys used a two-stage clustered sample design, sampling schools and then classrooms. Logistic regression models were run to determine the statistical significance of associations with bullying. Among the 14 560 school-going adolescents included in this study, the prevalence of any bullying victimization in the past 30 days was 37.8%. Bullying victimization was associated with greater odds of suicidal ideation with planning (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.12; P < 0.0001) and at least one suicide attempt (AOR: 3.07; P < 0.0001). An increasing exposure-response effect of increasing days of bullying victimization on suicide outcomes was also observed. Bullying victimization was associated with higher odds of current tobacco use (AOR: 2.14; P < 0.0001); truancy (AOR: 1.76; P < 0.0001); physical fighting (AOR: 2.40; P < 0.0001); and unprotected sexual intercourse (AOR: 1.77; P < 0.0001). Although the prevalence of bullying victimization varied by country, its association with suicidal ideation and behavior and negative health behaviors remained relatively consistent. Addressing bullying needs to be made a priority in Latin America, and an integrated approach that also includes mental and physical health promotion is needed.

  19. Parental Displacement and Adolescent Suicidality: Exploring the Role of Failed Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Katherine A.; Selby, Edward A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that events causing displacement from parents--such as parental death, abandonment of the adolescent, or divorce--represent a risk factor for adolescent suicide, but research to date has not established a theoretical model explaining the association between parental displacement and adolescent suicidal behavior. The…

  20. An international comparison of adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts: Germany and the USA.

    PubMed

    Plener, P L; Libal, G; Keller, F; Fegert, J M; Muehlenkamp, J J

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicide attempts, suicide threats and suicidal ideation in a German school sample and compared the rates with a similar sample of adolescents from the midwestern USA by using cross-nationally validated assessment tools. Data were provided from 665 adolescents (mean age 14.8 years, S.D.=0.66, range 14-17 years) in a school setting. Students completed the Self-Harm Behavior Questionnaire (SHBQ), the Ottawa Self-Injury Inventory (OSI) and a German version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). A quarter of the participants (25.6%) endorsed at least one act of NSSI in their life, and 9.5% of those students answered that they had hurt themselves repetitively (more than four times). Forty-three (6.5%) of the students reported a history of a suicide attempt. No statistically significant differences were observed between the German and US samples in terms of self-injury or suicidal behaviors. By using the same validated assessment tools, no differences were found in the prevalence and characteristics of self-injury and suicidal behaviors between adolescents from Germany and the USA. Thus, it seems that NSSI has to be understood as worldwide phenomenon, at least in Western cultures.

  1. Suicide, Satisfaction With Life, and Insight Capacity Among Adolescents With Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Schapir, Lior; Zalsman, Gil; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Gaziel, Meyrav; Morag-Yaffe, Mayad; Sever, Jonathan; Weizman, Abraham; Shoval, Gal

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the role of insight and satisfaction with life in adolescent suicidal behavior. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between suicide risk, insight, and satisfaction with life among adolescents with mental disorders. A total of 30 adolescents were evaluated using self-report measures of insight, satisfaction with life, and suicide risk. Regression analysis was used to assess the contribution of each factor to suicide risk. Positive correlations were found between suicide risk and insight dimensions. Satisfaction with life correlated negatively with suicide risk and insight dimensions. Insight explained 27.3% of suicide risk (p = .003). Both insight and satisfaction with life explained 39.0% of suicide risk (p = .031). Among adolescents with mental disorders, insight is a risk factor, whereas satisfaction with life is a protective factor for suicidality. Insight affects suicide risk of adolescents with mental disorders via reduction of satisfaction with life.

  2. Psychopathology profiles of acutely suicidal adolescents: Associations with post-discharge suicide attempts and rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Berona, Johnny; Horwitz, Adam G.; Czyz, Ewa K.; King, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicidal adolescents are heterogeneous, which can pose difficulties in predicting suicidal behavior. The Youth Self-Report (YSR) psychopathology profiles predict the future onset of psychopathology and suicide-related outcomes. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of YSR psychopathology profiles among suicidal adolescents and prospective associations with post-discharge rates of suicide attempts and psychiatric rehospitalization. Methods Participants were acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents (N=433 at baseline; n=355 at follow-up) who were enrolled in a psychosocial intervention trial during hospitalization. Psychopathology profiles were assessed at baseline. Suicide attempts and rehospitalization were assessed for up to 12 months following discharge. Results Latent profile analysis identified four psychopathology profiles: subclinical, primarily internalizing, and moderately and severely dysregulated. At baseline, profiles differed by history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and multiple suicide attempts (MA) as well as severity of suicide ideation, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance abuse, and functional impairment. The dysregulation profiles predicted suicide attempts within 3 months post-discharge. The internalizing profile predicted suicide attempts and rehospitalization at 3 and 12 months. Limitations This study’s participants were enrolled in a randomized trial and were predominantly female, which limit generalizability. Additionally, only a history of NSSI was assessed. Conclusions The dysregulation profile was overrepresented among suicidal youth and associated with impairment in several domains as well as suicide attempts shortly after discharge. Adolescents with a severe internalizing profile also reported adverse outcomes throughout the study period. Psychopathology profiles warrant further examination in terms of their potential predictive validity in relation to

  3. Adolescent suicide in New York City: plenty of room for new research.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Debora; Sher, Leo

    2012-01-01

    The act of adolescent suicide continues to threaten adolescent populations in New York City (NYC). Consistent positive correlations have been found between a plethora of risk factors present in NYC adolescent populations and suicidal ideations and behaviors. Psychiatric conditions that may contribute to the rate of adolescent suicide in NYC include depression, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and schizophrenia. Unique factors that have been found to contribute to increased rates of completed suicides in NYC include the phenomena of railway suicides and suicide tourism. Homelessness and income inequality in NYC have also been consistently correlated with increased suicidality; with one study finding suicide attempts reported by a significant percentage of new admissions to homeless shelters. Adolescent populations in NYC that have been identified as particularly vulnerable to suicidality include runaway youth, homosexual youth, victimized adolescents and adolescents with a recent history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies in NYC have found that physical and sexual abuse is highly predictive of adolescent suicidality, with variations by ethnic group. Currently, there is a disturbing lack of sufficient research on adolescent suicide in NYC, specifically regarding causal factors, the effects of television on suicide, comorbid suicidality and drug abuse, and cultural factors contributing to suicide. This dearth of literature may be related to the ethical problems inherent in suicide research, self reports and/or post mortem analyses.

  4. Social and Interpersonal Factors Relating to Adolescent Suicidality: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Merchant, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature concerning social and interpersonal variables as risk factors for adolescent suicidality (suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior, death by suicide. It also describes major social constructs in theories of suicide and the extent to which studies support their importance to adolescent suicidality. PsychINFO and PubMed searches were conducted for empirical studies focused on family and friend support, social isolation, peer victimization, physical/sexual abuse, or emotional neglect as these relate to adolescent suicidality. Empirical findings converge in documenting the importance of multiple social and interpersonal factors to adolescent suicidality. Research support for the social constructs in several major theories of suicide is summarized and research challenges are discussed. PMID:18576200

  5. Cyber Bullying and Physical Bullying in Adolescent Suicide: The Role of Violent Behavior and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Brett J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of bullying in all forms on the mental health and safety of adolescents is of particular interest, especially in the wake of new methods of bullying that victimize youths through technology. The current study examined the relationship between victimization from both physical and cyber bullying and adolescent suicidal behavior. Violent…

  6. Risk-Sensitive Decision-Making Deficit in Adolescent Suicide Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, John P; McBee-Strayer, Sandy M; Mendoza, Kristen; Stevens, Jack; Sheftall, Arielle H; Campo, John V

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Suicide among adolescents is a major public health problem. Decision-making deficits may play an important role in vulnerability to suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined decision-making performance in youth at risk for suicide. In this study, we seek to extend recent findings that adolescent suicide attempters process risk evaluations differently than adolescents who have not attempted suicide. Methods: We assessed decision-making in 14 adolescent suicide attempters and 14 non-attempter comparison subjects, ages 15–19, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). Each participant was also administered a diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [MINI]), structured suicide severity measures, and a brief intelligence quotient (IQ) measure. Results: After controlling for gender and IQ differences, suicide attempters displayed an elevated risk-taking propensity on the CGT relative to comparison subjects, such that they were more willing to take a large risk with their bank of points, a decision-making style that proves disadvantageous over time. No group differences in the latency or accuracy of decision-making were observed. Conclusions: Adolescents with a history of suicide attempt display increased risk-taking and greater difficulty predicting probable outcomes on the CGT. Such deficits have been associated with dysfunction in the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex, which supports other studies implicating impaired decision-making among individuals with a history of suicide attempt. PMID:25265242

  7. Neighborhood poverty and suicidal thoughts and attempts in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dupéré, V; Leventhal, T; Lacourse, E

    2009-08-01

    Suicide tends to concentrate in disadvantaged neighborhoods, and neighborhood disadvantage is associated with many important risk factors for youth suicide. However, no study has directly investigated the link between neighborhood poverty and youth suicidal behaviors, while controlling for pre-existing vulnerabilities. The objective of this study was to determine whether living in a poor neighborhood is associated with suicidal thoughts and attempts in late adolescence over and above background vulnerabilities, and whether this association can be explained by late-adolescence psychosocial risks: depression, social support, negative life events (NLEs), delinquent activities, substance abuse and exposure to suicide. The potential moderating role of neighborhood poverty was also examined. A subset of 2776 participants was selected from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). Late-adolescence suicidal behaviors and risk factors were self-reported. The 2001 Canadian Census was used to characterize neighborhoods during early and middle adolescence. Late-childhood family and individual controls were assessed through parent-report. At the bivariate level, the odds of reporting suicidal thoughts were about twice as high in poor than non-poor neighborhoods, and the odds of attempting suicide were about four times higher. After controlling for background vulnerabilities, neighborhood poverty remained significantly associated with both suicidal thoughts and attempts. However, these associations were not explained by late-adolescence psychosocial risks. Rather, youth living in poor neighborhoods may be at greater risk through the amplification of other risk factors in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Potential explanations for the increased vulnerability of youth living in poor neighborhoods are discussed.

  8. Adolescent Attachment Security, Family Functioning, and Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual’s social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all 3 types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention. PMID:23560608

  9. Adolescent attachment security, family functioning, and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Mathias, Charles W; Furr, R Michael; Dougherty, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Theories of suicidal behavior suggest that the desire to die can arise from disruption of interpersonal relationships. Suicide research has typically studied this from the individual's perspective of the quality/frequency of their social interactions; however, the field of attachment may offer another perspective on understanding an individual's social patterns and suicide risk. This study examined attachment along with broader family functioning (family adaptability and cohesion) among 236 adolescent psychiatric inpatients with (n = 111) and without (n = 125) histories of suicide attempts. On average, adolescents were 14 years of age and Hispanic (69%). Compared to those without suicide attempts, adolescent attempters had lower self-reported maternal and paternal attachment and lower familial adaptability and cohesion. When comparing all three types of attachment simultaneously in the logistic regression model predicting suicide attempt status, paternal attachment was the only significant predictor. Suicide attempt group was also significantly predicted by self-rated Cohesion and Adaptability; neither of the parent ratings of family functioning were significant predictors. These findings are consistent with the predictions of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide about social functioning and support the efforts to develop attachment-based interventions as a novel route towards suicide prevention.

  10. Turkish School Counsellors and Counselling Students' Knowledge of Adolescent Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyez, Digdem Müge; Bas, Asli Uz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge of Turkish high school counsellors and counselling students about adolescence suicide. The sample consisted of 71 school counsellors and 82 third and fourth year psychology counselling students who completed the Adolescent Suicide Behavior Questionnaire. The results showed that although…

  11. The co-occurrence of non-suicidal self-injury and attempted suicide among adolescents: distinguishing risk factors and psychosocial correlates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although attempted suicide and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are distinct behaviors differing in intent, form, and function, the behaviors co-occur at a high rate in both adults and adolescents. Researchers have begun to investigate the association between attempted suicide and NSSI among adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to present current research on this association. First, we discuss definitional issues associated with self-injurious behaviors. Next, we present research on the co-occurrence of attempted suicide and NSSI, including prevalence and associations with self-injury characteristics. We then discuss psychosocial variables associated with engaging in both NSSI and attempted suicide or one type of self-injury alone. Finally, we present the research to date on risk factors uniquely associated with either attempted suicide or NSSI. Implications for mental health professionals and future avenues of research are discussed. PMID:22463065

  12. Racial differences in suicidal ideation among school going adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Dixit, Vidhata; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kenswar, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ) and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3) was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. Conclusion: There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression. PMID:25013312

  13. Racial differences in suicidal ideation among school going adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Dixit, Vidhata; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kenswar, D K

    2013-07-01

    Young adults are at increased risk for suicidal behavior and there is growing concern about racial differences in suicidal ideation, especially in the younger population. The aim of this study is to assess suicidal ideation in school going tribal and nontribal adolescents and to study its relationships with psychological well-being, depression, and anxiety. A total of 259 students of Classes X, XI, and XII of three Schools of Ranchi, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria, were screened for suicidal ideation by Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ) and psychological well-being by General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12). The level of anxiety and depression was assessed by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Overall 33.2% of the adolescents had suicidal ideation out of which 34.2% were tribal-students and 32.8% nontribal-students with no significant intergroup difference. Psychological discomfort (GHQ-12 Score ≥3) was noticed in 59.1% of adolescents, but no racial difference was found. However, the mean HADS depression score was significantly higher in tribal adolescents, more so in tribal boys than nontribal adolescents or boys, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation of SIQ total score in all the adolescents with GHQ-12 total score, HADS total score, HADS anxiety score, and HADS depression score. There were no racial differences in suicidal ideation and psychological discomfort among tribal and nontribal adolescents. Tribal adolescents, and more specifically tribal boys, had more depression than their nontribal counterparts. Suicidal ideation was positively correlated with psychological discomfort, anxiety, and depression.

  14. Loneliness, Insomnia and Suicidal Behavior among School-Going Adolescents in Western Pacific Island Countries: Role of Violence and Injury.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bimala; Lee, Tae Ho; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed to examine whether being bullied, fighting, and injury, regarded in terms of frequency and nature, were significantly associated with psychological distress and suicidal behavior, independent of substance abuse and parental support in adolescents. Secondary analysis of data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey from Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu was conducted. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of being bullied, fighting and injury with psychological health outcomes (loneliness, insomnia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) at a 5% level of significance. A total of 4122 students were included; 45.5% were male, and 52.0% were 14 years of age or younger. Of the total, 9.3% felt lonely and 9.5% had insomnia most of the time over the last 12 months; 27.6% had suicidal ideation, and 30.9% reported at least one suicide attempt in the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that being bullied, fighting and injury were significantly associated with psychological health outcomes; adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of loneliness, insomnia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt increased with increased exposure to bullying, fighting, and injury compared to non-exposed group. Among the types of bullying victimization, the highest AORs of insomnia and suicide attempt were among students who were left out of activities, compared to the non-bullied. Among the causes of injury, adolescents injured due to a physical attack were the most likely to report the highest AORs of loneliness, insomnia and suicidal ideation compared to those not injured. Preventing violence and injury among adolescents might contribute to better mental health and reduction of suicidal behavior.

  15. Loneliness, Insomnia and Suicidal Behavior among School-Going Adolescents in Western Pacific Island Countries: Role of Violence and Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Bimala; Lee, Tae Ho; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether being bullied, fighting, and injury, regarded in terms of frequency and nature, were significantly associated with psychological distress and suicidal behavior, independent of substance abuse and parental support in adolescents. Secondary analysis of data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey from Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu was conducted. Binomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of being bullied, fighting and injury with psychological health outcomes (loneliness, insomnia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt) at a 5% level of significance. A total of 4122 students were included; 45.5% were male, and 52.0% were 14 years of age or younger. Of the total, 9.3% felt lonely and 9.5% had insomnia most of the time over the last 12 months; 27.6% had suicidal ideation, and 30.9% reported at least one suicide attempt in the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that being bullied, fighting and injury were significantly associated with psychological health outcomes; adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of loneliness, insomnia, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt increased with increased exposure to bullying, fighting, and injury compared to non-exposed group. Among the types of bullying victimization, the highest AORs of insomnia and suicide attempt were among students who were left out of activities, compared to the non-bullied. Among the causes of injury, adolescents injured due to a physical attack were the most likely to report the highest AORs of loneliness, insomnia and suicidal ideation compared to those not injured. Preventing violence and injury among adolescents might contribute to better mental health and reduction of suicidal behavior. PMID:28714893

  16. [Factor Characterization Associated with Suicidal Behavior in 8(th) Grade Adolescent Students in Three Schools from Bogotá (Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Olmos, Isabel; Cruz, Doris Lorena Téllez; Traslaviña, Ángela Liliana Vélez; Ibáñez-Pinilla, Milcíades

    2012-03-01

    To establish the probability for suicide risk and/or mental disorders, together with related factors among high school students in 3 schools in Bogota. Cross sectional study of 309 adolescents. The average age was 13.83 ± 0.9, female dominance (58.6%) and a 3(rd) socioeconomic stratum (68.3%). The suicidal risk behavioral probability and/or mental symptoms was 47.6%, 26.5% exhibited some suicide manifestations, 14.23% had experienced suicidal ideas in the last 3 months, 3.55% had had suicide attempts at least once in life, and 8.73% had suicidal ideas in the last 3 months with suicide attempts. The risk of suicidal behavior and/or mental disorders was explained jointly by depression (OR=27.9, 95% CI: 3.5-223. 1), low self-esteem (OR=11.8, 95% CI: 2.5-56.5), severe family dysfunction (OR=3.4, 95%CI 1.2-9.7), being female (OR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.8) and being 15 or older (OR=1.9, 95% CI: 0.967-3.9). Psychological abuse followed by physical mistreatment was associated with suicidal behavior and /or mental illness while good family relationships were associated to lower probability. Depression, low self-esteem, severe family dysfunction, female gender, older age (≥15) and domestic violence are risk factors associated with suicide and/or mental disorders in adolescents; good family relationships are associated with lower risk. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Suicide Ideation and Attempts and Being an Immigrant among Adolescents, and the Role of Socioeconomic Factors and School, Behavior, and Health-Related Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-11-01

    The risk of suicide behaviors in immigrant adolescents varies across countries and remains partly understood. We conducted a study in France to examine immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing suicide ideation in the last 12 months (SI) and lifetime suicide attempts (SA) compared with their native counterparts, and the contribution of socioeconomic factors and school, behavior, and health-related difficulties. Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including various risk factors, SI, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent's life course (except SI). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models for SI and Cox regression models for SA (retaining only school, behavior, and health-related difficulties that started before SA). Immigrant adolescents had a two-time higher risk of SI and SA than their native counterparts. Using nested models, the excess SI risk was highly explained by socioeconomic factors (27%) and additional school, behavior, and health-related difficulties (24%) but remained significant. The excess SA risk was more highly explained by these issues (40% and 85%, respectively) and became non-significant. These findings demonstrate the risk patterns of SI and SA and the prominent confounding roles of socioeconomic factors and school, behavior, and health-related difficulties. They may be provided to policy makers, schools, carers, and various organizations interested in immigrant, adolescent, and suicide-behavior problems.

  18. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nock, Matthew K.; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Cha, Christine B.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Lee, Sing

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior. PMID:18653727

  19. Some psychological characteristics of adolescents hospitalized following a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Maraš, J S; Kolundžija, K; Dukić, O; Marković, J; Okanović, P; Stokin, B; Mitrović, D; Ivanović-Kovačević, S

    2013-02-01

    In most countries, suicide is second or third leading cause of death in youth. Suicidal tendencies among youth have been the subject of extensive research. Reports of increased rate of suicide attempts in the past few decades indicate that this phenomenon has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of adolescent suicide behavior by defining some specific psychological characteristics of adolescents who were hospitalized at the psychiatric ward because of the suicide attempt. 62 participants were assigned to two groups: clinical (adolescents who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt) and non-clinical (adolescents without psychiatric symptoms). They filled in a series of instruments: a questionnaire examining adolescents' demographic characteristics, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report. Compared to the non-clinical populaton adolescents attempting suicide had significantly more frequent suicidal thoughts (χ2 = 18.627, df = 1, p < .01), higher incidence of earlier attempts (χ2 = 10.008, df = 1, p < .01), they abused substances more often (χ2 = 7.398, df=1, p < .01), had higher incidence of fathers' psychopathology (χ2 = 11.77, df = 1, p < .01), lower level of self-esteem (t = 4.23, p < .01), and more significant expression of internalized (F/1.60/ = 19.02; p < .01) as well as externalized problems (F/1.60/ = 4.41; p < .05). This study point to some of the characteristics of adolescents who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt.  

  20. Domains of Chronic Stress and Suicidal Behaviors among Inpatient Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Jeremy W.; Green, Kelly L.; Grover, Kelly E.; Schatte, Dawnelle J.; Morgan, Sharon T.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the role of chronic stress in youth suicidal behaviors. This study examined the relations between specific domains of chronic stress and suicidal behaviors among 131 inpatient youth (M age = 15.02 years) who completed measures of stress, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and suicide intent. After controlling for…

  1. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Styles on African-American and Caucasian Children's Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of…

  2. Impulsivity and Suicidality in Adolescent Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, Randy P; Stewart, Jeremy G; Johnson, Sheri L

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and impulsivity has emerged as a promising marker of risk. The present study tested whether distinct domains of impulsivity are differentially associated with suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. Adolescents (n = 381; boys = 106, girls = 275) aged 13-19 years (M = 15.62, SD = 1.41) were recruited from an acute, residential treatment program. Within 48 h of admission to the hospital, participants were administered structured clinical interviews assessing mental health disorders and suicidality. Following these interviews, participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing symptom severity and impulsivity. Consistent with past research, an exploratory factor analysis of our 90-item impulsivity instrument resulted in a three-factor solution: Pervasive Influence of Feelings, Feelings Trigger Action, and Lack of Follow-Through. Concurrent analysis of these factors confirmed hypotheses of unique associations with suicide ideation and attempts in the past month. Specifically, whereas Pervasive Influence of Feelings (i.e., tendency for emotions to shape thoughts about the self and the future) is uniquely associated with greater suicidal ideation, Feelings Trigger Action (i.e., impulsive behavioral reactivity to emotions) is uniquely associated with the occurrence of suicide attempts, even after controlling for current psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms. Exploratory gender analyses revealed that these effects were significant in female but not male adolescents. These findings provide new insight about how specific domains of impulsivity differentially increase risk for suicide ideation and attempts. Implications for early identification and prevention of youth suicide are discussed.

  3. Impulsivity and Suicidality in Adolescent Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeremy G.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and impulsivity has emerged as a promising marker of risk. The present study tested whether distinct domains of impulsivity are differentially associated with suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. Adolescents (n = 381; boys = 106, girls = 275) aged 13–19 years (M = 15.62, SD = 1.41) were recruited from an acute, residential treatment program. Within 48 h of admission to the hospital, participants were administered structured clinical interviews assessing mental health disorders and suicidality. Following these interviews, participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing symptom severity and impulsivity. Consistent with past research, an exploratory factor analysis of our 90-item impulsivity instrument resulted in a three-factor solution: Pervasive Influence of Feelings, Feelings Trigger Action, and Lack of Follow-Through. Concurrent analysis of these factors confirmed hypotheses of unique associations with suicide ideation and attempts in the past month. Specifically, whereas Pervasive Influence of Feelings (i.e., tendency for emotions to shape thoughts about the self and the future) is uniquely associated with greater suicidal ideation, Feelings Trigger Action (i.e., impulsive behavioral reactivity to emotions) is uniquely associated with the occurrence of suicide attempts, even after controlling for current psychiatric diagnoses and symptoms. Exploratory gender analyses revealed that these effects were significant in female but not male adolescents. These findings provide new insight about how specific domains of impulsivity differentially increase risk for suicide ideation and attempts. Implications for early identification and prevention of youth suicide are discussed. PMID:27025937

  4. Impulsivity and Clinical Symptoms among Adolescents with Non-Suicidal Self-Injury with or without Attempted Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M.; Prevette, Kristen N.; Dawes, Michael A.; Hatzis, Erin S.; Palmes, Guy; Nouvion, Sylvain O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined clinical characteristics and laboratory-measured impulsive behavior of adolescents engaging in either non-suicidal self-injury with (NSSI+SA; n = 25) or without (NSSI-Only; n = 31) suicide attempts. We hypothesized that adolescent with NSSI+SI would exhibit more severe clinical symptoms and higher levels of behavioral impulsivity compared to adolescents with NSSI-Only. Adolescents were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital unit and the two groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychopathology, self-reported clinical ratings, methods of non-suicidal self-injury, and two laboratory impulsivity measures. Primary evaluations were conducted during psychiatric hospitalization, and a subset of those tested during hospitalization was retested 4-6 weeks after discharge. During hospitalization, NSSI+SA patients reported worse depression, hopelessness, and impulsivity on standard clinical measures, and demonstrated elevated impulsivity on a reward-directed laboratory measure compared to NSSI-Only patients. In the preliminary follow-up analyses, depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and laboratory impulsivity were improved for both groups, but the NSSI+SA group still exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and impulsivity than the NSSI-Only group. Risk assessments for adolescents with NSSI+SA should include consideration not only of the severity of clinical symptoms but of the current level impulsivity as well. PMID:19631392

  5. Impulsivity and clinical symptoms among adolescents with non-suicidal self-injury with or without attempted suicide.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Donald M; Mathias, Charles W; Marsh-Richard, Dawn M; Prevette, Kristen N; Dawes, Michael A; Hatzis, Erin S; Palmes, Guy; Nouvion, Sylvain O

    2009-08-30

    This study examined clinical characteristics and laboratory-measured impulsive behavior of adolescents engaging in either non-suicidal self-injury with (NSSI+SA; n=25) or without (NSSI-Only; n=31) suicide attempts. We hypothesized that adolescent with NSSI+SI would exhibit more severe clinical symptoms and higher levels of behavioral impulsivity compared to adolescents with NSSI-Only. Adolescents were recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital unit and the two groups were compared on demographic characteristics, psychopathology, self-reported clinical ratings, methods of non-suicidal self-injury, and two laboratory impulsivity measures. Primary evaluations were conducted during psychiatric hospitalization, and a subset of those tested during hospitalization was retested 4-6 weeks after discharge. During hospitalization, NSSI+SA patients reported worse depression, hopelessness, and impulsivity on standard clinical measures, and demonstrated elevated impulsivity on a reward-directed laboratory measure compared to NSSI-Only patients. In the follow-up analyses, depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and laboratory impulsivity were improved for both groups, but the NSSI+SA group still exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and impulsivity than the NSSI-Only group. Risk assessments for adolescents with NSSI+SA should include consideration not only of the severity of clinical symptoms but of the current level impulsivity as well.

  6. Men's sexual orientation and suicide: evidence for U.S. adolescent-specific risk.

    PubMed

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B

    2012-02-01

    There is strong consensus in the research literature that adolescent and adult men who report same-sex sexual orientations, identities, and behaviors are at higher risk for suicide. Recent studies of general adolescent suicide risk have identified developmental trajectories that peak during the teenage years. Because the adolescent years are characterized by the development and heightened awareness of gender roles and sexual scripts closely tied to dominant cultural ideals of masculinity and heterosexuality, an adolescent-focused developmental trajectory for suicide risk might be particularly relevant for males with adolescent same-sex sexual orientations. We provide the first prospective examination of adolescent-specific risk for suicidality based on adolescent same-sex sexual orientation using data from the United States, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Tracing suicide ideation and attempts across four assessments from adolescence (Wave 1 average age 15.3 years) to young adulthood (Wave 4 average age 28.2), we documented that the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for adolescent same-sex attracted males is developmental in nature. Specifically, the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for males with same-sex attractions is largely limited to the adolescent years. These results offer new insights for suicide prevention and intervention for male adolescents and adults with same-sex sexual orientations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample, social comparison and positive stimulation from others differentiated multiple attempters from single attempters/ideators. Only suicidal ideation predicted multiple attempts among White youth and only higher interpersonal orientation predicted multiple suicide attempts within Black adolescents. PMID:19527152

  8. Predictors of multiple suicide attempts among suicidal black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A

    2009-04-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample, social comparison and positive stimulation from others differentiated multiple attempters from single attempters/ideators. Only suicidal ideation predicted multiple attempts among White youth and only higher interpersonal orientation predicted multiple suicide attempts within Black adolescents.

  9. Editorial: Reducing adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in young people ages 10-19 (CDC, 2015). Current statistics suggest that in the US one in every seven youths has seriously considered or made a plan to commit suicide and one in every 13 youths has attempted suicide in the previous year (CDC, 2015). Suicide represents a - if not the - major public health problem in adolescents. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  10. Risk Factors for Suicide Ideation Among Adolescents: Five-Year National Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Yeojin; Oh, Won-Oak; Suk, Minhyun

    2017-06-01

    This study identified risk factors for suicide ideation among adolescents through a secondary analysis using data collected over five years from the 5th-9th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey. We analyzed 370,568 students' responses to questions about suicidality. The risk factors for suicide ideation included demographic characteristics, such as gender (girls), low grades, low economic status, and not living with one or both parents. Behavioral and mental health risk factors affecting suicide ideation were depression, low sleep satisfaction, high stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sexual activity. Health care providers should particularly target adolescents manifesting the above risk factors when developing suicide prevention programs for them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicide among children and adolescents: a review.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Zappino, Julia

    2014-01-01

    It’s a fact that suicide is one of the top three causes of death among 15-to-24 years old around the world. Due to this, and in spite of the inherent difficulties in this type of studies, many researches have been put into place, with the primary intention of identifying its etiopathogenesis, in order to establish suicide prevention strategies and provide effective mental health care. To date, the main risk factors, among others, known to be associated with suicidal behavior in this age group are depression, hopelessness, dysfunctional families, substance abuse, school failure and harassment. This review highlights the fact that the sociological characteristics of postmodernity are influencing the phenomenology of the suicidal behavior among children and adolescents today.

  12. Adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Novick, Lloyd F; Cibula, Donald A; Sutphen, Sally M

    2003-05-01

    This case-prevention of adolescent suicide-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This teaching case examines the issue of prevention of adolescent and young adult suicide both at an individual and at a population or community level, using data from the Onondaga County Health Department. In the first section of the case, students are asked to determine whether five deaths related to falling or jumping at a local shopping mall should be considered to be suicidal deaths. Students then develop skills in the reporting as well as in the epidemiology of adolescent suicidal deaths in Onondaga County. As the case progresses, students analyze the results of a local surveillance study of suicidal attempts and ideation. The case concludes with students evaluating a hypothetical screening study intended to reduce the risk of suicidal death and discussing a research design to examine the effectiveness of this prevention strategy.

  13. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  14. Psychometric validation of the Columbia-Suicide Severity rating scale in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serrani Azcurra, Daniel

    2017-12-30

    Adolescent suicide is a major public health issue, and early and accurate detection is of great concern. There are many reliable instruments for this purpose, such as the Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), but no validation exists for Spanish speaking Latin American adolescents. To assess psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the C-SSRS in Spanish speaking adolescents. Exploratory assessment with principal component analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) were performed on two groups with 782 and 834 participants respectively (N=1616). Mean age was 24.8 years. A Receiver operator analysis was applied to distinguish between control and suicide-risk subgroups adolescents. Promax rotation yielded two 10-items factors, for suicide ideation and behavior respectively. C-SSRS was positively correlated with other suicide risk scales, such as Beck Depression Inventory-II, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, or PHQ-9. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution as the best goodness of fit model. C-SSRS showed adequate ability to detect suicide risk group with positive predictive value of 68.3%. ROC analyses showed cutoff scores of ≥ 6 and ≥ 4 for suicide ideation and behavior scales respectively. This research offers data supporting psychometric validity and reliability of C-SSRS in nonclinical Spanish-speaking students. Added benefits are flexible scoring and management easiness. This questionnaire yields data on distinct aspects of suicidality, being more parsimonious than separate administration of a bunch of questionnaires.

  15. Family-based association study of 5-HT(2A) receptor T102C polymorphism and suicidal behavior in Ashkenazi inpatient adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalsman, Gil; Frisch, Amos; Baruch-Movshovits, Ruth; Sher, Leo; Michaelovsky, Elena; King, Robert A; Fischel, Tsvi; Hermesh, Haggai; Goldberg, Pablo; Gorlyn, Marianne; Misgav, Sagit; Apter, Alan; Tyano, Sam; Weizman, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Suicidal behavior runs in families and is partially genetically determined. Since greater serotonin 5-HT(2A) receptor binding has been reported in postmortem brain and platelets of suicide victims, the 5-HT(2A) receptor gene polymorphism T102C became one of the candidate sites in the study of suicide and impulsive-aggressive traits. However, studies that examined the association of this polymorphism with suicidality have contradictory results. This study used a family-based method and one homogenous ethnic group to overcome ethnic stratification in order to test this association. Thirty families of inpatient adolescents from Jewish Ashkenazi origin, with a recent suicide attempt, were genotyped. All subjects were interviewed for clinical diagnosis, depressive and impulsive-aggressive traits and demographic data. Allele frequencies were assessed using the Haplotype Relative Risk method for trios. No difference was found in allelic distribution between transmitted and non-transmitted alleles. There was no significant association of genotype with any of the clinical traits These preliminary results suggest that the 5-HT(2A) T102C polymorphism is unlikely to be associated with suicidal behavior and related traits in adolescent suicide attempters.

  16. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    PubMed

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  17. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  18. Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behaviors across Adolescence: Associations with Histories of Suicide Attempt and Ideation in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Reinke, Wendy M.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between adolescent problem trajectories and suicide risk outcomes in 361 community participants. Depressive symptoms (self-report) and externalizing behaviors (parent report) were assessed six times from grades 5 to 10. Parallel process linear growth curves indicated that lifetime suicide attempt history assessed to age 25…

  19. A focus on recent cases of suicides among Italian children and adolescents and a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Pietro; Ianniello, Francesca; Cutrona, Costanza; Quintarelli, Fabio; Vena, Flaminia; Del Volgo, Valentina; Caporale, Olga; Malamisura, Monica; De Angelis, Maria Chiara; Gatto, Antonio; Chiaretti, Antonio; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2014-07-15

    Suicidal behaviors are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The large spread of suicide suggests that educational programs and literature to parents or guardians should include information about the potential risks and potential consequences of the onset of the idea of suicide in children. We identified 55 cases of suicide among children and young adults <18-year-old occurring in Italy between 1st January, 2011 and 31st December, 2013. The results point to the need to increase our understanding of the dramatic rise in suicidal behaviors during childhood/adolescence and of the causal pathways linking these behaviors to child-adolescent mental disorders. During routine care visits, pediatricians should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide in order to intervene appropriately.

  20. A focus on recent cases of suicides among Italian children and adolescents and a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behaviors are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The large spread of suicide suggests that educational programs and literature to parents or guardians should include information about the potential risks and potential consequences of the onset of the idea of suicide in children. We identified 55 cases of suicide among children and young adults <18-year-old occurring in Italy between 1st January, 2011 and 31st December, 2013. The results point to the need to increase our understanding of the dramatic rise in suicidal behaviors during childhood/adolescence and of the causal pathways linking these behaviors to child-adolescent mental disorders. During routine care visits, pediatricians should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide in order to intervene appropriately. PMID:25022200

  1. Social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in early life: a review.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-03-01

    The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment.

  2. Association between Suicide Ideation and Attempts and Being an Immigrant among Adolescents, and the Role of Socioeconomic Factors and School, Behavior, and Health-Related Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Kénora; Kabuth, Bernard; Chau, Nearkasen

    2016-01-01

    The risk of suicide behaviors in immigrant adolescents varies across countries and remains partly understood. We conducted a study in France to examine immigrant adolescents’ likelihood of experiencing suicide ideation in the last 12 months (SI) and lifetime suicide attempts (SA) compared with their native counterparts, and the contribution of socioeconomic factors and school, behavior, and health-related difficulties. Questionnaires were completed by 1559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France including various risk factors, SI, SA, and their first occurrence over adolescent’s life course (except SI). Data were analyzed using logistic regression models for SI and Cox regression models for SA (retaining only school, behavior, and health-related difficulties that started before SA). Immigrant adolescents had a two-time higher risk of SI and SA than their native counterparts. Using nested models, the excess SI risk was highly explained by socioeconomic factors (27%) and additional school, behavior, and health-related difficulties (24%) but remained significant. The excess SA risk was more highly explained by these issues (40% and 85%, respectively) and became non-significant. These findings demonstrate the risk patterns of SI and SA and the prominent confounding roles of socioeconomic factors and school, behavior, and health-related difficulties. They may be provided to policy makers, schools, carers, and various organizations interested in immigrant, adolescent, and suicide-behavior problems. PMID:27809296

  3. The knowledge of pedagogic students on suicidal behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sacharewicz, A; Maciorkowska, E

    2005-01-01

    Suicide, taking one's own life, seems to be in contradiction with the will to live. However, it is not so obvious, as there is not the same patterns of behavior for all people. People differ from one another as far as reactions, behavior, and actions are concerned. Some are mobilized, others are discouraged by failures. It is often thought that suicidal behavior occurs due to a mental disorder. The purpose of the study was to check the knowledge of IV-year-students of Pedagogy and Psychology of The University in Bialystok concerning suicidal behavior. Danger of suicidal phenomenon among young people was also to be noticed and discussed. The examination was conducted in the group of 50 students of the IV year of Pedagogy and Psychology of The University in Bialystok in 2002. Students, 21-25 years of age, comprised the most numerous group. Women were the majority (84%) while men were 16%. The examination tool was the questionnaire of 29 open and closed questions. The analysis of the results points to the fact that making a decision of suicide is a result of long reflections expanded in time. Personal and family problems are most common causes of suicidal behavior given by the responders. Social isolation and bad mental condition were behaviors indicating the will to commit suicide. Lonely people, chronically ill, emotionally immature and the young people were those of the high risk groups. According to the examined students, pain connected with physical suffering may influence suicidal behavior.

  4. Psychometric validation of the Columbia-Suicide Severity rating scale in Spanish-speaking adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Adolescent suicide is a major public health issue, and early and accurate detection is of great concern. There are many reliable instruments for this purpose, such as the Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS), but no validation exists for Spanish speaking Latin American adolescents. Objetive: To assess psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the C-SSRS in Spanish speaking adolescents. Methods: Exploratory assessment with principal component analysis (PCA) and Varimax rotation, and confirmatory analysis (CFA) were performed on two groups with 782 and 834 participants respectively (N=1616). Mean age was 24.8 years. A Receiver operator analysis was applied to distinguish between control and suicide-risk subgroups adolescents. Results: Promax rotation yielded two 10-items factors, for suicide ideation and behavior respectively. C-SSRS was positively correlated with other suicide risk scales, such as Beck Depression Inventory-II, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, or PHQ-9. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution as the best goodness of fit model. C-SSRS showed adequate ability to detect suicide risk group with positive predictive value of 68.3%. ROC analyses showed cutoff scores of ≥ 6 and ≥ 4 for suicide ideation and behavior scales respectively Conclusion: This research offers data supporting psychometric validity and reliability of C-SSRS in nonclinical Spanish-speaking students. Added benefits are flexible scoring and management easiness. This questionnaire yields data on distinct aspects of suicidality, being more parsimonious than separate administration of a bunch of questionnaires. PMID:29662259

  5. Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts Associated with Co-Occurring Depression and Conduct Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; Mc Cauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were…

  6. Adolescent and caregiver perception of family functioning: relation to suicide ideation and attempts.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Jessica M; Yen, Shirley; Weinstock, Lauren M; Spirito, Anthony

    2012-12-30

    This study assessed the relationship between perceived family functioning and two indicators of suicidality in an adolescent sample. A total of 103 adolescents psychiatrically hospitalized for suicidal ideation and/or behavior completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing family functioning, negative affectivity, suicidal ideation in the past week assessed by Beck's Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS; Beck et al., 1979), and past suicide attempts. Participants' primary caregivers also completed a questionnaire on family functioning. A paired samples t-test evaluated overall discrepancy between adolescent- and caregiver-reported family functioning. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the simple associations between perceived family functioning and suicidal indicators (BSS and previous attempt status), as well as the associations between perceived family functioning and suicidal indicators after controlling for negative affect. Results indicated that adolescents' ratings of family functioning were significantly worse than caregivers' ratings, and positively associated with BSS scores and a history of suicide attempt. When negative affect was controlled for, adolescent-reported family functioning was significantly associated with BSS, but only trended toward significance with attempt status. Findings suggest that adolescents' perceptions of family functioning may be a key contributing factor to suicidal ideation in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An Assessment of Attempted Suicides among Adolescent Cherokee Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Pam Jumper; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the rate and reasons for suicidal attempts among adolescent Cherokee Indians (N=28). Results indicated a two percent rate of attempted suicides with overdose of medication and body cuts being the most commonly used methods. Behavioral patterns of attempters are discussed as well as implications for intervention. (BL)

  8. Cultural Considerations in Adolescent Suicide Prevention and Psychosocial Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Molock, Sherry Davis; Whitbeck, Leslie B.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Zayas, Luis H.; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic groups differ in rates of suicidal behaviors among youths, the context within which suicidal behavior occurs (e.g., different precipitants, vulnerability and protective factors, and reactions to suicidal behaviors), and patterns of help-seeking. In this article, the authors discuss the cultural context of suicidal behavior among African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Asian American and Pacific Islander, and Latino adolescents, and the implications of these contexts for suicide prevention and treatment. Several cross-cutting issues are discussed, including acculturative stress and protective factors within cultures; the roles of religion and spirituality and the family in culturally sensitive interventions; different manifestations and interpretations of distress in different cultures; and the impact of stigma and cultural distrust on help-seeking. The needs for culturally sensitive and community-based interventions are discussed, along with future opportunities for research in intervention development and evaluation. PMID:18193978

  9. Micro- and Macrosystem Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck-Cross, Cathy; Cooper, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among young people ages 15 to 19 years, with male adolescents four times more likely to die than their female peers. This study used Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model to examine micro- and macrosystems as predictors of suicidal behaviors through responses by male adolescents (N = 9,910) to a statewide…

  10. A within-person approach to risk for suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior: Examining the roles of depression, stress, and abuse exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Giletta, Matteo; Hastings, Paul D; Rudolph, Karen D; Nock, Matthew K; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2017-07-01

    This study tests a novel, within-person model that reexamines depression and stress as risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior among adolescent girls with and without sexual/physical abuse histories. This longitudinal study includes data from 220 adolescent girls between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 14.69 years, SD = 1.37; 61% White). At baseline, adolescents reported the presence or absence of prior abuse as part of a clinical interview. At baseline and every 3 months for 18 months, adolescents completed measures of suicidal ideation and behavior, depressive symptoms, and stress. Multilevel models examined within-person mean, deviations from within-person mean, depression, and stress and their interactions with abuse as predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior. In addition to within-person mean depression, higher-than-usual depression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99) and higher-than-usual stress (OR = 1.53) predicted greater risk of suicidal ideation at each follow-up assessment. Periods of higher-than-usual stress (1 SD increase) and periods of higher-than-usual depression (1 SD increase) were associated with an 82% and 57% increase in the odds of suicidal behavior, respectively, but only among those with abuse histories. Depression, stress, and abuse are well-known risk factors for suicidal ideation and behavior; however, it has been unclear for whom, and when, these factors have their greatest impact. These results show that depression and stress are potent risk factors among those with a history of abuse and that within-person elevations in these risk factors signal increased short-term risk of suicidal ideation and behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Social Aspects of Suicidal Behavior and Prevention in Early Life: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Amitai, Maya; Apter, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present review summarizes the updated literature on the social aspects of suicidal behavior and prevention in adolescents. Recent findings: The predictive role of psychiatric disorders and past history are well recognized in adolescent suicide, but the role of social and cultural factors is less clear. Studies have focused on the importance of ethnicity, gender, family characteristics, and socioeconomic status. More recently, attention has been addressed to broader social risk factors, such as bullying in adolescents, suicide contagion, sexual orientation, and the popular media. Further empirical evidence is needed to advance our understanding of suicidal youth, develop better assessment tools, and formulate effective prevention and treatment programs. Summary: Suicidal behavior remains an important clinical problem and major cause of death in youth. Social factors may be at least as important as genetics. Advancing our understanding of underlying cultural and sociological issues in youth suicide will help clinicians achieve more efficient prediction, prevention and treatment. PMID:22690178

  12. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the elements of a manualized cognitive behavior psychotherapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction, relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy and targeted therapies for suicidal, depressed youth. CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. Results CBT-SP was administered to 110 depressed, recent suicide attempters aged 13–19 years (mean 15.8±1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. Conclusions A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manualized, and further testing of its efficacy appears feasible. PMID:19730273

  13. Perception of Parental Bonds and Suicide Intent Among Egyptian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Thompson, Elaine A; Abd El-Salam, Hoda F

    2016-04-01

    Suicidal adolescents, compared to their nonsuicidal peers, tend to perceive their parents as less "caring" and more "controlling"-which characterizes the "affectionless control" parenting style. Research findings are inconsistent regarding the distinct influence of mother versus father parenting on youth suicide intent; moreover, the influence of parents' joint parenting styles on suicide intent has not been investigated. Using a cross-sectional design and large sample (N = 150 youth, 13-21 years old), currently hospitalized in a treatment center in Egypt for a recent suicide attempt, data were collected using the Suicide Intent Scale, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Seventy percent of youth reported high suicide intent. Mother and father parenting styles, assessed independently, were not associated with adolescent suicide intent. The joint effect of both parents' parenting style, however, was positively associated with suicide intent (Wald χ(2) = 8.79, p = .03). Suicide intent was stronger among adolescents who experienced neglectful compared with optimal parenting style (B = 1.93, Wald χ(2) = 4.28, p = .04). The findings have direct implications for mental health nursing interventions, signaling the critical need to engage both parents in family-based interventions to address youth suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Adolescent Suicide Attempters: What Predicts Future Suicidal Acts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Haldorsen, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Predictors for repetition of suicide attempts were evaluated among 92 adolescent suicide attempters 9 years after an index suicide attempt (90% females). Five were dead, two by suicide. Thirty-one (42%) of 73 had repeated a suicide attempt. In multiple Cox regression analysis, four factors had an independent predictive effect: comorbid disorders,…

  15. Suicidal behaviors in the dermatology patient.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Pur, Daiana R; Vujcic, Branka; Gupta, Aditya K

    An assessment of suicidal behaviors in the dermatology patient may be necessary in several situations: (1) in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (major depressive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, substance use disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder), encountered in up to 30% of dermatology patients; (2) when dermatologic symptoms ("dysmorphophobia," dermatitis artefacta) represent psychiatric pathologic conditions; (3) when psychosocial stressors (bereavement, interpersonal violence) increase the risk of suicidal behavior and exacerbate stress-reactive dermatoses (psoriasis, acne); (4) in the presence of high disease burden (chronicity, increased disease severity); (5) in instances of significant pruritus or chronic sleep disruption; (6) in the presence of facial lesions or facial scarring; (7) when social exclusion or feelings of alienation arise secondary to the skin disorder; (8) with use of medications (retinoids, biologics) for which suicidal behavior has been implicated as a possible side effect; and (9) when treating psychiatric patients experiencing a serious reaction to psychotropic medications (eg, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and anticonvulsants). Suicide risk must be assessed within a demographic context because suicide rates rise rapidly in adolescents and young adults, among whom the prevalence of skin disorders associated with suicidal behaviors (acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis) is also high, and suicide rates are increasing among white men, who tend to be overrepresented in dermatology clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and psychological distress among intoxicated adolescents in the pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Puuskari, Varpu; Aalto-Setälä, Terhi; Komulainen, Erkki; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-02-01

    Studies have emphasized screening for psychiatric disorders, especially suicide risk in emergency departments. Psychiatric disorders and experimentation with alcohol increase in adolescence and intoxications among patients challenge the staff in emergency departments. This study examined the degree of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicidal behavior in adolescents, and the extent to which they differed from non-suicidal patients in terms of alcohol use, psychological distress, self-esteem, and perceived social support. The study comprised 120 adolescents, a mean age of 14.2 years. Of them 60% were females. We collected data on the clinical characteristics and assessed the patient's psychiatric status using self-report scales and analyzed blood samples for alcohol. A consulting psychiatrist interviewed each patient before discharge to evaluate potential SI or suicide attempt (SA) using structured and semi-structured scales. Of the 120 patients 20% had SI or had made a SA. High psychological distress in girls, low blood alcohol levels (BALs), as well as low scores on self-esteem, on social support and on familial support were associated with patients with SI/SA. Logistic regression showed that the most significant variables with suicidal patients included low BAL and low self-esteem and high alcohol consumption. Psychological distress had a direct and mediational role in the suicidal patients. Adolescents referred to the pediatric emergency department with intoxication displaying high psychological distress and low self-esteem represent a high-risk group of teens. In this group, careful assessment of mental health status, screening for suicidal ideation, and SAs seems warranted.

  17. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated with Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan G.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students (N = 233). Females…

  18. Suicide Attempts and Associated Factors in Male and Female Korean Adolescents A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Chin, Young Ran; Choi, Kyungwon

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, this study seeks to investigate associations of suicide attempts with family, individual, and behavioral factors on the basis of gender. Among male adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, who had poor subjective academic achievement, depression, experiences of smoking and sexual coitus, drug abuse, suicidal ideation and plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Among the female adolescents, those who did not live with their parents, had depression, low self-rated health, experiences of drug abuse and sexual coitus, and expressed unhappiness, suicidal ideation and suicide plans were more likely to attempt suicide. Thus, the development of a suicide prevention program for Korean adolescents requires different approaches for males and females.

  19. Adolescent insomnia, suicide risk, and the interpersonal theory of suicide.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Lucas; Horton, Sarah; Eaddy, Michael; King, Jessica; Hughes, Jennifer; Diederich, Andrew; Kennard, Betsy; Emslie, Graham; Stewart, Sunita

    2017-11-01

    Although insomnia has been repeatedly linked with suicide ideation, the reason for the linkage is not clear. The Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS) proposes that three core variables (thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and acquired capability) are the final common pathway for all risk factors for suicide ideation and behavior. Recent research has suggested that insomnia may be associated with suicide ideation independently of the IPTS. We examined cross-sectional data from 151 psychiatric inpatients (ages 12-17) to determine if the association between insomnia symptoms and a continuous measure of suicide risk (measured as increasingly severe ideation and plan) was explained by the framework of the IPTS. When all IPTS variables and depressive symptoms were included in the model, insomnia symptoms did not contribute unique variance to suicide risk. Perceived burdensomeness and depressive symptoms were found to explain the relationship between insomnia symptoms and suicide risk. Our findings suggest that improved sleep might reduce suicide risk, that management of interpersonal need cognitions might reduce risk in the presence of insomnia symptoms, and reinforce the independent role of depressive symptoms in suicide risk in clinical samples of adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  1. Substance abuse, suicidality, and self-esteem in South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wild, Lauren G; Flisher, Alan J; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116) completed the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (SEQ) and a questionnaire that asked about their participation in a range of risk behaviors. Logistic regression analyses indicated that particular domains of self-esteem were differentially associated with indicators of alcohol, cigarette and drug use and suicidal ideation or behaviors in adolescents. Family self-esteem showed the strongest overall pattern of associations with the risk behaviors. Overall, the findings of this study suggest that interventions which aim to protect adolescents from engaging in risk behaviors by increasing their self-esteem are likely to be most effective and cost-efficient if they are aimed at the family and school domains.

  2. Attempted suicide of an adolescent with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Katsunaka; Onishi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Although the suicide risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been suggested to be higher than previously recognized, there are few case reports focusing on the process for preventing suicide reattempts. We reported that a 17-year-old male who had attempted suicide by jumping was admitted to our emergency department and hospitalized for lumbar spine fracture. In addition to the diagnosis of adjustment disorder, he was diagnosed as ASD according to his life history. This article presents the characteristics of the suicidal behaviors and the process for preventing a suicide reattempt associated with an adolescent with ASD who attempted suicide.

  3. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs and suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Yan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Jian-Xiong; Huang, Jing-Hui; Huang, Guo-Liang; Gao, Xue; Wu, Hong; Pan, Si-Yuan; Lu, Ci-Yong

    2017-09-01

    The nature of the relationship between the non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) and suicide has not been clearly elucidated. Some studies have suggested that the relationship between substance use and suicidal ideation may be spurious and could be explained by other variables. A school-based cross-sectional study was performed in Guangzhou. A total of 5853 students completed questionnaires and were included in the study. NMUPD, alcohol use, illicit drug use, depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and suicidal behaviors were assessed. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms and sleep quality on the relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors were examined using a structural equation model. In the simple model without mediation, a positive relationship between NMUPD and suicidal behaviors in adolescents was found, which was independent of effects from the use of other substances. Both depressive symptoms and sleep quality were significant mediators of this relationship. Public health and educational professionals should survey depressive symptoms and sleep quality and provide interventions when managing suicidal behaviors among adolescents engaging in NMUPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Suicidal Behaviors among Adolescents in Puerto Rico: Rates and Correlates in Clinical and Community Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jennifer; Ramirez, Rafael Roberto; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Goodwin, Renee D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of suicidal behavior among youth on the island of Puerto Rico. Data were drawn from two probability samples, one clinical (n = 736) and one community-based sample (n = 1,896), of youth ages 12 to 17. Consistent with previous studies in U.S. mainland adolescent populations, our results demonstrate that most…

  5. Adoption as a risk factor for attempted suicide during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Slap, G; Goodman, E; Huang, B

    2001-08-01

    Depression, impulsivity, and aggression during adolescence have been associated with both adoption and suicidal behavior. Studies of adopted adults suggest that impulsivity, even more than depression, may be an inherited factor that mediates suicidal behavior. However, the association between adoption and adolescent suicide attempts and the mechanisms that might explain it remain unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the following: 1) whether suicide attempts are more common among adolescents who live with adoptive parents rather than biological parents; 2) whether the association is mediated by impulsivity, and 3) whether family connectedness decreases the risk of suicide attempt regardless of adoptive or biological status. A secondary analysis of Wave I data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was conducted, which used a school-based, clustered sampling design to identify a nationally representative sample of 7th- to 12th-grade students, with oversampling of underrepresented groups. Of the 90 118 adolescents who completed the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health in-school survey, 17 125 completed the in-home interview and had parents of identified gender who completed separate in-home questionnaire. The subset of adolescents for this study was drawn from the in-home sampling according to the following criteria: 1) adolescent living with adoptive or biological mother at the time of the interview, 2) adolescent had never been separated from mother for more than 6 months, 3) mother was in first marriage at the time of the interview, and 4) the adoptive mother had never been married to the adolescent's biological father. Of the 6577 adolescents in the final study sample, 214 (3.3%) were living with adoptive mothers and 6363 (96.7%) were living with biological mothers. Variables. The primary outcome measured was adolescent report of suicide attempt(s) in the past year. Other variables included in the analyses were

  6. Co-Occurring Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Firesetting Among At-Risk Adolescents: Experiences of Negative Life Events, Mental Health Problems, Substance Use, and Suicidality.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Alicia; Hasking, Penelope; Martin, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors in adolescence typically marks more severe psychopathology and poorer psychosocial functioning than engagement in a single problem behavior. We examined the negative life events, emotional and behavioral problems, substance use, and suicidality of school-based adolescents reporting both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and repetitive firesetting, compared to those engaging in either behavior alone. Differences in NSSI characteristics among self-injurers who set fires, compared to those who did not, were also assessed. A total of 384 at-risk adolescents aged 12-18 years (58.8% female) completed self-report questionnaires measuring NSSI, firesetting, and key variables of interest. Results suggest that adolescents who both self-injure and deliberately set fires represent a low-prevalence but distinct high-risk subgroup, characterized by increased rates of interpersonal difficulties, mental health problems and substance use, more severe self-injury, and suicidal behavior. Implications for prevention and early intervention initiatives are discussed.

  7. Role of social support in adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Leichtweis, Richard N

    2015-03-01

    The present study examined the relative contributions of perceptions of social support from parents, close friends, and school on current suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempt (SA) history in a clinical sample of adolescents. Participants were 143 adolescents (64% female; 81% white; range, 12-18 years; M = 15.38; standard deviation = 1.43) admitted to a partial hospitalization program. Data were collected with well-validated assessments and a structured clinical interview. Main and interactive effects of perceptions of social support on SI were tested with linear regression. Main and interactive effects of social support on the odds of SA were tested with logistic regression. Results from the linear regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower school support independently predicted greater severity of SI, accounting for parent and close friend support. Further, the relationship between lower perceived school support and SI was the strongest among those who perceived lower versus higher parental support. Results from the logistic regression analysis revealed that perceptions of lower parental support independently predicted SA history, accounting for school and close friend support. Further, those who perceived lower support from school and close friends reported the greatest odds of an SA history. Results address a significant gap in the social support and suicide literature by demonstrating that perceptions of parent and school support are relatively more important than peer support in understanding suicidal thoughts and history of suicidal behavior. Results suggest that improving social support across these domains may be important in suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Suicidal Ideation in Latino/a Adolescents Living in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Jones, Richard N; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-12-05

    Puerto Rican adolescents, as well as other Latinos/as, have been identified at higher risk for suicidal ideation and attempts compared to other ethnic groups. However, research designed to better understand suicidality among Puerto Rican adolescents is rare. A socio-cognitive vulnerability model of suicidal ideation was tested in adolescents living in Puerto Rico. Multiple group path analyses were performed to assess the effect of self-reported socio-environmental and vulnerability factors on suicidal ideation, by sex, in 233 students from the metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Overall, the model explained a large amount of the variance in suicidal ideation (r 2  = .59 for females and r2 = .48 for males). Depressive symptoms had the strongest total effect on suicidal ideation for both sexes (r = .69 for females and r = .53 for males) and negative life events were the most salient socio-environmental factor. Hopelessness had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for males only. Externalizing behaviors had a direct effect on suicidal ideation for both males and females, but it was particularly strong for females. Results support the mediating role of vulnerability factors and the differential importance of socio-environmental and vulnerability factors in understanding suicidal ideation among Puerto Rican adolescents. The relevance of exploring different developmental paths to suicidal ideation, separately by sex, is discussed.

  9. Community Structural Instability, Anomie, Imitation and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The current study examines the contextual effects of community structural characteristics, as well as the mediating role of key social mechanisms, on youth suicidal behavior in Iceland. We argue that the contextual influence of community structural instability on youth suicidal behavior should be mediated by weak attachment to social norms and…

  10. Suicidal Ideation and Associated Factors among Adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos; dos Santos, Fabio Alexandre Lima; Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Pardono, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and factors associated with suicidal ideation among Brazilian adolescents. The instrument designed for the research was used considering three models with outcomes that identified the following: (a) adolescent had considered suicide, (b) adolescents have planned suicide, and (c) adolescents have attempted suicide. Logistic Regression was used in all models with significance level of 5%. An association between being female and suicidal ideation (OR = 2.18, CI 95% 1.60 to 2.97), suicide planning (OR = 1.80, CI 95% = 1.26–2.56), and suicide attempt (OR = 2.91, CI 95% 1.79 to 4.75) was found. Violent behavior/involvement in fights was associated with thinking about suicide (OR = 2.00, CI 95% = 1.43 to 2.81), suicide planning (OR = 1.65, CI 95% = 1.10–2.46), and suicide attempt (OR = 2.35, CI 95% = 1.49 to 3.70). For cigarette consumption, association was found with suicide ideation (OR = 1.62, CI 95% 1.03 to 2.55), planning (OR = 1.88, CI 95% = 1.15 to 3.08), and attempt (OR = 2.35, CI 95% 1.37 to 4.03). For alcohol consumption, association was found with suicide ideation (OR = 1.93, CI 95% 1.47 to 2.54), planning (OR = 2.22, CI 95% 1.61 to 3.08), and attempt (OR = 1.73, CI 95% 1.15 to 2.59). It was concluded that suicidal ideation was associated with female sex, involvement in fights, and illicit drug use. PMID:25506613

  11. Adolescent suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Field, T; Diego, M; Sanders, C E

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent suicidal ideation and its relationship to other variables was tapped by a self-report questionnaire administered to 88 high school seniors. Eighteen percent responded positively to the statement "sometimes I feel suicidal." Those who reported suicidal ideation were found to differ from those who did not on a number of variables, including family relationships (quality of relationship with mother, intimacy with parents, and closeness to siblings), family history of depression (maternal depression), peer relations (quality of peer relationships, popularity, and number of friends), emotional well-being (happiness, anger, and depression), drug use (cigarettes, marijuana, and cocaine), and grade point average. Stepwise regression indicated that happiness explained 46% of the variance in suicidal ideation, and number of friends, anger, and marijuana use explained an additional 20%, for a total of 66% of the variance. While 34% of the variance remained unexplained, it is suggested that the questions used to measure these four variables be included in global screenings to identify adolescents at risk for suicidal ideation.

  12. A longitudinal evaluation of religiosity and psychosocial determinants of suicidal behaviors among a population-based sample in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Agbanu, Samuel Kwami; Agbanu, Harry L K; Opoku-Adomako, Nana Serwaa; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among religiosity and other psychosocial factors in determining suicidal behaviors in adolescence and in emerging adulthood have been inconclusive. We sought to investigate prospective relationships among religiosity, psychosocial factors and suicidal behaviors using a nationally representative sample of adolescents emerging into adulthood. Analysis was based on 9412 respondents from four waves of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) procedure was used to fit a series of models on the response variable (suicidal behaviors) and a set of psychosocial and religiosity predictors taking into account the correlated structure of the datasets. Analyses showed that adolescent suicidality and religious activity participation showed significant declines over time. Using multinomial logistic regression we found that females showed statistically significant risks of suicidal behaviors, but this effect declined in adulthood. In adjusted models, baseline attendance of a church weekly was associated with 42% reduction (95% Confidence Interval: 0.35-0.98) of suicide ideation in Wave III. Across all waves, low support from fathers (compared with mothers) consistently explained variability in suicidal behaviors among genders emerging into adulthood. Accurate measurement of religiosity is psychometrically challenging. The findings of the study indicate that religious activity participation is associated with reduced suicidal behaviors among adolescents but this effect declines during emerging adulthood. Psychosocial supports particularly from fathers' have an enduring impact on reduced suicidal behaviors among adolescents and emerging adults. Prevention, identification and evaluation of disorders of suicidality need a careful assessment of underlying mental pain (psyache) to reduce the likelihood of aggravated suicide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents who died by suicide: A study of psychological autopsies.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; León-Garibay, Alejandra Giovanna; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; López-Narváez, Lilia; Frésan, Ana

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, suicide in children and adolescents has increased considerably, becoming the second cause of death in this age group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that could precipitate deaths by suicide in children and adolescents. Using the psychological autopsy method, we studied 28 suicide cases of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years old. Socio-demographic factors, characteristics of the suicide and family history were documented. The proportion of deaths by suicide was the same in females and males (50% each). Most of the suicides were performed at the child/adolescent's home (78.6%) and no history of previous suicide attempts were registered (85.7%). Also, the majority of suicidal individuals came from a dysfunctional family (60.7%). Our results identified characteristics of children and adolescents that had died by suicide, such as dying at their homes and coming from dysfunctional families. Knowing the characteristics of children and adolescents that had ended their lives by suicide should be considered in future studies to help developing preventive programs and strategies for treating suicidal behaviors in Mexican children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent suicide problems.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Donna; Whittlesey, Suzanne; Kearns, Lauri; Bennett, Sevim; Allen, Sandra F

    2004-02-01

    Adolescent suicide is a growing problem despite increased awareness and programs to counter the destruction. There are myths surrounding adolescent suicide that contribute to our alarm at the increasing numbers. However, risk and protective factors along with prevention strategies and resources for help are available. Finally, the primary care physician has critical and pivotal opportunities for screening patients for referral and further treatment. Simple, discerning questions can allow the busy physician good insight into patients' mental health.

  15. Methods of suicide used by children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Urs; Stulz, Niklaus; Unger-Köppel, Jürg; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2012-02-01

    Although relatively rare, suicide is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the Western world. This study examined whether children and adolescents are drawn to other methods of suicide than adults. Swiss suicides from 1998 to 2007 were examined. The main methods of suicide were analysed with respect to age and gender. Of the 12,226 suicides which took place in this 10-year period, 333 were committed by children and adolescents (226 males, 107 females). The most prevalent methods of suicide in children and adolescents 0-19 years were hanging, jumping from heights and railway-suicides (both genders), intoxication (females) and firearms (males). Compared to adults, railway-suicides were over-represented in young males and females (both P < .001). Jumping from heights was over-represented in young males (P < .001). Thus, availability has an important effect on methods of suicide chosen by children and adolescents. Restricting access to most favoured methods of suicide might be an important strategy in suicide prevention.

  16. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP): treatment model, feasibility, and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-10-01

    To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and theoretically grounded in principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, and targeted therapies for suicidal youths with depression. The CBT-SP consists of acute and continuation phases, each lasting about 12 sessions, and includes a chain analysis of the suicidal event, safety plan development, skill building, psychoeducation, family intervention, and relapse prevention. The CBT-SP was administered to 110 recent suicide attempters with depression aged 13 to 19 years (mean 15.8 years, SD 1.6) across five academic sites. Twelve or more sessions were completed by 72.4% of the sample. A specific intervention for adolescents at high risk for repeated suicide attempts has been developed and manual based, and further testing of its efficacy seems feasible.

  17. Suicidal behaviours among adolescents in northern Nova Scotia.

    PubMed

    Wang, JianLi; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A; Langille, Donald B

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the 12-month prevalence of suicidal behaviours by gender and to investigate the gender-specific factors associated with suicidal behaviours and to describe health service utilization by suicidal adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study. The baseline data of the Adolescent Health Study conducted in northern Nova Scotia were used. Female students were more likely to report suicidal behaviours than male students (p < 0.005). There was no gender difference in injurious suicide attempts. Depression was the strongest risk factor for suicidal behaviours in the two genders (p < 0.005). Female students who reported drug use and living in a non-intact family were at higher risk of suicide attempts. Low self-esteem was positively associated with suicidal ideation and suicide planning among male students. Suicidal girls were more likely to seek professional help for emotional disturbance than boys. Family doctors were the most frequently contacted professional by suicidal adolescents. Some factors associated with suicidal behaviours among adolescents may be gender specific. Suicidal behaviours have been considered a depressive symptom. Most suicidal students, however, had not contacted a health professional for an emotional problem in this population. This presents challenges for prevention of suicidal behaviours among adolescents.

  18. Suicide Attempts Among Adolescents with Self-Reported Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tally

    2018-06-01

    This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability. Some disability sub-groups, including youth reporting autism spectrum disorder, hearing, and vision impairments reported surprisingly high rates of SA. While youth with disabilities reported disproportionate exposure to adversity in every life domain examined, similar to youth reporting SA, disability status added unique risk for suicidal behavior. This suggests that disability may be a 'fundamental cause' of suicidal behavior, a question that requires further investigation.

  19. Predictors of Multiple Suicide Attempts among Suicidal Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Christopher; Kramer, Anne; Joe, Sean; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; King, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathology, social support, and interpersonal orientation were studied in relation to suicide attempt status in acutely suicidal, psychiatrically hospitalized Black adolescents and a matched sample of White adolescents. In the total sample, multiple attempters were differentiated by lower perceived support. Within the Black youth subsample,…

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Suicide Prevention (CBT-SP): Treatment Model, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Barbara; Brown, Gregory; Brent, David A.; Wells, Karen; Poling, Kim; Curry, John; Kennard, Betsy D.; Wagner, Ann; Cwik, Mary F.; Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Goldstein, Tina; Vitiello, Benedetto; Barnett, Shannon; Daniel, Stephanie; Hughes, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the elements of a manual-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for suicide prevention (CBT-SP) and to report its feasibility in preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior in adolescents who have recently attempted suicide. Method: The CBT-SP was developed using a risk reduction and relapse prevention approach and…

  1. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    PubMed

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  2. HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION AND ADOLESCENT SUICIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Don; Miller, Kathleen E.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents aged 15–24, with males incurring higher rates of completion than females. This study used hierarchical logistic regression analysis to test whether athletic participation was associated with lower rates of suicidal ideation and behavior among a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 US public and private high school students. Net of the effects of age, race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and urbanicity, high school athletic participation was significantly associated with reduced odds of considering suicide among both females and males, and reduced odds of planning a suicide attempt among females only. Though the results point to favorable health outcomes for athletes, athletic participation was also associated with higher rates of injury to male athletes who actually attempted suicide. PMID:18846245

  3. Parental Self-Efficacy to Support Teens During a Suicidal Crisis and Future Adolescent Emergency Department Visits and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; Yeguez, Carlos E; Ewell Foster, Cynthia J; King, Cheryl A

    2017-07-17

    This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk. Adolescents' ED visits for suicide-related concerns and suicide attempts were assessed 4 months later. Parents endorsed high self-efficacy to engage in most suicide prevention activities. At the same time, they endorsed considerable doubt in being able to keep their child safe if the teen has thoughts of suicide and in their child not attempting suicide in the future. Parents whose teens experienced follow-up suicide-related outcomes endorsed, at clinically meaningful effect sizes, lower self-efficacy for recognizing suicide warning signs, for obtaining the teen's commitment to refrain from suicide, and for encouraging their teen to cope, as well as lower confidence that their teen will not attempt suicide; self-efficacy to recognize warning signs was at trend level. Despite endorsing high self-efficacy for the majority of suicide prevention activities, parents of high-risk teens expressed less confidence in their capacity to influence their teen's suicidal behavior, which could undermine parents' effort to implement these strategies. The relationship between parental self-efficacy and youth suicide-related outcomes points to its potential value in guiding clinical decision making and interventions.

  4. [The prevalence of suicide attempts among children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Ewelina; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    Suicide is the act of a fatal outcome. People who think about suicide perceive death as a way to avoid problems. Suicide attempts by children and young people likely to arise from the fact that the identified single or co-occurring mental disorders. was to illustrate the suicide problem, which is increasingly frequent attempts to take their own life for children and youth. Its main objective is to determine the prevalence and determinants of suicide attempts made by young people. The study group consisted of patients Babinski Hospital in Lodz. The study included 18 patients, 9 boys and 9 girls. Research methodology is based on the stories of young patients diseases. In order to verify the prevalence of trial and / or thoughts, suicidal tendencies among children and adolescents, was used as a research,tool - a survey of its own design. The survey consists of 21 questions about basic information on the state of social, physical and mental patients. Subjective verification made disseminate ideas, trends and / or suicide attempts among children and adolescents in most reflects the actual collection of information gathered by various authors. Children coming from families reconstructed and largely incomplete exhibit suicidal behavior. The main risk factors indicating the attempt on his own life are mental disorders: depression and behavioral disorders. Family situation of young people: conflicts between the father and the mother, violence, physical / mental, has a significant effect on the risk of an attempt on his own life. Superficial self-mutilation, is the main way to make a suicide bombing.

  5. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-02-01

    School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep quality. A total of 1529 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 14.74 years; 52% boys) participated in the study. They provided self-report data on control variables, perceived school climate, sleep quality, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. After controlling for sex, age, family structure, socioeconomic status, and parent-adolescent attachment, we found that perceived school climate negatively predicted adolescent suicidal ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 0.66, p < .001) and suicide attempts (OR = 0.72, p < .001). Moreover, perceived school climate positively predicated adolescent sleep quality (β = 0.13, p < .001), which in turn, negatively predicted adolescent suicidal ideation (OR = 0.75, p < .001) and suicide attempts (OR = 0.76, p < .001). These findings, although cross-sectional, indicate that perceived school climate plays an important role in adolescent suicidality. Moreover, the relation between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidality was largely mediated by adolescent sleep quality. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  6. Dialectical Behavior Therapy Compared With Enhanced Usual Care for Adolescents With Repeated Suicidal and Self-Harming Behavior: Outcomes Over a One-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Mehlum, Lars; Ramberg, Maria; Tørmoen, Anita J; Haga, Egil; Diep, Lien M; Stanley, Barbara H; Miller, Alec L; Sund, Anne M; Grøholt, Berit

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a 1-year prospective follow-up study of posttreatment clinical outcomes in adolescents with recent and repetitive self-harm who had been randomly allocated to receive 19 weeks of either dialectical behavior therapy adapted for adolescents (DBT-A) or enhanced usual care (EUC) at community child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics. Assessments of self-harm, suicidal ideation, depression, hopelessness, borderline symptoms, and global level of functioning were made at the end of the 19-week treatment period and at follow-up 1 year later. Altogether 75 of the 77 (97%) adolescents participated at both time points. Frequencies of hospitalizations, emergency department visits and other use of mental health care during the 1-year follow-up period were recorded. Change analyses were performed using mixed effects linear spline regression and mixed effect Poisson regression with robust variance. Over the 52-week follow-up period, DBT-A remained superior to EUC in reducing the frequency of self-harm. For other outcomes such as suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depressive or borderline symptoms and for the global level of functioning, inter-group differences apparent at the 19-week assessment were no longer observed, mainly due to participants in the EUC group having significantly improved on these dimensions over the follow-up year, whereas DBT-A participants remained unchanged. A stronger long-term reduction in self-harm and a more rapid recovery in suicidal ideation, depression, and borderline symptoms suggest that DBT-A may be a favorable treatment alternative for adolescents with repetitive self-harming behavior. Treatment for Adolescents With Deliberate Self Harm; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00675129. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examining the Interplay Among Family, Culture, and Latina Teen Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explored the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results revealed that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, girls in our sample described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. PMID:25288407

  8. Adolescent Suicide and Intervention in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca M.

    In 1976, suicides in the 15-24 year-old group (N=4,747) made up over 17% of all suicides in all age groups (N=26,750). In 1968, adolescent suicides (N=2,591) were only 12% of the total (N=21,000). Adolescent suicide rate is alarming unless put into perspective with the accident rate and the cultural belief in individual rights, responsibility, and…

  9. Animal Models of Suicide Trait-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Malkesman, Oz; Pine, Daniel; Tragon, Tyson; Austin, Daniel R.; Henter, Ioline D.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Although antidepressants are at least moderately effective in treating major depressive disorder (MDD), concerns have arisen that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults. Virtually no experimental research in model systems has considered the mechanisms by which SSRIs may be associated with this potential side effect in some susceptible individuals. Suicide is a complex behavior that is, at best, complicated to study in humans and impossible to fully reproduce in an animal model. However, by investigating traits that show strong cross-species parallels as well as associations with suicide in humans, animal models may elucidate the mechanisms by which SSRIs are associated with suicidal thinking and behavior in the young. Traits linked with suicide in humans that can be successfully modeled in rodents include aggression, impulsivity, irritability, and hopelessness/helplessness. Differences in animal response to particular paradigms and to SSRIs across the lifespan are also discussed. Modeling these relevant traits in animals can help clarify the impact of SSRIs on these traits, suggesting avenues for reducing suicide risk in this vulnerable population. PMID:19269045

  10. Parental bonding and vulnerability to adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Waite, S

    1994-04-01

    Part of a series of studies into early detection in adolescent suicide, this study investigated relationships between parenting style and suicidal thoughts, acts and depression. Students (mean age 15 years) from 4 randomly chosen high schools completed self-report questionnaires containing the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) and the Youth Self Report, which provided information about suicide ideation, deliberate self-harm and depression. Significant differences for mean scores on the PBI subscales were noted between cases and noncases of depression, suicidal thoughts and deliberate self-harm. Assignment by adolescents of their parents to the "affectionless control" quadrant of the PBI doubles the relative risk for suicidal thoughts, increases the relative risk for deliberate self-harm 3-fold and increases the relative risk for depression 5-fold. It seems that the PBI may play a role in identification of vulnerable adolescents; further, it both elucidates aspects of adolescent-parent interaction and points toward areas for intervention with at-risk adolescents. We recommend the use of the PBI in early detection studies of adolescent suicide.

  11. The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale: Initial Validity and Internal Consistency Findings From Three Multisite Studies With Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Kelly; Brown, Gregory K.; Stanley, Barbara; Brent, David A.; Yershova, Kseniya V.; Oquendo, Maria A.; Currier, Glenn W.; Melvin, Glenn A.; Greenhill, Laurence; Shen, Sa; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Research on suicide prevention and interventions requires a standard method for assessing both suicidal ideation and behavior to identify those at risk and to track treatment response. The Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) was designed to quantify the severity of suicidal ideation and behavior. The authors examined the psychometric properties of the scale. Method The C-SSRS’s validity relative to other measures of suicidal ideation and behavior and the internal consistency of its intensity of ideation subscale were analyzed in three multisite studies: a treatment study of adolescent suicide attempters (N=124); a medication efficacy trial with depressed adolescents (N=312); and a study of adults presenting to an emergency department for psychiatric reasons (N=237). Results The C-SSRS demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity with other multi-informant suicidal ideation and behavior scales and had high sensitivity and specificity for suicidal behavior classifications compared with another behavior scale and an independent suicide evaluation board. Both the ideation and behavior subscales were sensitive to change over time. The intensity of ideation subscale demonstrated moderate to strong internal consistency. In the adolescent suicide attempters study, worst-point lifetime suicidal ideation on the C-SSRS predicted suicide attempts during the study, whereas the Scale for Suicide Ideation did not. Participants with the two highest levels of ideation severity (intent or intent with plan) at baseline had higher odds for attempting suicide during the study. Conclusions These findings suggest that the C-SSRS is suitable for assessment of suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical and research settings. PMID:22193671

  12. Examining the interplay among family, culture, and latina teen suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H

    2015-05-01

    In this article, we explore the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results reveal that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, the girls in our study described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Characteristics of Suicidality among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzler, Scott; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the characteristics of suicidality and psychopathology (including depression, aggression, impulsivity, and stressful life events) among four groups of depressed adolescent outpatients. The nonsuicidal group was differentiated from the three suicidal groups on the basis of suicidality and psychopathology. The three suicidal groups were…

  14. Suicide Method Runs in Families: A Birth Certificate Cohort Study of Adolescent Suicide in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Chang, Wan-Ting; Lin, Jin-Jia; Li, Chung-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Suicide method used by adolescents was examined to determine if it was the same as that employed by their suicidal parents. Six hundred eighty adolescents completed suicide between 1997 and 2007, of whom 12 had parents who had previously died by suicide. The suicide method used by these adolescents was compared with that employed by their suicidal…

  15. Suicidal Phenomena and Abuse in Adolescents: A Review of Epidemiological Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, E.; Hawton, K.; Rodham, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To conduct a systematic review of the international literature to determine whether adolescents who had experienced abuse were more likely to also experience suicidal thoughts and behaviors than other adolescents, and to investigate the nature of this association. Method:: Reports of community- or school-based studies of adolescents on…

  16. Examining Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors in Relation to Gun Carrying and Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea; Bauman, Sheri; Ritter, Marissa; Anand, Payal

    2017-01-01

    Guided by the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study examines the associations between gun carrying, bullying, and suicidal behaviors among high school students. Arizona Youth Risk Behavior Surveys were completed by 2,677 students in 2011; 9.0% reported suicide attempt in the past year, 5.5% carried a gun in the past 30 days, 8.5% were…

  17. Treatment Compliance in Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A Two-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe mental health services utilization for adolescents after attempted suicide, explore factors related to treatment compliance, and determine the relationship between compliance and suicidality. Method Eighty-five adolescents (ages 13–18) who had attempted suicide and their families were recruited from four psychiatric hospitals and were evaluated for symptoms of psychopathology. Subsequent assessments were conducted every six months for two years to determine treatment utilization, treatment compliance (non-adherence to medication regimes or non-attendance of psychosocial treatments against provider advice), attitudes towards treatments utilized, and further suicide attempts and ideation. Results Adolescents with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis were less compliant with individual psychotherapy, as were those with a substance dependence other than alcohol or marijuana. Those with an affective/anxiety disorder diagnosis were less compliant with psychopharmacological interventions (6 months post attempt). Parental perception of treatment as helpful was predictive of greater compliance, while adolescents' attitudes towards treatment were not predictive of compliance. Finally, compliance with treatment was not generally predictive of future suicidality. Conclusion Interventions focused on increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters should focus on specific child psychopathology, as well as parental attitudes towards treatment. PMID:18596554

  18. Association of school, family, and mental health characteristics with suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyu-Young; Choi, Yun-Jung

    2015-08-01

    In a cross-sectional research design, we investigated factors related to suicidal ideation in adolescents using data from the 2013 Online Survey of Youth Health Behavior in Korea. This self-report questionnaire was administered to 72,435 adolescents aged 13-18 years in middle and high school. School characteristics, family characteristics, and mental health variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression. Both suicidal ideation and behavior were more common in girls. Suicidal ideation was most common in 11th grade for boys and 8th grade for girls. Across the sample, in logistic regression, suicidal ideation was predicted by low socioeconomic status, high stress, inadequate sleep, substance use, alcohol use, and smoking. Living apart from family predicted suicidal ideation in boys but not in girls. Gender- and school-grade-specific intervention programs may be useful for reducing suicidal ideation in students. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Suicide Attempts in a Longitudinal Sample of Adolescents Followed Through Adulthood: Evidence of Escalation

    PubMed Central

    Goldston, David B.; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Heilbron, Nicole; Doyle, Otima; Weller, Bridget; Sapyta, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to examine escalation in repeat suicide attempts from adolescence through adulthood, as predicted by sensitization models (and reflected in increasing intent and lethality with repeat attempts, decreasing amount of time between attempts, and decreasing stress to trigger attempts) Method In a prospective study of 180 adolescents followed through adulthood after a psychiatric hospitalization, suicide attempts and antecedent life events were repeatedly assessed (M = 12.6 assessments, SD = 5.1) over an average of 13 years, 6 months (SD = 4 years, 5 months). Multivariate logistic, multiple linear, and negative binomial regression models were used to examine patterns over time. Results After age 17-18, the majority of suicide attempts were repeat attempts (i.e., made by individuals with prior suicidal behavior). Intent increased both with increasing age, and with number of prior attempts. Medical lethality increased as a function of age but not recurrent attempts. The time between successive suicide attempts decreased as a function of number of attempts. The amount of precipitating life stress was not related to attempts. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults show evidence of escalation of recurrent suicidal behavior, with increasing suicidal intent and decreasing time between successive attempts. However, evidence that sensitization processes account for this escalation was inconclusive. Effective prevention programs that reduce the likelihood of individuals attempting suicide for the first time (and entering this cycle of escalation), and relapse prevention interventions that interrupt the cycle of escalating suicidal behavior among individuals who already have made attempts are critically needed. PMID:25622200

  20. Songs of Despair: A Case Study of Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.

    This report outlines the extent of the problem of adolescent suicide in the United States, noting that suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in this country and that the rate of suicide by adolescents is expected to continue to increase in the future. It examines one adolescent suicide, using the case study method, to…

  1. Non-fatal Suicidal and Life-threatening Behavior among 13- to 17-Year Old Adolescents Seeking Emergency Medical Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In suicidal behavior emergency room admissions of adolescents at Brockton Hospital (Massachusetts), females predominated over males by almost two to one. Also, repeat episodes of self-inflicted injury were common among females. The type of the initial episode was a powerful predictor of a repeat occurrence. (Author/KH)

  2. Physical activity, sadness, and suicidality in bullied US adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sibold, Jeremy; Edwards, Erika; Murray-Close, Dianna; Hudziak, James J

    2015-10-01

    The consequences of bullying are well described, yet little is known about protective factors that may diminish the negative sequelae. One possible factor, physical activity (PA), improves mental health in general and clinical populations. The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among PA, sadness, and suicidality in bullied US adolescents. We hypothesized that physically active students would be less likely to feel sad or to report suicidal ideation or attempts, including bullied students. Using the 2013 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 13,583), regression models adjusted for age, sex, and race estimated the odds ratios among PA, sadness, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts, stratified by whether students were bullied. Overall, 30.0% of students reported sadness for 2 or more weeks, 22.2% reported suicidal ideation, and 8.2% reported suicide attempt in the previous 12 months. Bullied students were twice as likely to report feeling sad and 3 times as likely to report suicidal ideation or attempt. Students who reported exercising 4 to 5 days a week had lower adjusted odds of sadness, suicidal ideation, or suicide attempts than students who exercised 0 to 1 day a week (p ≤ .0001). After stratifying by bullying, similar but attenuated associations were observed. Overall, exercise for 4 or more days per week was associated with an approximate 23% reduction in suicidal ideation and attempt in bullied students. PA is inversely related to sadness and suicidality in adolescents, highlighting the relationship between PA and mental health in children, and potentially implicating PA as a salient option in the response to bullying in schools. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Event-Related Potential Measures of Attention Capture in Adolescent Inpatients With Acute Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Boafo, Addo; Dale, Allyson; Robillard, Rebecca; Greenham, Stephanie L; Campbell, Kenneth

    2018-01-01

    Impaired executive functions, modulated by the frontal lobes, have been suggested to be associated with suicidal behavior. The present study examines one of these executive functions, attentional control, maintaining attention to the task-at-hand. A group of inpatient adolescents with acute suicidal behavior and healthy controls were studied using a passively presented auditory optimal paradigm. This "optimal" paradigm consisted of a series of frequently presented homogenous pure tone "standards" and different "deviants," constructed by changing one or more features of the standard. The optimal paradigm has been shown to be a more time-efficient replacement to the traditional oddball paradigm, which makes it suitable for use in clinical populations. The extent of processing of these "to-be-ignored" auditory stimuli was measured by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). The P3a ERP component is thought to reflect processes associated with the capturing of attention. Rare and novel stimuli may result in an executive decision to switch attention away from the current cognitive task and toward a probe of the potentially more relevant "interrupting" auditory input. On the other hand, stimuli that are quite similar to the standard should not elicit P3a. The P3a has been shown to be larger in immature brains in early compared to later adolescence. An overall enhanced P3a was observed in the suicidal group. The P3a was larger in this group for both the environmental sound and white noise deviants, although only the environmental sound P3a attained significance. Other deviants representing only a small change from the standard did not elicit a P3a in healthy controls. They did elicit a small P3a in the suicidal group. These findings suggest a lowered threshold for the triggering of the involuntary switch of attention in these patients, which may play a role in their reported distractibility. The enhanced P3a is also suggestive of an immature frontal central executive

  4. Screening for adolescents' internalizing symptoms in primary care: item response theory analysis of the behavior health screen depression, anxiety, and suicidal risk scales.

    PubMed

    Bevans, Katherine B; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2012-05-01

    To apply a modern psychometric approach to validate the Behavioral Health Screen (BHS) Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidal Risk Scales among adolescents in primary care. Psychometric analyses were conducted using data collected from 426 adolescents aged 12 to 21 years (mean = 15.8, SD = 2.2). Rasch-Masters partial credit models were fit to the data to determine whether items supported the comprehensive measurement of internalizing symptoms with minimal gaps and redundancies. Scales were reduced to ensure that they measured singular dimensions of generalized anxiety, depressed affect, and suicidal risk both comprehensively and efficiently. Although gender bias was observed for some depression and anxiety items, differential item functioning did not impact overall subscale scores. Future revisions to the BHS should include additional items that assess low-level internalizing symptoms. The BHS is an accurate and efficient tool for identifying adolescents with internalizing symptoms in primary care settings. Access to psychometrically sound and cost-effective behavioral health screening tools is essential for meeting the increasing demands for adolescent behavioral health screening in primary/ambulatory care.

  5. Gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: direct, mediated, and moderated effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-02-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem. Finally, this study examined the extent to which stressful life events moderated the direct and indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The odds of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts were lower among adolescents who scored higher on gratitude, after controlling for demographic variables. Self-esteem mediated the relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, while the mediating role of coping efficacy was not significant. Moreover, stressful life events moderated the mediated path through self-esteem. This indirect effect was stronger for adolescents low on stressful life events than that for those high on stressful life events. This study discusses the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Very early predictors of adolescent depression and suicide attempts in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E; Applegate, Brooks; Dahlke, Allison; Overmyer, Meghan; Lahey, Benjamin B

    2010-10-01

    Major depression and dysthymia in adolescence are associated with substantial disability, need for mental health services, and risk for recurrence. Concrete suicidal ideation and attempts during adolescence are particularly associated with significant distress, morbidity, and risk for completed suicide. To test the hypothesis that young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for depression and suicidal ideation and attempts during adolescence and to identify early predictors of which young children with ADHD are at greatest risk. Prospective follow-up study. Chicago, Illinois, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Patients  A cohort of 125 children who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age and 123 demographically matched comparison children without ADHD were prospectively followed up in 7 structured diagnostic assessments of depression and suicidal behavior in assessment years 6 through 14, spanning 9 through 18 years of age. DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorders and suicidal behavior. Children with ADHD at 4 to 6 years of age were at greatly increased risk for meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression or dysthymia (hazard ratio, 4.32) and for attempting suicide (hazard ratio, 3.60) through the age of 18 years relative to comparison children. There were marked variations in risk for these outcomes among children with ADHD, however. Within the ADHD group, children with each subtype of ADHD were at risk but for different adverse outcomes. Girls were at greater risk for depression and suicide attempts. Maternal depression and concurrent child emotional and behavior problems at 4 to 6 years of age predicted depression and suicidal behavior. All subtypes of ADHD in young children robustly predict adolescent depression and/or suicide attempts 5 to 13 years later. Furthermore, female sex, maternal depression, and concurrent symptoms at 4 to 6 years of age predict which children with ADHD are at greatest risk for

  7. Preventing adolescent suicide: a community takes action.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.

  8. Prevalence of suicidal behaviour and associated factors in a large sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Liu, X C; Chen, H; Liu, Z Z; Wang, J Y; Jia, C X

    2017-10-12

    Suicidal behaviour is prevalent among adolescents and is a significant predictor of future suicide attempts (SAs) and suicide death. Data on the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents are limited. This study was aimed to examine the prevalence, characteristics and risk factors of suicidal behaviour, including suicidal thought (ST), suicide plan (SP) and SA, in a large sample of Chinese adolescents. This report represents the first wave data of an ongoing longitudinal study, Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort. Participants included 11 831 adolescent students from three counties of Shandong, China. The mean age of participants was 15.0 (s.d. = 1.5) and 51% were boys. In November-December 2015, participants completed a structured adolescent health questionnaire, including ST, SP and SA, characteristics of most recent SA, demographics, substance use, hopelessness, impulsivity and internalising and externalising behavioural problems. The lifetime and last-year prevalence rates were 17.6 and 10.7% for ST in males, 23.5 and 14.7% for ST in females, 8.9 and 2.9% for SP in males, 10.7 and 3.8% for SP in females, 3.4 and 1.3% for SA in males, and 4.6 and 1.8% for SA in females, respectively. The mean age of first SA was 12-13 years. Stabbing/cutting was the most common method to attempt suicide. Approximately 24% of male attempters and 16% of female attempters were medically treated. More than 70% of attempters had no preparatory action. Female gender, smoking, drinking, internalising and externalising problems, hopelessness, suicidal history of friends and acquaintances, poor family economic status and poor parental relationship were all significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviour. Suicidal behaviour in Chinese adolescents is prevalent but less than that previously reported in Western peers. While females are more likely to attempt suicide, males are more likely to use lethal methods

  9. Life adversities and suicidal behavior in young individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Gianluca; Muzio, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Flouri, Eirini; Ferrigno, Gabriella; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Suicidal behavior in young people is a significant public health problem. However, it is not yet clear whether adversities (adverse life events) may be related to suicidality in adolescence and early adulthood. This paper aimed to investigate systematically the association between the type/number of adverse life events and experiences and suicidal behavior in young people. We developed a detailed strategy to search relevant articles in Pubmed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and Science Direct (January 1980-January 2015) about adverse life events and suicidal behavior. Adverse life events and experiences included maltreatment and violence, loss events, intra-familial problems, school and interpersonal problems. Studies were restricted to suicidal behavior in young people aged 10-25 years. The search yielded 245 articles, of which 28 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported a strong association between adversities and suicidality (both suicidal ideation and attempts). Based on the main results, the number of adversities or negative life events experienced seemed to have a positive dose-response relationship with youth suicidal behavior. However, the type of event experienced also appeared to matter: one of the most consistent findings was the association between suicidal behavior and experience of sexual abuse. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate the relative importance of risk accumulation and risk specificity for youth suicide.

  10. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening: The Effect of Communication about Type of Follow-Up on Adolescents’ Screening Responses

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Hill, Ryan M.; Wynne, Henry A.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up versus no in-person follow-up) on adolescents’ responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Method Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13 to 17; 80% White, 21.6% Black; 9.8% American Indian; 2.9% Asian), seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. Results There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents’ screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to In-Person Follow-Up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to In-Person Follow-Up. Conclusions Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents’ responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents. PMID:22540534

  11. The Youth-Nominated Support Team-Version II for Suicidal Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; Klaus, Nicole; Kramer, Anne; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; Quinlan, Paul; Gillespie, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Youth-Nominated Support Team-Version II (YST-II) for suicidal adolescents, an intervention based on social support and health behavior models, which was designed to supplement standard treatments. Psychiatrically hospitalized and suicidal adolescents, 13-17 years of age, were randomly…

  12. Perceived School Climate and Chinese Adolescents' Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Role of Sleep Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Bao, Zhenzhou; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-01-01

    Background: School factors play important roles in adolescent suicide. However, little is known about how school climate is associated with adolescent suicide. This study examined the relationship between perceived school climate and adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and whether these relations were explained by adolescent sleep…

  13. Child and adolescent suicide deaths in New Mexico, 1990-1994.

    PubMed

    Werenko, D D; Olson, L M; Fullerton-Gleason, L; Lynch, A W; Zumwalt, R E; Sklar, D P

    2000-01-01

    The suicide death rate in New Mexico is consistently higher than the national rate. Among adolescents, suicide is the third leading cause of death nationally, but in New Mexico it is the second leading cause of death. This study describes the pattern of adolescent suicide deaths in New Mexico. We conducted a retrospective review of all medical examiner autopsies for adolescent suicides (ages 20 years and younger) in New Mexico from 1990-1994. Records were reviewed for demographics and possible contributing factors such as depression, previous attempts, and alcohol and drug use. We identified 184 suicide deaths among children and adolescents ages 9-20 years for an overall rate of 12.9 per 100,000. Our rates for ages 5-9 years (0.2), 10-14 years (3.8), and 15-19 years (22.3) are over twice the U. S. rates. Suicide deaths resulted primarily from firearms (67%), hanging (16%), poisoning (6%), inhalation (4%), and other methods (7%). Method varied by ethnicity (p = .01) and gender (p = .03); males and non-Hispanic Whites were overrepresented among firearm deaths. Firearm ownership was known in 60 (48%) of the firearm deaths. Of these, 53% of the firearms belonged to a family member, 25% to the decedent, and 22% to a friend. Over one-third of decedents (41%) experienced mental disorders, primarily depressed mood and clinical depression. Previous suicide attempts were noted for 15% of the decedents. Some 50% of the decedents had alcohol or drugs present at the time of death; among American Indians/Alaska Natives, 74% had drugs or alcohol present (p = .003). Targeted interventions are needed to reduce adolescent suicide in New Mexico. We suggest raising awareness about acute and chronic contributing factors to suicide; training physicians to look for behavioral manifestations of depression; and involving physicians, teachers, and youth activity leaders in efforts to limit firearm accessibility, such as advising parents to remove firearms from their households.

  14. Co-occurring risk behaviors among White, Black, and Hispanic US high school adolescents with suicide attempts requiring medical attention, 1999-2007: implications for future prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Pena, Juan B; Matthieu, Monica M; Zayas, Luis H; Masyn, Katherine E; Caine, Eric D

    2012-01-01

    To identify subtypes of adolescent suicide attempters by examining risk profiles related to substance use, violent behavior, and depressive symptoms. To examine the relationship between these subtypes and having had two or more suicide attempts during the past year. To explore race and gender differences across subtypes of suicide attempters. Data were combined from five nationally representative cohorts of the US Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) and focused on a subpopulation of youth who reported a suicide attempt requiring medical attention. Latent class analysis was used to identify subtypes of suicide attempters. Analysis yielded three classes of youth who attempted suicide, distinguishable by their levels of substance use and violent behaviors: low substance use and violent behaviors, high substance use and violent behaviors, and extreme substance use and violent behaviors. All three classes had a high propensity for endorsing depressive symptoms. The proportion of youth with two or more suicide attempts during the past year increased across subgroup of attempters with higher levels of substance use and violent behaviors. Racial and gender differences were found across subtypes of suicide attempters. Preventing and treating the co-occurrence of substance use and violent behaviors may serve as essential strategies for reducing suicide attempts, especially among male youth. The use of public health strategies for suicide prevention should take into account the different needs of youth at risk for suicide.

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment for Suicide Attempt Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hughes, Jennifer L; Babeva, Kalina N; Sugar, Catherine A

    2017-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death. New data indicate alarming increases in suicide death rates, yet no treatments with replicated efficacy or effectiveness exist for youths with self-harm presentations, a high-risk group for both fatal and nonfatal suicide attempts. We addressed this gap by evaluating Safe Alternatives for Teens and Youths (SAFETY), a cognitive-behavioral, dialectical behavior therapy-informed family treatment designed to promote safety. Randomized controlled trial for adolescents (12-18 years of age) with recent (past 3 months) suicide attempts or other self-harm. Youth were randomized either to SAFETY or to treatment as usual enhanced by parent education and support accessing community treatment (E-TAU). Outcomes were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, or end of treatment period, and were followed up through 6 to 12 months. The primary outcome was youth-reported incident suicide attempts through the 3-month follow-up. Survival analyses indicated a significantly higher probability of survival without a suicide attempt by the 3-month follow-up point among SAFETY youths (cumulative estimated probability of survival without suicide attempt = 1.00, standard error = 0), compared to E-TAU youths (cumulative estimated probability of survival without suicide attempt = 0.67, standard error = 0.14; z = 2.45, p = .02, number needed to treat = 3) and for the overall survival curves (Wilcoxon χ 2 1  = 5.81, p = .02). Sensitivity analyses using parent report when youth report was unavailable and conservative assumptions regarding missing data yielded similar results for 3-month outcomes. Results support the efficacy of SAFETY for preventing suicide attempts in adolescents presenting with recent self-harm. This is the second randomized trial to demonstrate that treatment including cognitive-behavioral and family components can provide some protection from suicide attempt risk in these high-risk youths. Clinical trial registration information

  16. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  17. Association of Cumulative Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Violent Offending With Suicide in Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2018-02-01

    with a history of CA who also engage in violent offending in adolescence have a high risk of suicide. Interventions to prevent externalizing behavior during childhood and increased support to youths with delinquent behavior may have the potential to prevent suicide related to CA.

  18. Suicides in Adolescents: Benefit/Harm Balance of Antidepressants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saz, Ulas Eylem; Arslan, Mehmet Tayyip; Egemen, Ayten

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is an important cause of suicide in adolescents. It has been speculated that antidepressants themselves can increase the risk of suicide. Method: Cases of adolescents admitted to the Ege University Pediatric Emergency Department in Turkey due to suicide attempt were assessed. Results: Nine of 13 suicide attempts during…

  19. Restricting youth suicide: behavioral health patients in an urban pediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Steven C; DiVietro, Susan; Borrup, Kevin; Brinkley, Ashika; Kaminer, Yifrah; Lapidus, Garry

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death among individuals age 10 years to 19 years in the United States. Adolescents with suicidal behaviors are often cared for in emergency departments (EDs)/trauma centers and are at an increased risk for subsequent suicide. Many institutions do not have standard procedures to prevent future self-harm. Lethal means restriction (LMR) counseling is an evidence-based suicide prevention strategy that informs families to restrict access to potentially fatal items and has demonstrated efficacy in preventing suicide. The objectives of this study were to examine suicidal behavior among behavioral health patients in a pediatric ED and to assess the use of LMR by hospital staff. A sample of 298 pediatric patients was randomly selected from the population of behavioral health patients treated at the ED from January 1 through December 31, 2012 (n = 2,294). Descriptive data include demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity, etc,), chief complaint, current and past psychiatric history, primary diagnosis, disposition, alcohol/drug abuse, and documentation of any LMR counseling provided in the ED. Of the 298 patients, 52% were female, 47% were white, and 76% were in the custody of their parents. Behavior/out of control was the most common chief complaint (43%). The most common diagnoses were mood disorder (25%) and depression (20%). Thirty-four percent of the patients had suicidal ideation, 22% had a suicide plan, 32% had documented suicidal behavior, and 25% of the patients reported having access to lethal means. However, only 4% of the total patient population received any LMR counseling, and only 15% of those with access to lethal means had received LMR counseling. Providing a safe environment for adolescents at risk for suicidal behaviors should be a priority for all families/caretakers and should be encouraged by health care providers. The ED is a key point of entry into services for suicidal youth and presents an opportunity to implement

  20. Prognosis after Adolescent Suicide Attempt: Mental Health, Psychiatric Treatment, and Suicide Attempts in a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health and suicidal behavior was examined 8 to 10 years after an adolescent suicide attempt. Of 71 persons, 79% had at least one psychiatric disorder (mean 1.7) at follow-up, most commonly depression (46%), personality disorder (46%), and anxiety disorder (42%). The stability of diagnoses was moderate. The suicide…

  1. SELF-RATED EXPECTATIONS OF SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR PREDICT FUTURE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS AMONG ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT PSYCHIATRIC EMERGENCY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Czyz, Ewa K; Horwitz, Adam G; King, Cheryl A

    2016-06-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the predictive validity and clinical utility of a brief measure assessing youths' own expectations of their future risk of suicidal behavior, administered in a psychiatric emergency (PE) department; and determine if youths' ratings improve upon a clinician-administered assessment of suicidal ideation severity. The outcome was suicide attempts up to 18 months later. In this medical record review study, 340 consecutively presenting youths (ages 13-24) seeking PE services over a 7-month period were included. Subsequent PE visits and suicide attempts were retrospectively tracked for up to 18 months. The 3-item scale assessing patients' perception of their own suicidal behavior risk and the clinician-administered ideation severity scale were used routinely at the study site. Cox regression results showed that youths' expectations of suicidal behavior were independently associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, even after adjusting for key covariates. Results were not moderated by sex, suicide attempt history, or age. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses indicated that self-assessed expectations of risk improved the predictive accuracy of the clinician-administered suicidal ideation measure. Youths' ratings indicative of lower confidence in maintaining safety uniquely predicted follow-up attempts and provided incremental validity over and above the clinician-administered assessment and improved its accuracy, suggesting their potential for augmenting suicide risk formulation. Assessing youths' own perceptions of suicide risk appears to be clinically useful, feasible to implement in PE settings, and, if replicated, promising for improving identification of youth at risk for suicidal behavior. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  3. Adolescent suicide: a response to developmental crisis.

    PubMed

    Gilead, M P; Mulaik, J S

    1983-01-01

    Suicide is an increasing problem among adolescents. Developmental concerns and inability to resolve problems stemming from feelings of alienation are often at the core of an adolescent's suicide attempt. Nurses can be instrumental in primary prevention by educating the public about persons at risk for suicide, in helping parents deal more effectively with children's growth, and by supporting programs in the school system and other agencies that help young people communicate with others and resolve problems before they become crises. The nurse can also play an important role in secondary prevention through participation in or referral to hotline services, through intervention in the emergency service, or in community mental health programs or inpatient treatment programs. The psychiatric nurse specialist, in particular, can play a very significant role in the treatment of the adolescent in a suicidal crisis and also in consultation with other nurses and professionals who may assess suicidal risk in young people in the community. Finally, tertiary prevention may be necessary to help families and friends resolve their grief over the loss if a family member or close friend has succeeded at a suicide attempt. Feelings of guilt, anxiety, anger, and depression are usually present in the surviving family members of a successful suicide. They need to be given the opportunity to talk about the events leading up to the suicide, their feelings about the persons involved, especially the lost person, and to ventilate their anger, guilt, and sadness. The rising rate of suicide or suicide attempts among this country's adolescents--the third cause of death among adolescents--cries out for stronger support systems for our young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Developmental trajectories of self-injurious behavior, suicidal behavior and substance misuse and their association with adolescent borderline personality pathology.

    PubMed

    Nakar, Orit; Brunner, Romuald; Schilling, Oliver; Chanen, Andrew; Fischer, Gloria; Parzer, Peter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent risk-taking and self-harm behaviors are associated with affect dysregulation and impulsivity, both core features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We hypothesized that the developmental courses of these behaviors i) tend to cluster rather than appear individually, and ii) might indicate adolescent BPD pathology. Therefore, we explored the developmental trajectories of self-injurious behavior (SIB), suicidal behavior (SB) and substance misuse (SM) in a community sample of adolescents; and we investigated the trajectories' overlap and its associations with BPD traits. 513 adolescents, aged 15-17 years, were followed for two years as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study and its subsequent follow-up. Distinct developmental trajectories were explored using general growth mixture modeling. Three distinct classes were identified within each of the harmful behaviors SIB, SB and SM. Both the high-risk SIB trajectory and the high-risk SB trajectory demonstrated elevated initial degree of engagement, followed by a gradual decrease. The SM high-risk trajectory had a medium initial degree of engagement, which increased over time. There was a high degree of overlap (80-90%) among the high-risk trajectories for the three behaviors (SIB, SB and SM), and this overlap was significantly associated with elevated levels of BPD pathology. The data collection was based on participants' self-report. The findings indicate a similar pattern of reduction over time between SIB and SB for the high-risk trajectories, whereas the high-risk trajectories for SM show a pattern of increase over time. The observed symptom shift is associated with borderline personality pathology in adolescents. Therefore these behaviors might represent early indicators of risk supporting potential early detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Suicidal Adolescent Latinas: A Treatment Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, James K.

    The particular migrational and acculturative stresses and psychosocial experiences of Latino families seem to converge to create unique conditions for suicide attempts by adolescent Latinas. Adolescent Latinas may internalize the ambivalence their mothers experience about the directions taken in their own lives. Suicide attempts in adolescent…

  6. Suicidal adolescents' experiences with bullying perpetration and victimization during high school as risk factors for later depression and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Kleinman, Marjorie; Altschuler, Elizabeth; Marrocco, Frank; Amakawa, Lia; Gould, Madelyn S

    2013-07-01

    This is the first study to examine the extent to which frequent involvement in high-school bullying (as a bullying perpetrator, victim of bullying, or bully-victim) increases the risk for later depression and suicidality beyond other well-established risk factors of suicide. The study included 96 students who reported being a bully, a victim, or a bully-victim, and also reported depression, suicidality, or substance problems during an initial suicide screen. These students were interviewed 2 years later and were compared with 142 youth identified during the initial screen as "suicide-at-risk" by virtue of their depression, suicidal ideation, attempts, and substance problems, but who did not report any involvement in bullying behavior. Students who reported both bullying others and other suicide-related behaviors at baseline had higher suicide ideation and were more functionally impaired at follow-up than students who reported suicide-related behaviors but were not involved in bullying. Preventive efforts in high school should target those children who are characterized by both psychological disturbance and bullying, especially the frequent bullies. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescent Suicide: Prevention, Postvention and Crisis Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dineen, Peggy

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults between the ages of 15-25. Every day, over 1,000 young adults attempt to destroy themselves. Although adolescents contemplate suicide for many reasons, research suggests that depression is the number one risk factor in suicide. Accordingly, this paper describes many of…

  8. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  9. Suicidal behavior and attitudes in Slovak and Turkish high school students: a cross-cultural investigation.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Mehmet; Palova, Eva; Krokavcova, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and its variation across social contexts are of importance for the science of suicidology. Due to its special character controlled experimental studies on suicide are ruled out for ethical reasons. Cross-cultural studies may throw light on the etiology of both suicidal behavior and its cross-cultural variation. The present study compared suicidal behavior and attitudes in 423 Slovak and 541 Turkish high school students by means of a self-report questionnaire. The two groups reported similar percentages (Slovak = 36.4%; Turkish = 33.8%) of lifetime, past 12-months or current suicidal ideation but significantly more Turkish (12.2%) than Slovak (4.8%) students reported lifetime or past 12-months suicide attempts. Slovak adolescents displayed more liberal and permissive attitudes toward suicide, while those of Turkish adolescents were more rejecting. Turkish students rated themselves to be more religious and hence they believed to a greater extent that suicidal persons would be punished in a life after death than their Slovak peers. However, attitudes of Turkish students toward an imagined suicidal close friend were more accepting than the attitudes of Slovak students. Comparison of suicidal and nonsuicidal students revealed that those reporting suicidal ideation or attempts were more accepting of suicide and viewed suicide as a solution to a greater extent than the nonsuicidal ones. The results from this study suggest that cultural factors play a role in suicidal behavior, attitudes and reactions in a predicted direction.

  10. Suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in dementia.

    PubMed

    Draper, Brian M

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about suicide risk in people with dementia have been increasing in recent years along with a discourse about rational suicide and assisted suicide. A systematic narrative literature review of suicidal behavior and assisted suicide in persons with dementia. Most studies that have examined the spectrum of suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and suicide in dementia have methodological limitations but the overall suicide risk does not appear to be increased. When suicidal behavior does occur, common themes include the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, mainly depression; occurrence early in the dementia course with preserved insight and capacity; and an increased risk in younger people. The emerging discourse on rational and assisted suicide has been spurred by early and pre-symptomatic diagnosis and poses a number of ethical challenges for clinicians including the role of proxy decision-makers. Although dementia might not confer a significant overall risk for suicidal behavior, clinicians still need to consider the potential for suicide in vulnerable individuals particularly early in the dementia course.

  11. The psychotherapeutic treatment of suicidal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Katz, P

    1995-01-01

    The therapeutic work with a suicidal adolescent begins with the therapist's recognition that there are a multitude of causes for suicidal behavior and that the risk of a serious suicide attempt lies in the patient's feeling of desperation about his situation, the feeling that he faces intolerable pain due to shame or embarrassment, degradation, guilt or loss. The patient can not assess whether his view of his situation is realistic or not, and he is unable to conceive of alternative solutions. The therapist must throw the patient a lifeline to give him hope of escaping from his belief that he is trapped in a world of unending pain. That lifeline may be an active intervention in the life of a patient, reality testing of the patient's perceptions that he is trapped, or both. The choice of interventions is based on an exploration of the psychodynamic and psychopathological constellations that have caused the patient to feel so trapped. Patients, in their anguish, will resort to extremes of coercion and manipulation; the therapist must be able to tolerate and work with these behaviors. The therapist must maintain his belief that he can find ways to help the patient, while accepting the possibility that some day he might fail. He can succeed only if he is prepared to fail. Meeks (1984) summed up his article on suicidal adolescents in the following way: Success in the therapy of these youngsters does not depend on brilliant insights as much as on persistence, patience, and a sustained hope for the future. The treatment process may become a demonstrated proof that the therapist can stand to feel the patient's feelings and live the patient's painful existence, without giving up on life or the patient [p. 5].

  12. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Donath, Carolin; Graessel, Elmar; Baier, Dirk; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-04-26

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents' suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents - (all protective): mother's warmth and father's warmth in childhood and mother's control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be statistically significant and clinically

  13. Everyday functioning of male adolescents who later died by suicide: Results of a pilot case-control study using mixed-method analysis.

    PubMed

    Buhnick-Atzil, Ortal; Rubinstein, Katya; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Fischer, Sharon; Fruchter, Eyal; Large, Matthew; Weiser, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown a link between difficulties in everyday functioning and suicidality in adolescence. The majority of research in this field focuses on suicidal ideation and attempts, rather than on completed suicide. The main goal of this study is to better characterize everyday functioning among young men who later completed suicide. Based on previous literature, we hypothesized that the functioning of adolescents who died by suicide would be poor, compared to controls. The current study is a record-driven study, which examined summaries of screening interviews performed by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) of 20 male adolescents who later completed suicide, compared with 20 matched living controls. The current study is a pilot stage of a larger project. The study used unique data, collected as part of the IDF pre-induction process, in the months or years before the tragic outcome. The data were extracted by two psychologists, blinded to the participants׳ suicide or non-suicide outcome, using mixed-method technique, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis. The main findings indicated that, in comparison with controls, male adolescents who later died by suicide were described as having more interpersonal difficulties, were more likely to be involved in violent behavior, had more difficulties in dealing with problems in everyday functioning and had an avoidant conflict resolution style. Functional difficulties are apparent in a wide range of behavioral domains in adolescents who later complete suicide. These findings indicate a need for interventions that might assist young persons, and it is possible that such assistance might reduce the likelihood of suicide. However, because suicide is a rare outcome and these behavioral traits are common in adolescence, the presence of such traits might not be useful in identifying people at risk of suicide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-suicidal self-harm behavior within the previous year among 10th-grade adolescents in Istanbul and related variables.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge; Can, Yesim

    2014-10-01

    Non-suicidal self-harm behavior (SHB), which is a pervasive and dangerous problem, is frequent among adolescents and it is important to evaluate the associated psychological and social factors to better understand its nature and to plan treatment programs. Aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of SHB and the associated variables such as substance use, psychological, behavioral and social factors among 10th-grade students in Istanbul/Turkey. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul/Turkey. A representative sample of 4957 10th-grade students was studied between October 2012 and December 2012. SHB within the previous year were reported by 14.4% of the students (n = 713). Lifetime suicidal thoughts or behavior, tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use, symptoms of depression, anxiety and impulsive, delinquent and aggressive behaviors were also associated with SHB in Turkish 10th-grade students. The findings of the present study may be relevant in prevention and management of SHB as well as important problems among students, such as substance use, impulsive, delinquent, aggressive and suicidal behavior.

  15. Suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder in a sample of adolescent and young adult twins.

    PubMed

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L

    2012-08-01

    The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Structured interviews on 2,814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and Young Adult Follow-Up (YAFU) yielded data on symptoms of depression, conduct disorder, and adolescent and young adult suicidal ideation. Univariate analyses revealed that the familial aggregation for each trait was explained by a combination of additive genetic and shared environmental effects. Suicidal ideation in adolescence was explained in part by genetic influences, but predominantly accounted for by environmental factors. A mixture of genetic and shared environmental influences explained ideation occurring in young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed that there are genetic and shared environmental effects common to suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder. The association between adolescent suicidal ideation and CD was attributable to the same genetic and environmental risk factors for depression. These findings underscore that prevention and intervention strategies should reflect the different underlying mechanisms involving depression and conduct disorder to assist in identifying adolescents at suicidal risk. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder in a sample of adolescent and young adult twins

    PubMed Central

    Linker, Julie; Gillespie, Nathan A; Maes, Hermine; Eaves, Lindon; Silberg, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The co-occurrence of suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disturbance is likely explained in part by correlated genetic and environmental risk factors. Little is known about the specific nature of these associations. Method Structured interviews on 2814 twins from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and young adult follow-up (YAFU) yielded data on symptoms of depression, conduct disorder and adolescent and young adult suicidal ideation. Results Univariate analyses revealed that the familial aggregation for each trait was explained by a combination of additive genetic and shared environmental effects. Suicidal ideation in adolescence was explained in part by genetic influences, but predominantly accounted for by environmental factors. A mixture of genetic and shared environmental influences explained ideation occurring in young adulthood. Multivariate analyses revealed that there are genetic and shared environmental effects common to suicidal ideation, depression, and conduct disorder. The association between adolescent suicidal ideation and CD was attributable to the same genetic and environmental risk factors for depression. Conclusions These findings underscore that prevention and intervention strategies should reflect the different underlying mechanisms involving depression and conduct disorder to assist in identifying adolescents at suicidal risk. PMID:22646517

  17. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The data from the National Survey of American life on the suicidal behavior of 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 shows that black adolescents report having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5 percent for suicidal ideation and 2.7 percent for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation is 3.2 percent and…

  18. Suicide among adolescents in Jamaica: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Holder-Nevins, D; James, K; Bridgelal-Nagassar, R; Bailey, A; Thompson, E; Eldemire, H; Sewell, C; Abel, W D

    2012-08-01

    Suicide is increasingly acknowledged as a global problem. Yet little is known worldwide about suicide rates among adolescents. Several social factors that exist in Jamaica present as stressors and may predispose to suicide. Ascertaining prevailing patterns and associated factors is important for crafting interventions. This paper establishes adolescent suicide rates for the years 2007-2010 in Jamaica and provides related epidemiological data. Data pertaining to suicides were extracted from standardized data collected by the police. Information regarding the number of suicides among adolescents, 9-19 years of age, was reviewed for the years 2007-2010. Sociodemographic characteristics of cases: gender, location and occupation along with related variables were also examined. Variation of rates over time was ascertained. Statistically significant associations were determined by reference to p-values and confidence intervals. The incidence for suicide in adolescents was 1.1 per 100 000. Rates for males were significantly higher than females. Most suicide cases were students and the majority of cases was from rural areas (65%). Hanging was the main method used to commit suicide (96.2%). Items of clothing were commonly used for this purpose. Male adolescent suicide rates showed an upward trend in contrast to the downward trend for females in the four-year period studied. Continued surveillance is needed for greater understanding of adolescent suicides. Collaboration among health services, parents, schools and communities is integral in prevention efforts. Recent media coverage of suicides provides a window of opportunity to galvanize support for research and the development of intervention strategies.

  19. Self-injurious implicit attitudes among adolescent suicide attempters versus those engaged in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, Daniel P; Puzia, Megan E; Cushman, Grace K; Weissman, Alexandra B; Wegbreit, Ezra; Kim, Kerri L; Nock, Matthew K; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Suicide is among the most important mental health issues affecting adolescents today despite much research on its detection and prevention. Beyond suicide attempts (SAs), clinicians are increasingly confronted with another, potentially related problem: non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI)-defined as the deliberate destruction of body tissue without intent to die. NSSI may increase risk for making an SA by sevenfold, but many studies examining this link have involved youths engaging in both NSSI and SAs. Thus, there is a need to compare homogeneous groups of adolescents engaged in NSSI-only or SA-only, but not both, to advance what is known about each form of self-harm. The self-injurious implicit association task (SI-IAT) is a particularly important computerized behavioral task to study such adolescents because the SI-IAT provides objective behavioral data about problems for which people may lack insight or be motivated to conceal, such as SAs and NSSI. We evaluated implicit associations with cutting and death/suicide using the computerized SI-IAT in three mutually exclusive groups: (1) adolescents who made an SA but had never engaged in NSSI (n = 47); (2) adolescents who engaged in NSSI but had never made an SA (n = 46); and (3) typically developing control (TDC) adolescents without history of psychiatric problems (n = 43). Nonsuicidal self-injury participants had stronger identification with cutting versus no cutting than either SA or TDC participants. Contrary to our hypothesis, NSSI participants had stronger identification with suicide/death versus life than either SA or TDC participants. Strong implicit attitudes towards suicide/death among adolescents with NSSI without a prior SA suggest that clinicians should not dismiss NSSI as not serious. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanism by which youths engaged in NSSI acquire these stronger identifications and make a first-time SA to develop novel treatment and prevention strategies blocking this

  20. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hyun Sil

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the rate of suicide attempts and relevant variables and identified risk factors for suicide attempts among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire. A total of 2,100 Korean adolescents, including 1,321 student adolescents and 779 delinquent adolescents, were…

  1. Suicidal behavior among delinquent former child welfare clients.

    PubMed

    Björkenstam, C; Björkenstam, E; Ljung, R; Vinnerljung, B; Tuvblad, C

    2013-06-01

    Child welfare clients represent a high-risk group for delinquency and adult criminality, but also for future suicidal behavior. We examine associations between delinquency and suicidal behavior in a national child welfare population. This register-based cohort study is based on data for all Swedish former child welfare clients born between 1972 and 1981 that experienced interventions before their adolescent years. We followed 27,228 individuals from age 20 years until 31 December 2006. Juvenile delinquency was defined as being convicted of at least one crime between age 15 and 19. The risk of suicidal behavior was calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Fifteen percent of the women and 40% of the men had at least one conviction between the age 15 and 19. The adjusted risk of suicidal behavior among women with five or more convictions was 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.2); corresponding IRR for men was 3.9 (95% CI 3.1-4.9). Child welfare experience-specifically of out-of-home care-in combination with delinquency is a potent risk factor for suicidal behavior among young adults. However, we cannot exclude that some of this association is an epiphenomenon of uncontrolled confounders, such as impulsivity or severity of psychiatric disease. Despite this caveat, results should be disseminated to practitioners in the health and correction services.

  2. Young men's intimate partner violence and relationship functioning: long-term outcomes associated with suicide attempt and aggression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kerr, D C R; Capaldi, D M

    2011-04-01

    Longitudinal research supports that suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescence predict maladjustment in young adulthood. Prior research supports links between suicide attempt and aggression, perhaps because of a propensity for impulsive behavior in states of high negative affect that underlies both problems. Such vulnerability may increase risk for intimate partner violence and generally poor young adulthood relational adjustment. A total of 153 men participated in annual assessments from ages 10-32 years and with a romantic partner at three assessments from ages 18-25 years. Multi-method/multi-informant constructs were formed for parent/family risk factors, adolescent psychopathology (e.g. suicide-attempt history, mother-, father-, teacher- and self-reported physical aggression) and young adulthood relational distress (jealousy and low relationship satisfaction) and maladaptive relationship behavior (observed, self- and partner-reported physical and psychological aggression toward a partner, partner-reported injury, official domestic violence arrest records and relationship instability). Across informants, adolescent aggression was correlated with suicide-attempt history. With few exceptions, aggression and a suicide attempt in adolescence each predicted negative romantic relationship outcomes after controlling for measured confounds. Adolescent aggression predicted young adulthood aggression toward a partner, in part, via relationship dissatisfaction. Boys' aggression and suicide-attempt history in adolescence each predict poor relationship outcomes, including partner violence, in young adulthood. Findings are consistent with the theory of a trait-like vulnerability, such as impulsive aggression, that undermines adaptation across multiple domains in adolescence and young adulthood. Prevention and intervention approaches can target common causes of diverse public health problems.

  3. Peer Victimization and Suicidal Behaviors among High School Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau-Hobson, Franci; Leech, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between various types of peer-directed violence and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 15,425 high school students completed the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. All types of peer victimization (bullying, physical violence, and dating violence) were found to…

  4. The wish to die and the wish to commit suicide in the adolescent: two different matters?

    PubMed

    Manor, Iris; Vincent, Michel; Tyano, Sam

    2004-01-01

    We shall try to demonstrate the difference between two wishes--the wish to die and the wish to commit suicide--as they express themselves during adolescence. First, death is seen as irreversible, while the suicidal act, at least during adolescence, is seen as reversible. While thoughts of suicide may be a part of normal adolescence, and the suicidal act a manifestation of pathological development specific to this stage in life, the wish to die has no age restrictions and may accompany life as a shadow, devoid of any suicidal act, for many years. It should be noted that both of these wishes may be balanced with the wish to live. Pathology appears when there is an imbalance of wishes and abnormal developmental processes. This imbalance can result in two distinct activities: suicidal acts and death behaviors. We suggest that the two stem from different mechanisms and personality pathologies. Therefore, they should be evaluated separately in order to better understand differences between suicidal and other aggressive acts and manifestations of the death wish during adolescence.

  5. [Prevalence and functions of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors in a sample of Spanish adolescents assessed in mental health outpatient departments].

    PubMed

    Díaz de Neira, Mónica; García-Nieto, Rebeca; de León-Martinez, Victoria; Pérez Fominaya, Margarita; Baca-García, Enrique; Carballo, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal and self-injurious behaviors in adolescents are a major public health concern. However, the prevalence of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors in Spanish outpatient adolescents is unknown. A total of 267 adolescents between 11 and 18 year old were recruited from the Child and Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatric Services, Jiménez Díaz Foundation (Madrid, Spain) from November 1st 2011 to October 31st 2012. All participants were administered the Spanish version of the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Inventory, which is a structured interview that assesses the presence, frequency, and characteristics of suicidal ideation, suicide plans, suicide gestures, suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injury. One-fifth (20.6%) of adolescents reported having had suicidal ideation at least once during their lifetime. Similarly, 2.2% reported suicide plans, 9.4% reported suicide gesture, 4.5% attempted suicide, and 21.7% reported non-suicidal self-injury, at least once during their lifetime. Of the whole sample, 47.6% of adolescents reported at least one of the studied thoughts or behaviors in their lifetime. Among them, 47.2% reported 2 or more of these thoughts or behaviors. Regarding the reported function of each type of thoughts and behaviors examined, most were performed for emotional regulation purposes, except in the case of suicide gestures (performed for the purposes of social reinforcement). The high prevalence and high comorbidity of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors, together with the known risk of transition among them, underline the need of a systematic and routine assessment of these thoughts and behaviors in adolescents assessed in mental health departments. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Gratitude and Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts among Chinese Adolescents: Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Dongping; Zhang, Wei; Li, Xian; Li, Nini; Ye, Baojuan

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 1252 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 15.00 years), this study examined the direct relations between gratitude and adolescents' suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. This study also examined indirect relations between gratitude and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts via two self-system beliefs--coping efficacy and self-esteem.…

  7. Suicide Risk at Young Adulthood: Continuities and Discontinuities From Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hooven, Carole; Snedker, Karen A.; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2011-01-01

    Young adult suicide is an important social problem, yet little is known about how risk for young adult suicide develops from earlier life stages. In this study the authors report on 759 young adults who were potential high school dropouts as youth. At both adolescence and young adulthood, measures of suicide risk status and related suicide risk factors are collected. With a two-by-two classification on the basis of suicide risk status at both adolescence and young adulthood, the authors distinguish four mutually exclusive groups reflecting suicide risk at two life stages. Using ANOVA and logistic regression, both adolescent and young adult suicide risk factors are identified, with evidence of similarity between risk factors at adolescence and at young adulthood, for both individual-level and social-context factors. There is also support for both continuity and discontinuity of adolescent suicide risk. Implications for social policy are discussed. PMID:23129876

  8. Mediators of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Soloff, Paul H; Feske, Ulrike; Fabio, Anthony

    2008-06-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) increases the risk of suicidal behavior and the lifetime number of suicide attempts in adults with BPD. Despite a strong association, specific variables mediating the relationship between CSA and adult suicidal behavior in BPD have not been identified. This study examined risk factors for suicidal behavior as potential mediators of the relationship between CSA and suicide attempts in 151 men and women with BPD. Diagnostic, clinical, and psychosocial risk factors, as well as CSA, and suicidal behaviors, were assessed by standardized interviews or self-rated measures. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms, and poor social adjustment, were associated with both CSA and suicidal behavior, and partially mediated the relationship between CSA and attempter status. Psychotic and schizotypal symptoms in BPD define a vulnerability to cognitive and perceptual distortions under stress. They increase the likelihood of suicidal behavior in BPD, especially in the absence of mitigating social support. A theoretical model for suicidal behavior in BPD is presented which integrates direct, mediated, and moderated pathways between childhood sexual abuse and temperament, adolescent and adult risk factors, and suicidal behavior.

  9. Depression, Hopelessness, and Self-Esteem: Accounting for Suicidality in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dori, Galit A.; Overholser, James C.

    1999-01-01

    Depressed adolescents who had never attempted suicide were compared to depressed adolescents who had attempted suicide. Results showed suicidal adolescents experienced significantly greater depression and hopelessness than did nonsuicidal adolescents. However, suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents reported similar low levels of self esteem.…

  10. Identifying Differences between Depressed Adolescent Suicide Ideators and Attempters

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Millner, Alexander J.; Stewart, Jeremy G.; Esposito, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent depression and suicide are pressing public health concerns, and identifying key differences among suicide ideators and attempters is critical. The goal of the current study is to test whether depressed adolescent suicide attempters report greater anhedonia severity and exhibit aberrant effort-cost computations in the face of uncertainty. Methods Depressed adolescents (n = 101) ages 13–19 years were administered structured clinical interviews to assess current mental health disorders and a history of suicidality (suicide ideators = 55, suicide attempters = 46). Then, participants completed self-report instruments assessing symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, anhedonia, and anxiety as well as a computerized effort-cost computation task. Results Compared with depressed adolescent suicide ideators, attempters report greater anhedonia severity, even after concurrently controlling for symptoms of suicidal ideation, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, when completing the effort-cost computation task, suicide attempters are less likely to pursue the difficult, high value option when outcomes are uncertain. Follow-up, trial-level analyses of effort-cost computations suggest that receipt of reward does not influence future decision-making among suicide attempters, however, suicide ideators exhibit a win-stay approach when receiving rewards on previous trials. Limitations Findings should be considered in light of limitations including a modest sample size, which limits generalizability, and the cross-sectional design. Conclusions Depressed adolescent suicide attempters are characterized by greater anhedonia severity, which may impair the ability to integrate previous rewarding experiences to inform future decisions. Taken together, this may generate a feeling of powerlessness that contributes to increased suicidality and a needless loss of life. PMID:26233323

  11. Examining the impact of psychiatric diagnosis and comorbidity on the medical lethality of adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    McManama O'Brien, Kimberly H; Berzin, Stephanie C

    2012-08-01

    Specific psychiatric diagnoses and comorbidity patterns were examined to determine if they were related to the medical lethality of suicide attempts among adolescents presenting to an urban general hospital (N=375). Bivariate analysis showed that attempters with substance abuse disorders had higher levels of lethality than attempters without substance abuse. Regression results indicated having depression comorbid with any other diagnosis was not associated with medical lethality. However, having a substance abuse disorder was associated with higher suicide attempt lethality, highlighting the importance of substance abuse as a risk factor for lethal suicide attempts in adolescents. This finding stimulates critical thinking around the understanding of suicidal behavior in youth and the development and implementation of treatment strategies for suicidal adolescents with substance abuse disorders. © 2012 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. Gender differences in defense mechanisms, ways of coping with stress and sense of identity in adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Foto-Özdemir, Dilşad; Akdemir, Devrim; Çuhadaroğlu-Çetin, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences in defense mechanisms, ways of coping with stress and identity formation in relation to adolescent suicidal behavior. This study involved 64 adolescents between 12-17 years of age, who were admitted to the emergency service with a suicide attempt. They were evaluated with a semi-structured clinical interview (K-SADS), Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI), Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) and Sense of Identity Assessment Form (SIAF). 60.9% (n = 39) of the adolescents were female, and 39.1% (n=25) were male. There were no statistically significant differences between the girls and the boys with respect to the clinical characteristics of the suicide attempt and the rate of psychiatric disorders. Of the 64 adolescents with suicide attempt, 47 (73.4%) had at least one, and 26 (40.6%) had more than one psychiatric disorder according to K-SADS. Disruptive behavior disorders were more frequent in males, whereas depression was more frequent in girls. The data indicated the importance of identity confusion, major depression and ADHD in adolescents with suicide attempt in both genders. 43.6% (n=17) of the girls and 36% (n=9) of the boys obtained scores higher than the cut-off point of SIAF indicating identity confusion. Professional help seeking and NSSI behaviors before the suicide attempt were more common in adolescents with identity confusion. While there were differences between genders with respect to the defense mechanisms used, no significant difference was found in terms of ways of coping. Evaluation of DMI scores revealed that the turning against object subscale score was significantly higher in boys compared to girls. While evaluating the adolescents at risk, their defense mechanisms, way of coping and sense of identity, as well as their psychiatric diagnosis should be assessed in detail in order to identify the suicidal thoughts and prevent possible suicide attempts.

  13. Suicide and suicide attempts in children and adolescents in the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Katz, Laurence Y; Au, Wendy; Singal, Deepa; Brownell, Marni; Roos, Noralou; Martens, Patricia J; Chateau, Dan; Enns, Murray W; Kozyrskyj, Anita L; Sareen, Jitender

    2011-11-22

    Few population studies have examined the psychiatric outcomes of children and adolescents in the child welfare system, and no studies have compared outcomes before and after entry into care. Our objective was to assess the relative rate (RR) of suicide, attempted suicide, admission to hospital and visits to physicians' offices among children and adolescents in care compared with those not in care. We also examined these outcomes within the child welfare population before and after entry into care. We used population-level data to identify children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age who were in care in Manitoba for the first time between Apr. 1, 1997, and Mar. 31, 2006, and a comparison cohort not in care. We compared the two cohorts to obtain RRs for the specified outcomes. We also determined RRs within the child welfare population relative to the same population two years before entry into care. We identified 8279 children and adolescents in care for the first time and a comparison cohort of 353 050 children and adolescents not in care. Outcome rates were higher among those in care than in the comparison cohort for suicide (adjusted RR 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.11-5.95), attempted suicide (adjusted RR 2.11, 95% CI 1.84-2.43) and all other outcomes. However, adjusted RRs for attempted suicide (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.21-0.34), admissions to hospital and physician visits decreased after entry into care. Children and adolescents in care were at greater risk of suicide and attempting suicide than those who were not in care. Rates of suicide attempts and hospital admissions within this population were highest before entry into care and decreased thereafter.

  14. Longitudinal Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation and Subsequent Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, E.K.; King, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A period of particularly high risk for suicide attempts among adolescent inpatients is within 12 months after discharge. However, little is known about longitudinal trajectories of suicidal ideation in this high-risk group and how these relate to post-hospitalization suicide attempts and rehospitalizations. Our objectives were to identify these trajectories and examine their relationships with post-hospitalization psychiatric crises. We also examined predictors of trajectory group membership. Method Participants (N=376; ages 13-17; 72% females) were assessed at hospitalization and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Trajectory groups, and their predictors, were identified with latent class growth modeling. We used logistic regression to examine associations between trajectory groups and likelihood of suicide attempts and rehospitalization, controlling for attempt history. Results Three trajectory groups were identified: (1) subclinical ideators (31.6%); (2) elevated ideators with rapidly declining ideation (57.4%); and (3) chronically elevated ideators (10.9%). Adolescents in the chronically elevated ideation group had 2.29[(CI=1.08,4.85), p=0.03] and 4.15[(CI=1.65,10.44), p<0.01] greater odds of attempting suicide and 3.23[(CI=1.37,7.69), p=0.01] and 11.20[(CI=4.33,29.01), p<0.001] greater odds of rehospitalization relative to rapidly declining and subclinical groups, respectively. Higher baseline hopelessness was associated with persisting suicidal ideation. Conclusions Results suggest that suicidal ideation severity at hospitalization may not be an adequate marker for subsequent suicidal crises. It is important to identify adolescents vulnerable to persisting suicidal ideation, as they are at highest risk of psychiatric crises. Addressing hopelessness may facilitate faster declines in ideation after hospitalization. Results also highlight a need for consistent monitoring of these adolescents' suicidal ideation after discharge. PMID:24079705

  15. [Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health].

    PubMed

    Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with

  16. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    PubMed Central

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p < 0.05): getting drunk (18.7% and 10.5%, respectively), frequent cannabis use (6.1% and 2.1%, respectively), suicidal thoughts (42.5% and 18.7%, respectively), and having been the victim of sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p < 0.001). In the correspondence analysis, three groups were found, one composed of adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk

  17. Adolescent Suicide Assessment and Prevention: Empowerment for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulette, Carol A.

    Adolescent suicide has tripled in the past two decades and is considered to be a leading cause of death among America's youths. This increase has prompted much research on the assessment and prevention of adolescent suicide. Suicidologists have agreed there are no scientifically proven methods to assess which individual might attempt suicide.…

  18. Associations between Delinquency and Suicidal Behaviors in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Martie P.; Kingree, J. B.; Ho, Ching-hua

    2006-01-01

    Suicide was the second leading cause of death for 14-17 years olds in 2002. Prior studies indicate that suicidal behaviors are especially common among juvenile delinquents, yet this association has not been examined in a national sample. The 2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was used to examine associations between suicidal behaviors…

  19. Gender differences and stage-specific influence of parent-adolescent conflicts on adolescent suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Ching; Tseng, Chin-Yuan; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2017-09-01

    This study examined familial and peer related factors as predictors of suicidal ideation in school students. Total 2896 participants were included from Taiwan Youth Project released data, a longitudinal survey of adolescent suicidal ideation at ages 15, 18, and 20. Logistic regression analysis risk factors associated with adolescent suicidal ideation reveled differences during the developmental stages. After adjusted for psychological symptoms, effect of quarrels with parents on suicidal ideation lasts in early and middle stages; in the late adolescent stage, only cigarette or alcohol use remained significant. Girls who reported quarrels with parents had the highest level of suicidal ideation before age 18. Stage- and gender-specific differences may provide appropriate intervention strategies for parents and teachers preventing adolescent suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be

  1. Suicide in children and young adolescents: a 25-year database on suicides from Northern Finland.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko

    2014-11-01

    Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (<18 years) occurring in the province of Oulu in Finland between 1988 and 2012. The data is based on documents pertaining to establish the cause of death from forensic autopsy investigations. A register linkage to the data from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) was also made. 79% of the suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Approach to adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Kostenuik, Marcia; Ratnapalan, Mohana

    2010-08-01

    To provide family physicians with an approach to suicide prevention in youth. A literature review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and evaluation studies or program evaluation, adolescent. Youth suicide might be prevented by earlier recognition and treatment of mental illness. Family physicians can and should screen for mental illness in youth; there are many diagnostic and treatment resources available to assist with this. Earlier detection and treatment of mental illness are the most important ways family physicians can reduce morbidity and mortality for youth who are contemplating suicide.

  3. Age of alcohol use initiation, suicidal behavior, and peer and dating violence victimization and perpetration among high-risk, seventh-grade adolescents.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Bossarte, Robert M; Sullivent, Ernest E

    2008-02-01

    We examined the cross-sectional associations between reports of an early age of alcohol use initiation and suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and peer and dating violence victimization and perpetration among high-risk adolescents. Data were obtained from the Youth Violence Survey conducted in 2004 and administered to all public school students enrolled in grades 7, 9, and 11/12 (N = 4131) in a high-risk school district in the United States. Our analyses were limited to seventh-grade students who either began drinking before the age of 13 or were nondrinkers, with complete information on all covariates (n = 856). Cross-sectional logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between early alcohol use and each of the 6 outcome behaviors (dating violence victimization and perpetration, peer violence victimization and perpetration, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts) while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential confounders (ie, heavy episodic drinking, substance use, peer drinking, depression, impulsivity, peer delinquency, and parental monitoring). In our study, 35% of students reported alcohol use initiation before 13 years of age (preteen alcohol use initiators). Students who reported preteen alcohol use initiation reported involvement in significantly more types of violent behaviors (mean: 2.8 behaviors), compared with nondrinkers (mean: 1.8 behaviors). Preteen alcohol use initiation was associated significantly with suicide attempts, relative to nondrinkers, controlling for demographic characteristics and all other potential confounders. Early alcohol use is an important risk factor for involvement in violent behaviors and suicide attempts among youths. Increased efforts to delay and to reduce early alcohol use among youths are needed and may reduce both violence and suicide attempts.

  4. Evaluation of a multimodal school-based depression and suicide prevention program among Dutch adolescents: design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gijzen, Mandy W M; Creemers, Daan H M; Rasing, Sanne P A; Smit, Filip; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2018-05-10

    Since 2010, suicide has been the most important cause of mortality in youth aged 15 to 29 years in the Netherlands. Depression is an important risk factor for suicidal behaviors (i.e., suicide ideation, deliberate self-harm, planning, and suicide attempts) in adolescents. Adolescents who develop depressive symptoms, are also at risk for adult depression. This developmental continuity is especially noticeable in adolescents compared to other age groups; therefore, it is necessary to develop preventive strategies for teens. This study will test a multimodal school-based approach to suicide and depression prevention, which integrates universal and targeted approaches and includes various stakeholders (schools, adolescents, parents, and mental health professionals) simultaneously. We will perform a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with an intervention and control condition to test the effectiveness of a school-based multimodal stepped-prevention program for depression and suicidal behaviors in adolescents. Adolescents in their second year of secondary education will participate in the study. The participants in the intervention condition will receive the entire multimodal stepped-preventive program comprising early screening and detection of suicidal behaviors and depressive symptoms, a safety net consisting of gatekeepers at school, followed by universal and indicated prevention. The participants in the control condition will undergo only the screening and the safety net of gatekeepers at schools. They will complete assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 6, 12, and 24-month follow-up. Primary outcome will be suicidal behaviors measured at 12-months follow-up. Additionally, the present study will identify mechanisms that mediate and moderate the program effects and test the effect of the program on various secondary outcomes. If the school-based multimodal stepped-prevention program proves to be effective, it could be implemented in schools on a

  5. [Relations between problems on sleeping and suicidal behaviors in middle school students].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wan, Yuhui; Sun, Ying; Tao, Fangbiao

    2014-02-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics and possible associations between sleeping problems and suicidal behaviors among middle school students. A total of 13 817 middle school students were selected in Shenyang,Xinxiang, Chongqing and Guangzhou cities and cluster sampling method was used. Questionnaires would include information on demographics, quality of sleep, psychopathological status and suicidal behaviors. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI) and Adolescent Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire (MSQA) were used to assess the quality of sleep and psychosomatic symptoms, respectively. Rates on sleeping problems and suicidal behaviors were compared in students with specific characteristics. Effects related to sleeping problems and suicidal behaviors were analyzed, using the multivariate logistic regression model. The overall prevalence of problems related to sleeping among middle school students was 26.5%. 28.2% of the girls and 35.2% of senior students reported as having more sleeping problems. Rates on suicide related ideation, planning and attempts were 16.6%, 9.6% and 4.7% , respectively. Girls reported more suicide ideation than boys. However, no gender differences were found in suicide planning or attempted suicide. It also suggested that the incidence of the suicidal behavior among students with sleeping problems was significantly higher than students without sleeping problems. Data from Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that sleeping problems appeared as independent risk factors on suicidal behavior. Higher PSQI scores seemed coincide with the increased risk of suicidal behaviors. Students having sleeping time less than 5 hours per day showed higher risk of suicidal behaviors. Problems on sleeping seemed a strong risk factor for suicidal behaviors among middle school students. Improvement on the quality of sleep and reasonable arrangement of sleeping time could help prevent related suicidal behaviors among middle school

  6. Young men’s intimate partner violence and relationship functioning: Long-term outcomes associated with suicide attempt and aggression in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Longitudinal research supports that suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescence predict maladjustment in young adulthood. Prior research supports links between suicide attempt and aggression, perhaps because of a propensity for impulsive behavior in states of high negative affect that underlies both problems. Such vulnerability may increase risk for intimate partner violence and generally poor young adulthood relational adjustment. Method 153 men participated in annual assessments from ages 10 to 32 years and with a romantic partner at three assessments from ages 18 to 25 years. Multimethod/multi-informant constructs were formed for parent/family risk factors, adolescent psychopathology (e.g., suicide attempt history; mother-, father-, teacher-, and self-reported physical aggression), and young adulthood relational distress (jealousy and low relationship satisfaction) and maladaptive relationship behavior (observed, self-, and partner-reported physical and psychological aggression toward a partner, partner-reported injury, official domestic violence arrest records, and relationship instability). Results Across informants, adolescent aggression was correlated with suicide attempt history. With few exceptions, aggression and a suicide attempt in adolescence each predicted negative romantic relationship outcomes after controlling for measured confounds. Adolescent aggression predicted young adulthood aggression toward a partner, in part, via relationship dissatisfaction. Conclusions Boys’ aggression and suicide attempt history in adolescence each predict poor relationship outcomes, including partner violence, in young adulthood. Findings are consistent with the theory of a trait-like vulnerability, such as impulsive aggression, that undermines adaptation across multiple domains in adolescence and young adulthood. Prevention and intervention approaches can target common causes of diverse public health problems. PMID:20540815

  7. Stability, Correlates, and Outcome of Adolescent Suicidal Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bosiger, Ruth; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2006-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to investigate the stability and correlates of adolescent suicidal risk across adolescence. Methods: Suicidal risk was studied longitudinally in N = 593 subjects in 1994, 1997, and 2001 at mean ages of 13, 16, and 20 years. Three partly overlapping suicidal risk groups were compared to three control groups…

  8. The development of a screening tool for the early identification of risk for suicidal behavior among students in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Vawda, Naseema B M; Milburn, Norweeta G; Steyn, Renier; Zhang, Muyu

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent suicidal behavior is a public health concern in South Africa. The purpose of this article is to report on the development of a screening tool for teachers to identify South African students who are most at risk for suicidal behavior. This need is addressed within the context of the limited number of mental health professionals available to provide screening and care services in South Africa. Grade 8 students participated by completing sociodemographic questionnaires and self-report psychometric instruments. A screening tool for suicidal behavior was developed using a 4-phase approach. Twelve factors for high-risk suicidal behavior were identified and included in the screening tool. While further research is needed to validate the screening tool, the findings provide a useful preliminary starting point for teachers to refer students at high risk for suicidal behavior to mental health services for treatment. This screening tool is based on factors that were identified as being associated with suicidal behavior from local research on South African adolescents. The tool contributes to research on adolescent mental health, particularly suicidal behavior, in developing low and middle income countries like South Africa, with the aim of creating African prevention and intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Overholser, J C; Adams, D M; Lehnert, K L; Brinkman, D C

    1995-07-01

    Self-esteem can play an important role in suicidal tendencies among adolescents. The present study was designed to examine the relationship between self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies in 254 adolescent psychiatric inpatients and 288 high school students. The direct relationship between self-esteem and suicidal tendencies was examined by assessing suicidal ideation and history of suicide attempts. An indirect relationship between self-esteem and suicidality was examined by assessing depression and hopelessness. Differences were found across gender and hospitalization status, with males reporting higher self-esteem than females and high school students scoring higher in self-esteem than psychiatric inpatients. However, correlations among variables remained similar across gender and hospitalization status. Thus, low self-esteem was related to higher levels of depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and an increased likelihood of having previously attempted suicide. Furthermore, self-esteem added to the understanding of suicidal ideation beyond what could be explained by depression and hopelessness. Low self-esteem was closely related to feelings of depression, hopelessness, and suicidal tendencies. Assessment of adolescents should include an evaluation of self-esteem, and therapy should attempt to address any self-esteem deficits.

  10. Factors that Affect Suicide Attempts of Adolescents in Multicultural Families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2016-11-28

    We examined the factors that affect suicide attempts adolescents multicultural families in South Korea. The participants were 727 adolescents whose mothers and/or fathers were born outside of South Korea (376 males and 351 females). Among them, 41 (weighted prevalence 6.2%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. Female gender, residence in large cities (compared with in rural areas), living with relatives/alone/with friends/in a dormitory or living in a facility (compared with living with family), high and low socio-economic status (compared with a middle level), high and low academic performance (compared with a middle level), severe perceived stress (compared with non-severe stress), conflicts with a teacher (compared with conflicts with parent), and foreign-father/-parent families (compared with foreign-mother family) were associated with increased odds of suicide attempt. The results indicate that greater awareness of the possibility of suicidal behavior is prudent for adolescents in multicultural families with certain risk factors, such as being from a foreign-parents family, living separately from the family, and having conflicts with a teacher.

  11. Bullying and suicidal behaviors among urban high school youth.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Lisa; Azrael, Deborah; Molnar, Beth; Miller, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    To determine whether involvement in bullying as a perpetrator, victim, or both victim and perpetrator (victim-perpetrator) was associated with a higher risk of suicidal ideation or suicide attempts among a multiethnic urban high school population in the United States. In 2008, a total of 1,838 youth in 9th-12th grades attending public high school in Boston, MA, completed an in-school, self-reported survey of health-related behaviors. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between bullying behaviors and self-reported suicidal ideation and suicide attempts within the 12 months preceding the survey. Students who reported having been involved in bullying as a perpetrator, victim, or victim-perpetrator were more likely than those who had not been involved in bullying to report having seriously considered or attempted suicide within the past year. When age, race/ethnicity, and gender were controlled, students who were victim-perpetrators of bullying were at highest risk for both suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Urban youth who have been bullied as well as those who have bullied others are at increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Hospitalization and Mortality Data to Identify Areas at Risk for Adolescent Suicide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun; Aseltine, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to use statewide data on inpatient hospitalizations for suicide attempts and suicide mortality to identify communities and school districts at risk for adolescent suicide. Five years of data (2010-2014) from the Office of the Connecticut Medical Examiner and the Connecticut Hospital Inpatient Discharge Database were analyzed. A mixed-effects Poisson regression model was used to assess whether suicide attempt/mortality rates in the state's 119 school districts were significantly better or worse than expected after adjusting for 10 community-level characteristics. Ten districts were at significantly higher risk for suicidal behavior, with suicide mortality/hospitalization rates ranging from 154% to 241% of their expected rates, after accounting for their community characteristics. Four districts were identified as having significantly lower risk for suicide attempts than expected after accounting for community-level advantages and disadvantages. Data capturing hospitalization for suicide attempts and suicide deaths can inform prevention activities by identifying high-risk areas to which resources should be allocated, as well as low-risk areas that may provide insight into the best practices in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents: different factors contribute to self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Grøholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrøm, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-10-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's Self-Perceived Profile for Adolescents, self-concept stability, seeking support, loneliness, and depression. Self-concept stability, loneliness, and peer support correlated differently with self-esteem. In multivariate regression analyses, variance in self-esteem was explained by depression and loneliness, and among nonsuicidal adolescents also by self-concept stability, support, and competencies. Loneliness and self-concept stability related differently to self-esteem in suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents. When the aim is to enhance self-esteem, this difference may delineate suicidal subgroups that need special interventions.

  14. Risk and protective factors for suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lai, Hsiao-Jung; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2011-01-01

    : Suicide is the ninth leading cause of death in adolescents aged 15-19 years in Taiwan. Suicidal ideation is an important predictor of committing suicide among adolescents. : The aim of this study was to examine the important risk factors, the protective factors, and the role of protective factors on the relationship of risk factors to suicidal ideation among Taiwanese adolescents aged 15-19 years. : By adopting a cross-sectional study, senior high school students (n = 577) aged 15-19 years in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. An anonymous self-reported questionnaire was used to collect demographic characteristics, risk factors, protective factors, and suicidal ideation of the sample. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify the important risk and protective factors and the interaction between risk and protective factors on suicidal ideation. : Nearly 18% (n = 101) of the participants reported having suicidal ideation during the past 12 months. Gender (female; odds ratio [OR] = 4.23), life stress (OR = 1.03), depression (OR = 3.44), peer suicidal ideation (OR = 4.15), and bullying victimization (OR = 1.81) were important risk factors of suicidal ideation among the targeted sample. In addition, self-esteem (OR = 0.92) and emotional adaptation (OR = 0.88) were important protective factors of suicidal ideation. Self-esteem and emotional adaptation were not used to moderate the negative effects of life stress, depression, perceived peer suicidal ideation, and bullying victimization on suicidal ideation. The final model explained 40.6% of the total variance in suicidal ideation and correctly predicted 86.1% of participants with suicidal ideation. : Suicidal ideation prevention programs should be targeted to female adolescents. School-based efforts that provide adolescents with self-esteem enhancement, emotional regulation skills training, positive peer norms for life, coping skills for managing stress and depression, and antibullying programs

  15. School connectedness and suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A systematic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marraccini, Marisa E.; Brier, Zoe M.F.

    2017-01-01

    Among the protective factors associated with reduced risk for suicide, scientific inquiries into school connectedness are especially important considering that schools are ideally situated to provide interventions reaching the vast majority of youth. Although there is a wealth of research that supports the association between school connectedness and reduced self-report of adolescents having a suicidal thought or making a suicide attempt, inconsistencies in the way studies have measured and operationalized school connectedness limit synthesis across findings. This meta-analytic study investigates the literature exploring associations between school connectedness and suicidal thoughts and behaviors across general and sub-populations (high risk and sexual minority youth) using a random effects model. Eligible studies examined a measure of school connectedness explicitly referred to as “school connectedness” or “connections at school” in relation to suicidal ideation or suicide attempts among youth enrolled in school (grades 6–12). Multiple meta-regression analyses were conducted to explore the influence of school connectedness measurement variation, as well as participant characteristics. Results, including 16 samples, support that higher school connectedness is associated with reduced reports of suicidal thoughts and behaviors across general (OR = 0.536), high-risk (OR = 0.603), and sexual minority (OR = 0.608) adolescents. Findings are consistent when analyzed separately for suicidal ideation (OR = 0.529) and suicide attempts (OR = 0.589) and remain stable when accounting for measurement variability. Although limited by its cross-sectional nature, findings support recent calls to increase school connectedness and proffer important implications for screening and intervention efforts conducted in schools. PMID:28080099

  16. Validity of Suicidality Items from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey in a High School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Alexis; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) is used by the United States Centers for Disease Control to estimate rates of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in adolescents. This study investigated the validity of the YRBS suicidality items by examining their relationship to criterion variables including loneliness, anxiety, depression, substance use, and…

  17. Emotional intelligence is a protective factor for suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Cha, Christine; Nock, Matthew

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about what factors protect against the occurrence of suicidal ideation and attempts. We tested whether emotional intelligence (EI)-the ability to perceive, integrate into thoughts, understand, and manage one's emotions-decreases the likelihood of suicidal ideation and attempts among those at risk. Adolescents (N = 54) aged 12 to 19 years were recruited from local psychiatric clinics and the community to participate in this cross-sectional laboratory-based study. Analyses examined whether the relations between childhood sexual abuse and suicidal ideation and attempts were moderated by adolescents' EI. These constructs were assessed using self-report, structured interviews, and performance-based tests, respectively. Analyses revealed that EI is a protective factor for both suicidal ideation and attempts. Specifically, childhood sexual abuse was strongly predictive of these outcomes among those with low EI, weakly predictive among those with medium EI, and completely unrelated among those with high EI. Follow-up analyses revealed that the protective effect of EI was driven primarily by differences in strategic EI (i.e., ability to understand and manage emotions) but not experiential EI (i.e., ability to perceive emotions and integrate emotions into thoughts). This study provides preliminary evidence that EI is a protective factor for suicidal ideation and attempts. Important next steps include testing the moderating influence of EI on a wider range of stressful life events and self-injurious behaviors, as well as conducting experimental studies to determine whether enhancing EI decreases the subsequent occurrence of these behavior problems.

  18. Violence among young men: the importance of a gender-specific developmental approach to adolescent male suicide and homicide.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide and homicide are much more commonly committed by adolescent males than females. Herein, a proposal in favor of gender-specific understanding and approach to these violent behaviors is presented. Social and healthcare service system factors, including issues of male adolescents' access to care and help-seeking behaviors, are reviewed alongside the epidemiology of adolescent suicide and homicide as a transition into a detailed discussion of the putative biological factors at play. An emphasis upon the male androgen testosterone organizes the discussion. Behavioral manifestations of this brain-based organizational model are presented with a focus on impulsivity, aggression, and externalizing dysregulated emotionality. Treatment considerations and implications are developed.

  19. Familism, Parent-Adolescent Conflict, Self-Esteem, Internalizing Behaviors and Suicide Attempts among Adolescent Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…

  20. The influence of psychosocial variables on adolescent suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    George, Ancel; van den Berg, Henriette S

    2012-07-01

    Increased rates of suicide among adolescents aged 15-24 years have led to suicides becoming the third leading cause of death in the Unites States. South African statistics show an equally worrying trend as suicide constitutes 11.5% of the total deaths for the age group 11-20 years (Stark et al. 2010). A national youth risk behaviour survey done in South Africa has re-emphasised the need for concern, as adolescent suicidal behaviour increased between 2002 and 2008 (Reddy et al. 2010). The objective was to investigate the influence of risk and protective factors (psychosocial and individual factors) on suicidal ideation. The Integrated Stress and Coping Process model was used as guiding theory for the inclusion of personal and contextual stressors and resources including coping strategies as potential risk and protective factors, in their relationship to suicidal ideation. A purposive, stratified sampling technique was used to study 381 adolescents in the Northern Cape Province. The instruments used were a suicidal ideation questionnaire; a biographical questionnaire; a self-esteem scale; and a survey examining stressors and resources relevant to adolescents. Suicidal ideation was significantly higher in the South African sample than in an American sample. Avoidant coping strategies (denial, emotional venting and restraint coping), negative life events and stressful romantic relationships contributed to higher levels of suicidal ideation while self-esteem and adaptive coping (acceptance and seeking social support for instrumental reasons) reduced these levels. A lack of self-esteem, ineffective coping and particular stressors contributed significantly to the vulnerability of adolescents. Future studies should explore a wider range of dispositional factors that influence effective coping and adjustment in addressing adolescent suicidal ideation.

  1. Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Adolescents: Different Factors Contribute to Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groholt, Berit; Ekeberg, Oivind; Wichstrom, Lars; Haldorsen, Tor

    2005-01-01

    Some risk and protective factors differ in their importance to suicidal and nonsuicidal people. In this research we explore the cross-sectional differences between risk factors among suicidal adolescents and nonsuicidal adolescents by focusing on self-esteem. Sixty-five suicidal and 390 nonsuicidal adolescents were compared on Harter's…

  2. Current Suicide Proneness and Past Suicidal Behavior in Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Lamis, Dorian A.

    2008-01-01

    Youth recently assigned to probation (n = 233) were assessed for current suicide proneness, depression, and hopelessness, as well as for recent suicide ideation, previous suicide ideation, or suicide attempt(s). The Life Attitudes Schedule-Short Form (LAS-SF) was used to assess suicide proneness. As per the LAS-SF, suicide proneness was defined…

  3. Toxoplasmosis Titers and past Suicide Attempts Among Older Adolescents Initiating SSRI Treatment.

    PubMed

    Coryell, William; Yolken, Robert; Butcher, Brandon; Burns, Trudy; Dindo, Lilian; Schlechte, Janet; Calarge, Chadi

    2016-01-01

    Latent infection with toxoplasmosis is a prevalent condition that has been linked in animal studies to high-risk behaviors, and in humans, to suicide and suicide attempts. This analysis investigated a relationship between suicide attempt history and toxoplasmosis titers in a group of older adolescents who had recently begun treatment with an SSRI. Of 108 participants, 17 (15.7 %) had a lifetime history of at least one suicide attempt. All were given structured and unstructured diagnostic interviews and provided blood samples. Two individuals (11.9%) with a past suicide attempt, and two (2.1%) without this history, had toxoplasmosis titers ≥ 10 IU/ml (p = 0.166). Those with a past suicide attempt had mean toxoplasmosis titers that were significantly different (p = 0.018) from those of patients who lacked this history. An ROC analysis suggested a lower optimal threshold for distinguishing patients with and without suicide attempts (3.6 IU/ml) than that customarily used to identify seropositivity. Toxoplasmosis titers may quantify a proneness to suicidal behavior in younger individuals being treated with antidepressants.

  4. Suicide ideation and attempts and bullying in children and adolescents: psychiatric and general population samples.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.

  5. Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS).

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan G; Rohde, Paul; Kratochvil, Christopher J; Kennard, Betsy D; Reinecke, Mark A; Mayes, Taryn L; Posner, Kelly; May, Diane E; March, John S

    2009-04-21

    The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) database was analyzed to determine whether suicidal events (attempts and ideation) occurred early in treatment, could be predicted by severity of depression or other clinical characteristics, and were preceded by clinical deterioration or symptoms of increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disruption, or mania. TADS was a 36-week randomized, controlled clinical trial of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments involving 439 youths with major depressive disorder (DSM-IV criteria). Suicidal events were defined according to the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicidal Assessment. Patients were randomly assigned into the study between spring 2000 and summer 2003. Forty-four patients (10.0%) had at least 1 suicidal event (no suicide occurred). Events occurred 0.4 to 31.1 weeks (mean +/- SD = 11.9 +/- 8.2) after starting TADS treatment, with no difference in event timing for patients receiving medication versus those not receiving medication. Severity of self-rated pretreatment suicidal ideation (Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire adapted for adolescents score > or = 31) and depressive symptoms (Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale score > or = 91) predicted occurrence of suicidal events during treatment (P < .05). Patients with suicidal events were on average still moderately ill prior to the event (mean +/- SD Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale score = 4.0 +/- 1.3) and only minimally improved (mean +/- SD Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale score = 3.2 +/- 1.1). Events were not preceded by increased irritability, akathisia, sleep disturbance, or manic signs. Specific interpersonal stressors were identified in 73% of cases (N = 44). Of the events, 55% (N = 24) resulted in overnight hospitalization. Most suicidal events occurred in the context of persistent depression and insufficient improvement without evidence of medication-induced behavioral activation as a precursor

  6. Steroid Use and School Violence, School Violent Victimization, and Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Rebecca L.; King, Keith; Nabors, Laura; Vidourek, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    School violence, school violent victimization, and suicidal ideation among adolescents are serious public health concerns. This pilot study investigated the influence of steroid use on problem behaviors. Secondary data analyses of the 2014 PRIDE Questionnaire were performed based on information collected from 38,414 high school adolescents.…

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior.

  8. Adolescents Transitioning to High School: Sex Differences in Bullying Victimization Associated With Depressive Symptoms, Suicide Ideation, and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan G; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Wornell, Cory; Finnegan, Heather

    2017-12-01

    Adolescents transitioning to high school may be at greater risk of depression and suicide if they are victims of bullying behavior. This study explored sex differences in bullying victimization (physical, verbal/social, and cyberbullying) and the impact on depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in ninth-grade students ( N = 233). Females reported significantly more verbal/social and cyberbullying than male students. There were no significant sex differences in physical bullying; male students who reported physical bullying victimization were more likely to experience depressive symptoms. Verbal/social bullying predicted depressive symptoms in males and females. Females who reported being victims of cyberbullying were more likely to report depressive symptoms, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. Eighteen students reported suicide attempts, and each also experienced verbal/social bullying. School nurses are positioned to reach out to transitioning students, screen for mental health issues, provide a safe place to talk about bullying experiences, and promote positive mental health.

  9. [Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents].

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.

  10. The Prevalence, Lethality and Intent of Suicide Attempts among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Judy A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    Although suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in the United States, little is known about the prevalence or characteristics of suicide attempts among adolescents. Data from 1,710 adolescents attending 9 high schools in 5 communities were examined to determine the prevalence of suicide attempts and the lethality and intent…

  11. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-06-30

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents-composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent-30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Responding to Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation, Bloomington, IN.

    This publication is designed to help educators deal with the problems that arise after an adolescent's suicide. It recommends that teachers should be able to detect differences in students' responses to emotional problems. Following a preface and a brief review of the extent of the problem, the first chapter discusses which adolescents are…

  13. The Mediating Roles of Anxiety Depression, and Hopelessness on Adolescent Suicidal Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Elaine Adams; Mazza, James J.; Herting, Jerald R.; Randell, Brooke P.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the roles of anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as mediators between known risk factors and suicidal behaviors among 1,287 potential high school dropouts. As a step toward theory development, a model was tested that posited the relationships among these variables and their effects on suicidal behaviors.…

  14. Prioritizing Research to Reduce Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance) is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care–based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth; and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. PMID:25145744

  15. Association of being bullied in school with suicide ideation and planning among rural middle school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Madhav P; Shakya, Sunita; Jefferis, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This study examined the association of ever being bullied in school with suicide ideation (ever thinking about killing oneself) and ever seriously making a plan to kill oneself (suicide planning) among rural middle school adolescents. Using the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey instrument, 2 cross-sectional surveys were conducted among middle school adolescents (N = 1082) in a rural Appalachian county in Ohio in 2009 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the relationship of ever being bullied in school with suicide ideation and planning. Overall, a total of 468 participants (43.1%) reported ever being bullied in school, and 22.3% and 13.2% of the adolescents surveyed reported suicide ideation and planning, respectively. In the multivariable analyses, ever being bullied in school was significantly associated with both suicide ideation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-3.5) and planning (OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.8). The results show a strong association between being bullied in school and suicide ideation and planning among rural middle school adolescents. Prevention of bullying in school as early as in middle school should be a strategy for reducing suicide ideation and planning among adolescents. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  16. The Youth-Nominated Support Team for Suicidal Adolescents – Version II: A Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Klaus, Nicole; Kramer, Anne; Venkataraman, Sanjeev; Quinlan, Paul; Gillespie, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Youth-Nominated Support Team – Version II (YST-II) for suicidal adolescents, an intervention based on social support and health behavior models, which was designed to supplement standard treatments. Psychiatrically hospitalized and suicidal adolescents, ages 13 to 17 years, were randomly assigned to treatment-as-usual (TAU) plus YST-II (n = 223) or TAU only (n = 225). YST-II provided tailored psychoeducation to youth-nominated adults in addition to weekly check-ins for three months following hospitalization. In turn, these adults had regular supportive contact with adolescents. Adolescents assigned to TAU+YST-II had an average of 3.43 (SD = .83) nominated adults. Measures included the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-JR (SIQ-JR), Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), and Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS). YST-II had very limited positive effects, which were moderated by history of multiple suicide attempts, and no negative effects. It resulted in more rapid decreases in suicidal ideation (SIQ-JR) for multiple suicide attempters during the initial 6 weeks after hospitalization (small – moderate effect size). For non-multiple attempters, it was associated with greater declines in functional impairment (CAFAS) at 3- and 12-months (small effect sizes). YST-II had no effects on suicide attempts, and no enduring effects on SIQ-JR scores. PMID:19803568

  17. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peter Y.; Cigularov, Konstantin P.; Tomazic, Rocco G.

    2015-01-01

    Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention. PMID:26068796

  18. Suicidal ideation in adolescence: examining the role of recent adverse experiences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J; English, Diana J; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D

    2012-02-01

    Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN studies, as well as potential mediators. 8.9% of the youth reported suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences, as a class, were associated with suicidal ideation; both recent physical abuse and recent psychological maltreatment were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation. The links between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation were significantly mediated by psychological distress. There were also significant main effect associations between both internalizing behavioral problems and low positive achievement expectations and suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences are important in understanding suicidal ideation in high risk youth. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Suicidality among Adolescents: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Monti, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with a co-occurring alcohol or other drug use disorder (AOD) and suicidality in a randomized clinical trial. Method: Forty adolescents (M[subscript age] = 15 years; 68% female, 89% White) and their families recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital were…

  20. Risk of Future Suicide Attempts in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients at 18-Month Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman-Sull, David C.; Overholser, James C.; Silverman, Eden

    2000-01-01

    Investigates potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescent psychiatric patients (N=60) during an 18-month follow-up period. Follow-up suicidality was most strongly predicted by high intake levels of hopelessness, and an increase in or persistent problems with depression. Proposes a model in which the impact of family functioning on…

  1. Post-dexamethasone Cortisol, Self-inflicted Injury, and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Crowell, Sheila E.; Hsiao, Ray C.

    2014-01-01

    Although the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) has limited use as a marker of depression given inadequate sensitivity and specificity, it marks prospective risk for suicide among adults. However, few studies have examined associations between the DST, suicidal ideation, and self-inflicted injury (SII) among adolescents, even though SII is the single best predictor of eventual suicide. We evaluated the DST as a correlate of suicidal ideation and retrospective reports of self-inflicted injury (SII) among adolescent girls, ages 13–17, with histories of depression (n=28) or depression/self-harm (n=29). Lower post-DST cortisol was associated with suicidal ideation and SII, over-and-above parent-reports and combined parent-/self-reports of internalizing and externalizing behavior. These findings are consistent with recent acquired capacity models of stress-related psychopathology in which hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function is altered through epigenetic/allostatic mechanisms among vulnerable individuals who incur adversity early in life. PMID:25208812

  2. When self-reliance is not safe: associations between reduced help-seeking and subsequent mental health symptoms in suicidal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Labouliere, Christa D; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2015-04-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths' perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms.

  3. When Self-Reliance Is Not Safe: Associations between Reduced Help-Seeking and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms in Suicidal Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Labouliere, Christa D.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of suicidal adolescents have no contact with mental health services, and reduced help-seeking in this population further lessens the likelihood of accessing treatment. A commonly-reported reason for not seeking help is youths’ perception that they should solve problems on their own. In this study, we explore associations between extreme self-reliance behavior (i.e., solving problems on your own all of the time), help-seeking behavior, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of adolescents. Approximately 2150 adolescents, across six schools, participated in a school-based suicide prevention screening program, and a subset of at-risk youth completed a follow-up interview two years later. Extreme self-reliance was associated with reduced help-seeking, clinically-significant depressive symptoms, and serious suicidal ideation at the baseline screening. Furthermore, in a subset of youth identified as at-risk at the baseline screening, extreme self-reliance predicted level of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms two years later even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Given these findings, attitudes that reinforce extreme self-reliance behavior may be an important target for youth suicide prevention programs. Reducing extreme self-reliance in youth with suicidality may increase their likelihood of appropriate help-seeking and concomitant reductions in symptoms. PMID:25837350

  4. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  5. Approach to adolescent suicide prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kostenuik, Marcia; Ratnapalan, Mohana

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with an approach to suicide prevention in youth. SOURCES OF INFORMATION A literature review was performed using Ovid MEDLINE with the key words suicide, attempted suicide, and evaluation studies or program evaluation, adolescent. MAIN MESSAGE Youth suicide might be prevented by earlier recognition and treatment of mental illness. Family physicians can and should screen for mental illness in youth; there are many diagnostic and treatment resources available to assist with this. CONCLUSION Earlier detection and treatment of mental illness are the most important ways family physicians can reduce morbidity and mortality for youth who are contemplating suicide. PMID:20705879

  6. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of Suicide Attempts and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behaviors With Substance Use and Family Characteristics Among Children and Adolescents Seeking Treatment for Substance Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Guvendeger Doksat, Neslim; Zahmacioglu, Oguzhan; Ciftci Demirci, Arzu; Kocaman, Gizem Melissa; Erdogan, Ayten

    2017-04-16

    Numerous studies in youth and adults suggest strong association between substance use disorders and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behaviors. There is paucity of studies exploring the association of substance use with history of suicide attempts (HSA) and NSSI in children and adolescents in Turkey. We aimed to examine the prevalence of NSSI and HSA and their relationship with substance use and family characteristics among youth seeking treatment for substance use in Turkey. Participants were children and adolescents who were admitted to the Bakirkoy Trainee and Research Hospital for Psychiatric and Neurologic Disorders in Istanbul between January 2011 and December 2013. Two thousand five hundred eighteen participants were included. Questionnaires were applied to all patients. The association of NSSI and HSA with substance use, family characteristics, and subject characteristics were analyzed. The prevalence of NSSI and HSA behaviors among substance using youth in our sample were 52% and 21% respectively. Cannabis and cocaine use was found to be a significant risk factor for HSA, and polysubstance use was associated with both NSSI and HSA. Parental separation/divorce, parental mental disorders, alcohol and drug use, and crime were the risk factors for HSA. A positive history of physical and sexual abuse increased the risk of HAS, and a history of neglect increased the risk of NSSI. Conclusions/importance: We suggest that results showing relationship between substance use and associated social features with NSSI and HSA may contribute to elaborating effective and targeted preventive and intervention programs for these high-risk youth groups in Turkey.

  8. Suicidal ideations and sleep-related problems in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Franić, Tomislav; Kralj, Zana; Marčinko, Darko; Knez, Rajna; Kardum, Goran

    2014-05-01

    Suicidal ideation and sleep-related problems are associated with many common psychopathological entities in early adolescence. This study examined possible association between suicidal ideation and sleep-related problems. A cross-sectional study was performed in classroom settings at 840 early adolescents 11-13 years of age. Of those, 791 adolescents fully completed the data and thus represent an actual sample. Suicidal ideations were assessed with three dichotomous (yes/no) items: 'I often think about death'; 'I wish I was dead'; 'I often think about suicide.' A composite measure of perceived sleep-related problems was formed by combining items from the Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Do you find it hard to sleep at night because you are worrying about things?), Children Depression Inventory (It is hard for me to fall asleep at night), and two additional dichotomous questions (I often was not able to fall asleep because of worrying; At times I was not able to stay asleep because of worrying). This score mainly assessed difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep. A total of 7.1% adolescents reported suicidal ideation and 86.7% of them had sleep problems. Sleep-related problems were associated with any suicidal ideation and each type of ideation separately. This study suggests association of sleep problems and suicidal ideations in early adolescence. Therefore, clinicians should evaluate this population for sleep disturbances, as they might be a marker of increased risk for suicidality. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Weight status, psychological health, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempts in Dutch adolescents: results from the 2003 E-MOVO project.

    PubMed

    van Wijnen, Lisa G C; Boluijt, Petra R; Hoeven-Mulder, Henriette B; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda

    2010-05-01

    This study describes the association between weight status and psychological health, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in adolescents from a population-based study of 21,730 adolescents who responded to a classroom-based internet questionnaire. It demonstrated clear associations between weight status in adolescents and poor psychological health, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts, especially in obese individuals. Obese boys and girls were more likely to be classified as "psychologically unhealthy" than were normal weight subjects. They also reported more suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts.

  10. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Case, Julia A. C.; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents—composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent—30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  11. Gender Differences in Suicide Prevention Responses: Implications for Adolescents Based on an Illustrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Emma; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Methods: Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. Results: The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. Conclusions: We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates. PMID:25711358

  12. Gender differences in suicide prevention responses: implications for adolescents based on an illustrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Emma; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-02-23

    There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.

  13. Sexual Assault, Overweight, and Suicide Attempts in U.S. Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Hayden, Brittany M; Tomasula, Jessica L

    2015-10-01

    Associations between overweight, sexual assault history, and suicide attempts were examined among 31,540 adolescents from the combined 2009 and 2011 nationally representative Youth Risk Behavior Surveys samples. These variables have not previously been studied concurrently. It was hypothesized that overweight and sexual assault, together, would interact and result in increased suicide attempts. Findings across analyses included (a) no significant associations between sexual assault and overweight in females or males (p = .65 and p = .90, respectively), (b) statistically significant associations between female (but not male) overweight status and suicide attempts (p = .001), (c) a strong association between sexual assault and suicide risk in males (p < .001) and females (p < .001), and (d) an elevated risk for suicide in overweight males with co-occurring sexual assault, with over 33% of males with such histories attempting suicide. Preliminary findings have powerful implications for research and secondary prevention. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. The impact of universal suicide-prevention programs on the help-seeking attitudes and behaviors of youths.

    PubMed

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Klingbeil, David A; Meller, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    While the ultimate goal of adolescent suicide-prevention efforts is to decrease the incidence of death by suicide, a critical intermediary goal is directing youths toward effective sources of assistance. To comprehensively review the universal prevention literature and examine the effects of universal prevention programs on student's attitudes and behaviors related to help-seeking. We systematically reviewed studies that assessed help-seeking outcomes including prevention efforts utilizing (1) psychoeducational curricula, (2) gatekeeper training, and (3) public service messaging directed at youths. Of the studies reviewed, 17 studies evaluated the help-seeking outcomes. These studies were identified through a range of sources (e.g., searching online databases, examining references of published articles on suicide prevention). The results of this review suggest that suicide-prevention programming has a limited impact on help-seeking behavior. Although there was some evidence that suicide-prevention programs had a positive impact on students' help-seeking attitudes and behaviors, there was also evidence of no effects or iatrogenic effects. Sex and risk status were moderators of program effects on students help-seeking. Caution is warranted when considering which suicidal prevention interventions best optimize the intended goals. The impact on adolescents' help-seeking behavior is a key concern for educators and mental-health professionals.

  15. [Suicidal ideation and associated characteristics in adolescent women].

    PubMed

    González-Forteza, C; Berenzon-Gorn, S; Tello-Granados, A M; Facio-Flores, D; Medina-Mora Icaza, M E

    1998-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the symptomatic profile as well as to identify the sociodemographic characteristics highlighting female adolescents with the highest scores on suicidal ideation in adolescents living in Mexico City: students and suicidal patients. A cross-sectional and ex-post-facto study was carried out in order to analyze information from two samples: 1,712 junior and junior high school women students (representative student sample in Mexico City), and 30 adolescents inpatient hospitalized for her suicide attempts (clinical sample). Prevalence of presence as well as persistence of suicidal ideation were higher in the clinical sample, nevertheless 11.8% of the school sample had everyone of the symptoms in a range of 1 to 7 days. The most persistent of the ideation symptoms was: "My family would be better if I were dead"; and in the clinical sample it was "I thought about killing myself". Finally, the sociodemographic characteristics that best matched the student girls having the highest scores in suicidal ideation were: to be on junior high school, to get low grades, to acknowledge school performance as bad and to have interrupted her studies. The characteristics that highlight the girls with a first attempt were analyzed in the clinic sample in comparison with those ones with two or more attempts. It was significant that girls in the second group were living only with one parent and they thought in the last attempt that their dead would be possible or certain. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was important in the school sample. If it is considered that this psychological construct has a strong association with suicidal attempt, and multiple suicide conduct, then is a priority to detect adolescents in risk and to make preventive efforts, considering the sociodemographic characteristics that configurate in risk for suicidal ideation.

  16. Suicide methods in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego

    2017-02-01

    There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.

  17. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicidal Behavior: Familial and Individual Antecedents of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Brent, David A.; Ziegler, Melissa; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Burke, Ainsley; Zelazny, Jamie; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J. John

    2013-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to identify clinical predictors of new-onset suicidal behavior in children of parents with a history of mood disorder and suicidal behavior. Method In a prospective study of offspring of parents with mood disorders, 365 offspring (average age, 20 years) of 203 parents were followed for up to 6 years. Offspring with incident suicide attempts or emergency referrals for suicidal ideation or behavior (“incident events”) were compared with offspring without such events on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident events and predictors of time to incident event. Results Offspring of probands who had made suicide attempts, compared with offspring of parents with mood disorders who had not made attempts, had a higher rate of incident suicide attempts (4.1% versus 0.6%, relative risk=6.5) as well as overall suicidal events (8.3% versus 1.9%, relative risk=4.4). Mood disorder and self-reported impulsive aggression in offspring and a history of sexual abuse and self-reported depression in parents predicted earlier time to, and greater hazard of, an incident suicidal event. Conclusions In offspring of parents with mood disorders, precursors of early-onset suicidal behavior include mood disorder and impulsive aggression as well as parental history of suicide attempt, sexual abuse, and self-reported depression. These results suggest that efforts to prevent the familial transmission of early-onset suicidal behavior by targeting these domains could reduce the morbidity of suicidal behavior in high-risk youths. PMID:17728421

  18. Suicide and Black Adolescents: A Medical Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James A.; Carter, James H.

    1986-01-01

    The psychosocial dynamics of black adolescent suicide are examined in light of the available literature and the authors' clinical experience. The authors contend that members of the medical profession who are in touch with the physical problems of black adolescents must become sensitive to the magnitude of the problem and assist with developing compassionate, bold, and responsible suicide prevention and treatment modalities. PMID:3491906

  19. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  20. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sheftall, Arielle H; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Campo, John V; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2016-10-01

    Suicide in elementary school-aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school-aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5-11 years and 12-14 years) were conducted by using the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school-aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Suicide in Elementary School-Aged Children and Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sheftall, Arielle H.; Asti, Lindsey; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Felts, Adrienne; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Campo, John V.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Suicide in elementary school–aged children is not well studied, despite a recent increase in the suicide rate among US black children. The objectives of this study were to describe characteristics and precipitating circumstances of suicide in elementary school–aged children relative to early adolescent decedents and identify potential within-group racial differences. METHODS: We analyzed National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) surveillance data capturing suicide deaths from 2003 to 2012 for 17 US states. Participants included all suicide decedents aged 5 to 14 years (N = 693). Age group comparisons (5–11 years and 12–14 years) were conducted by using the χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. RESULTS: Compared with early adolescents who died by suicide, children who died by suicide were more commonly male, black, died by hanging/strangulation/suffocation, and died at home. Children who died by suicide more often experienced relationship problems with family members/friends (60.3% vs 46.0%; P = .02) and less often experienced boyfriend/girlfriend problems (0% vs 16.0%; P < .001) or left a suicide note (7.7% vs 30.2%; P < .001). Among suicide decedents with known mental health problems (n = 210), childhood decedents more often experienced attention-deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (59.3% vs 29.0%; P = .002) and less often experienced depression/dysthymia (33.3% vs 65.6%; P = .001) compared with early adolescent decedents. CONCLUSIONS: These findings raise questions about impulsive responding to psychosocial adversity in younger suicide decedents, and they suggest a need for both common and developmentally-specific suicide prevention strategies during the elementary school–aged and early adolescent years. Further research should investigate factors associated with the recent increase in suicide rates among black children. PMID:27647716

  2. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  3. Suicidal Behavior among Latino Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Glorisa; Roberts, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the scientific literature related to suicidal behavior among Latino youth. Discusses the conceptualizations of culture, and how culture may influence behavior and psychopathology, in particular, suicidal behavior. Reviews the literature that discusses rates of suicidal behavior, risk, and protective factors associated with this behavior…

  4. The Role of Difficulty in Identifying and Describing Feelings in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behavior (NSSI): Associations With Perceived Attachment Quality, Stressful Life Events, and Suicidal Ideation.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Rita; Zuffianò, Antonio; Spensieri, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Core alexithymic features, such as the difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, are associated with poor attachment styles and emotional trauma, which influence the capacity to regulate affect. Additionally, emotional regulation has been found to be the most commonly identified function associated with non-suicidal self-injury behavior (NSSI) in adolescents as they attempt to modulate strong emotions. However, few studies have examined the link between difficulty in identifying and describing feelings (core components of alexithymia), NSSI behaviors, quality of attachment, life stressors and suicidal ideation in healthy early adolescents. Consequently, this study aims to investigate these constructs and the relationship among them in a large non-clinical sample of adolescents. Methods: Seven hundred and nine middle school students (50.4% males), aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.6; SD = 1.06) were involved in this study. In order to investigate the variables considered in the study, the following measures were administered: the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory exploring non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors; the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children examining difficulty in identifying and describing feelings; the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment assessing the quality of parental and peer attachment; the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised outlining stressful/traumatic events and the Children's Depression Inventory evaluating suicidal ideation. Results: We found significantly positive relationships among difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, NSSI behaviors, stressful events, and suicidal ideation. Data indicated a significant negative association of difficulty in identifying and describing feelings with quality of attachment to parents and peers. Further findings highlighted that difficulty in identifying and describing feelings significantly mediated the effect of quality of attachment (parent and peer) on NSSI and suicidal ideation

  5. Suicide and depression in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, B. D.; Golombek, H.

    1974-01-01

    Suicide and depression in children and adolescents are reviewed. The true incidence of suicide in the pediatric population is not known because of under-reporting; suicide is, however, considered as a leading cause of death in this age group. Suicide in young children often reflects an immature comprehension of the state of death, combined with a wish to alter an intolerable living situation or to punish individuals significant in his environment. At age 14 the incidence of suicide increases markedly. These acts of self-destruction reflect a developmental process that follows puberty. During this period the youth experiences an impoverishment of values and controls, as well as an intensification of emotions and needs, resulting in extreme disequilibrium. In the late adolescent, as in the adult, suicide occurs commonly in response to real or imagined loss. Specific guidelines are set out for the assessment and management of the depressed and suicidal youth. Community and medical measures of a prophylactic nature are recommended in the belief that the rising incidence of suicide can be halted through an intensification of efforts on the part of the medical profession. PMID:4599484

  6. Hormonal and developmental influences on adolescent suicide: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manceaux, Pauline; Jacques, Denis; Zdanowicz, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Teen suicide is a major public health problem. In the United States, it is the third cause of death among the 10-24 year olds. Adolescence involves numerous changes, whether physical, social, emotional or hormonal. At a neurobiological level, a teenager's nervous system is also affected and undergoes significant modifications. We conducted a systematic review of electronic literature published between January 1990 and August 2014 via MEDLINE, PubMED and PsychINFO to list articles concerning the risk of teen depression and suicide risks in adolescents as well as those relating to the adolescent's neuro-anatomical brain and the effect that puberty has on it. When analyzing the various studies, it is clear that all support the idea that adolescence is a special period, both at neuroanatomical and biological levels. The risk of impulsiveness and depression is explained, anatomically, by a faster maturation of the limbic system, and biologically, by a higher sensitivity of the serotoninergic system and to glucocorticoids, which themselves are influenced by the specific hormonal environment during this period. Moreover and above all, adolescence is a vulnerable time for many reasons: physical, hormonal, social, cognitive, and emotional changes, self-development, etc. We should not restrict it to structural neurological changes without taking into account the other factors or compartmentalize young people into a reductive model based on determinism. Adolescence is a time of change, transformation, and adaptation. The hormonal events that occur during this period have significant effects on brain development, neuro-cerebral chemistry, adolescent behavior and risks of depression. It is important to try to prevent suicide and depression in adolescents considering its entirety and complexity but also by paying attention to neuro-biological factors even if, at present, many research projects are currently underway to develop an appropriate drug therapy strategy.

  7. [Suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Baux-Cazal, L; Gokalsing, E; Amadeo, S; Messiah, A

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to review international literature on suicidal behavior prevention for children under age 13. We gathered all relevant articles on suicide prevention for children under 13. We researched all publications in the French and English languages in PubMed (MEDLINE), PsychINFO and SUDOC databases published until February 2014, with the keywords "child", "child preschool", "prevention and control", "suicide", and "suicide attempted". Publications were included if they described suicidal behavior prevention programs (suicide prevention programs, attempted-suicide prevention programs, suicidal ideation screening programs), and if the studies concerned children under age 13. We also included references cited in the articles if they were not already present in our searches but met inclusion criteria. Studies were excluded if they analyzed populations of children and adolescents without sub-analysis for children under age 13. A total of 350 potentially relevant articles were identified, 33 of which met the inclusion criteria, including 4 retrieved from articles' bibliography. Preventive measures against suicidal behavior for children under 13 exist and include: social programs, maltreatment prevention, curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, suicide screening in schools, gatekeepers, reduction of access of lethal means of suicide, suicide screening by primary care, and post-suicide intervention programs. Overall, the evidence was limited by methodological concerns, particularly a lack of RCTs. However, positive effects were found: school-based suicide prevention programs and gatekeepers increased knowledge about suicide and how to seek help, post-suicide programs helped to reduce psychological distress in the short term. One study showed a decreased risk of attempted-suicide after entry into the child welfare system. There are promising interventions but there is not enough scientific evidence to support any efficient preventive measure against

  8. [The development of an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents].

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.

  9. Suicide Acceptability Is Related to Suicide Planning in U.S. Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, Sean; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E.

    2007-01-01

    The association between adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward suicide and their own suicidality across five racial-ethnic classifications was studied in a nationally representative sample of 3,301 youth ages 14 to 22 years from the National Annenberg Risk Survey of Youth. Results indicate that adolescents and young adults who most…

  10. The mediating effect of psychosocial factors on suicidal probability among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hur, Ji-Won; Kim, Won-Joong; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2011-01-01

    Suicidal probability is an actual tendency including negative self-evaluation, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and hostility. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of psychosocial variances in the suicidal probability of adolescents, especially the role of mediating variance. This study investigated the mediating effects of psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, self-esteem, stress, and social support on the suicidal probability among 1,586 adolescents attending middle and high schools in the Kyunggi Province area of South Korea. The relationship between depression and anxiety/suicidal probability was mediated by both social resources and self-esteem. Furthermore, the influence of social resources was mediated by interpersonal and achievement stress as well as self-esteem. This study suggests that suicidal probability in adolescents has various relationships, including mediating relations, with several psychosocial factors. The interventions on suicidal probability in adolescents should focus on social factors as well as clinical symptoms.

  11. Assessing African American Adolescents' Risk for Suicide Attempts: Attachment Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Benoit, Marilyn; O'Donnell, Regina M.; Getson, Pamela R.; Silber, Tomas; Walsh, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates risk factors in African American adolescent suicide attempters (n=51) and nonsuicidal (n=124) adolescents. Results show that threat of separation from a parental figure, insomnia, neglect, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, and failing grades were the strongest predictors of suicide attempt. Unexpected findings include high levels of…

  12. The potential role of attitudes towards suicide between mental health status and suicidal ideation among Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, L; Yang, Q H; Chen, J L; Zou, H X; Xia, T S; Liu, Y

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contributions of mental health status and attitudes towards suicide on suicidal ideation in a sample of 6568 Chinese children and adolescents in China. Attitudes towards suicide were investigated as a possible moderator and mediator of the influence of mental health status on suicidal ideation. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Approximately 35.38% of children and adolescents in our study reported having suicidal ideation. Mental health status and attitudes towards suicide both had an independent effect on the severity of suicidal ideation. Results indicated that mental health status was positively associated with suicidal ideation, while attitudes towards suicide were negatively associated with suicidal ideation. Moderation analysis showed that the impact of mental health status on suicidal ideation was significantly greater among children and adolescents who reported favourable attitudes towards suicide. Attitudes towards suicide partially mediated the link between mental health status and the severity of suicidal ideation. Specifically, students who experienced poorer mental health status might be more likely to report significantly more favourable attitudes towards suicide, which in turn promote greater suicidal ideation. These results have implications for the prevention of youth suicide, suggesting that mental health status and attitudes towards suicide could be important targets for prevention and intervention for children and adolescents at risk of suicidal ideation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Suicide behavior and associated psychosocial factors among adolescents in Campeche, Mexico.

    PubMed

    González-Forteza, Catalina; Juárez-López, Carlos E; Jiménez, Alberto; Montejo-León, Liliana; Rodríguez-Santisbón, Ulises R; Wagner, Fernando A

    2017-12-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem that requires a preventive approach. The present study aimed at assessing suicidal behaviors and their relations with other psychosocial factors in Campeche, Mexico, in order to inform the design of potential preventive interventions. A multistage probability sample of 2386 students representative of all middle schools of the state of Campeche, Mexico, took a standardized, paper-and-pencil survey covering selected psychosocial constructs including suicide behavior, depression, drug use, familial relationships, locus of control, impulsivity, and self-esteem, among others. Latent classes were identified and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations between class membership and psychosocial covariates. An estimated 8% of the middle school population in Campeche had three or more psychosocial problems in the past month including drug use, major depression episode symptoms, as well as suicidal problems like attempts and self-inflicted injuries. Four latent classes were identified, one with lowest risk and three with varying characteristics in terms of binge alcohol and other drug use, depression, and suicide behaviors. Associations between psychosocial covariates and latent class were observed, as predicted based on a multi-dimensional theoretical framework. Heterogeneity across "High-Risk" groups and their potential determinants highlight the need for differentiated, specialized efforts ranging from universal to indicated interventions. Given the high level of risk factors in this population, universal preventive interventions should aim at building resiliency among youth by helping them develop an array of coping resources, as well as by creating a more nurturing psychosocial environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts among Navajo Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, David C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines risk factors for adolescent suicide among Navajos by comparing survey responses of students having attempted suicide with those of other students. A history of mental health problems, alienation from family and community, and having a friend commit suicide put students at a higher risk for suicide. (CJS)

  15. The relationship between deliberate self-harm behavior, body dissatisfaction, and suicide in adolescents: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E; Apple, Roger W

    2011-01-01

    Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is a common though often hidden condition in children and adolescents that may result in suicide. This discussion covers several aspects of DSH including its prevalence, etiology, and management. The relationships of DSH to body dissatisfaction and suicide are specifically considered. Even though most cases of DSH do not end in overt suicide, DSH reflects that potential underlying psychological pathophysiology, and likelihood of eventual death from self-murder, cannot always be predicted or prevented. It is important to take all acts of DSH as serious, and to offer comprehensive management to prevent future acts of DSH and potential suicide. PMID:21811385

  16. Traumatic Events and Suicide-Related Outcomes among Mexico City Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Orozco, Ricardo; Molnar, Beth E.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We report the prevalence and associations between traumatic events and suicidal ideation, suicide plans and suicide attempts among Mexican adolescents. Methods: The data are from a representative multistage probability household survey of 3,005 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years residing in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area that was…

  17. Substance Abuse, Suicidality, and Self-Esteem in South African Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Lauren G.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Lombard, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Associations among six different domains of self-esteem (peers, school, family, sports/athletics, body image, and global self-worth) and risk behaviors related to substance use and suicidality were investigated in a sample of South African adolescents. Students enrolled in Grades 8 and 11 at independent secondary schools in Cape Town (N = 116)…

  18. The Associations Between Children's and Adolescents' Suicidal and Self-Harming Behaviors, and Related Behaviors Within Their Social Networks: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Jody; Rasmussen, Susan; McAlaney, John

    2017-01-01

    Social influences-including the suicidal and self-harming behaviors of others-have been highlighted as a risk factor for suicidal and self-harming behavior in young people, but synthesis of the evidence is lacking. A systematic review of 86 relevant papers was conducted. Considerable published evidence was obtained for positive associations between young people's suicidal and self-harming behavior and that of people they know, with those reporting knowing people who had engaged in suicidal or self-harming behaviors more likely to report engaging in similar behaviors themselves. Findings are discussed in relation to a number of methodological and measurement issues-including the role of normative perceptions-and implications for the prevention of suicidal and self-harming behavior are considered.

  19. An Integrative Conceptual Framework for Assessing and Treating Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, M. David; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    An integrative conceptual framework is provided for ongoing assessment and day-to-day treatment of suicidal adolescents. Goals are to provide a summary of therapeutic and assessment tasks consistent with existing standards of care and supported by empirical findings and to emphasize the roles, tasks, demands, and limitations of psychotherapy with…

  20. Relationship between Socioeconomic Position and Suicide Attempts among the Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of the subjective socioeconomic position (SEP) as well as the objective SEP with the rate of suicide attempts in 74,186 adolescents from the 2012 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). The SEP was measured by the Family Affluence Scale (FAS) and the self-rated household economic status. The low perceived SEP for either the high or low FAS score was related to the elevated likelihood of suicide attempts in both genders. As compared with the adolescents in both the high level of perceived SEP and FAS score after adjusting for other confounding factors, the middle school students were more likely to attempt suicide in both low level of perceived SEP and FAS score (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.18-2.78 for boys, OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.13-1.90 for girls). The high school students were more likely to attempt suicide in the low perceived SEP and high FAS score (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81 for boys, OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07-1.56 for girls). In conclusion, the relationship of subjective SEP is important in suicide attempts as much as objective SEP and far more important in the high school students. PMID:25246749

  1. The Tree of Life: A Response to Teen Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Claire Y.

    This document presents guidelines for school staff to use in responding to an adolescent suicide. It gives statistics on teenage suicides and suicide attempts and examines characteristics of high-risk adolescents. Behavior patterns associated with adolescent suicide are described, paying close attention to the patterns of depression, substance…

  2. Restrictive emotionality, depressive symptoms, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among high school students.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Colleen M; Marrocco, Frank; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2011-06-01

    Depression and suicidal thoughts and behaviors are prevalent among youth today. The current study sought to further our understanding of the correlates of depression and suicidality by assessing the relationship between restrictive emotionality (difficulty understanding and expressing emotions) and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents. A large group of high school students (n = 2189, 58.3% male; 13-18 years of age) completed a self-report survey as part of a 2-stage suicide screening project. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between restrictive emotionality and depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Those reporting high restrictive emotionality were 11 times more likely to have elevated depressive symptom scores, 3 times more likely to report serious suicidal ideation (after controlling for depressive symptoms), and more than twice as likely to report a suicide attempt (after controlling for depressive symptoms) than those reporting low restrictive emotionality. Restrictive emotionality partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. The pattern of association between restrictive emotionality and the outcome variables was similar for boys and girls. Restrictive emotionality is highly associated with elevated depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts and behaviors among high school students, and may be a useful specific target in prevention and treatment efforts.

  3. The Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters Study (TASA): Predictors of Suicidal Events in an Open Treatment Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Compton, Scott; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Bukstein, Oscar; Stanley, Barbara; Posner, Kelly; Kennard, Betsy D.; Cwik, Mary F.; Wagner, Ann; Coffey, Barbara; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Barnett, Shannon; Capasso, Lisa; Zelazny, Jamie; Hughes, Jennifer; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify the predictors of suicidal events and attempts in adolescent suicide attempters with depression treated in an open treatment trial. Method: Adolescents who had made a recent suicide attempt and had unipolar depression (n =124) were either randomized (n = 22) or given a choice (n = 102) among three conditions. Two…

  4. Religiousness and suicide in a nationally representative sample of Trinidad and Tobago adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Wilson, Colwick M; Wilson, Leon C; Williams, David R

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines religiousness and its connection to suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts among Trinidad and Tobago adolescents and young adults. Data are from Trend Research Empowering National Development on adolescents and young adults in Trinidad and Tobago (N = 4448). Religious affiliation, self-perceived religiousness, attendance at religious services, prayer frequency, socio-demographic variables, and suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts were assessed. Compared to nonreligious, Catholics (OR 0.63, p < 0.05) and Seventh-day Adventists (OR 0.47, p < 0.01) were less likely to think about suicide, and hindus (OR 5.81, p < 0.05) and other affiliates (OR 7.28, p < 0.01) were more likely to be treated for suicide. Higher self-rated religiosity was related to lower likelihood of thinking about suicide (OR 0.86, p < 0.01) and lower likelihood of planning suicide (OR 0.78, p < 0.001). Attendance at religious services was related to lower likelihood of thinking about suicide (OR 0.94, p < 05) and fewer suicide attempts (β = -0.11, p < 0.01). More frequent prayer was related to lower likelihood of thinking about suicide (OR 0.92, p < 0.01) and lower likelihood of planning suicide (OR 0.90, p < 0.001). Religiousness may offer benefits for adolescents and young adults in Trinidad and Tobago by reducing the likelihood that they engage in suicide thoughts and behaviors. Results may hold implications for counselors, clergy, teachers, and others working with adolescents and young adults in Trinidad and Tobago.

  5. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  6. [The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].

    PubMed

    Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J

    Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and

  7. Examining childhood bullying and adolescent suicide: implications for school nurses.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gregory D; Clements, Paul Thomas; Holt, Karyn E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescent suicide is a preventable tragedy yet is still the third leading cause of death in young people of age 10-24. Contrary to the idea that childhood bullying is a normal part of growing up or a rite of passage, it is now correlated with adolescent suicidality. An integrative review of the contemporary, extant literature was conducted to examine the following question: Are adolescents who have been involved in childhood bullying or cyberbullying as victim, offender, or victim/offender at greater risk for suicidality than those who have not. It is important to empower school nurses with current and evidence-based information regarding childhood bullying and examine empirical science and tools to effectively address the current serious problem of adolescent suicide risk assessment and intervention.

  8. Suicide in adolescents: findings from the Swiss National cohort.

    PubMed

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Kupferschmid, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is the second most common cause of death in this age group and an important public health problem. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with suicide in Swiss adolescents and analysed time trends in youth suicide in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). The SNC is a longitudinal study of the whole Swiss resident population, based on linkage of census and mortality records. We identified suicides in adolescents aged 10-18 years from 1991 to 2013. A total of 2.396 million adolescents were included and 592 suicides were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 3.7 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-4.0]. Rates increased with age from 0.0 per 100,000 at age 10 years to 14.8 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.6-17.5) at 18 years in boys, and from 0.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 (4.1-7.2) in girls. Being a boy, living in a single parent household, being an only or middle-born child, and living in rural regions were factors associated with a higher rate of suicide. Hanging was the most common method in boys, and railway suicides were most frequent in girls. There was no clear evidence for an increase or decrease over calendar time. We conclude that familial and socioeconomic factors including type of household, birth order and urbanity are associated with youth suicide in Switzerland. These factors should be considered when designing prevention programmes for youth suicide.

  9. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Stress and suicidal ideation among adolescents having academic difficulty.

    PubMed

    Arun, Priti; Garg, Rohit; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2017-01-01

    Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD). Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC). Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups). Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties.

  12. Associations between the timing of childhood adversity and adulthood suicidal behavior: A nationally-representative cohort.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Chung, Yeonseung; Keyes, Katherine M; Jung, Sun Jae; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2015-11-01

    Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be associated with later suicidal behavior, it is uncertain whether the timing of specific CAs may influence this association. We analyzed nationally representative data for 9205 participants from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Four different CAs (parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education and being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) were assessed and were categorized as early childhood and adolescent onset. Lifetime experiences of suicidal behaviors along with the age of the first time experience were recorded. Cox regression was used. After adjusting for age, sex, and childhood socioeconomic status, parental death before the age of 12 was associated with adulthood suicidal behavior (ideation HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13, 1.61; attempt HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02, 2.52), while suspension of school due to financial strain was associated with suicidal behavior when it occurred at adolescence (ideation HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22, 1.79; plan HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16, 2.48). When we also adjusted for adulthood SES, which is a potential mediator, there was no significant change except that the association between early parental death and suicidal attempt became non-significant (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26). Experience of CA was assessed retrospectively, and the assessment of suicidal attempt was not specifically defined. There could be selection bias due to loss to the follow-up. There may be a critical period for the effect of CA on later suicidal behavior depending on the characteristics of CA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Latino suicidal adolescent psychosocial service utilization: The role of mood fluctuations and inattention.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Conway, Anne; Modrek, Anahid S

    2016-01-15

    Little is known about the specific factors related to whether or not Latino adolescents with suicide ideation (SI) will seek services. Utilizing Andersen's Behavior Model of Health Services Use (2008) the goal of this study is to identify the factors related to utilization of mental health services by Latino adolescents with SI to inform and improve suicide prevention efforts. Data from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was examined. Predispositional (gender, age), enabling/disabling (income, lack of insurance, difficulty obtaining medical care), and need (depressed mood, suicide attempt, perceived health, impulsivity, mood fluctuations, difficulties with attention, etc.) variables were examined via logistic regression as potential correlates of mental health service utilization. Twenty-eight percent of the Latino adolescents with suicidal ideation (SI) in our sample received mental health services. Need factors such as daily mood fluctuations within the past 12 months (OR=4.78) and frequent difficulty focusing attention within the past week (OR=4.96), but not impulsivity, were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving mental health services. No additional associations were observed. The current study is based on cross-sectional data. Therefore, statements about causality cannot be made. These findings suggest that emotion regulation (e.g., daily mood fluctuations) and neurocognitive factors (e.g., difficulty with focusing attention) may be important factors to consider in the clinical assessment of Latino adolescents with SI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons.

    PubMed

    Virupaksha, H G; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality.

  15. How Parental Reactions Change in Response to Adolescent Suicide Attempt.

    PubMed

    Greene-Palmer, Farrah N; Wagner, Barry M; Neely, Laura L; Cox, Daniel W; Kochanski, Kristen M; Perera, Kanchana U; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined parental reactions to adolescents' suicide attempts and the association of reactions with future suicidal self-directed violence. Participants were 81 mothers and 49 fathers of 85 psychiatric inpatient adolescents. Maternal hostility and paternal anger and arguing predicted future suicide attempts. From pre- to post-attempt, mothers reported feeling increased sadness, caring, anxiety, guilt, fear, and being overwhelmed; fathers reported increased sadness, anxiety, and fear. Findings have clinical implications; improving parent-child relationships post-suicide attempt may serve as a protective factor for suicide.

  16. Exploitation, Violence, and Suicide Risk Among Child and Adolescent Survivors of Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Ligia; Yun, Katherine; Pocock, Nicola; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-09-01

    Human trafficking and exploitation of children have profound health consequences. To our knowledge, this study represents the largest survey on the health of child and adolescent survivors of human trafficking. To describe experiences of abuse and exploitation, mental health outcomes, and suicidal behavior among children and adolescents in posttrafficking services. We also examine how exposures to violence, exploitation, and abuse affect the mental health and suicidal behavior of trafficked children. A survey was conducted with 387 children and adolescents aged 10 to 17 years in posttrafficking services in Cambodia, Thailand, or Vietnam, which along with Laos, Myanmar, and Yunnan Province, China, compose the Greater Mekong Subregion. Participants were interviewed within 2 weeks of entering services from October 2011 through May 2013. Depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, suicidal ideation, self-injury, and suicide attempts. Among the 387 children and adolescent study participants, most (82%) were female. Twelve percent had tried to harm or kill themselves in the month before the interview. Fifty-six percent screened positive for depression, 33% for an anxiety disorder, and 26% for posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse at home was reported by 20%. Physical violence while trafficked was reported by 41% of boys and 19% of girls. Twenty-three percent of girls and 1 boy reported sexual violence. Mental health symptoms were strongly associated with recent self-harm and suicide attempts. Severe physical violence was associated with depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.64-7.71), anxiety (AOR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.12-4.05), and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.77-7.67). Sexual violence while trafficked was associated with depression (AOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.22-4.23) and suicidal ideation (AOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.80-6.54). Children and adolescents in posttrafficking care showed high symptom levels of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress

  17. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Dupuis, Lorette C; Ray, Robin

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is a potentially preventable public health issue. It is therefore important to examine its immediate precursors, including suicidal ideation and attempts, to help in the development of future public health interventions. The present study reports the prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempts in the past 12 months in children and adolescents and identifies correlates of such behaviors in a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students. Data were drawn from a representative sample of Ottawa students (n=1922) aged 11-20 years (14.4±1.9 years) from three cycles (2009, 2011 and 2013) of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS), a cross-sectional school-based appraisal of students in grades 7-12 across Ontario, Canada. Overall, 10.8% of students exhibited suicidal ideation and 3.0% reported suicide attempts in the past 12 months. The conditional probability of making an attempt was 25.5% among suicide ideators. Multivariable analyses indicated that being a girl and using alcohol and cannabis were positively associated with suicidal ideation, while tobacco was positively associated with suicide attempts. Being a victim of school bullying was significantly associated with reports of suicidal ideation and attempts, whereas school connectedness had protective effects against both suicidal ideation and attempts. These results indicate that suicidal ideation and attempts are related to other risky behaviors. Suicide-prevention efforts should be integrated within broader health-promoting initiatives.

  18. Depression, Suicidal Ideation and STD-Related Risk in Homeless Older Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda; Seeley, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Goals of this study were to examine the frequency of depression and related constructs of suicidal ideation and hopelessness in a sample of homeless older adolescents and their associations with behaviors, such as infrequent condom use and homosexual experience, that may increase the risk of sexually transmitted disease (STD). (BF)

  19. Biological basis of suicide and suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suicide is a major public health concern as each year 30,000 people die by suicide in the US alone. In the teenage population, it is the second leading cause of death. There have been extensive studies of psychosocial factors associated with suicide and suicidal behavior. However, very little is known about the neurobiology of suicide. Recent research has provided some understanding of the neurobiology of suicide, which is the topic of this review. Methods Neurobiology of suicide has been studied using peripheral tissues, such as platelets, lymphocytes, and cerebral spinal fluid obtained from suicidal patients or from the postmortem brains of suicide victims. Results These studies have provided encouraging information with regard to the neurobiology of suicide. They show an abnormality of serotonergic mechanism, such as increased serotonin receptor subtypes and decreased serotonin metabolites, such as 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. These studies also suggest abnormalities of receptor-linked signaling mechanisms, such as phosphoinositide and adenylyl cyclase signaling mechanisms. Other biological systems that appear to be dysregulated in suicide are the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and abnormalities of neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors. More recently, several studies also indicate abnormalities of neuroimmune functions in suicide. Conclusions These studies have been discussed in detail in the following review. Some encouraging information has emerged, primarily related to some of these neurobiological mechanisms. It is hoped that neurobiological studies may eventually result in identifying appropriate biomarkers for suicidal behavior as well as appropriate therapeutic targets for its treatment. PMID:23773657

  20. How gay-straight alliance groups mitigate the relationship between gay-bias victimization and adolescent suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Davis, Brennan; Royne Stafford, Marla B; Pullig, Chris

    2014-12-01

    We examined the relationships between victimization from being bullied, suicide, hopelessness, and the presence of a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) on a school campus. We analyzed data from the California Healthy Kids Survey from 2005 to 2007 using hierarchical modeling. We found that gay-bias (versus non-gay-bias) victimization is meaningfully connected with the inwardly destructive behavior of attempted suicide among adolescents. We also found that hopelessness helps explain associations between gay-bias victimization and suicide attempts and that the presence of a GSA club on a school's campus attenuates significant connections between gay-bias victimization and suicide attempts by reducing hopelessness. Gay-bias victims are more likely than other victims to attempt suicide while also feeling more hopeless. The presence of a GSA on campus may help to reduce the attempted suicide and hopelessness associated with gay-bias victimization. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal risk factors for suicidal thoughts in depressed and non-depressed young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yi-Ju; Juang, Kai-Dih; Lu, Shiang-Ru; Chen, Shih-Pin; Wang, Yen-Feng; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Wang, Shuu-Jiun

    2017-09-01

    Evidence regarding the role of risk factors in the longitudinal course of suicidal ideation among young adolescents is lacking. We aimed to assess the effects of a range of risk factors, including obesity, academic performance, child-parent relationship, physical maltreatment, and depressive symptoms, on the development of suicidal ideation in young adolescents. A school cohort of seventh and eighth graders was followed for 1 year and differences in the risk factors distributions were examined between depressed and non-depressed adolescents. We further examined risk factors for newly developed suicidal ideation and persistent suicidal ideation in the groups of adolescents based on the presence of suicidal ideation at baseline. A total of 1710 young adolescents were recruited, among whom 8.2% were categorised as having clinically significant depression. For depressed adolescents, being obese was associated with a three-fold increased risk of having suicidal ideation. For non-depressed adolescents, physical maltreatment, a feeling of not being cared about and sub-threshold depressive symptoms were the risk factors. The latter two remained robust in predicting newly developed suicidal ideation. The current study may shed light on the differential strategies to address suicidal thoughts in depressed and non-depressed adolescents. We emphasise the importance of recognition and management of sub-threshold depressive symptoms and the relevance of obesity, physical maltreatment and a feeling of not being cared about to suicide prevention programmes in early adolescence.

  2. Differentiating Adolescent Suicide Attempters from Ideators: Examining the Interaction between Depression Severity and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Becker, Sara J.; Spirito, Anthony; Simon, Valerie; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether depressed mood, frequency of alcohol use, and their combination differentiated non-suicidal adolescents from those with suicidal ideation and adolescents with suicidal ideation from those who have made a suicide attempt. Hierarchical logistic regressions indicated that frequency of alcohol use did not differentiate non-suicidal adolescents from those with current suicidal ideation, but severity of depressed mood did so. In contrast, alcohol use was a significant differentiating factor between adolescents who had attempted suicide compared to those with suicidal ideation only, with severity of depressed mood not being significant. However, there was also a significant interaction effect such that for adolescents with suicidal ideation and low levels of depression, increased frequency of alcohol use was associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. These findings suggest that alcohol use may hasten the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in adolescents with low levels of depressed mood. PMID:23889515

  3. Social Connectedness and One-Year Trajectories among Suicidal Adolescents Following Psychiatric Hospitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Ewa K.; Liu, Zhuqing; King, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which posthospitalization "change" in connectedness with family, peers, and nonfamily adults predicted suicide attempts, severity of suicidal ideation, and depressive symptoms across a 12-month follow-up period among inpatient suicidal adolescents. Participants were 338 inpatient suicidal adolescents, ages 13 to…

  4. Adolescent cigarette smoking and health risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Busen, N H; Modeland, V; Kouzekanani, K

    2001-06-01

    During the past 30 years, tobacco use among adolescents has substantially increased, resulting in major health problems associated with tobacco consumption. The purpose of this study was to identify adolescent smoking behaviors and to determine the relationship among smoking, specific demographic variables, and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 93 self-selecting adolescents. An ex post facto design was used for this study and data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Findings included a statistically significant relationship between lifetime cigarette use and ethnicity. Statistically significant relationships were also found among current cigarette use and ethnicity, alcohol use, marijuana use, suicidal thoughts, and age at first sexual intercourse. Nurses and other providers must recognize that cigarette smoking may indicate other risk behaviors common among adolescents. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  5. Sleep problems and suicide attempts among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Koyawala, Neel; Stevens, Jack; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Cannon, Elizabeth A; Bridge, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    This study used a case-control design to compare sleep disturbances in 40 adolescents who attempted suicide with 40 never-suicidal adolescents. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses, we found that self-reported nighttime awakenings were significantly associated with attempted suicide, after controlling for antidepressant use, antipsychotic use, affective problems, and being bullied. In a separate regression analysis, the parent-reported total sleep problems score also predicted suicide attempt status, controlling for key covariates. No associations were found between suicide attempts and other distinct sleep problems, including falling asleep at bedtime, sleeping a lot during the day, trouble waking up in the morning, sleep duration, and parent-reported nightmares. Clinicians should be aware of sleep problems as potential risk factors for suicide attempts for adolescents.

  6. Family Dysfunction and Teenage Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopmans, Matthijs

    One of the most persistent findings in the literature on suicidal behavior in adolescence is its association with the characteristics of the adolescent's family. Although empirical work clearly indicates that the family is a critical variable to consider in the study of teenage suicidal behavior, it is less clear how particular family features…

  7. Prediction of suicidal behavior in clinical research by lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior ascertained by the electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Mundt, James C; Greist, John H; Jefferson, James W; Federico, Michael; Mann, J John; Posner, Kelly

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate whether lifetime suicidal ideation with intention to act and/or suicidal behaviors reported at baseline predict risk of prospectively reporting suicidal behavior during subsequent study participation. Data from studies using the electronic Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (eC-SSRS) to prospectively monitor suicidal ideation and behaviors between September 2009 and May 2011 were analyzed. Studies included patients with major depressive disorder, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, epilepsy, and fibromyalgia. Records for 35,224 eC-SSRS assessments were extracted. Incomplete assessments and eC-SSRS records from patients missing a baseline assessment or with no prospective follow-up assessments were excluded. Baseline lifetime eC-SSRS reports were categorized as negative (no lifetime ideation with intent to act or prior suicidal behavior) or positive (lifetime ideation with intent to act but no prior behavior, no ideation with intent to act but prior behavior, or both lifetime ideation with intent and prior behavior). 3,776 patients completed a baseline and 1 or more follow-up assessments. The mean follow-up period was 64 days. Of patients with negative lifetime reports, 2.4% subsequently reported suicidal behavior during study participation, compared to 12.0% of patients with lifetime ideation with intent only (OR = 5.55; 95% CI, 2.65-11.59), 9.6% of patients with lifetime behavior only (OR = 4.33; 95% CI, 2.94-6.39), and 18.3% of patients with both (OR = 9.13; 95% CI, 6.47-12.88). Sensitivity and specificity of positive reports for identifying suicidal behaviors were 0.67 and 0.76, respectively. Patients reporting lifetime suicidal ideation with intent to act and/or prior suicidal behavior at baseline are 4 to 9 times more likely to prospectively report suicidal behavior during study participation. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Suicidal tendency in a sample of adolescent outpatients with adjustment disorder: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Laia; Kirchner, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Although Adjustment Disorder (AD) is a prevalent diagnosis in adolescent mental health services and linked to suicidal tendency in adolescence, little research exists examining prevalence and gender differences of suicidal symptoms among AD patients using standardized instruments. The present study aims to assess the presence of suicidal tendency in a clinical sample of Spanish adolescents with AD analyzing gender differences. Ninety-seven adolescents with AD were recruited at a public mental health center and included in the AD sample; they were administered the Inventario de Riesgo Suicida para Adolescentes (Suicide Risk Inventory for Adolescents-IRIS) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Ninety-nine community adolescents were recruited and administered the IRIS inventory. The community sample works as a contrast group. Girls with AD show higher levels of suicidal symptoms than boys on both the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale (t=8.15, p<.001) and the MACI Suicidal Tendency scale (t=6.6, p<.001). Girls with AD scored significantly higher than girls from the community contrast group sample in the IRIS Suicidal Ideation and Intention scale, but boys with AD presented no differences with regard to boys form the community contrast group sample. Compared with normative clinical samples of the MACI, no differences in the Suicidal Tendency scale scores were found between AD and normative girls, but AD boys showed significantly lower mean scores than normative boys. Suicidal symptoms were presented by 27% of girls and 18% of boys, although only 6% of the girls and none of the boys presented clear suicidal tendencies. Considering suicidal tendencies in adolescents with Adjustment Disorder is important-especially in girls, who present high suicidal tendencies in relation both to boys and to community peers and the normative clinical population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Suicidal ideation in a community-derived sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Inchausti, Félix; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Laura; Aritio Solana, Rebeca; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Sánchez-García, M ª Ángeles; Lucas-Molina, Beatriz; Domínguez, César; Foncea, David; Espinosa, Virginia; Gorría, Ana; Urbiola-Merina, Elena; Fernández, Marta; Merina Díaz, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Aures, Marta; Campos, María S; Domínguez-Garrido, Elena; Pérez de Albéniz Iturriaga, Alicia

    Suicide is a current public health problem and among the main causes of mortality in adolescents and young adults. The main goal of this study was to analyse suicidal ideation in a representative sample of Spanish adolescents. Specifically, the prevalence rates of suicide ideation, the psychometric properties of the Paykel Suicide Scale (PSS) scores, and the socio-emotional adjustment of adolescents at risk for suicide were analysed. The sample consisted of 1,664 participants (M=16.12 years, SD=1.36, range 14-19 years), selected by stratified sampling by clusters. The instruments used were the PSS, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Personal Wellbeing Index-School Children, and the Oviedo Infrequency Scale. The results showed that 4.1% of the sample indicated that they had tried to commit suicide in the previous year. Statistically significant differences were found according to gender but not according to age in the PSS mean scores. The analysis of the internal structure of the PSS showed that the one-dimensional model presented excellent goodness of fit indexes. This model showed measurement invariance across gender. The reliability of the scores, estimated with ordinal alpha, was 0.93. Participants who reported suicide ideation showed poorer mental health status and lower life satisfaction compared to the non-suicide ideation group. Suicidal ideation is present during adolescence and is associated with poor subjective well-being and increased emotional and behavioural problems. PSS seems to show adequate psychometric behaviour to assess suicidal ideation in adolescents. These findings have clear implications, both in health and education systems, to improve the promotion of emotional well-being and prevention of psychological and psychiatric problems in this sector of the population. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress and suicidal ideation among adolescents having academic difficulty

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Priti; Garg, Rohit; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with students having academic difficulty on stress and suicidal ideas. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 75 academically typically achieving adolescents were compared with 105 students with academic difficulty and 52 students with specific learning disability (SLD). Academic functioning was assessed using teacher's screening instrument, intelligence quotient, and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences index for SLD. Stress and suicidal ideas were assessed using general health questionnaire, suicide risk-11, and Mooney Problem Checklist (MPC). Appropriate statistical methods were applied. Results: Three groups were comparable on age, gender, mother's working status, being only child, nuclear family, self-reported academic decline, and type of school. About half of adolescents reported psychological problems on General Health Questionnaire (mean score >3 in all the groups). Academically typically achieving adolescents showed higher stressors in peer relationships, planning for future and suicidal ideation compared to adolescents with academic difficulty. Adolescents face stress regarding worry about examinations, family not understanding what child has to do in school, unfair tests, too much work in some subjects, afraid of failure in school work, not spending enough time in studies, parental expectations, wanting to be more popular, worried about a family member, planning for the future, and fear of the future. Significant positive correlation was seen between General Health Questionnaire scores and all four subscales of MPC. Suicidal ideas showed a negative correlation with MPC. Interpretations and Conclusions: Adolescents experience considerable stress in multiple areas irrespective of their academic ability and performance. Hence, assessment and management of stress among adolescents must extend beyond academic difficulties. PMID:29456324

  11. Contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services among self-harming and suicidal adolescents in the general population: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tørmoen, Anita J; Rossow, Ingeborg; Mork, Erlend; Mehlum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that adolescents with a history of both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm report more mental health problems and other psychosocial problems than adolescents who report only one or none of these types of self-harm. The current study aimed to examine the use of child and adolescent psychiatric services by adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm, compared to other adolescents, and to assess the psychosocial variables that characterize adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm who report contact. Data on lifetime self-harm, contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services, and various psychosocial risk factors were collected in a cross-sectional sample (response rate = 92.7%) of 11,440 adolescents aged 14-17 years who participated in a school survey in Oslo, Norway. Adolescents who reported any self-harm were more likely than other adolescents to have used child and adolescent psychiatric services, with a particularly elevated likelihood among those with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (OR = 9.3). This finding remained significant even when controlling for psychosocial variables. In adolescents with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm, symptoms of depression, eating problems, and the use of illicit drugs were associated with a higher likelihood of contact with child and adolescent psychiatric services, whereas a non-Western immigrant background was associated with a lower likelihood. In this study, adolescents who reported self-harm were significantly more likely than other adolescents to have used child and adolescent psychiatric services, and adolescents who reported a history of both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to have used such services, even after controlling for other psychosocial risk factors. In this high-risk subsample, various psychosocial problems increased the probability of contact with child and

  12. Changes in Loneliness during Middle Childhood Predict Risk for Adolescent Suicidality Indirectly through Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Angela C.; Schinka, Katherine C.; van Dulmen, Manfred H. M.; Bossarte, Robert M.; Swahn, Monica H.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in loneliness during middle childhood as well as from middle childhood into adolescence were associated with adolescent self-harm behaviors and suicidal thoughts using a community sample of 889 participants. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate that the relationship between changes in loneliness and…

  13. Current psychiatric morbidity, aggression/impulsivity, and personality dimensions in child and adolescent suicide: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Johanne; Berlim, Marcelo T; McGirr, Alexander; Tousignant, Michel; Turecki, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate psychiatric risk factors for child and adolescent suicide, and to determine the association between impulsive-aggressive and other personality traits, and suicide completion in this population. Psychiatric diagnoses, impulsive-aggressive and other personality traits were assessed in 55 child and adolescent suicide victims and 55 community controls using semi-structured proxy-based interviews and questionnaires. The most significant psychiatric risk factors associated with child and adolescent suicide were depressive disorders (OR=48.414, 95% CI 6.247-375.185), substance/alcohol abuse disorder (OR=5.365, 95% CI 1.434-20.076), and disruptive disorders (OR=13.643, 95% CI 2.292-23.16). Additionally, suicide victims showed higher scores on lifetime aggression/impulsivity, and harm avoidance. However, after logistic regression, the only independent significant predictors of suicide in this age group were the presence of depressive disorders (Adjusted OR (AOR)=39.652, 95% CI 4.501-349.345), substance/alcohol abuse disorders (AOR=7.325, 95% CI 1.127-47.62), and disruptive disorders (AOR=6.464, 95% CI 1.422-29.38). Relatively small sample size, and cross-sectional design. Our findings confirm the existence of a particular clinical profile of children and adolescents at high risk for suicide. Additionally, our results reinforce the need for improved understanding of the interrelationships between stressors, depression, substance/alcohol abuse disorders, disruptive disorders and personality traits/dimensions in youth suicidal behavior.

  14. Suicide and Suicidal Behavior among Transgender Persons

    PubMed Central

    Virupaksha, H. G.; Muralidhar, Daliboyina; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Methodology: The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts). Results: The suicide attempt rate among transgender persons ranges from 32% to 50% across the countries. Gender-based victimization, discrimination, bullying, violence, being rejected by the family, friends, and community; harassment by intimate partner, family members, police and public; discrimination and ill treatment at health-care system are the major risk factors that influence the suicidal behavior among transgender persons. Conclusion: In spite of facing a number of hardships in their day-to-day life, the transgender community holds a number of resiliency factors. Further, this community needs to be supported to strengthen their resiliency factors and draw culturally sensitive and transgender-inclusive suicide prevention strategies and increase protective factors to tackle this high rate of suicidality. PMID:28031583

  15. Suicidal Behavior in Adolescent and Young Adult Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship of homosexuality to suicidal behavior by questionnaire responses from 52 men in gay and lesbian college organizations and 56 men in homosexual rap groups. Family background of alcoholism and physical abuse, social supports perceived as rejecting homosexuality, and no religious affiliation were associated with history of…

  16. The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece.

    PubMed

    Skapinakis, Petros; Bellos, Stefanos; Gkatsa, Tatiana; Magklara, Konstantina; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo; Stylianidis, Stelios; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2011-02-08

    Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold symptoms. 5614 pupils 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened in the first phase and a stratified random sample of 2431 were selected for a detailed interview at the second phase. Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal ideation were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Victims of bullying behavior were more likely to express suicidal ideation. This association was particularly strong for those who were bullied on a weekly basis and it was independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity (Odds Ratio: 7.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 3.05 - 19.90). In contrast, being a perpetrator ("bullying others") was not associated with this type of ideation after adjustment. These findings were similar in both boys and girls, although the population impact of victimization in the prevalence of suicidal ideation was potentially higher for boys. The strong cross-sectional association between frequent victimization and suicidal ideation in late adolescence offers an opportunity for identifying pupils in the school setting that are in a higher risk for exhibiting suicidal ideation.

  17. Psychological Factors as Predictors of Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. Method The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Conclusion Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation. PMID:25340331

  18. Psychological factors as predictors of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Amit, Noh; Suen, Melia Wong Yuin

    2014-01-01

    There has been a drastic increase in the rate of suicides over the past 45 years in Malaysia. The statistics show that adolescents aged between 16 and 19 years old are at high risk of committing suicide. This could be attributed to issues relating to the developmental stage of adolescents. During this stage, adolescents face challenges and are exposed to various stressful experiences and risk factors relating to suicide. The present study examined psychological factors (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress) as predictors for suicidal ideation among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 190 students (103 males and 87 females), aged 15 to 19 years old from two different schools in Kuala Lumpur. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21-item version (DASS-21) was used to measure depression, anxiety and stress among the students, and the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) to measure suicidal ideation. The data were analysed using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. The results show that 11.10%, 10.00%, and 9.50% of the students reported that they were experiencing severe depression, anxiety and stress, respectively. There were significant correlations between depression, anxiety, and stress with suicidal ideation. However, only depression was identified as a predictor for suicidal ideation. Hence, this study extends the role of depression in predicting suicidal ideation among adolescents in the Malaysian context. The findings imply that teenagers should be assisted in strengthening their positive coping strategies in managing distress to reduce depression and suicidal ideation.

  19. Coping Strategies Associated With Suicidal Behaviour in Adolescent Inpatients With Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knafo, Alexandra; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Labelle, Réal; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Boudailliez, Bernard; de la Rivière, Sébastien Garny; Kharij, Brahim; Mille, Christian; Mirkovic, Bojan; Pripis, Cornelia; Renaud, Johanne; Vervel, Christine; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the coping strategies of adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) to the coping strategies of adolescents without BPD, and to explore the association of coping with suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents with BPD. Method: Adolescent inpatients (n = 167) aged 13 to 17 years were admitted after suicide attempts and evaluated within 10 days, using the abbreviated version of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines–Revised, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children–Present and Lifetime Version supported by a team consensus best estimate method for the primary diagnosis, the Adolescent Coping Scale, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Results: Firstly, compared with adolescents without BPD, adolescents with BPD relied more on nonproductive coping strategies, mostly avoidant strategies, and less on productive coping strategies. Secondly, coping appeared as a factor associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD. While while controlling for age, sex, and depression, multivariate analyses showed a significant positive association between the coping strategy to focusing on solving the problem and suicidal ideation. Conclusion: The use of avoidant strategies by adolescents with BPD could be viewed as attempts to increase emotional regulation. Problem-solving strategies in the immediate aftermath of a suicide attempt may prevent adolescents with BPD from overcoming a crisis and may increase suicidal ideation. PMID:25886671

  20. Gene-environment interaction and suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Roy, Alec; Sarchiopone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir

    2009-07-01

    Studies have increasingly shown that gene-environment interactions are important in psychiatry. Suicidal behavior is a major public health problem. Suicide is generally considered to be a multi-determined act involving various areas of proximal and distal risk. Genetic risk factors are estimated to account for approximately 30% to 40% of the variance in suicidal behavior. In this article, the authors review relevant studies concerning the interaction between the serotonin transporter gene and environmental variables as a model of gene-environment interactions that may have an impact on suicidal behavior. The findings reviewed here suggest that there may be meaningful interactions between distal and proximal suicide risk factors that may amplify the risk of suicidal behavior. Future studies of suicidal behavior should examine both genetic and environmental variables and examine for gene-environment interactions.

  1. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  2. Prevalence, Course, Incidence, and 1-Year Prediction of Deliberate Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts in Early Norwegian School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Bo; Sund, Anne Mari

    2008-01-01

    In this survey of early Norwegian school adolescents, the prevalence, course, and incidence of self-harm behavior with or without suicide intent were examined, in addition to predictors of self-harm for a 1-year follow-up period. Lifetime prevalence rates of self-harm without suicide intent and suicide attempts were 2.9% and 3.0%, respectively,…

  3. An Integrated Model of Suicidal Ideation in Transcultural Populations of Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cyrus L K; Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Ling, Chloe C Y

    2016-07-01

    This study tested the model of suicidal ideation, incorporating family and personal factors to predict suicidal ideation with hopelessness as a mediating factor in the Hong Kong sample, to a sample in Shanghai. Using MGSEM, the study aims to investigate the personal correlates and the family correlates of suicidal ideation in Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. We integrated the family ecological and diathesis-stress-hopelessness models of suicidal ideation in connecting the correlates. A cross-sectional design was used. The full model achieved metric invariance and partial path-loading invariance. Family functioning and social problem solving negatively predicted hopelessness or suicidal ideation in both the Hong Kong and Shanghai adolescents. The results supported an integrative approach in facilitating parent-adolescent communication and strengthening family functioning, and reducing the use of negative social problem-solving styles in adolescent suicide prevention.

  4. Social Representation of Cyberbullying and Adolescent Suicide: A Mixed-Method Analysis of News Stories.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Subramanian, Roma; Miles, Stephanie; Hinnant, Amanda; Andsager, Julie L

    2017-09-01

    Cyberbullying has provoked public concern after well-publicized suicides of adolescents. This mixed-methods study investigates the social representation of these suicides. A content analysis of 184 U.S. newspaper articles on death by suicide associated with cyberbullying or aggression found that few articles adhered to guidelines suggested by the World Health Organization and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention to protect against suicidal behavioral contagion. Few articles made reference to suicide or bullying prevention resources, and most suggested that the suicide had a single cause. Thematic analysis of a subset of articles found that individual deaths by suicide were used as cautionary tales to prompt attention to cyberbullying. This research suggests that newspaper coverage of these events veers from evidence-based guidelines and that more work is needed to determine how best to engage with journalists about the potential consequences of cyberbullying and suicide coverage.

  5. The continuity and duration of depression and its relationship to non-suicidal self-harm and suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescents 12-17.

    PubMed

    Zubrick, Stephen R; Hafekost, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Sawyer, Michael G; Patton, George; Lawrence, David

    2017-10-01

    There is a significant overlap between non-suicidal self-harm and suicidal ideation and behavior in young people with both symptom continuity and symptom duration implicated in this association. A population sample of Australian 12-17 year olds. Interviewers collected measures for DSM disorders, symptom duration and continuity, and background information from their parents, while young people self-reported symptoms of depression, non-suicidal self-harm and suicidal ideation and behaviors. This report focusses on the 265 young people who met the DSM criteria for Major Depressive Disorder based on their own self-reports. Relative to young people who had at least one period 2 months or longer without symptoms since first onset, young people who had the continuous presence of depressive symptoms since their first onset had significantly higher odds for life-time self-harm, 12-month self-harm, multiple self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt within the past 12 months. The duration of depressive symptoms and the continuity of these symptoms each independently contribute to elevating the risks of non-suicidal self-harming and suicidal ideation and behaviors. Reliance on self-report from the young people and time constraints prohibiting administering diagnostic modules other than the Major Depressive Disorder and estimating self-reported co-morbidity. Among young people with a Major Depressive Disorder, self-reports about duration of depressive symptoms as well as the continuity of symptoms, each independently contributes to elevated risks of non-suicidal self-harming and suicidal ideation and behaviors. As well, un-remitting as opposed to episodic symptoms in this group of young people are common and are a powerful indicator of suffering associated with both self-harm and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 6-Month Trajectory of Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Edward A.; Yen, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have longitudinally examined suicidal ideation in those with adolescent-onset BPD. The current study aimed to examine the trajectory of suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD longitudinally over six months, with follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months post-hospitalization for elevated suicide risk. Resulted indicated that the BPD group exhibited a greater decrease in suicidal ideation in the months following hospitalization than those without a BPD diagnosis. The findings of this study indicated that suicidal ideation in adolescents with BPD is not stable, and although ideation may decrease quickly after hospitalization, regular assessment of ideation is recommended. PMID:24112120

  7. Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey: Association Between Part-time Employment and Suicide Attempts.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sun-Jin; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Myung-Soo; Jeong, Hyunsuk; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the association between in-school students' part-time work and 1-year suicide attempts in Korea. The authors analyzed Korean Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance data (2008), which included 75 238 samples that represent Korean middle and high school students. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between part-time work and suicide attempt during the past 1 year, controlled by sociodemographic, school-related, lifestyle, and psychological factors. Among high school students, there was no association between part-time work and suicide attempts. However, part-time work was associated with suicide attempts significantly among middle school students (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval = 1.37-1.83). Despite the limitation that details of the part-time work were not included in this study, it was found that middle school students' part-time work may increase suicide attempts, and the circumstances of Korean adolescents' employment, especially that of younger adolescents, would need to be reconsidered to prevent their suicide attempts. © 2014 APJPH.

  8. Suicidal behaviors among Moroccan school students: prevalence and association with socio-demographic characteristics and psychoactive substances use: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zarrouq, Btissame; Bendaou, B; Elkinany, S; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R; Lyoussi, B; Khelafa, S; Bout, A; Berhili, N; Hlal, H; Nejjari, C; El Rhazi, K

    2015-11-14