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Sample records for adolescent television viewing

  1. Early Childhood Television Viewing and Adolescent Behavior: The Recontact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…

  2. Using TV as a Guide: Associations between Television Viewing and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…

  3. Adolescent Television Viewing and Belief in Vampires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Picton, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1133 13-15-year-old pupils in six secondary schools in South Wales were invited to complete questions concerning vampire belief and amount of television watching. The data demonstrate that belief in vampires was positively associated with higher levels of television watching.

  4. Children, adolescents, and television.

    PubMed

    Dietz, W H; Strasburger, V C

    1991-01-01

    As we have indicated, children's television has either a documented or probable effect on a variety of health-related behaviors in children and adolescents in the United States. Studies of cognitive development indicate that television provides a stimulus for learning and that children learn from television. The adverse effects of television appear related to both the time spent watching television and the content of the programs that are viewed. The reviewed observations suggest that a variety of initiatives are warranted to alter the time children spend watching television, the content of programs, and the types of programs for children and adolescents that are produced and broadcast. These initiatives require the development of effective techniques and materials for counseling parents, as well as continued political and legislative activities at the local and national level. We must promote the conviction that time spent in activities other than television viewing will provide our children with the values necessary to understand and interact with an increasingly complex world. Effective governmental action on behalf of children to change television will require a reaffirmation and enforcement of the Public Interest Standard. For half a century, the broadcast media have been licensed to use the airwaves in the public interest. The diversity and magnitude of the adverse effects of television on the health of children strongly suggest that the use of television has not been in the public interest. Although cable television offers multiple alternatives, less than 60% of American households receive cable. Broadcast television still represents the only alternative for 40% of American children. Substantial regulatory change by the current administration is unlikely. Therefore, legislative activity to mandate broadcast practices responsive to the needs of children appears the most appropriate national approach.

  5. Television viewing: Moderator or mediator of an adolescent physical activity intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether amount of TV watched by participants enrolled in a physical activity intervention mediates or moderates program effectiveness Design Nine-month controlled school-based physical activity intervention Setting Public high school Participants One hundred twenty two sedentary adolescent females (mean age = 15.04 ± 0.79 years) Intervention Supervised in-class exercise, health education, and internet-based self-monitoring Measures Physical Activity - 3 Day Physical Activity Recall; Television Viewing – self-report; Cardiovascular Fitness – Cycle Ergometer Analysis T-tests were conducted to examine between-group differences. Linear regression equations tested the mediating and/or moderating role of television watching relative to the intervention. Results TV viewing moderated the intervention’s effect on vigorous activity; the intervention significantly predicted physical activity among high (β = −.45; p <.001), but not low (p >.05), TV watchers. TV viewing did not mediate the intervention effect. Conclusions Consistent with displacement theory, adolescents who watched more television prior to the intervention showed post-intervention increases in vigorous physical activity and concomitant decreases in television viewing, whereas those who watched less TV showed no change in physical activity or television viewing. PMID:19004156

  6. Childhood and Adolescent Television Viewing and Antisocial Behavior in Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lindsay A.; McAnally, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether excessive television viewing throughout childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. METHODS: We assessed a birth cohort of 1037 individuals born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in 1972–1973, at regular intervals from birth to age 26 years. We used regression analysis to investigate the associations between television viewing hours from ages 5 to 15 years and criminal convictions, violent convictions, diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and aggressive personality traits in early adulthood. RESULTS: Young adults who had spent more time watching television during childhood and adolescence were significantly more likely to have a criminal conviction, a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, and more aggressive personality traits compared with those who viewed less television. The associations were statistically significant after controlling for sex IQ, socioeconomic status, previous antisocial behavior, and parental control. The associations were similar for both sexes, indicating that the relationship between television viewing and antisocial behavior is similar for male and female viewers. CONCLUSIONS: Excessive television viewing in childhood and adolescence is associated with increased antisocial behavior in early adulthood. The findings are consistent with a causal association and support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation that children should watch no more than 1 to 2 hours of television each day. PMID:23420910

  7. Parental mediation of television viewing and videogaming of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their siblings.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Melissa H; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-08-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of different strategies, and whether mediation strategies changed over time. A secondary purpose was to examine whether parents applied different mediation strategies to adolescents with autism spectrum disorder versus siblings, and the factors that created stress related to managing media use. Parents of 29 adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and 16 siblings completed questionnaires at two time points. Parents most frequently supervised their television viewing by watching it with the adolescents, and used restrictive strategies to regulate their videogaming. Parents used similar strategies for siblings, but more frequently applied restrictive and instructive strategies for videogaming with adolescents with autism spectrum disorder than their siblings. Restrictive mediation of television viewing for the adolescents decreased significantly over the year. Adolescents' time spent in media activities, age, and behavior problems, and parents' concerns about media use were significant factors associated with the strategies that parents employed. Parents' stress related to the adolescents' behavioral and emotional responses to parental restrictions.

  8. Television viewing duration during childhood and long- association with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Giselle; Piñero Casas, Maria; Basagaña, Xavier; Vicente, Mònica López; Davand, Payam; Torrent, Maties; Martínez-Murciano, David; García-Esteban, Raquel; Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Julvez, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    This study is aiming to evaluate the association between television viewing during childhood and long-term adolescent neuropsychological outcomes and the potential explanatory pathways. This is a longitudinal study based on 278 children participating in the INMA birth cohort (1998) in Menorca Island, Spain. The exposure is parent-reported duration of child television viewing (hours per week) at 6 and 9 years of age. Neuropsychological outcomes were assessed at 14 years of age using the N-back test. Behavioral outcomes at 14 years of age were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and school performance was assessed by the global school score. Regression models were developed to quantify the associations between duration of television viewing and neuropsychological outcomes adjusted for child and parents' characteristics. The average of weekly TV viewing from 6 to 9 years was 9.2 h (SD: 4.1). Only N-back test outcomes exhibited statistically significant differences in crude models. Children viewing > 14 h per week tended to show larger latencies in working memory reaction time (HRT in ms), beta (CI) = 53 (0-107). After adjusting for potential social confounders, the association weakened and became non-significant but adverse trends were slightly preserved. Early life TV viewing was not associated with adolescent neuropsychological outcomes after adjustment for potential confounders. Further research including larger and exhaustive population-based cohort studies is required in order to verify our conclusions.

  9. The Worldwide Association between Television Viewing and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Irene; Stewart, Alistair W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Beasley, Richard; Murphy, Rinki; Mitchell, Edwin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies exploring the effect of television viewing on obesity throughout childhood are conflicting. Most studies have been confined to single high-income countries. Our aim was to examine the association between television viewing habits and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescents and children in a multicentre worldwide sample. Methods In the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children Phase Three, adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years completed questionnaires which included questions on television viewing habits, height and weight. Parents/guardians of children aged between 5 and 8 years completed the same questionnaire on behalf of their children. The questionnaire asked “During a normal week, how many hours a day (24 hours) do you (does your child) watch television?” Responses were categorised as; “short” (<1 hour), “moderate” (1 to ≤3 hours), “long” (3 to ≤5 hours) and “prolonged” (>5 hours). Findings 207,672 adolescents from 37 countries and 77,003 children from 18 countries provided data. Daily television viewing in excess of one hour was reported in 89% of adolescents and 79% of children. Compared with adolescents in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.14 kg/m2, 0.21 kg/m2, 0.30 kg/m2 and 0.08 kg/m2, 0.16 kg/m2 and 0.17 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Compared with children in the short viewing group, those in the moderate, long and prolonged groups had BMIs that were 0.24 kg/m2, 0.34 kg/m2, 0.36 kg/m2 and 0.19 kg/m2, 0.32 kg/m2 and 0.36 kg/m2 larger for females and males respectively (both P<0.001). Interpretation Increased television viewing hours were positively associated with BMI in both adolescents and children with an apparent dose response effect. These findings extend the evidence that television viewing contributes to increased BMI in childhood. PMID:24086327

  10. Television and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D; Childers, K W; Waszak, C S

    1990-01-01

    Existing studies of the sexual content of television programming and advertising and the effects of this content on adolescent viewers are reviewed. Content studies show that the frequency of sexual references have increased in the past decade and are increasingly explicit. Studies of the effects of this content, while scarce, suggest that adolescents who rely heavily on television for information about sexuality will have high standards of female beauty and will believe that premarital and extramarital intercourse with multiple partners is acceptable. They are unlikely to learn about the need for contraceptives as a form of protection against pregnancy or disease. Suggestions for future research and trends in television programming policies are explored.

  11. Effects of viewing relational aggression on television on aggressive behavior in adolescents: A three-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M

    2016-02-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing relational aggression on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of different questionnaires involving media and aggression at 3 different time points. Results revealed that viewing relational aggression on TV was longitudinally associated with future relational aggression. However, early levels of relational aggression did not predict future exposure to televised relational aggression. Conversely, there was a bidirectional relationship between TV violence and physical aggression over time. No longitudinal evidence was found for a general effect of viewing TV, as all significant media effects were specific to the type of aggression viewed. These results support the general aggression model and suggest that viewing relational aggression in the media can have a long-term effect on aggressive behavior during adolescence.

  12. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Claire G; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S; Rich, Michael

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents' television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents' likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents' likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games.

  13. Sitting and Television Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Phillips, Barbara; Tulio de Mello, Marco; Hirshkowitz, Max

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excess sitting is emerging as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, mental illness, and all-cause mortality. Physical activity, distinct from sitting, is associated with better sleep and lower risk for OSA, yet relationships among sitting behaviors and sleep/OSA remain unknown. We examined whether total sitting time and sitting while viewing television were associated with sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and sleepiness. METHODS: The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1,000 adults aged 23 to 60 years. Total sitting time, time watching television while sitting, sleep duration and quality, OSA risk, and daytime sleepiness were assessed. RESULTS: After adjusting for confounding factors (including BMI and physical activity), each additional hour per day of total sitting was associated with greater odds of poor sleep quality (OR [95% CI] = 1.06 [1.01, 1.11]) but not with other sleep metrics (including sleep duration), OSA risk, or daytime sleepiness. For television viewing while sitting, each additional hour per day was associated with greater odds of long sleep onset latency (≥ 30 min) (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.27]), waking up too early in the morning (OR = 1.12 [1.03, 1.23]), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.12 [1.02, 1.24]), and “high risk” for OSA (OR = 1.15 [1.04, 1.28]). Based upon an interaction analysis, regular physical activity was protective against OSA risk associated with television viewing (P = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Excess sitting was associated with relatively poor sleep quality. Sitting while watching television was associated with relatively poor sleep quality and OSA risk and may be an important risk factor for sleep disturbance and apnea risk. PMID:25633255

  14. Multitasking With Television Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Claire G.; Bickham, David; Ross, Craig S.; Rich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, we explored predictors of adolescents’ television (TV) multitasking behaviors. We investigated whether demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and maternal education) predict adolescents’ likelihood of multitasking with TV. We also explored whether characteristics of the TV-multitasking moment (affect, TV genre, attention to people, and media multitasking) predict adolescents’ likelihood of paying primary versus secondary attention to TV. Demographic characteristics do not predict TV multitasking. In TV-multitasking moments, primary attention to TV was more likely if adolescents experienced negative affect, watched a drama, or attended to people; it was less likely if they used computers or video games. PMID:26549930

  15. The association between television-viewing behaviors and adolescent dating role attitudes and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, Rocío; Lebo, Melanie J

    2008-06-01

    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations. However, watching non-romantic television dramas and thinking television was realistic, was related to having less traditional dating role attitudes. In addition, watching soap operas was related to a younger age of dating initiation and a greater number of dating partners. These results suggest that along with their own experiences in dating peers, adolescents may be learning from television programs that dating is a gendered process with prescribed roles for males and females, an attitude connected with greater sexual risk for young women.

  16. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  17. Parental Mediation of Television Viewing and Videogaming of Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder spend considerable time in media activities. Parents play an important role in shaping adolescents' responses to media. This study explored the mediation strategies that parents of adolescents with autism spectrum disorder used to manage television and video game use, factors associated with their use of…

  18. Subcultural Experience and Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matabane, Paula

    This study examines two concepts--the relationship between different types of television viewing as evidence of viewer selectivity, and the structural relationships between television viewing and experiences derived from a subculture and location in the social structure. A review of the way mainstream research has characterized the viewing…

  19. Decrease in Television Viewing Predicts Lower Body Mass Index at 1-Year Follow-Up in Adolescents, but Not Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Simone A.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between television viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, eating out, physical activity, and body weight change over 1 year. Design: Secondary data analysis from randomized intervention trial. Setting: Households in the community. Participants: Adults (n = 153) and adolescents (n = 72) from the same…

  20. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy.

  1. Television viewing and its impact on childhood behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jolin, Edith M; Weller, Ronald A

    2011-04-01

    Despite the emergence of new media technologies, television remains the most widely used screen media format. Unfortunately, concerns have arisen about its effects on the health and well-being of children and adolescents. This article reviews television usage trends and television's impact on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations on television use are also discussed. Many studies on television viewing have cross-sectional designs, and longitudinal research is limited. However, research to date suggests that excessive television viewing is associated with negative effects on sleep, attention, and interpersonal relationships. As use of different media formats escalates, research across multiple specialties (including child psychiatry) will need to incorporate evaluation of media use into its assessments. More research and education are needed on the appropriate use of media in youth. Information on the health effects of television may also increase awareness of potential issues with less well-studied media formats.

  2. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  3. Guidelines for Family Television Viewing. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  4. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  5. Stressful Life Events and Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Finds, studying 491 adults, stress (measured by life events) was unrelated to time spent viewing TV but, for women, was positively related to television "addiction." Finds, studying 329 families, confirmation of mood management theory--stress was associated with increased comedy and decreased news viewing. Finds, studying 140 adults,…

  6. Television and the behaviour of adolescents: does socio-economic status moderate the link?

    PubMed

    Chowhan, James; Stewart, Jennifer M

    2007-10-01

    This paper examines the relationship between adolescent behaviour, television viewing and family socio-economic status (SES) using the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY). The effect of television viewing on adolescents' behaviour, ranging from pro-social to aggressive, and whether this effect is moderated by family socio-economic status is investigated. An adolescent fixed effects model is used to estimate the effect of television viewing on behaviour. The results indicate that the effect of television viewing varies between males and females. Family SES has a role in the effect of television on adolescents' behaviour, although the results do not distinguish between the two proposed hypotheses.

  7. The Association between Television-Viewing Behaviors and Adolescent Dating Role Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Lebo, Melanie J.

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen ninth grade students were surveyed to examine the relationship between television use and gender role attitudes and behavior in dating situations. Findings indicate the existence of a relationship between watching "romantic" television programming and having more traditional gender role attitudes in dating situations.…

  8. The Effect of Parent-Child Function on Physical Activity and Television Viewing among Adolescents with and without Special Healthcare Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Beth M.; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Carle, Adam C.; Robert, Stephanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, the association between parent-child function and physical activity and television viewing was investigated among a national sample of adolescents in the United States. Parent-child function was measured using the National Survey of Children's Health "Family Function" survey items and…

  9. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    Interviews were conducted with 184 sixth, seventh, and eighth grade students to determine patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing. In the first portion of the 35-minute interview, respondents were presented with a current daily television listing and asked to indicate which programs they normally watched. To…

  10. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  11. From Ally McBeal to Sabado Gigante: Contributions of Television Viewing to the Gender Role Attitudes of Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio; Ward, L. Monique

    2005-01-01

    Although previous findings indicate that frequent television viewing is associated with holding more stereotypical attitudes about gender, no studies have examined this connection among Latino youth, who are frequent viewers of both English- and Spanish-language programming. The present study attempted to rectify this situation by examining…

  12. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  13. Fit5Kids TV reduction program and Latino preschoolers' TV viewing behaviors: A pilot cluster RCT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive television (TV) viewing has been associated with a greater risk of childhood obesity. Latino children watch higher amounts of TV than their peers and are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. Since TV viewing and obesity track from preschool into adolescence, early intervention...

  14. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing.

  15. Guia Para Ver La Television En Familia (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  16. Television Watching and Risk of Obesity in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherson, Martin J.; Metcalf, James

    2005-01-01

    A large national database (U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2001) was analyzed for age, sex, race/ethnicity and television viewing among American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Body Mass Indices (BMI) were calculated from self-reported height and weight. Ninety-fifth percentile and above was classified as obese; [less…

  17. Some Opportunity Costs of Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Reynolds, Hal

    1984-01-01

    This study explored patterns of pastime activities that stand as alternatives to television viewing among middle school children. Findings are compared with those of Robinson's study (1981) for alternative media, video games, and sleeping variables, as well as dichotomous measures for group membership, playing a musical instrument, and hobbies.…

  18. Content of Food Advertising for Young Adolescents on Television

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Setu; Kalra, Swati; Kaushik, Jaya Shankar; Gupta, Piyush

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food related advertisements on television may have a major influence on the dietary habits and obesity among young adolescents. Objective: To evaluate the frequency and typology of food advertisements on most popular television channels, watched by school-going young adolescents in Delhi. Methodology: Biphasic study to (a) identify the three television channels most frequently watched by administering a questionnaire to 400 school going young adolescents; and (b) view each of these channels for 2 hours per day for 6 days each, and observe the content of advertisements related to foods, beverages, and food outlets. Results: Four hundred and three food related advertisements were viewed over 36 hour on Discovery, MTV and Disney Channels. Among 235 food related advertisements 163 (69.3%) pertained to candies, chocolates and confectionary and 35 (14.8%) to salty snacks. Sugar sweetened soft drinks contributed 90 of 106 (85%) of beverage advertisements. Of 62 advertisements related to food outlets, 59 were of fast food joints. Conclusion: Majority of food advertising content on television most commonly watched by young adolescents is related to unhealthy foods and beverages, igh in energy and low in micronutrient content. PMID:28331253

  19. Is viewing ostracism on television distressing?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Robinson, Simon L; Gundersen, Nicola C

    2011-01-01

    Being ostracized can be a painful and distressing experience and can lead to subsequent aggression by the victim. However, it is unknown whether watching someone else be ostracized either in real life or on television is similarly distressing. The purpose of the current study was to examine what type of distress (if any) is induced after viewing ostracism on television. The study consisted of 50 participants, half who viewed a movie clip containing ostracism and half who viewed a control clip. Physiological and self-report data revealed that viewing ostracism was distressing to participants. In particular, participants who viewed the ostracism clip reported a lower sense of belonging, self esteem, and mood, and a greater increase in heart rate and skin conductivity than those who viewed the control clip.

  20. American Academy of Pediatrics: Children, adolescents, and television.

    PubMed

    2001-02-01

    This statement describes the possible negative health effects of television viewing on children and adolescents, such as violent or aggressive behavior, substance use, sexual activity, obesity, poor body image, and decreased school performance. In addition to the television ratings system and the v-chip (electronic device to block programming), media education is an effective approach to mitigating these potential problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers a list of recommendations on this issue for pediatricians and for parents, the federal government, and the entertainment industry.

  1. The Effect of Viewing Television Violence on Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primavera, Louis H.; Herron, William G.; Jauier, Rafael A.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on the negative impact of television and movies, scientific research on television violence and aggression, laboratory research, criticisms of laboratory research, field research, correlation studies. Concludes there is no evidence that viewing television violence increases aggression in children or adults but viewing it can…

  2. Inside Television: A Guide To Critical Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ned

    This course is divided into seven units, each focusing on a particular aspect of television. The unit topics and some of the subtopics included are: (1) television and the American viewer; (2) the television industry (the networks, the role of the Federal Communications Commission, public television, and the business of television); (3) programs…

  3. Use of television, videogames, and computer among children and adolescents in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Alessandro; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Albano, Luciana; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2009-01-01

    Background This survey determined the practices about television (video inclusive), videogames, and computer use in children and adolescents in Italy. Methods A self-administered anonymous questionnaire covered socio-demographics; behaviour about television, videogames, computer, and sports; parental control over television, videogames, and computer. Results Overall, 54.1% and 61% always ate lunch or dinner in front of the television, 89.5% had a television in the bedroom while 52.5% of them always watched television there, and 49% indicated that parents controlled the content of what was watched on television. The overall mean length of time daily spent on television viewing (2.8 hours) and the frequency of watching for at least two hours per day (74.9%) were significantly associated with older age, always ate lunch or dinner while watching television, spent more time playing videogames and using computer. Those with parents from a lower socio-economic level were also more likely to spend more minutes viewing television. Two-thirds played videogames for 1.6 daily hours and more time was spent by those younger, males, with parents that do not control them, who watched more television, and who spent more time at the computer. The computer was used by 85% of the sample for 1.6 daily hours and those older, with a computer in the bedroom, with a higher number of computers in home, who view more television and play videogames were more likely to use the computer. Conclusion Immediate and comprehensive actions are needed in order to diminish time spent at the television, videogames, and computer. PMID:19439070

  4. Preferred viewing distance of liquid crystal high-definition television.

    PubMed

    Lee, Der-Song

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effect of TV size, illumination, and viewing angle on preferred viewing distance in high-definition liquid crystal display televisions (HDTV). Results showed that the mean preferred viewing distance was 2856 mm. TV size and illumination significantly affected preferred viewing distance. The larger the screen size, the greater the preferred viewing distance, at around 3-4 times the width of the screen (W). The greater the illumination, the greater the preferred viewing distance. Viewing angle also correlated significantly with preferred viewing distance. The more deflected from direct frontal view, the shorter the preferred viewing distance seemed to be.

  5. Food advertising and television exposure: influence on eating behavior and nutritional status of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Suzane Mota Marques; Horta, Paula Martins; dos Santos, Luana Caroline

    2012-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of food advertising and television exposure on eating behaviour and nutritional status of children and adolescents. It was a cross sectional study developed among 116 students from a private school in Brazil. Socio-demographic and health conditions were evaluated. Anthropometric data, food consumption, physical activity, television viewing habits and behaviour in relation to food advertising were also investigated. Among the results, a 1:2 relationship was identified between the number of televisions and residents per household. Excessive weight was present in 25.8% of subjects and 66.4% of children watched television while eating. Children were exposed to television for a median of 3.0 hours daily (95% CI: 2.9 to 3.6). There was a direct association between attraction to foods advertised and purchasing the product (p < 0.001) and a positive relationship between the number of televisions per household and body weight (r = 0.246, p = 0.015) and the amount of liquid consumed during meals (r = 0.277, p = 0.013). Findings also highlighted the association between watching television while eating and the reduced probability of fruit consumption (p = 0.032), contrasted with a greater likelihood of daily artificial juice intake (p = 0.039). In conclusion, watching television is associated with lower probability of daily consumption of fruits and the number of television at household is positively related to BMI in children and adolescents.

  6. Helping Parents Reduce Children's Television Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Fries, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Parents and educators around the country are concerned about the amount of time children watch television. Part of this concern stems from the fact that a considerable amount of violence is regularly portrayed on television. In addition, those youngsters who watch an excessive amount of television have little time for developing other interests…

  7. Children's television-viewing habits and the family environment.

    PubMed

    Taras, H L; Sallis, J F; Nader, P R; Nelson, J

    1990-03-01

    Pediatricians are encouraged to modify the impact of television on children, based on the assumption that parents mediate children's viewing habits through the home environment. Sixty-six parents of children aged 3 to 8 years responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Responses to questions on family environment were compared with reported childhood viewing of educational programming (Public Broadcasting Service) and the child's television-viewing hours. Most homes surveyed had a videocassette recorder, cable television, and more than one television set. Frequent parental discussion of program content with children was reported by 38% of respondents. Availability of television and parent-child discussion of content were not correlated with viewing hours or viewing Public Broadcasting Service. Frequent use of television as a distraction for the child correlated positively with viewing hours. Viewing Public Broadcasting Service correlated negatively with parent-child coviewing and with use of television as a form of entertainment. Children's own television viewing content correlated positively with viewing Public Broadcasting Service. Of all measured factors in the home environment, parental attitudes were most closely associated with children's viewing habits.

  8. Does Television Viewing Cultivate Unrealistic Expectations About Marriage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segrin, Chris; Nabi, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Examines relationship between television viewing, holding idealistic expectations about marriage, and intentions to marry among undergraduate students. Finds overall television viewing has a negative association with idealistic marriage expectations; romantic genre programming was positively associated with high expectations; and expectations were…

  9. Young Children's Preference for Television Viewing Compared with Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavenas, Rosemarie

    1987-01-01

    Young children's own perceptions of their preference for television viewing relative to other developmentally appropriate activities were studied through means of a questionnaire. The respondents rated television viewing as a less attractive activity than playing outside, playing with play dough, and building with sand, but few preferred story…

  10. The Effects of Television Viewing on Reading Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Susan B.

    A study examined the relationship between television viewing and reading behavior within a sample of 198 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students: specifically, whether the amount and specific content of television being viewed affected reading achievement and leisure reading patterns. Intelligence and reading achievement scores of each participant…

  11. Television Content Viewing Patterns: Some Clues from Societal Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Daniel G.; Glynn, Carroll J.

    Focusing on how television viewing fits into a general model of consumer consumption patterns, a study examined (1) the extent to which the viewing of certain television content can be considered a "norm" of society, (2) similarities and differences between the norms for adults and those for children, and (3) some of the antecedents of…

  12. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  13. The television viewing behaviour of families in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Talabi, J K

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the television viewing patterns in Nigerian families, 600 household heads from all 12 local government areas of Kwara state were interviewed. 439 (70%) of the respondents were fathers. 396 (66%) of the household heads in the survey were civil servants and the remainder were involved in private enterprises such as trading, farming, and crafts. 343 household (57%) had at least 1 television set, most often a color television. Respondents without television gave lack of money as the main reason; however, there was no correlation between ownership of television sets and the occupation of the household head. All Nigerian stations are owned and controlled by the federal government through the Nigeria Television Authority. The program viewed most frequently by the most respondents (92%) was the nightly network news. The most popular programming (identified by 86% of respondents) was a Saturday drama series designed to provide amusement and moral lessons. Most of those questioned strongly agreed that television is an educational resource within the family. On the other hand, 59% of the male household heads and 72% of the female heads added that television also has negative effects on moral behavior and children's attention to school work. National planners are urged to find ways to channel widespread television ownership and viewing in Nigeria toward social development through innovative programming.

  14. Psycho-Physiological Effects of Television Viewing During Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Brian C.; Bassett, David R.; Strohacker, Kelley; Overstreet, Brittany S.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that enjoyment is an important factor in the adoption and long-term maintenance of exercise. Television (TV) viewing is believed to be a highly enjoyed leisure-time activity, combining it with exercise may make for a more enjoyable exercise experience. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of television (TV) viewing on psychological and physiological variables during a moderate-intensity exercise bout. Twenty-eight insufficiently active (<150 minutes per week of moderate intensity PA and/or 75 minutes of vigorous PA) adults (Age: M = 47.4 ± 7.6 years) participated in this study. Each participant performed three separate 30-minute walking bouts on a motorized treadmill. During each bout, participants watched a program they selected (30-minute scripted show) (self-selected TV condition), a British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) nature program (standardized TV condition), or no TV program (no TV condition). Participants were unable to select the nature program as their self-selected program, as it was not a 30-minute scripted program. A Polar Heart Rate (HR) monitor and validated surveys on affect and enjoyment were used. Participants reported greater enjoyment of exercise for both self-selected and standardized TV conditions (97.1 ± 15.2 and 92.7 ± 15.2), compared to the No TV condition (77.5 ± 13.4, p < 0.001). The two TV conditions resulted in similar levels of focus on TV viewing (self-selected TV: 81.2 ± 19.7; standardized TV: 79.1 ± 14.2, p > 0.05) and dissociation from walking (self-selected TV: 38.1 ± 6.7 and standardized TV: 33.2 ± 3.9); they also resulted in more dissociation than the no TV condition (TV: 72.6 ± 5.6, p = 0.002). The findings indicate that TV viewing, regardless of whether the programming is self-selected or standardized, associates with greater enjoyment of exercise. Key points The use of TV viewing is a novel method of increasing enjoyment of exercise. TV viewing resulted in greater reported enjoyment of

  15. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males.

  16. Political Implications of Heavy Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Beeck, Marilyn

    This paper empirically evaluates the proposition that political conformism, specifically structural, passive, psychological, and defensive conformism, is a function of exposure to mass media. Secondary analysis of data from the National Opinion Research Center's 1975 General Social Survey revealed a significant relationship between TV viewing and…

  17. Children's Television Viewing: An Examination of Parent-Child Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, John R.; Robertson, Thomas S.

    1975-01-01

    Examines parental control over children's television viewing, as reported by parents and as reported by the children themselves. Results showed a more general pattern of exaggeration by parents than was reported by children regarding television control by parents. (Author/DEP)

  18. Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

  19. Basic Skills of TV Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Jon

    1978-01-01

    Given that, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, most people aren't reading very much, but are watching a great deal of television, schools must begin to teach television viewing skills to every student. Activities of the Milford (Ohio) school system suggest ways that television education goals might be met. (Author/MJB)

  20. Television's Cultivation of American Adolescents' Beliefs about Alcohol and the Moderating Role of Trait Reactance

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale Wesley; Boland, Wendy Attaya; Grube, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation research has shown that heavy television viewing is linked to audiences' generalized, and often skewed, views of reality. This research investigates whether television viewing is related to adolescents' views about the consequences of drinking and whether psychological trait reactance moderates this cultivation effect. Results from a survey of 445 American teenagers show that cumulative exposure to television is linked to reduced beliefs about alcohol's negative consequences and greater intentions to drink. These effects were greater for adolescents low on trait reactance. This research adds to the general psychological research on trait reactance as a moderator of media influences and makes a substantive contribution towards furthering our understanding of the media and public health concerns that surround risky adolescent behaviors. PMID:24678341

  1. Consumption of Sexual Dialogue and Content on Television and Adolescent Sexual Outcomes: Multiethnic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Tynan, Joshua J.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine group differences in sexual media consumption and to explore how well adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior can be explained by viewing of sexually suggestive dialogue (SD) and explicit sexual content (SC) in television media. Participants were 473 male and female high school adolescents who were…

  2. 29. FET 601312 VIEW OF TELEVISION DOLLY IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. FET 60-1312 VIEW OF TELEVISION DOLLY IN TAN 629 HANGAR, AN ASPECT OF INSTRUMENTATION. PHOTO DATE: MARCH 23, 1960. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Hangar No. 629, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Prevalence of Infant Television Viewing and Maternal Depression Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Vibha; Downs, Stephen M; Bauer, Nerissa S; Carroll, Aaron E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Early TV viewing has been linked with maternal depression and has adverse health effects in children. However it is not known how early TV viewing occurs. We evaluated the prevalence at which parents report television (TV) viewing for their children if asked in the first two years of life and whether TV viewing is associated with maternal depression symptoms. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, we evaluated TV viewing in children 0 – 2 years of age in 4 pediatric clinics in Indianapolis, IN between January 2011 and April 2012. Families were screened for any parental report of depression symptoms (0 – 15 months) and for parental report of TV viewing (before 2 years of age) using a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) linked to the patient’s electronic health record (EHR). Results There were 3,254 children in the study. By parent report 50% of children view TV by 2 months of age, 75% by 4 months of age and 90% by 2 years of age. Complete data for both TV viewing and maternal depression symptoms were available for 2,397 (74%) of children. In regression models, the odds of parental report of TV viewing increased by 27% for each additional month of child’s age (OR: 1.27, CI: 1.25 – 1.30, p < 0.001). The odds of TV viewing increased by almost half with parental report of depression symptoms (OR: 1.47, CI: 1.07 – 2.00, p = 0.016). Publicly insured children had three times the odds of TV viewing compared to children with private insurance (OR: 3.00, CI: 1.60 – 5.63, p = 0.001). Black children had almost four times the odds (OR: 3.75, CI: 2.70 – 5.21, p < 0.001) and White children had one and a half times the odds (OR: 1.55, CI: 1.04 – 2.30, p = 0.032) of TV viewing when compared to Latino children. Conclusions By parental report TV viewing occurs at a very young age in infancy, usually between 0 to 3 months and varies by insurance and race/ethnicity. Children whose parents report depression symptoms are especially at risk

  4. Mediating effects of dietary intake on associations of TV viewing, body mass index and metabolic syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, S. A.; Lacy, K. E.; Dunstan, D. W.; Carson, V.; Salmon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Evidence suggests that TV viewing is associated with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. However, it is unclear whether dietary intake mediates these relationships. Methods A cross‐sectional analysis was conducted in adolescents (12–19 years) participating in the 2003–2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMI z scores (zBMI) (n = 3,161) and MetS (n = 1,379) were calculated using age‐ and sex‐specific criteria for adolescents. TV viewing (h/day) was measured via a self‐reported questionnaire, and dietary intake was assessed using two 24‐h recalls. Using the MacKinnon method, a series of mediation analyses were conducted examining five dietary mediators (total energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, discretionary snacks, sugar‐sweetened beverages and diet quality) of the relationships between TV viewing and zBMI and MetS. Results Small positive relationships were observed between TV viewing and zBMI (β = 0.99, p < 0.001) and TV viewing and MetS (OR = 1.18, p = 0.046). No dietary element appeared to mediate the relationship between TV viewing and zBMI. However, sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake partially mediated the relationship between TV viewing and MetS, explaining 8.7% and 4.1% of the relationship, respectively. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of the relationships between TV viewing, dietary intake and cardiometabolic health outcomes, and that TV viewing should remain a target for interventions. PMID:27708839

  5. Tween sex differences in snacking preferences during television viewing.

    PubMed

    Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M; Sutherland, Lisa A

    2011-09-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk in childhood obesity. Research surrounding food habits of tweens largely bypasses snacking preferences while watching television in the home. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe snacking prevalence by tween sex and to describe parental rules surrounding snacking while watching television at home. Survey data were obtained in 2008 from 4th- through 6th-grade students (n=1,557) who attended 12 New England schools. Complete self-reported measures (n=1,448) included demographics, household and bedroom television ownership, television watching frequency, snacking prevalence, snacking preferences, and parental rules regarding snacking while watching television. Comparisons were generated using χ(2) analyses. Overall, the majority of children (69.2%) snacked "sometimes" or "always" during television viewing, with the majority of responses (62.9%) categorized as foods. The most popular food snacks for both sexes in this sample were salty snacks (47.9%), with fruits and vegetables ranking a distant second (18.4%). Girls (22.6%) selected fruits and vegetables more frequently than boys (14.7%) (P=0.003). Of those drinking beverages (n=514), boys selected sugar-sweetened beverages more often than girls (43.5% vs 31.7%; P=0.006), and girls chose juice more often than boys (12.3% vs 6.1%; P=0.02). Overall, approximately half (53.2%) of the students consumed less-healthy snacks while watching television. Interventions for parents and both sexes of tweens focusing on healthy snacking choices may have long-term beneficial outcomes.

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of Television Advertising Effects on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

    A longitudinal study examined both the short term and the long term effects of television advertising on the development of adolescents' consumption-related orientations. Questionnaires were administered to 556 adolescents in a number of schools in a southern state; a second wave of questionnaires was administered to a subsample of 230 of these…

  7. The Influence of New Media and Family Structure on Young Adolescents' Television and Radio Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jane Delano; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines adolescents' television and radio use. Finds that (1) Blacks and girls use television and radio more than Whites and boys; (2) television use declines with age while radio use increases; (3) access to cable television and VCRs is not related to frequency of use; and (4) lack of access to parents increases use. (KEH)

  8. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    PubMed

    Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-01-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students.

  9. Balance and coordination after viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C. A.; Simonotto, Jennifer; Bohr, Iwo; Godfrey, Alan; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers and the media have raised the possibility that viewing stereoscopic 3D television (S3D TV) may cause temporary disruption to balance and visuomotor coordination. We looked for evidence of such effects in a laboratory-based study. Four hundred and thirty-three people aged 4–82 years old carried out tests of balance and coordination before and after viewing an 80 min movie in either conventional 2D or stereoscopic 3D, while wearing two triaxial accelerometers. Accelerometry produced little evidence of any change in body motion associated with S3D TV. We found no evidence that viewing the movie in S3D causes a detectable impairment in balance or in visuomotor coordination. PMID:26587261

  10. Television Viewing Habits of Kindergarten, Third and Sixth Grade Students in a Western Kentucky County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossing, Lewis; Mikulcik, Marilyn

    Parents from rural and urban areas of Calloway County, Kentucky were surveyed regarding their children's television viewing habits. Fifteen survey questions were asked, among them whether there was a television set in the home; whether the child had a personal set; whether the family ate meals while watching television; whether television sound…

  11. Removing the bedroom television set: a possible method for decreasing television viewing time in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Jones, Katherine E; Otten, Jennifer J; Johnson, Rachel K; Harvey-Berino, Jean R

    2010-07-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between bedroom TV viewing time (BTVT), Body Mass Index (BMI), sleep time, non-BTVT, and total TV viewing time in 39 overweight and obese adults with and without a bedroom TV set. No significant correlations are found between BTVT and BMI or sleep time. BTVT is positively associated with non-BTVT (Spearman's rho = 0.37, p = .076; n = 24). Participants with a bedroom TV tend to watch significantly more TV (5.4 hours per day +/- 2.7; p = .057; n = 28) than do participants without a bedroom TV (3.6 +/- 1.9 hours per day, p = .057; n = 11). This article suggested that taking the TV out of the bedroom may help to reduce overweight and obese adults can decrease their TV viewing time.

  12. How Adolescents Counterargue Television Beer Advertisements: Implications for Education Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna; Domenech-Rodriguez, Melanie; Beauvais, Frederick; Murphy, Kevin; Estes, Emily

    1998-01-01

    Examined types of counterarguments generated by Anglo and Latino adolescents exposed to television beer ads, noting counterargument differences based on demographic and behavioral variables. Questionnaires and comments from the students indicated that without any cues, they responded with counterarguments, though counterarguments represented only…

  13. Home Literacy, Television Viewing, Fidgeting and ADHD in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…

  14. Leisure Lifestyles: Segmentation by Interests, Needs, Demographics, and Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Marshall G.; Frank, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Using their own 1978 national survey sample, the authors describe the social and demographic characteristics, psychological needs, and television viewing behaviors of persons who exhibit each of 14 patterns of leisure activities. The patterns were isolated through factor analysis and clustering techniques. (Author/RM)

  15. Effects of Television Viewing in an Experimental Aggression Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchor, Kenneth N.

    This investigation used a convergent measures design to explore the relationship of television viewing habits and preferences to experimentally emitted aggressive behavior. The catharsis argument posits that watching programs high in aggressive content provides a socially adaptive outlet for involvement with aggression. Groups of college and…

  16. 12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic view of Building 100 control room, showing television monitoring of tests and personnel operating rocket engine test controls. May 27, 1957. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Facility, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-45021. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 100, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  17. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Obesity in Young Children: A Review of Existing Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenvey, Vickii B.

    2007-01-01

    It has often been proposed that young (three to six years old) children's television viewing habits contribute to early-onset obesity. Three explanations that link television viewing patterns of young children with the development of obesity are considered. First, television viewing displaces time available for physical activity, reduces energy…

  18. Attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents concerning condom advertisements on television.

    PubMed

    Buchta, R M

    1989-05-01

    The major television networks have considered airing condom advertisements. A Louis-Harris poll entitled "Attitudes About Television, Sex and Contraceptive Advertising" conducted in early 1987 concluded that at least 60% of adult Americans were in favor of such advertisements. To better understand the attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents in a private practice setting toward contraceptive advertisement on television, the present study was performed. Between March and June 1987, 108 parents of adolescents, 100 adolescent females, and 90 adolescent males filled out a questionnaire asking their opinions of such advertisements. Eighty-three percent of the parents, 89% of adolescent females, and 92% of adolescent males approved of such advertisements. The data suggest that a majority of adults and adolescents approve of condom advertisements on television. The use of the media to take advantage of the present opportunity to educate and promote birth control and disease prevention to our adolescent population may be beneficial.

  19. Parental Control of Children's Television Viewing Behavior: Support for the Reverse Modeling Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surlin, Stuart H.; And Others

    A study was conducted to document the existence of the "reverse modeling" principle of television viewing behavior whereby children, rather than parents, determine the television viewing choices for family members. Through telephone interviews, 284 adult respondents were questioned regarding their knowledge of the television advisory…

  20. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  1. Television Viewing and Its Association with Sedentary Behaviors, Self-Rated Heath and Academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bimala; Cosme Chavez, Rosemary; Jeong, Ae Suk; Nam, Eun Woo

    2017-04-05

    The study assessed television viewing >2 h a day and its association with sedentary behaviors, self-rated health, and academic performance among secondary school adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected students in Lima in 2015. We measured self-reported responses of students using a standard questionnaire, and conducted in-depth interviews with 10 parents and 10 teachers. Chi-square test, correlation and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed among 1234 students, and thematic analysis technique was used for qualitative information. A total of 23.1% adolescents reported watching television >2 h a day. Qualitative findings also show that adolescents spend most of their leisure time watching television, playing video games or using the Internet. Television viewing had a significant positive correlation with video game use in males and older adolescents, with Internet use in both sexes, and a negative correlation with self-rated health and academic performance in females. Multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that television viewing >2 h a day, independent of physical activity was associated with video games use >2 h a day, Internet use >2 h a day, poor/fair self-rated health and poor self-reported academic performance. Television viewing time and sex had a significant interaction effect on both video game use >2 h a day and Internet use >2 h a day. Reducing television viewing time may be an effective strategy for improving health and academic performance in adolescents.

  2. Ultraviolet Viewing with a Television Camera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Thomas; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports on a portable video color camera that is fully suited for seeing ultraviolet images and offers some expanded viewing possibilities. Discusses the basic technique, specialized viewing, and the instructional value of this system of viewing reflectance patterns of flowers and insects that are invisible to the unaided eye. (CW)

  3. Relationships of individual, social, and physical environmental factors with older adults' television viewing time.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; De Donder, Liesbeth; Clarys, Peter; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Dury, Sarah; De Witte, Nico; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique; Deforche, Benedicte

    2014-10-01

    Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults' television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults' television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

  4. Television viewing associated with adverse dietary outcomes in children ages 2-6.

    PubMed

    Ford, C; Ward, D; White, M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to systematically review the evidence for the association between television viewing and diet in children ages 2-6. Data sources included PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, SportDISCUS, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science and hand searches of reference lists of relevant articles. Twelve studies were reviewed in which the relationship between television viewing and diet was assessed in children between the ages of 2 and 6. All but one study reported significant relationship between television viewing time and adverse dietary outcomes. Parent-reported television viewing time was used to assay child television viewing in all included studies. Food frequency survey was the most frequent method of dietary assessment, and parent served as proxies for children in all studies. Lower fruit and/or vegetable intake was the most frequently reported dietary outcome, followed by increased energy intake with increased television viewing. The majority of studies reported adverse dietary outcomes with as little as 1 h of daily television exposure. While these results are consistent with recommendations from child health advocates to limit television viewing in young children, they also suggest that further efforts to limit television viewing in young children may be needed to aid in obesity prevention.

  5. Narrow Viewing: The Vocabulary in Related Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Michael P. H.; Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the scripts of 288 television episodes were analyzed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in related and unrelated television programs, and the potential for incidental vocabulary learning through watching one season (approximately 24 episodes) of television programs. The scripts consisted of 1,330,268 running words…

  6. Television viewing, computer use, obesity, and adiposity in US preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer u...

  7. Television viewing and violence in children: the pediatrician as agent for change.

    PubMed

    Sege, R; Dietz, W

    1994-10-01

    Three decades of research suggest a causal link between exposure of children to violent images on television and subsequent violent behavior. The epidemic of violence in American society mandates a critical reappraisal of the televised images that children see. To slow the cycle of violence, pediatricians can: (1) Help shape parental attitudes toward children's viewing habits; (2) lobby for school systems to adopt curricula that include critical viewing skills; and (3) work with Congress, Federal regulators, television producers, and broadcasters to reduce the exposure of children to televised violence.

  8. Maternal Characteristics Associated with Television Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Nicola A.; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Clubb, Richard; Bradley, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined maternal characteristics associated with heavy or inappropriate television viewing on the part of their children. We investigated the relationship between children's television viewing habits and maternal depressive symptoms and parenting beliefs. The participants were 175 low income children (mean age = 62.1 months) and…

  9. Critical Television Viewing Skills Curriculum. Final Report (October 1, 1979-November 30, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra; And Others

    The product of Phase II of a two-year project funded by the U.S. Office of Education to prepare, evaluate, and distribute a print-based curriculum on critical television viewing skills for teenagers, and to prepare guides and workshops on television viewing for parents and teachers, this final report describes tasks undertaken in four areas during…

  10. Taking a Look at Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, William, Comp.

    1981-01-01

    A collection of quotations drawn from research and opinion papers dealing with the impact of television viewing on children. Subtopics addressed are: television viewing statistics, effects of television violence, and the relationship of television to education. (JJD)

  11. TV Viewing, Independent of Physical Activity and Obesogenic Foods, Increases Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ghavamzadeh, Saeid; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity (OAO) and associated risk factors in a representative sample of students aged 11-20 years in Urmia, Iran. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a multistage random cluster-sampling method was used, through which 2,498 students were selected. OAO were defined based on criteria set by the US Center for Health Statistics in collaboration with the US Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion under the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). OAO risk factors were assessed using a questionnaire containing questions about TV viewing, nutrition, physical activities (PA), social and economic factors. Contents of the questionnaire were validated by calculating the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI), based on the responses elicited from 15 experts. Reliability of the questionnaire was obtained from a test and re-test of the questionnaire completed by 15 students. To analyze the data, χ2-test, t-test, and multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. The prevalence of OAO was found to be 14.1% among the 11-20 years old students of junior and senior high schools. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of mothers, type of school, and the time spent on viewing TV were associated with an increased risk of OAO while obesogenic foods and PA had no effect on the frequency of OAO [Odds ratio (OR) for the time spent on watching TV one hour more than usual equals 1.27 at p=0.001]. The direct correlation between TV viewing and OAO, which is independent of PA and obesogenic foods, needs to be carefully investigated through randomized clinical trials and cohort studies. PMID:24288947

  12. Association Between Adolescent Viewership and Alcohol Advertising on Cable Television

    PubMed Central

    Garfield, Craig F.; Elliott, Marc N.; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig; Jernigan, David H.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether alcohol advertising on cable television is associated with adolescent viewership. Methods. Using Nielsen data for every national cable alcohol advertisement from 2001 to 2006 (608 591 ads), we examined whether ad incidence in a given advertising time slot was associated with adolescent viewership (i.e., the percentage of the audience that was aged 12–20 years) after we controlled for other demographic variables. Results. Almost all alcohol ads appeared in time slots with audiences made up of 30% or fewer underage viewers. In these time slots (standardized by duration and number of viewers), each 1-percentage-point increase in adolescent viewership was associated with more beer (7%), spirits (15%), and alcopop (or low-alcohol refresher; 22%) ads, but fewer wine (−8%) ads (P < .001 for all). For spirits and alcopops, associations were stronger among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys (P < .001 for each). Conclusions. Ad placements for beer, spirits, and alcopops increased as adolescent viewership rose from 0% to 30%, especially for female viewers. Alcohol advertising practices should be modified to limit exposure of underage viewers. PMID:19696391

  13. The impact of television viewing on brain structures: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Yokota, Susumu; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-05-01

    Television (TV) viewing is known to affect children's verbal abilities and other physical, cognitive, and emotional development in psychological studies. However, the brain structural development associated with TV viewing has never been investigated. Here we examined cross-sectional correlations between the duration of TV viewing and regional gray/white matter volume (rGMV/rWMV) among 133 boys and 143 girls as well as correlations between the duration of TV viewing and longitudinal changes that occurred a few years later among 111 boys and 105 girls. After correcting for confounding factors, we found positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the frontopolar and medial prefrontal areas in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV/rWMV of areas of the visual cortex in cross-sectional analyses, and positive effects of TV viewing on rGMV of the hypothalamus/septum and sensorimotor areas in longitudinal analyses. We also confirmed negative effects of TV viewing on verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. These anatomical correlates may be linked to previously known effects of TV viewing on verbal competence, aggression, and physical activity. In particular, the present results showed effects of TV viewing on the frontopolar area of the brain, which has been associated with intellectual abilities.

  14. Too Much Tube Time? Television Viewing and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2007-01-01

    The rates of overweight in infancy and childhood are rapidly growing. One contributor to the rising tide of childhood obesity, and a target included in many obesity prevention and intervention programs, is television (TV) use. This article examines the amount of media to which young children are exposed, and considers the evidence for the…

  15. Parental Influence on Children during Educational Television Viewing in Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yuting; Phillips, Beth M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested by researchers that educational television programmes may support the language and literacy development for children, especially those in immigrant families. In an immigrant family, many family characteristics appear to be related to educational television programme viewing of children at home, for example, parental…

  16. From Blooming, Buzzing Confusion to Media Literacy: The Early Development of Television Viewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Hanson, Katherine G.

    2010-01-01

    Television comprehension is a surprisingly demanding task for very young children. Based on a task analysis of television viewing and review of research, we suggest that by 6 months of age, infants can identify objects and people on screen. By 24 months they can comprehend and imitate simple actions contained in single shots and begin to integrate…

  17. Development of Critical Television Viewing Skills in Elementary School Students. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder-Bolz, Charles R.

    This report summarizes the activities of a two-year project to develop curriculum materials to encourage and enable students in grades K through 5 to learn critical television viewing skills, and to use these skills to become evaluative consumers of television. A review of the project provides background information; describes the specific…

  18. Social Isolation and Social Support as Correlates of Television Viewing Motivations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Seth; Gorr, Mary Beth

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationships between motivations for television viewing, including shyness, loneliness, self-esteem, and three measures of social support. Suggests viewing motivations are related to needs arising from two distinct sources: social compensation and mood management. (MS)

  19. Television and Children's Fantasy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman

    1985-01-01

    Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)

  20. What Does TV Viewing Have to Do with Internet Reading?: Readers, Television "Texts", and Intertextual Links to Companion Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    A growing number of television programs direct their viewers to access an Internet website for further information on a presented topic. The explicit link between television programs and companion Internet websites, both of which communicate information through multiple modes, can be considered a form of intertextuality. Do college students…

  1. Television viewing and physical activity among Latino children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watching television and using other forms of media such as video games, computers, print, music and movies takes up a surprisingly large amount of our children’s time. U.S. children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleep. According to a recent nationwide report on c...

  2. Perceived Neighborhood and Home Environmental Factors Associated with Television Viewing among Taiwanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors and excessive television (TV) viewing time among Taiwanese older adults. The sample data was collected by administering computer-assisted telephone interviewers to 980 Taiwanese older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) living in two regions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported perceived neighborhood and home environmental attributions and TV viewing time by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that perceived neighborhood and home environmental factors were associated with excessive TV viewing time (≥2 h/day) after adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with a reference group, older adults who perceived their neighborhoods to have unsafe traffic were more likely to report excessive TV viewing time (OR = 1.36, 95%CI = 1.02–1.82). Older adults who reported having two or more TV sets in the home (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.28–2.44) and having a TV in the bedroom (OR = 1.55, CI = 1.18–2.03) were also more likely to report excessive TV viewing time. Further longitudinal research can confirm these findings, and tailored interventions focusing on the perceptions of neighborhood traffic safety and TV access at home for older adults might be effective means of preventing excessive TV viewing time. PMID:27420086

  3. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  4. Effects and Functions of Television: Children and Adolescents. A Bibliography of Selected Research Literature 1970-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manfred, Comp.; Nissen, Ursula, Comp.

    This bibliography of selected television research lists 914 references to English, French and German publications (empirical studies, research reviews and summarizing literature) which deal with the use of television and its various functions for children and adolescents and particularly with the effects of television on children's personality and…

  5. Australian children's views about food advertising on television.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kaye; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Magarey, Anthea; Spurrier, Nicola; Udell, Tuesday

    2010-08-01

    This study explored children's views about food advertising on television in the light of recent public interest in childhood obesity and obesogenic environments. Thirty-seven children aged between 8 and 11 years, discussed their perceptions of food advertising, in focus groups. The children engaged as consumers of advertising, noticing technical aspects, and expressing their likes and dislikes of particular techniques. While they understood the persuasive intent of advertising, they nevertheless desired products and made purchase requests. They particularly desired energy-dense nutrient-poor foods. The children demonstrated sophisticated levels of advertising literacy through their articulation of problems such as deception, impacts on children's health and wellbeing, and family conflict. They revealed themselves as sentient beings, with the capacity to react, respond and reflect on their experience of advertising. This study makes a contribution to research on consumer socialisation by introducing the perspective of Australian children. As stakeholders in the childhood obesity problem, the views of children should also be of interest to health policymakers.

  6. Differences in TV Viewing and Computer Game Playing's Relationships with Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors among Adolescents: An NHANES Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jashinsky, Jared; Gay, Jennifer; Hansen, Nathan; Muilenburg, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Background: TV viewing and computer game use may both limit physical activity, but only TV viewing may promote a poorer diet due to exposure to food advertising and availability of the hands for snacking. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between the different screen times and type 2 diabetes markers among youth.…

  7. The role of television viewing and direct experience in predicting adolescents’ beliefs about the health risks of fast-food consumption

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Buhrau, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background Fast-food advertising abounds on television (TV), and programs targeting youth often display fast-food consumption but rarely with any negative consequences. Cultivation research maintains that cumulative exposure to TV influences audiences’ views of and beliefs about the real world. Thus, the amount of TV adolescents watch is likely to bias their views of the consequences of eating fast food. This research posits that this relationship varies as a function of adolescents’ actual experience with fast food. Method Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in the cultivation research tradition assess the relationship between the amount of adolescents’ regular exposure to TV and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of eating fast food. Teenage children of members of online panels reported hours of TV viewing, beliefs about the consequences of eating fast food, and their frequency of fast-food consumption. Results In both studies, beliefs about health risks of fast-food consumption vary as a function of the amount of TV watched. Heavy TV viewers have less negative and more positive beliefs about the consequences of fast-food consumption than light viewers. As direct experience with fast food increases, the relationship between TV viewing and risk perceptions weakens, but the relationship between TV viewing and positive perceptions strengthens. These moderated relationships remain when we control for physical activity (Study 1) and the density of fast-food restaurants in respondents’ geographical area (Study 2). Conclusion Given the role of TV viewing in biasing perceptions of the consequences of eating fast food, public health researchers and practitioners should carefully monitor and perhaps regulate the amount of fast-food advertising on TV and the content of TV programs. PMID:26009205

  8. Removing the Bedroom Television Set: A Possible Method for Decreasing Television Viewing Time in Overweight and Obese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Katherine E.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Johnson, Rachel K.; Harvey-Berino, Jean R.

    2010-01-01

    U.S. adults watch television (TV) for an average of 5 hours per day, an amount associated with increased obesity risk. Studies in children have found bedroom TV sets, which result in greater time spent by watching TV and shorter sleep durations, both of which increase a child's odds of becoming overweight. The authors examined associations between…

  9. Children and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevallier, Eric; Mansour, Sylvie

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the influence of television on children and adolescents in developing and developed nations, reviewing research on television's relationship to child health and development. The first section reviews specific research on such variables as number of television sets in use, amount of time spent watching television, age, sex,…

  10. Effect of early adult patterns of physical activity and television viewing on midlife cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Tina D.; Reis, Jared; Zhu, Na; Jacobs, David R.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Importance Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity are not only increasing worldwide but also are critical risk factors for adverse health outcomes. Yet few studies have examined the effects of sedentary behavior on cognition or the long-term role of either behavior in early-to-middle adulthood. Objective To investigate the association between 25-year patterns of television viewing and physical activity and mid-life cognition. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study of 3,247 adults (black and white race, aged 18-30 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (March 25, 1985 to August 31, 2011). Main Outcome and Measures We assessed television viewing and physical activity at repeated visits (≥3 assessments) over 25 years using a validated questionnaire. A 25-year pattern of high television viewing was defined as watching TV above the upper baseline quartile (>3 hours/day) for more than two-thirds of the visits, and a 25-year pattern of low physical activity was defined as activity levels below the lower, sex-specific baseline quartile for more than two-thirds of the visits. We evaluated cognitive function at Year 25 using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Results Compared with participants with low television viewing, those with high television viewing during 25 years (323 of 3247 [10.9%]) were more likely to have poor cognitive performance (<1 SD below the race-specific mean) on the DSST and Stroop test, with findings reported as adjusted odds ratio (95% CI): DSST, 1.64 (1.21-2.23); Stroop, 1.56 (1.13-2.14) but not the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test adjusted for age, race, sex, educational level, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, and hypertension. Low physical activity during 25 years in 528 of 3247 participants (16.3%) was significantly associated with poor performance on the DSST, (1.47 1.14-1.90). Compared with participants with low

  11. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  12. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (<2 years old, incidence rate ratio (IRR)=4.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68, 10.42; 2–4 years, IRR=1.54, 95% CI 1.06, 2.26). For children with mothers of Mexican descent, higher maternal English language proficiency was associated with higher amounts of child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  13. The Relationship between Active Viewing of Different Television Content Types and Individual Perception of a Mean World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouner, Donna

    A study tested the validity of two active TV viewing constructs that predicted the effects of content and degree of active viewing on a television viewer's perception of a mean world. Random digit dialing produced interviews with 163 subjects who were asked separate questions about their prime time and daytime viewing to determine their level of…

  14. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  15. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  16. Newton Minow's Global View: Television and the National Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Michael

    Newton Minow, chair of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) during John Kennedy's presidency, considered his plan for the organization of international television--one that gave a new priority to broadcasting without fundamentally altering the legal framework of regulation--as one of the major accomplishments of his tenure. Yet historians…

  17. Attentional Inertia and Recognition Memory in Adult Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John J.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    1993-01-01

    Finds that inertial engagement sustains looks across boundaries between programs and commercials; inertial engagement does not carry over from one look to the next; inertial engagement was associated with greater recognition memory for television content; and look length distributions are approximately lognormal, and hazard functions are…

  18. Time with friends and physical activity as mechanisms linking obesity and television viewing among youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Though bivariate relationships between childhood obesity, physical activity, friendships and television viewing are well documented, empirical assessment of the extent to which links between obesity and television may be mediated by these factors is scarce. This study examines the possibility that time with friends and physical activity are potential mechanisms linking overweight/obesity to television viewing in youth. Methods Data were drawn from children ages 10-18 years old (M = 13.81, SD = 2.55) participating in the 2002 wave of Child Development Supplement (CDS) to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (n = 1,545). Data were collected both directly and via self-report from children and their parents. Path analysis was employed to examine a model whereby the relationships between youth overweight/obesity and television viewing were mediated by time spent with friends and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results Overweight/obesity was directly related to less time spent with friends, but not to MVPA. Time spent with friends was directly and positively related to MVPA, and directly and negatively related to time spent watching television without friends. In turn, MVPA was directly and negatively related to watching television without friends. There were significant indirect effects of both overweight/obesity and time with friends on television viewing through MVPA, and of overweight/obesity on MVPA through time with friends. Net of any indirect effects, the direct effect of overweight/obesity on television viewing remained. The final model fit the data extremely well (χ2 = 5.77, df = 5, p<0.0001, RMSEA = 0.01, CFI = 0.99, TLI =0.99). Conclusions We found good evidence that the positive relationships between time with friends and physical activity are important mediators of links between overweight/obesity and television viewing in youth. These findings highlight the importance of moving from examinations of bivariate relationships

  19. Convergent validity of preschool children's television viewing measures among low-income Latino families: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Television viewing is an important modifiable risk factor for childhood obesity. However, valid methods for measuring children's TV viewing are sparse and few studies have included Latinos, a population disproportionately affected by obesity. The goal of this study was to test the reliability and co...

  20. The Impact of Cable Television in Canada on the Audiences to Canadian TV Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    A survey was made of television viewing in Canada in order to show the impact of cable television on television viewing in general, with special emphasis on examining the effect on the various categories of television station ownership. The report shows the extent to which television viewing habits vary between (a) those who watch television via…

  1. Effect of television viewing on social-emotional competence of young Thai children.

    PubMed

    Intusoma, Utcharee; Mo-Suwan, Ladda; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Panyayong, Benjaporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2013-12-01

    Exposure time, program content and cultural context may affect the impact of television (TV) on the social-emotional competence (SEC) of children. This study examined the effects of TV viewing on the SEC of Thai infants. The study was based on a Thai birth cohort study from which duration and content of TV viewing and data from the Modified Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment instrument at 1 and 3 years of age were available. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine whether scores below the 10th national percentile were associated with TV viewing duration. The relationship between viewing duration and SEC risk was quadratic rather than linear. Viewing duration of 30-120 min/day was associated with a decreased risk of low overall SEC compared to non-viewers after adjustments for confounding factors. However, the beneficial effect diminished when the duration exceeded 120 min/day. Viewing educational programs was associated with a risk reduction of having low overall SEC compared to non-educational programs. These results suggest that a short period of TV viewing may be beneficial for the SEC of Thai infants, especially if the programs are educational.

  2. Adolescents' Construction of Social Reality: The Impact of Television and Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Gary W.; Peters, David F.

    1983-01-01

    Draws upon ideas about "television effects" and the adolescent peer group to illustrate how interconnections between these two socializing agents contribute to the adolescent's "construction of social reality." Examines how gender, sexual, consumer, and occupational roles as enacted by teenagers are a product of media and peer group influences.…

  3. Parent and Adolescent Interaction in Television Advertisements as Consumer Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmete, Emine

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the interaction between parents and adolescents pertaining to television advertisements as a consumer socialization agent and the effects of advertisements on the purchasing decisions of adolescents. The effects of age and sex were also investigated. The sample included 240 high school students in grades 9, 10 and…

  4. The Mirror of Television: A Comparison of Black and White Adolescents' Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    2000-01-01

    Finds that black adolescent girls were more satisfied with their bodies and had a larger personal ideal size than white adolescent girls, but engaged in no fewer eating-disordered behaviors and had no less drive to be thin; and these girls idealized television images equally and were as likely to compare themselves and their friends to television…

  5. Externalizing behaviors and television viewing in children of low-income minority parents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V B; Nwosa, N M; Nadel, T A; Inamdar, S

    2001-06-01

    The parents of 151 children, ages 4-16 years, attending the pediatric outpatient clinic of an urban hospital were surveyed to determine if aggressive behavior among children of low literacy and low-income parents is related to excessive television viewing or to sociological variables such as ethnicity/race, education, occupation, and parents' marital status. The survey consisted of 22 questions about the ethnicity, marital status, education, and occupation of the parent, the television viewing behavior of the child, and the externalizing behavior scale of the Child Behavior Checklist of Achenbach (CBC). The television viewing habits of children in this study were not significantly different from viewing habits reported in national surveys of the US population. T scores in the aggression scale of CBC were unrelated to the hours of television watched by children and the control of viewing by the parent but were significantly associated with the employment and marital status of the mother. Children of unemployed and single mothers had higher externalizing-behavior scores, suggesting that family ecological variables may have more influence on children's behavior than the duration of television viewing.

  6. Viewing death on television increases the appeal of advertised products.

    PubMed

    Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current article explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with Terror Management Theory's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered.

  7. Viewing Death on Television Increases the Appeal of Advertised Products

    PubMed Central

    DAR-NIMROD, ILAN

    2012-01-01

    References to death abound in many television programs accessible to most people. Terror Management Theory (TMT) postulates that existential anxiety, which death reminders activate, may reinforce materialistic tendencies. The current paper explores the effect of a death reminder in television shows on the desirability of advertised products. Consistent with TMT's predictions, in two studies participants show greater desire for products, which were advertised immediately following clips from programs that featured a death scene, compared with programs that did not. Cognitive accessibility of death predicted the appeal difference while changes in affect or interest in the show did not. The findings are discussed in light on affective and existential theories which make opposite predictions. Implications and future directions are considered. PMID:22468421

  8. How Deaf and Hearing Adolescents Comprehend a Televised Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cambra, Cristina; Leal, Aurora; Silvestre, Nuria

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the diversity of interpretations that can arise in cases where people with hearing loss perceive the information deriving from sound and language differently to how it is perceived by those without hearing impairment. Three experimental situations were designed in which 20 deaf adolescents and 20 hearing classmates view a film…

  9. Children's Television Behaviour: Its Antecedents and Relationship to School Performance. A Study of the Television Viewing Behaviour of Children in Grade 6 of State Primary Schools in the Metropolitan Area of Melbourne. Occasional Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Kevin James

    A study was conducted to describe the television viewing habits of grade 6 children in primary schools within the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia; to examine the nature of the relationships between factors found to be relevant in explaining television behavior; and to examine the relationship between television behavior and school…

  10. Hispanic parents of overweight and obese children and their outcome expectations for children's television viewing: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to explore parental outcome expectations (OE) regarding children's television (TV) viewing among parents of overweight or obese children. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 20 parents of 5- to 8-year-old overweight or obese children. We found tha...

  11. Television campaigns and adolescent marijuana use: tests of sensation seeking targeting.

    PubMed Central

    Palmgreen, P; Donohew, L; Lorch, E P; Hoyle, R H; Stephenson, M T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of targeted televised public service announcement campaigns in reducing marijuana use among high-sensation-seeking adolescents. METHODS: The study used a controlled interrupted time-series design in 2 matched communities. Two televised antimarijuana campaigns were conducted in 1 county and 1 campaign in the comparison community. Personal interviews were conducted with 100 randomly selected teenagers monthly in each county for 32 months. RESULTS: All 3 campaigns reversed upward developmental trends in 30-day marijuana use among high-sensation seekers (P < .002). As expected, low-sensation seekers had low use levels, and no campaign effects were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Televised campaigns with high reach and frequency that use public service announcements designed for and targeted at high-sensation-seeking adolescents can significantly reduce substance use in this high-risk population. PMID:11211642

  12. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  13. Predictors of Adolescent Self Appraisal: Perceptions of Television Characters vs. Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbonneau, Michael R.; And Others

    The images of life conveyed by television appear to have substantial impact on the expectations and standards that guide teenagers' choices and that shape their sense of satisfaction with their own life circumstances. This study compared the perceptions of 5th through 11th grade adolescents (N=133) of their own life experiences with those of their…

  14. Affects of Television as a Natural Educator: Can Television Be a Tool as an Informal Educator?: A TRNC Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Sarem

    2006-01-01

    The major objective of this study is to discuss the effects of television on children and adolescents. Our children are spending many hours in front of the television. This study examined the viewing habits and personal opinions of Turkish Cypriot children. The participants were 250 children and adolescents whose ages varied between 4-17. This…

  15. Could nursery rhymes cause violent behaviour? A comparison with television viewing

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P; Lee, L; Fox, A; Fox, E

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the rates of violence in nursery rhymes compared to pre-watershed television viewing. Methods: Data regarding television viewing habits, and the amount of violence on British television, were obtained from Ofcom. A compilation of nursery rhymes was examined for episodes of violence by three of the researchers. Each nursery rhyme was analysed by number and type of episode. They were then recited to the fourth researcher whose reactions were scrutinised. Results: There were 1045 violent scenes on pre-watershed television over two weeks, of which 61% showed the act and the result; 51% of programmes contained violence. The 25 nursery rhymes had 20 episodes of violence, with 41% of rhymes being violent in some way; 30% mentioned the act and the result, with 50% only the act. Episodes of law breaking and animal abuse were also identified. Television has 4.8 violent scenes per hour and nursery rhymes have 52.2 violent scenes per hour. Analysis of the reactions of the fourth researcher were inconclusive. Conclusions: Although we do not advocate exposure for anyone to violent scenes or stimuli, childhood violence is not a new phenomenon. Whether visual violence and imagined violence have the same effect is likely to depend on the age of the child and the effectiveness of the storyteller. Re-interpretation of the ancient problem of childhood and youth violence through modern eyes is difficult, and laying the blame solely on television viewing is simplistic and may divert attention from vastly more complex societal problems. PMID:15557041

  16. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

  17. Adolescent Counterarguing of TV Beer Advertisements: Evidence for Effectiveness of Alcohol Education and Critical Viewing Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of alcohol education programs. This study (N=83) found that recency of exposure to alcohol education classes and discussion of alcohol advertising in those classes predicts adolescent cognitive resistance (counterarguing) to persuasive alcohol advertising for months or even years. Suggests greater attention to critical…

  18. The association of parent's outcome expectations for child TV viewing with parenting practices and child TV viewing: An examination using path analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Television (TV) viewing has been associated with many undesirable outcomes for children, such as increased risk of obesity, but TV viewing can also have benefits. Although restrictive parenting practices are effective in reducing children's TV viewing, not all parents use them and it is currently un...

  19. Exposure to Violence, Parental Monitoring, and Television Viewing as Contributors to Children's Psychological Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Mark I.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Guo, Shenyang; Miller, David; Leibbrandt, Sylvia

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of exposure to violence, parental monitoring, and television viewing habits to children's self-reported symptoms of psychological trauma. Children in grades 3-8 in 11 public schools completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire administered during usual school hours. The final sample was comprised…

  20. Do Television Commercials Offered During Children's Viewing Hours Require Any Reading Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Karen J.

    A study was conducted to evaluate television commercials based on their reading (or print) content. Commercials aired on the three major networks during Saturday morning programing were viewed for six consecutive weeks. Each commercial was analyzed to determine how it used printed words to sell a product. The results revealed that the printed word…

  1. Teenage Television Viewing. Focused Access to Selected Topics (FAST) Bibliography No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Michael

    Surveying the television habits of teenagers, this annotated bibliography contains 30 references of articles and papers in the ERIC database. The first section, "Impact on Health, Sexual Behavior, Use of Alcohol," addresses such issues as the relationship of viewing sexual content to sexual activity and sex role acquisition, and relationships…

  2. Children's Interactional Experience with Television Advertising as an Index of Viewing Sophistication: A Symbolic Interactionist Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; Frazer, Charles F.

    After seven judges had ranked 30 families for observed parental consumer teaching orientations and family television viewing habits, one family was selected for each cell of a 3X3 factorial design for age of children (3 to 5, 6 to 8, 9 to 11) and family consumer teaching orientation (high, moderate, low). These nine family groups were observed…

  3. Television Viewing and Symptoms of Inattention and Hyperactivity across Time: The Importance of Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tara; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; To, Yen

    2009-01-01

    The importance of well-specified research questions in the evaluation of early predictors of later inattention and hyperactivity is examined. In an analysis of a nationally representative sample of 2,717 children aged 4 to 10, latent growth trajectories for television viewing and inattention and hyperactivity are determined and the relationship of…

  4. Association Between Parent Television-Viewing Practices and Setting Rules to Limit the Television-Viewing Time of Their 8- to 12-Year-Old Children, Minnesota, 2011–2015

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Olga V.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Television (TV) viewing is popular among adults and children, and child TV-viewing time is positively associated with parent TV-viewing time. Efforts to limit the TV-viewing time of children typically target parent rule-setting. However, little is known about the association between parent TV-viewing practices and rule-setting. Methods We used baseline height and weight data and survey data collected from 2011 through 2015 on parents and their 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 212 parent/child dyads) who were participants in 2 community-based obesity prevention intervention trials conducted in metropolitan Minnesota. Multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between parent TV-viewing time on weekdays or weekend days (dichotomized as ≤2 hrs/d vs ≥2.5 hrs/d) and parent rules limiting child TV-viewing time. Results Child mean age was 10 (standard deviation [SD], 1.4) years, mean body mass index (BMI) percentile was 81 (SD, 16.7), approximately half of the sample were boys, and 42% of the sample was nonwhite. Parent mean age was 41 (SD, 7.5) years, and mean BMI was 29 (SD, 7.5); most of the sample was female, and 36% of the sample was nonwhite. Parents who limited their TV-viewing time on weekend days to 2 hours or fewer per day were almost 3 times more likely to report setting rules limiting child TV-viewing time than were parents who watched 2.5 hours or more per day (P = .01). A similar association was not seen for parent weekday TV-viewing time. Conclusion For most adults and children, a meaningful decrease in sedentariness will require reductions in TV-viewing time. Family-based interventions to reduce TV-viewing time that target the TV-viewing practices of both children and parents are needed. PMID:28103183

  5. Health discourse in Swedish television food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

    PubMed

    Prell, Hillevi; Palmblad, Eva; Lissner, Lauren; Berg, Christina M

    2011-06-01

    Food marketing influences children's food preferences and consumption and is important to consider in the prevention of child obesity. In this paper, health messages in commercials during children's peak viewing times were analysed by examining how food is articulated in the health discourse. In total, 82 food commercials from 66h of television recordings of the most popular commercial channels with children in Sweden (TV3, TV4 and Channel 5) were analysed with discourse theoretical tools according to Laclau and Mouffe and with a focus on rhetoric. Physical, mental and social health aspects were present in 71% of the commercials. Three health discourse types; a medical (food as protection and treatment), a hedonic (food as feeling good) and a social discourse type (food as caring) were discerned. In relation to these, the heart symbol, lifestyle associations and nature/the natural were elements that could be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, foods carrying unhealthy associations were promoted in the health discourse and presented as especially healthy by offensive rhetoric. The analysis raises awareness of the prevailing health messages in food marketing. Children and parents should be encouraged to develop their critical thinking about television food advertising and how it may influence social norms and dietary practices.

  6. A Content Analysis of Weight Stigmatization in Popular Television Programming for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Carlson-McGuire, Ashley; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study provides updated information regarding the prevalence and characteristics of weight stigma in popular adolescent television programming, using a sample of favorite shows named by diverse adolescents. Method Participants in a large, population-based study of Minnesota adolescents (N = 2,793, mean age = 14.4) listed their top three favorite television shows. A coding instrument was developed to analyze randomly selected episodes from the most popular 10 programs. Weight-stigmatizing incidents were compared across television show characteristics and characters’ gender and weight status. Results Half (50%) of the 30 episodes analyzed contained at least one weight-stigmatizing incident. Both youth- and adult-targeted shows contained weight-stigmatizing comments, but the percent of these comments was much higher for youth-targeted (55.6%) than general audience-targeted shows (8.3%). Male characters were more likely than females to engage in (72.7% vs. 27.3%), and be the targets of, weight stigma (63.6% vs. 36.4%), and there was no difference in the amount of weight stigmatizing directed at average weight females compared to overweight females. Targets of these instances showed a negative response in only about one-third of cases, but audience laughter followed 40.9% of cases. Discussion The portrayal of weight stigmatization on popular television shows—including targeting women of average weight—sends signals to adolescents about the wide acceptability of this behavior and the expected response, which may be harmful. Prevention of weight stigmatization should take a multi-faceted approach and include the media. Future research should explore the impact that weight-related stigma in television content has on viewers. PMID:25139262

  7. Associations between television viewing and love styles: an interpretation using cultivation theory.

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Amir

    2012-02-01

    This study evaluated the associations between television viewing and love styles. The Love Attitudes Scale (LAS), based on Lee's love style taxonomy, was administered to a sample of 338 unmarried Israeli students along with questions about TV viewing habits, current involvement in a serious romantic relationship, and marital intentions. A confirmatory factor analysis of the LAS indicated that the expected six-factor solution adequately fit the data. Correlations between individual love styles and TV viewing were small to moderate, ranging from .12 to .29. Scores for Ludus love style correlated positively with viewing of news and general programming. Those for Pragma love style correlated positively with news viewing and negatively with viewing genres frequently including love themes such as soap operas and family drama, while scores for Eros love style positively correlated with watching these love abundant genres. No significant association was found for TV viewing with Storge, Mania, and Agape love styles. Hierarchical regression using demographic variables, love status, and viewing habits mirrored these results, with the unique R2 for Ludus, Pragma, and Eros ranging from 1.8% to 8%, while the total variance accounted for by the models ranged from 12% to 21%. The findings can be interpreted as support for a weak cultivation effect, in which habits in long-term TV viewing among young adults correspond to small to moderate tendencies for particular love styles that thematically relate them. However, because they are correlational, the findings could equally be interpreted in terms of tendencies that exist due to modeling within families and socialization during development.

  8. Television viewing and hostile personality trait increase the risk of injuries.

    PubMed

    Fabio, Anthony; Chen, Chung-Yu; Dearwater, Steven; Jacobs, David R; Erickson, Darin; Matthews, Karen A; Iribarren, Carlos; Sidney, Stephen; Pereira, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with high levels of hostility may be more susceptible to the influence of television on violence and risk taking behaviors. This study aimed to examine whether hostile personality trait modifies the association between TV viewing and injuries. It is a prospective study of 4,196 black and white adults aged 23 to 35 in 1990/1. Cross-lagged panel models were analyzed at three 5-year time periods to test whether TV viewing predicted injuries. Covariates were gender, race, and education. Individuals who watched more TV (0 hours, 1-3 hours, 4-6 hours, and ≥7 hours) were more likely to have a hospitalization for an injury in the following 5 years across each of the three follow-up periods [OR = 1.5 (95%CI = 1.2, 1.9), 1.5 (1.1, 1.9), and 1.9 (1.3, 2.6)]. The cross-lagged effects of TV viewing to injury were significant in the high hostility group [OR = 1.4 (95%CI = 1.1, 1.8), 1.3 (1.0, 1.8), and 2.0 (1.3, 2.9)] but not in the low hostility group [OR = 1.3 (95%CI = 0.6, 2.2), 1.1 (0.6, 2.1), and 1.4 (0.7, 2.8)]. Additionally, a statistically significant difference between the two models (P < 0.001) suggested that hostility moderated the relationship between TV watching and injury. These findings suggest that individuals who watch more TV and have a hostile personality trait may be at a greater risk for injury.

  9. Using Project-Based Data in Physics to Examine Television Viewing in Relation to Student Performance in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Mass media, particularly television, influence public conceptions and attitudes toward learning science. The discovery of an original method that does not rely on self-reported viewing habits to measure the impact of television on students' performance in science arose from a study of a unit on electricity in a Physics course. In determining the…

  10. RuHe ZhiDao HaiZi GuanKan DianShi (Guidelines for Family Television Viewing). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    This digest addresses problems associated with children's excessive viewing of television programs and commercials and provides suggestions to help parents guide their children's television viewing. Children who watch television 3 to 5 hours a day have little time for other activities such as play, reading, and talking with others. Excessive…

  11. [Children, television and violence].

    PubMed

    Zann, M

    2000-03-01

    The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors.

  12. Young children's food brand knowledge. Early development and associations with television viewing and parent's diet.

    PubMed

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Hennessy, Eilis; Dean, Moira; Hollywood, Lynsey

    2014-09-01

    Brand knowledge is a prerequisite of children's requests and choices for branded foods. We explored the development of young children's brand knowledge of foods highly advertised on television - both healthy and less healthy. Participants were 172 children aged 3-5 years in diverse socio-economic settings, from two jurisdictions on the island of Ireland with different regulatory environments. Results indicated that food brand knowledge (i) did not differ across jurisdictions; (ii) increased significantly between 3 and 4 years; and (iii) children had significantly greater knowledge of unhealthy food brands, compared with similarly advertised healthy brands. In addition, (iv) children's healthy food brand knowledge was not related to their television viewing, their mother's education, or parent or child eating. However, (v) unhealthy brand knowledge was significantly related to all these factors, although only parent eating and children's age were independent predictors. Findings indicate that effects of food marketing for unhealthy foods take place through routes other than television advertising alone, and are present before pre-schoolers develop the concept of healthy eating. Implications are that marketing restrictions of unhealthy foods should extend beyond television advertising; and that family-focused obesity prevention programmes should begin before children are 3 years of age.

  13. Media matters for boys too! The role of specific magazine types and television programs in the drive for thinness and muscularity in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the role of specific magazine types and television programs on drive for thinness and muscularity in adolescent boys. A sample of 182 adolescent boys with an average age of 15.2 years completed questionnaire measures of magazine and television consumption, drive for thinness and drive for muscularity. Different media genres showed varying relationships with drive for thinness and muscularity. Specifically, the consumption of men's magazines and the viewing of soap operas emerged as significant unique predictors of drive for thinness, with the consumption of men's magazines also offering unique prediction of drive for muscularity. A comprehensive approach that considers both type and genre of media is critical in increasing our understanding of the complex relationships between media exposure and disordered eating in adolescent boys.

  14. The Value of Reanalysis: TV Viewing and Attention Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, E. Michael; Watkins, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 1,159), this study reexamines the link between maternal reports of television viewing at ages 1 and 3 and attention problems at age 7. This work represents a reanalysis and extension of recent research suggesting young children's television viewing causes subsequent attention problems.…

  15. Typologies of neighbourhood environments and children's physical activity, sedentary time and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found. Longitudinally, the cluster characterised by mixed land use and many playgrounds and sport venues was associated with less television viewing on weekends three years later. Considering the aggregate effects of urban form elements may help understand how combinations of neighbourhood attributes influence behavior.

  16. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.

  17. Incident-related television viewing and psychiatric disorders in Oklahoma City bombing survivors.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; Houston, J Brian; Regens, James L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine terrorism media coverage and psychiatric outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors. The study used (1) self-report questionnaires to retrospectively assess event-related media behaviors and reactions in a cross sectional design and (2) longitudinal structured diagnostic interviews to assess psychopathologic outcomes. The participants were 99 directly-exposed Oklahoma City bombing survivors who were initially studied six months after the 1995 incident. Though a fear reaction to bombing-related television coverage and fear-driven discontinuation of bombing-related media contact were associated with diagnostic outcomes, the number of hours viewing bombing-related television coverage in the first week after the event was not associated with the prevalence of bombing-related posttraumatic stress disorder or post-bombing major depressive disorder during the seven years post event. The results raise doubt about the effects of quantified incident-related television viewing on clinically-significant emotional outcomes in directly-exposed terrorism survivors.

  18. The Fun Families Study: intervention to reduce children's TV viewing.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Chaves, Soledad Liliana; Markham, Christine M; Addy, Robert C; Greisinger, Anthony; Murray, Nancy G; Brehm, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    Media consumption may contribute to childhood obesity. This study developed and evaluated a theory-based, parent-focused intervention to reduce television and other media consumption to prevent and reduce childhood obesity. Families (n = 202) with children ages 6-9 were recruited from a large, urban multiethnic population into a randomized controlled trial (101 families into the intervention group and 101 into the control group), and were followed for 6 months. The intervention consisted of a 2-hour workshop and six bimonthly newsletters. Behavioral objectives included: (i) reduce TV watching; (ii) turn off TV when nobody is watching; (iii) no TV with meals; (iv) no TV in the child's bedroom; and (v) engage in fun non-media related activities. Parents were 89% female, 44% white, 28% African American, 17% Latino, and 11% Asian, mean age 40 years (s.d. = 7.5); 72% were married. Children were 49% female, mean age 8 years (s.d. = 0.95). Sixty-five percent of households had three or more TVs and video game players; 37% had at least one handheld video game, and 53% had three or more computers. Average children's weekday media exposure was 6.1 hours. At 6 months follow-up, the intervention group was less likely to report the TV being on when nobody was watching (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.23, P < 0.05), less likely to report eating snacks while watching TV (AOR = 0.47, P < 0.05), and less likely to have a TV in the child's bedroom (AOR = 0.23, P < 0.01). There was a trend toward reducing actual media consumption but these outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Effective strategies to reduce children's TV viewing were identified.

  19. A Study of Eye Movement in Television Viewing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Willavene; And Others

    An analysis of the types of eye movements of subjects viewing motion picture films and telelessons revealed a continuum of movements. Two of the intervals of this continuum (No Observable Movements and Minimovements) were found to be related to intelligence. The factors of age and learning did not correlate with any of the indices. Subjects in the…

  20. User experience while viewing stereoscopic 3D television

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C.A.; Bohr, Iwo

    2014-01-01

    3D display technologies have been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. In a lab-based study with a between-subjects design, 433 viewers aged from 4 to 82 years watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (S3D), and subjectively reported on a range of aspects of their viewing experience. Our results suggest that a minority of viewers, around 14%, experience adverse effects due to viewing S3D, mainly headache and eyestrain. A control experiment where participants viewed 2D content through 3D glasses suggests that around 8% may report adverse effects which are not due directly to viewing S3D, but instead are due to the glasses or to negative preconceptions about S3D (the ‘nocebo effect'). Women were slightly more likely than men to report adverse effects with S3D. We could not detect any link between pre-existing eye conditions or low stereoacuity and the likelihood of experiencing adverse effects with S3D. Practitioner Summary: Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) has been linked to visual discomfort and fatigue. Viewers watched the same movie in either 2D or stereo 3D (between-subjects design). Around 14% reported effects such as headache and eyestrain linked to S3D itself, while 8% report adverse effects attributable to 3D glasses or negative expectations. PMID:24874550

  1. About Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Martin

    The entire broadcast television industry is the subject of this book. An attempt is made to present history, theory, and anecdotes about television programing, television advertising, television and politics, and network news, focusing all the while on American television, but with consideration given to alternative structures and methods.…

  2. Obesity and low vision as a result of excessive Internet use and television viewing.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S; Ali, Awab I; Al-Nufal, Mohammed; Vachhani, Pankit J; Tewfik, Ihab

    2011-02-01

    The technological age has resulted in children spending prolonged hours in front of television (TV) and computer screens (on the Internet). The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study is to determine the effect of this phenomenon on both childhood obesity and low vision in the State of Qatar. A total of 3000 school students aged 6 to 18 years were approached from September 2009 to March 2010 and 2467 (82.2%) students agreed to participate. Face-to-face interviews based on a designed questionnaire were conducted. The highest proportion of obese children were aged between 15-18 years (9.4%; p < 0.001); spent ≥ 3 hours on the Internet (5.6%; p < 0.001), and spent between 5-7 hours or less sleeping (4.1%; p < 0.001). Forty-six (1.9%) children spent ≥ 3 hours/day on the Internet, and were either overweight/obese and had low vision. The study findings confirmed a positive association between obesity and low vision as a result of excessive time spent on the TV view and Internet use.

  3. TV Viewing and Parental Guidance. Education Consumer Guide, Number 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, David; Singh, Ram

    This newsletter issue focuses on the role of parents in monitoring their children's television viewing habits. The newsletter first discusses the current status of parental concerns about the content of television programming, noting the industry's increased willingness to provide more information, and the advent of a rating system and…

  4. Tuning in to Television, News, Views, and How To Live with It. 15th Anniversary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" provides essays and teaching ideas for addressing the influence of television in society. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Wrestling with Television" (Elizabeth Thoman); (2) "Comics and Culture" (Rosalind Silver); (3) "Society's Storyteller" (George Gerbner); (4) "Five Important Ideas to Teach Your Kids about TV"…

  5. Joint associations of smoking and television viewing time on cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Grace, Megan S; Lynch, Brigid M; Dillon, Francis; Barr, Elizabeth L M; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W

    2017-04-01

    Excessive sitting time and smoking are pro-inflammatory lifestyle factors that are associated with both cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. However, their joint associations have not been investigated. We examined the associations of television (TV) viewing time with cancer and CVD mortality, according to smoking status, among 7,498 non-smokers (34% ex-smokers) and 1,409 current-smokers in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study. During 117,506 person-years (median 13.6 years) of follow-up, there were 346 cancer and 209 CVD-related deaths. Including an interaction between TV time and smoking status in the model significantly improved the goodness of fit for cancer (p = 0.01) but not CVD mortality (p = 0.053). In the multivariate-adjusted model, every additional hr/d of TV time was associated with increased risk of cancer-related (HR 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40), but not CVD-related mortality (HR 1.16; 95% CI 0.97-1.38) in current-smokers. Elevated multivariate-adjusted cancer mortality HRs were observed for current-smokers watching 2 to <4 hr/d (HR 1.45; 95% CI 0.78-2.71) and ≥4 hr/d (HR 2.26; 95% CI 1.10-4.64), compared to those watching <2 hr/d. Current-smokers watching 2 to <4 hr/d (HR 1.07; 95% CI 0.45-2.53) and ≥4 hr/d (HR 1.92; 95% CI 0.76-4.84) did not have a significantly higher risk of CVD mortality, compared to <2 hr/d. No associations were observed for non-smokers. These findings show an association of TV, a common sedentary behavior, with cancer mortality in current-smokers. The association with CVD mortality was less clear. Further exploration in larger data sets is warranted. Limiting TV viewing time may be of benefit in reducing cancer mortality risk in current-smokers.

  6. Television 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapping, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the possible changes in the medium of television by the year 2020. He predicts that the viewers of the future will each have a simple gadget that will enable them to select exactly what they want to view--at their own choice of time. Nobody will sit through the end of a programme they do not want to watch in…

  7. Adult-Child Co-Viewing of Educational Television: Enhancing Preschoolers' Understanding of Mathematics Shown on "Sesame Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenlander, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Can adults help children to understand the content in preschool educational television by watching shows with them? Research indicates that co-viewing occurs rarely and has mixed benefits for learning. This study investigates the idea that a special kind of adult-child co-viewing, namely "dialogic viewing," in which adults ask open-ended questions…

  8. Children and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewalt, Mark W.; Erickson, Laurie

    This study reviews the literature on the effects of television viewing on children, examines the preferences of children for television programs and commercials, and analyzes selected characteristics of these programs. A stratified sample of 1,416 students in grades 1-6 in six eastern states was polled on their viewing preferences in November of…

  9. Parental outcome expectations on children's TV viewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's TV viewing has been associated with increased sedentary behavior and poor eating habits. Positive intervention effects have been observed when addressing outcome expectations as a mediator in interventions targeting children's dietary behavior. Little is known about parental outcome expec...

  10. What are the television viewing and eating habits of children in Peru?

    PubMed

    Busse, Peter; Díaz, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    While there is already consensus in the scientific community about the deleterious effects of TV exposure, especially through TV advertisements, on children's beliefs, preferences, and food intake, the link between TV and children's eating behaviors is under-studied in Peru, a country experiencing a steady economic growth in recent years and currently with a status of upper-middle-income country. Following research about the effects of media exposure on childhood obesity, we report on a qualitative study of TV viewing and the eating habits of children attending elementary schools in Lima, the capital. Data from eight focus groups with 38 boys and girls between 6 and 11 years old, eight focus groups with 36 female caretakers, and in-depth interviews with two fathers provided consistent information about children's eating habits and media viewing patterns. After dual coding the entire corpus of qualitative data, we found that children watch a great deal of TV during the school season: children watch as early as when they wake up in the morning, then during lunchtime (after returning from school), and then again after completing their homework from 5 pm to 9 pm or 10 pm. Survey data from the parents showed that, on average, children watch about 5 hours of TV on weekdays and more during a weekend-day. This large amount of exposure is concerning, especially because the focus groups revealed that children (1) recall a number of TV advertisements involving food items, (2) request food items seen on TV, and (3) are able to buy food for themselves, which usually involves chocolate, candy, or potato chips. Boys and girls reported different favorite TV shows, suggesting differences in exposure to TV content related to food. In addition, some families reported drinking sodas frequently, underlining a behavior that should be discouraged by public health officials.

  11. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  12. Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Television, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Television in medical education is featured in this supplement to "Educational Television." James Lieberman offers an overview of the present state of medical instructional television. He concludes his article by suggesting that the primary requisite for making optimum use of television in biomedical education is the preparation of a…

  13. Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Aspects of educational television (ETV) covered in this report include its history, growth and development, noncommerical television broadcast stations, instructional television fixed service (ITFS), microwave relay system, television signal translators, cable systems, and the use of satellites. The report also outlines the Federal Communications…

  14. A Critical View of Television through the Eyes of Classical Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Unlike the criticism of the literary arts and the spoken word, rhetoric, television criticism is in its infancy. The styles suggested for television criticism have primarily been drawn from modern drama, literature and semiotics. Today, television critics of the scholarly sort are looking at a variety of styles to see if they can tell their…

  15. Children, Radio and Television--Now and in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Feilitzen, Cecilia; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes aspects of television and radio broadcasting in Sweden. Particular attention is given to children's programs, children's viewing patterns, the influence of TV on children, and how to improve the quality of radio and television programs. (Author/SS)

  16. Cultivation and counter cultivation: does religiosity shape the relationship between television viewing and estimates of crime prevalence and assessment of victimization likelihood?

    PubMed

    Hetsroni, Amir; Lowenstein, Hila

    2013-02-01

    Religiosity may change the direction of the effect of TV viewing on assessment of the likelihood of personal victimization and estimates concerning crime prevalence. A content analysis of a representative sample of TV programming (56 hours of prime-time shows) was done to identify the most common crimes on television, followed by a survey of a representative sample of the adult public in a large urban district (778 respondents) who were asked to estimate the prevalence of these crimes and to assess the likelihood of themselves being victimized. People who defined themselves as non-religious increased their estimates of prevalence for crimes often depicted on TV, as they reported more time watching TV (ordinary cultivation effect), whereas estimates regarding the prevalence of crime and assessment of victimization likelihood among religious respondents were lower with reports of more time devoted to television viewing (counter-cultivation effect).

  17. This is Advertising! Effects of Disclosing Television Brand Placement on Adolescents.

    PubMed

    van Reijmersdal, Eva A; Boerman, Sophie C; Buijzen, Moniek; Rozendaal, Esther

    2017-02-01

    As heavy media users, adolescents are frequently exposed to embedded advertising formats such as brand placements. Because this may lead to unwitting persuasion, regulations prescribe disclosure of brand placements. This study aimed to increase our understanding of the effects of disclosing television brand placements and disclosure duration on adolescents' persuasion knowledge (i.e., recognition of brand placement as being advertising, understanding that brand placement has a persuasive intent and critical attitude toward brand placement) and brand responses (i.e., brand memory and brand attitude). To do so, an earlier study that was conducted among adults was replicated among adolescents aged 13-17 years (N = 221, 44 % female). The present study shows that brand placement disclosure had limited effects on adolescents' persuasion knowledge as it only affected adolescents' understanding of persuasive intent, did not mitigate persuasion, but did increase brand memory. These findings suggest that brand placement disclosure has fundamentally different effects on adolescents than on adults: the disclosures had less effects on activating persuasion knowledge and mitigating persuasion among adolescents than among adults. Implications for advertising disclosure regulation and consequences for advertisers are discussed.

  18. FUNDAMENTALS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KESSLER, WILLIAM J.

    DESIGNED FOR A READER WITHOUT SPECIAL TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE, THIS ILLUSTRATED RESOURCE PAPER EXPLAINS THE COMPONENTS OF A TELEVISION SYSTEM AND RELATES THEM TO THE COMPLETE SYSTEM. SUBJECTS DISCUSSED ARE THE FOLLOWING--STUDIO ORGANIZATION AND COMPATIBLE COLOR TELEVISION PRINCIPLES, WIRED AND RADIO TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS, DIRECT VIEW AND PROJECTION…

  19. Television Viewing by School-Age Children: Associations with Physical Activity, Snack Food Consumption and Unhealthy Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Broom, Dorothy H.; Bittman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Alarm about the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity has focussed attention on individual lifestyle behaviours that may contribute to unhealthy weight. Television viewing is often a focus of the obesity debate. Not only is it sedentary, it also has the potential to influence other lifestyle behaviours either by displacing physical activities…

  20. The Relationships between Television Viewing in Midlife and the Development of Alzheimer's Disease in a Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, H.A.; Fritsch, T.; Petot, G.; Smyth, K.A.; Chen, C.H.; Debanne, S.M.; Lerner, A.J.; Friedland, R.P.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between leisure activities and development of cognitive impairment in aging has been the subject of recent research. We examined television viewing in association with risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a case-control study. Given recent focus on the importance of intellectually stimulating activities as preventive…

  1. Effects of Viewing the Television Program Between the Lions on the Emergent Literacy Skills of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linebarger, Deborah L.; Kosanic, Anjelika Z.; Greenwood, Charles R.; Doku, Nii Sai

    2004-01-01

    Does viewing Between the Lions, an educational television series featuring literacy instruction, improve the emergent literacy skills of kindergarten and first-grade children? Do improvements vary as a function of the child's initial reading risk status? In this study, higher word recognition and standardized reading test scores were noted for all…

  2. Television Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

    Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

  3. Exploring Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William

    "Exploring Television" is an inquiry/discovery textbook designed to help students to understand, analyze, criticize, evaluate, and judge the experiences they have had in front of the television set. The text consists of three main parts. "The Medium" inquires into the radio-movie origins of television and prompts research into the networks and…

  4. Associations between television viewing and physical activity and low back pain in community-based adults: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sultana Monira; Urquhart, Donna M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Dunstan, David; Shaw, Jonathan E; Magliano, Dianna J; Wluka, Anita E; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2016-06-01

    Two systematic reviews concluded that there was limited evidence to support an association between physical activity and sedentary behavior and developing low back pain (LBP). The aim of this study was to examine the associations of physical activity and television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability in community-based adults.Five thousand fifty-eight participants (44% men) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study had physical activity and television viewing time measured in 1999 to 2000, 2004 to 2005, and 2011 to 2012, and LBP intensity and disability assessed in 2013 to 2014 using the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio for LBP intensity and disability associated with physical activity and television viewing time. Analyses were adjusted for age, education, smoking, dietary guideline index score, body mass index, and mental component summary score. To test whether associations of physical activity or television viewing time with LBP intensity and disability were modified by sex, obesity, or age, interactions were tested using the likelihood ratio test.As gender modified the associations between physical activity and television viewing time and LBP disability (P = 0.05), men and women were examined separately. A total of 81.7% men and 82.1% women had LBP. Most men (63.6%) and women (60.2%) had low intensity LBP with fewer having high intensity LBP (18.1% men, 21.5% women). Most participants had no LBP disability (74.5% men, 71.8% women) with the remainder reporting low (15.8% men, 15.3% women) or high (9.7% men, 12.9% women) LBP disability. Insufficient physical activity (<2.5 hours/week) was not associated with LBP intensity or disability. High television viewing time (≥2 hours/day) was associated with greater prevalence of LBP disability in women (low disability OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.04-1.73; high disability OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01-1.72).Although it needs to be confirmed

  5. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  6. Creating a Learning Context: Investigations on the Interaction of Siblings during Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Alison; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates through a case study and a participant observation study that siblings interact about television in such a way that the form and content of their talk creates a learning context. Concludes that, despite concerns about "zombie" viewers, children are not passive, unresponsive recipients of television. (PD)

  7. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced.

  8. Television's impact on children.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, B S

    1985-02-01

    Television has a major impact on children's knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Research has demonstrated the association between television viewing and four areas: (1) children's aggressive behavior; (2) racial and sex-role stereotypes; (3) decreased interest in reading and school activities; and (4) poorer health habits and attitudes. Methodological limitations make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about a causal relationship between television viewing and children's behavior. Representative studies in these four areas are reviewed, important methodological concerns are pointed out, and conclusions from the research findings are drawn. The implications of the data for pediatricians and other health professionals are discussed.

  9. The Television Agricultural Secondary School in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janucik, Ryszard

    1976-01-01

    TV Agricultural Secondary School (TVASS), a scheme of agricultural education using a combination of television and further education classes, is fully described and viewed in light of current research. (WL)

  10. Internet Use and Television Viewing in Children and its Association with Vision Loss: A Major Public Health Problem

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahdi, Huda S.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8%) agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586), 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05). Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2%) than in infrequent viewers (14.0%). The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%). Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age. PMID:28299088

  11. Overweight and television and computer habits in Swedish school-age children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle.

  12. "Television" Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2010-01-01

    In an art class, children browse through space-age knobs, robot antennas and gyroscopic signal searchers. They extend space needle antennas before turning on an old TV. They discover the sights and sounds of televisions past, hearing the hiss, the gathering power, and seeing the blinking eye, the black-and-white light and blurry images projected…

  13. Does Television Influence Adolescents' Perceptions of and Attitudes toward People with Mental Illness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnebo, Jurgen; Van Acker, An

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether and how (1) cumulative overall exposure to television and (2) cumulative selective exposure to specific television content are related to both estimates of and opinions about people who have mental illnesses. Two hundred fifty-two Belgian high school students completed self-report questionnaires. Measures included…

  14. A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M

    2010-03-01

    Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program.

  15. Correction of chromatic aberrations at television registration of image through protective viewing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyas, Oleg L.; Nikitin, Konstantin A.

    2016-03-01

    Ways of chromatic aberration in images are examined and analyzed which are generated at television supervision through protective glasses of a considerable thickness. The results of experimental check up of the given method of correction is introduced and described.

  16. The effects of listening to music or viewing television on human gait.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Findlay, Briar; Merey, Celeste; Chau, Tom

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a two-part study with walking conditions involving music and television (TV) to investigate their effects on human gait. In the first part, we observed seventeen able-bodied adults as they participated in three 15-minute walking trials: (1) without music, (2) with music and (3) without music again. In the second part, we observed fifteen able-bodied adults as they walked on a treadmill for 15 min while watching (1) TV with sound (2) TV without sound and (3) TV with subtitles but no sound. Gait timing was recorded via bilateral heel sensors and center-of-mass accelerations were measured by tri-axial accelerometers. Measures of statistical persistence, dynamic stability and gait variability were calculated. Our results showed that none of the considered gait measures were statistically different when comparing music with no-music trials. Therefore, walking to music did not appear to affect intrinsic walking dynamics in the able-bodied adult population. However, stride interval variability and stride interval dynamics were significantly greater in the TV with sound walking condition when compared to the TV with subtitles condition. Treadmill walking while watching TV with subtitles alters intrinsic gait dynamics but potentially offers greater gait stability.

  17. The effects of listening to music or viewing television on human gait

    PubMed Central

    Sejdić, Ervin; Findlay, Briar; Merey, Celeste; Chau, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a two-part study with walking conditions involving music and television (TV) to investigate their effects on human gait. In the first part, we observed seventeen able-bodied adults as they participated in three 15-minute walking trials: 1. without music, 2. with music and 3. without music again. In the second part, we observed fifteen able-bodied adults as they walked on a treadmill for fifteen minutes while watching 1. TV with sound 2. TV without sound and 3. TV with subtitles but no sound. Gait timing was recorded via bilateral heel sensors and center-of-mass accelerations were measured by tri-axial accelerometers. Measures of statistical persistence, dynamic stability and gait variability were calculated. Our results showed that none of the considered gait measures were statistically different when comparing music with no-music trials. Therefore, walking to music did not appear to affect intrinsic walking dynamics in the able-bodied adult population. However, stride interval variability and stride interval dynamics were significantly greater in the TV with sound walking condition when compared to the TV with subtitles condition. Treadmill walking while watching TV with subtitles alters intinsic gait dynamics but potentially offers greater gait stability. PMID:24034741

  18. Blurred world view: A study on the relationship between television viewing and the perception of the justice system.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Truong, Florence; Mar, Raymond A; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that distorted representations of reality on television can lead to distorted perceptions of reality among viewers. In this study, 322 individuals in Austria reported their weekly television consumption and whether they believe that there is active practice of capital punishment in Austria, which has been abolished since 1968. The more television participants watched, the more likely they mistakenly believed that there is, or recently was, capital punishment in Austria, even when controlling for participants' age and education. It seems that television has the potential to influence viewers' perception and knowledge of core aspects of society.

  19. Hostility Modifies the Association between TV Viewing and Cardiometabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fabio, Anthony; Chen, Chung-Yu; Kim, Kevin H.; Erickson, Darin; Jacobs, David R.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Chung, Tammy; Matthews, Karen A.; Sidney, Steven; Iribarren, Carlos; Pereira, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. It was hypothesized that television viewing is predictive of cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, people with hostile personality type may be more susceptible to TV-induced negative emotions and harmful health habits which increase occurrence of cardiometabolic risk. Purpose. The prospective association of TV viewing on cardiometabolic risk was examined along with whether hostile personality trait was a modifier. Methods. A total of 3,269 Black and White participants in the coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study were assessed from age 23 to age 35. A cross-lagged panel model at exam years 5, 10, 15, and 20, covering 15 years, was used to test whether hours of daily TV viewing predicted cardiometabolic risk, controlling confounding variables. Multiple group analysis of additional cross-lagged panel models stratified by high and low levels of hostility was used to evaluate whether the association was modified by the hostile personality trait. Results. The cross-lagged association of TV viewing at years 5 and 15 on clustered cardiometabolic risk score at years 10 and 20 was significant (B = 0.058 and 0.051), but not at 10 to 15 years. This association was significant for those with high hostility (B = 0.068 for exam years 5 to 10 and 0.057 for exam years 15 to 20) but not low hostility. Conclusion. These findings indicate that TV viewing is positively associated with cardiometabolic risk. Further, they indicate that hostility might be a modifier for the association between TV viewing and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25050178

  20. Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in TV Beer Ads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests adolescents' perception of characters' ages in four television beer advertisements and examines correlational relationships between such age judgments and alcohol use. Some 39.4% of participants reported that the youngest character was under 21. Perceptions were positively related to amount of alcohol use among junior high school students,…

  1. Do the psychosocial risks associated with television viewing increase mortality? Evidence from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Zohn; Johnson, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk of mortality, which could be caused by a sedentary lifestyle, the content of television programming (e.g., cigarette product placement or stress-inducing content), or both. Methods We examined the relationship between self-reported hours of television viewing and mortality risk over 30 years in a representative sample of the American adult population using the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index dataset. We also explored the intervening variable effect of various emotional states (e.g., happiness) and beliefs (e.g., trust in government) of the relationship between television viewing and mortality. Results We find that for each additional hour of viewing, mortality risks increased 4%. Given the mean duration of television viewing in our sample, this amounted to about 1.2 years of life expectancy in the US. This association was tempered by a number of potential psychosocial mediators, including self-reported measures of happiness, social capital, or confidence in institutions. While none of these were clinically significant, the combined mediation power was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions Television viewing among healthy adults is correlated with premature mortality in a nationally-representative sample of US adults, and this association may be partially mediated by programming content related to beliefs or affective states. However, this mediation effect is the result of many small changes in psychosocial states rather than large effects from a few factors. PMID:23683712

  2. The Relationship between Television Viewing and Unhealthy Eating: Implications for Children and Media Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The concern over increasing rates of obesity and associated health issues have led to calls for solutions to the potentially unhealthy influence of television and food advertising on children's diets. Research demonstrates that children's food preferences are acquired through learning processes, and that these preferences have long-lasting effects on diet. We examined food preferences and eating behaviors among college students, and assessed the relative influence of two potential contributors: parental communication and television experience. In line with previous studies with children, prior television experience continued to predict unhealthy food preferences and diet in early adulthood, and perceived taste had the most direct relationship to both healthy and unhealthy diets. In addition, both television experience and parenting factors independently influenced preferences and diet. These findings provide insights into the potential effectiveness of alternative media interventions to counteract the unhealthy influence of television on diet, including nutrition education, parental communication and media literacy education to teach children to defend against unwanted influence, and reduced exposure to unhealthy messages. PMID:20183373

  3. Children’s Hyperactivity, Television Viewing, and The Potential for Child Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Arya; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 6,250), this study examined whether children who display difficult behaviors early in life watch more television from year-to-year. Results revealed that 4-year-old children’s hyperactive, but not aggressive, behavior was associated with an increase in television watching over the ensuing year. These potential child effects, however, were embedded in both proximate and distal ecologies. That is, the association between children’s hyperactivity and increases in their television exposure over time was strongest among those in the low-end of the socioeconomic distribution and those whose parents displayed less optimal mental health. It was also stronger among girls. These results underscore the importance of considering child effects in future research and how intra-familial dynamics vary across different types of family contexts. PMID:26834301

  4. Television Exposure and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.; Bettinghaus, Erwin P.

    1982-01-01

    A language sample and television viewing log were collected from 93 preschool children to explore the relationship between viewing habits and spoken language. Findings showed a negative inverse relationship between language sophistication levels and television exposure, and suggested support for an environmentalist theory of language development.…

  5. Subscription Television (STV--Pay TV)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    Subscription television (STV), established by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in 1968, involves transmitting television programs over the air to viewers who pay for the service. The development, trial operation, and test results of subscription television are described in this report, along with four Commission reports, and FCC…

  6. Association between screen viewing duration and sleep duration, sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness among adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-10-28

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents.

  7. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-01-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  8. Relationships between Attitudes to Science and Television Viewing among Pupils Aged 10 to 13+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, Milton B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Reported are two studies considering factors affecting students' attitudes to science by using television programs. Describes the results on students' attitudes by sex and grades. Hypothesized that the use of space programs and other fantastic aspects of science could improve the attitudes of children towards science. (Author/YP)

  9. Prime-Time Television: Assessing Violence during the Most Popular Viewing Hours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stacy L.; Nathanson, Amy I.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the prevalence and context of violence in prime-time television programming using a random, representative sample. Shows that, regardless of the time of day, viewers are likely to encounter violence in roughly 2 out of 3 programs. Identifies specific channel types and genres that feature potentially harmful depictions of violence during…

  10. Public Television Viewing in a Dual Channel Market: Some Big Surprises! Info. Packets No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David; LeRoy, Judith

    In a recent study of the Tampa (Florida) market, TRAC Media Services acquired some interesting information about the market's response to its two public television stations. WEDU is a VHF-signal community station that reaches about 745,000 households in a week, and WUSF is a university-licensed UHF station that reaches about 547,000. Month-long…

  11. Inside the Television Newsroom: An Insider's View of International News Translation in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Claire

    2005-01-01

    As Taiwan is striving to become an integral part of the global community, the dissemination of international news and the diversity of its representation are increasingly vital in shaping people's knowledge of the world. This paper serves as a first-hand account of the work of a television news translator--a reflection on the author's five years…

  12. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Samper, Belen; Moreno, José; Jacoby, Enrique; Lucumi, Diego I; Matsudo, Sandra; Borda, Catalina

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance

  13. Children's Television in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)

  14. Do You See What I See?: Latino Adolescents' Perceptions of the Images on Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivadeneyra, Rocio

    2006-01-01

    The pervasiveness of harmful stereotypes about Latinos has led to concern over the effects of these on individuals. The mass media play a central role in perpetuating these stereotypes, yet we know very little about how Latinos perceive them. The purpose of this study was to examine how Latino adolescents view portrayals of Latino characters on…

  15. Early Childhood Screen Time and Parental Attitudes Toward Child Television Viewing in a Low-Income Latino Population Attending the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

    PubMed Central

    Kair, Laura R.; Arain, Yassar H.; Cervantes, Marlene; Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Zuckerman, Katharine E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Early childhood media exposure is associated with obesity and multiple adverse health conditions. The aims of this study were to assess parental attitudes toward childhood television (TV) viewing in a low-income population and examine the extent to which child BMI, child/parent demographics, and household media environment are associated with adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for screen time. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study of 314 parents of children ages 0–5 years surveyed in English or Spanish by self-administered questionnaire at a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) clinic in Oregon. Results: In this majority Latino sample (73%), half (53%) of the children met AAP guidelines on screen time limits, 56% met AAP guidelines for no TV in the child's bedroom, and 29% met both. Children were more likely to meet AAP guidelines when there were <2 TVs in the home, there was no TV during dinner, or their parents spent less time viewing electronic media. Parents who spent less time viewing electronic media were more likely to report believing that TV provides little value or usefulness. Conclusions: In this low-income, predominantly Latino population attending WIC, parent media-viewing and household media environment are strongly associated with child screen time. Programs aimed at reducing child screen time may benefit from interventions that address parental viewing habits. PMID:26390321

  16. Television Violence: Implications for Violence Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…

  17. Influence of Television Commercials on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Pamela Y. Y.

    This study investigated the influence of television commercials for toys and cereals on young children. Forty-four children, ranging in age from 4 to 7 years, were interviewed regarding their television viewing habits, their attitudes toward television commercials, their demands for their mothers to buy cereals and toys, and their interpretation…

  18. An investigation of stride interval stationarity while listening to music or viewing television.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Jeffery, Rebecca; Vanden Kroonenberg, Alanna; Chau, Tom

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the effects of auditory and visual distractions on pedestrian ambulation. A fundamental temporal characteristic of ambulation is the temporal fluctuation of the stride interval. In this paper, we investigate the stationarity of stride interval time series when people are exposed to different forms of auditory and visual distractions. An increase in nonstationary behavior may be suggestive of divided attention and more frequent central modulation of locomotion, both of which may have ramifications on pedestrian vigilance and responsiveness to environmental perturbations. One group of fifteen able-bodied (6 females) young adult participants completed a music protocol (overground walking with and without music). A second group of fifteen (7 females) did a television protocol (treadmill walking while watching TV with and without sound). Three walking trials, each 15min in duration, were performed at each participant's comfortable walking speed, with force sensitive resistors under the heel of each foot. Using the reverse arrangements test, the vast majority of time series were nonstationary, with a time-varying mean as the principal source of nonstationarity. Furthermore, the television trial with sound had the greatest number of nonstationarities followed by overground walking while listening to music. We discuss the possibility that these conditions measurably affect gait dynamics through a subconscious synchronization to external rhythms or a cyclic distraction followed by a period of increased conscious correction of gait timing. Our findings suggest that the regulation of stride timing is particularly susceptible to constant, time-evolving auditory stimuli, but that normal pacing can be restored quickly upon stimulus withdrawal. These kinds of sensory distractions should thus be carefully considered in studies of pedestrian ambulation.

  19. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children. Report No. 6: Survey of Pre-Adolescent's Responses to Television Commercials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Charles K.

    This report, the last in a series of six reports on television advertising and children, describes patterns of advertising exposure and evaluation in the naturalistic setting and examines the role of commercials in late childhood socialization. An omnibus questionnaire was administered to 775 fourth through seventh grade students in urban,…

  20. "What Are You Viewing?" Exploring the Pervasive Social TV Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Raimund; Baillie, Lynne; Fröhlich, Peter; Egger, Sebastian; Grechenig, Thomas

    The vision of pervasive TV foresees users engaging with interactive video services across a variety of contexts and user interfaces. Following this idea, this chapter extends traditional Social TV toward the notion of pervasive Social TV (PSTV) by including mobile viewing scenarios. We discuss social interaction enablers that integrate TV content consumption and communication in the context of two case studies that evaluate Social TV on mobile smartphones as well as the traditional set-top-box-based setup. We report on the impact of social features such as text-chat, audio-chat, and synchronized channel-choice on the end-user's media experience. By analyzing the commonalities and the differences between mobile and living-room Social TV that we found, we provide guidance on the design of pervasive Social TV systems as well as on future research issues.

  1. Glossary of Television Terms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    more lenses arranged to act in conjunc- tion with one another. LENSLESS SPOTLIGHT--A lightweight, portable lighting instru- ment designed to produce hard...where they are con- verted to photonic emissions. MICROSCOPY --In television, the application of CCTV to optical microscopes to obtain enlarged views of

  2. Television Ceremonial Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayan, Daniel; Katz, Elihu

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of televised ceremonies (such as the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana) as "media events" which allow viewers to vicariously enter into the ceremony. Compares them with cult movies that, over repeated viewing, encourage audience "participation." Focuses on the narrator's/commentator's role in shaping…

  3. Film, Radio, and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958…

  4. Genre-Specific Cultivation Effects: Lagged Associations between Overall TV Viewing, Local TV News Viewing, and Fatalistic Beliefs about Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Cultivation theory and research has been criticized for its failure to consider variation in effects by genre, employ appropriate third-variable controls, and determine causal direction. Recent studies, controlling for a variety of demographic characteristics and media use variables, have found that exposure to local television (TV) newscasts is associated with a variety of problematic “real-world” beliefs. However, many of these studies have not adequately assessed causal direction. Redressing this limitation, we analyzed data from a two-wave national representative survey which permitted tests of lagged association between overall TV viewing, local TV news viewing, and fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. We first replicated the original cultivation effect and found a positive association between overall TV viewing at time 1 and increased fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention at time 2. Analyses also provided evidence that local TV news viewing at time 1 predicts increased fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention at time 2. There was little evidence for reverse causation in predicting changes in overall TV viewing or local TV news viewing. The paper concludes with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications of these findings. PMID:25605981

  5. Psychometric validity of the parent's outcome expectations for children's television viewing (POETV) scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TV and other screen use are common among elementary-school-aged children with both potential benefits and harms. It is not clear why some parents restrict their children's screen use and others do not. Parents' outcome expectations for allowing their child to watch TV and other screen media, i.e., t...

  6. Television Viewing, Computer Use, Obesity, And Adiposity In US Preschool Children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested whether three sedentary activities were associated with obesity and adiposity in U.S. preschool children: 1) watching >2 hours/day of TV/videos, 2) computer use, and 3) >2 hours/day of media use (TV/videos and computer use). We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representat...

  7. View of Astronaut Edwin Aldrin in Lunar Module taken from television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is seen in this color reproduction taken from the third television transmission from the Apollo 11 spacecraft during its translunar journey toward the moon. Aldrin is inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the background are some of the LM's controls and displays. A LM window is on the right. The LM is still docked nose to nose with the Command/Service modules . Apollo 11 was approximately 176,000 nautical miles from earth, and traveling at a speed of about 3,200 feet per second when this photograph was taken.

  8. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This report provides information about cable television and the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) responsibilities in regulating its operation. The initial jurisdiction and rules covered in this report pertain to the court test, public hearing, certificate of compliance, franchising, signal carriage, leapfrogging, access and origination…

  9. Guerrilla Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamberg, Michael

    1971-01-01

    A series of post-McLuhan perceptions reiterates that new media have made possible new ways of experiencing the world. For the young in "Media-America" who have grown up with television, completed products like books are less important than ongoing process. The best means for recording this ongoing process is videotape camera. The introduction of a…

  10. Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The report summarizes information about the history, technology and operation of educational television (ETV) in the U.S. The history of educational broadcasting is outlined from 1941 when the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approved applications for five noncommercial FM radio channels, to 1967 and the passing of the Public Broadcasting…

  11. Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) presents a brief description of cable television and explains some basic regulations pertaining to it. The history of cable regulation covers the initial jurisdiction, economic considerations of the regulation, court tests, and the holding of public hearings. The major provisions of new cable rules are…

  12. Television Viewing and Its Associations with Overweight, Sedentary Lifestyle, and Insufficient Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables among U.S. High School Students: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Galuska, Deborah A.; Fulton, Janet E.; Kann, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Examined race, ethnic, and gender specific differences in the association between television viewing and high school students' overweight, decreased physical activity, and unhealthy dietary behaviors. Data from the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that most students' television viewing exceeded recommended levels, many students were…

  13. Television food advertising to children in Malta.

    PubMed

    Cauchi, Daniel; Reiff, Sascha; Knai, Cecile; Gauci, Charmaine; Spiteri, Joanna

    2015-10-25

    To undertake a cross-sectional survey of the extent and nature of food and beverage advertising to children on Maltese national television stations. Seven national free-to-air channels were recorded for seven consecutive days in March 2014 between 07:00 and 22:00 h. Advertisements were coded according to predefined categories, with a focus on advertisements aired during 'peak' children's viewing times, defined as periods during which more than 25% of children were likely to be watching television on any channel. Food and beverage advertisements were classified as core (healthy), non-core (unhealthy) or miscellaneous foods. Malta. Whole population, with a focus on children. Food and drinks were the most heavily advertised product category (26.9% of all advertisements) across all channels. The proportion of non-core food/drink advertisements was significantly greater during peak compared with non-peak children's viewing times (52 vs 44.6%; p ≤ 0.001). A majority of advertisements aimed at children are for non-core foods, and are typically shown during family-oriented programmes in the late evening rather than being restricted to children's programmes. 'Taste', 'enjoyment' and 'peer status' were the primary persuasive appeals used in adolescent and child-focused advertisements. This first content analysis of television advertising in Malta suggests that there is scope for the implementation of statutory regulation regarding advertising of foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) during times when children are likely to watch television, rather than during children's programmes only. Ongoing, systematic monitoring is essential for evaluation of the effectiveness of regulations designed to reduce children's exposure to HFSS food advertising on television.

  14. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  15. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  16. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods.

  17. Television Violence: Content, Context, and Consequences. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aidman, Amy

    This digest reports recent findings on violent television content, highlights the recently developed television ratings system, and offers suggestions for parental mediation of children's television viewing. The National Television Violence Study has demonstrated that not all violence is equal. Certain plot elements in portrayals of violence are…

  18. The Relation between Television Exposure and Executive Function among Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…

  19. Longitudinal relations of television, electronic games, and digital versatile discs with changes in diet in adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Falbe, Jennifer; Willett, Walter C; Rosner, Bernard; Gortmaker, Steve L; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Field, Alison E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth spend more time with screens than any activity except sleeping. Screen time is a risk factor for obesity, possibly because of the influence of food and beverage advertising on diet. Objective: We sought to assess longitudinal relations of screen time [ie, television, electronic games, digital versatile discs (DVDs)/videos, and total screen time] with the 2-y changes in consumption of foods of low nutritional quality (FLNQ) that are commonly advertised on screens [ie, sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food, sweets, salty snacks, and the sum of these foods (total FLNQ)] and fruit and vegetables. Design: With the use of 2004, 2006, and 2008 waves of the Growing Up Today Study II, which consisted of a cohort of 6002 female and 4917 male adolescents aged 9–16 y in 2004, we assessed screen time (change and baseline) in relation to the 2-y dietary changes. Regression models included 4604 girls and 3668 boys with complete screen time and diet data on ≥2 consecutive questionnaires. Results: Each hour-per-day increase in television, electronic games, and DVDs/videos was associated with increased intake of total FLNQ (range: 0.10–0.28 servings/d; P < 0.05). Each hour-per-day increase in total screen time predicted increased intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages, fast food, sweets, and salty snacks (range: 0.02–0.06 servings/d; P < 0.001) and decreased intakes of fruit and vegetables (range: −0.05 to −0.02 servings/d; P < 0.05). Greater screen time at baseline (except electronic games in boys) was associated with subsequent increased intake of total FLNQ, and greater screen time at baseline (except DVDs/videos) was associated with decreased intake of fruit and vegetables (P < 0.05). Across sex and food groups and in sensitivity analyses, television was most consistently associated with dietary changes. Conclusions: Increases in screen time were associated with increased consumption of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality and decreased

  20. Television Basics for TV-ABE Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., Baltimore.

    The guide opens with a discussion of television's limitations: its initial blankness; its technical constraints; its need for studios; its relatively high costs; the need for extensive planning; and its need to be integrated into a broader program. A discussion of television's strengths follows: its flexibility; its ability to focus and magnify;…

  1. Television Monitoring System for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallow, K.; Gordon, S.

    1986-01-01

    Welding process in visually inaccessible spots viewed and recorded. Television system enables monitoring of welding in visually inaccessible locations. System assists welding operations and provide video record, used for weld analysis and welder training.

  2. The Influence of Age, Sex, Social Class and Religion on Television Viewing Time and Programme Preferences among 11-15 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Gibson, Harry M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study that was conducted to investigate the influence of age, sex, social class, and religion on total television viewing time and program preferences among a large sample of Scottish secondary school students. Four main program types are examined, i.e., soap, sport, light entertainment, and current awareness. (50 references) (LRW)

  3. The impact of terrorism on children and adolescents: terror in the skies, terror on television.

    PubMed

    Fremont, Wanda P; Pataki, Caroly; Beresin, Eugene V

    2005-07-01

    Terrorist attacks and their aftermath have had a powerful impact on children and their families. Media and television exposure of terrorist events throughout the world has increased during the past few years. There is increasing concern about the effects of this exposure on children who witness these violent images. To develop a proactive and strategic response to reactions of fear, clinicians, educators, and policy makers must understand the psychologic effects of media coverage of terrorism on children. Previous research has focused on media coverage of criminal violence and war. Recent studies have examined the effect of remote exposure of terrorist attacks and have shown a significant clinical impact on children and families.

  4. Children's exposure to magnetic fields produced by U.S. television sets used for viewing programs and playing video games.

    PubMed

    Kaune, W T; Miller, M C; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Kleinerman, R A; Wacholder, S; Mohr, A H; Tarone, R E; Haines, C

    2000-04-01

    Two epidemiologic studies have reported increased risk of childhood leukemia associated with the length of time children watched television (TV) programs or played video games connected to TV sets. To evaluate magnetic field exposures resulting from these activities, the static, ELF, and VLF magnetic fields produced by 72 TV sets used by children to watch TV programs and 34 TV sets used to play video games were characterized in a field study conducted in Washington DC and its Maryland suburbs. The resulting TV-specific magnetic field data were combined with information collected through questionnaires to estimate the magnetic field exposure levels associated with TV watching and video game playing. The geometric means of the ELF and VLF exposure levels so calculated were 0.0091 and 0.0016 microT, respectively, for children watching TV programs and 0.023 and 0.0038 microT, respectively, for children playing video games. Geometric means of ambient ELF and VLF levels with TV sets turned off were 0.10 and 0.0027 microT, respectively. Summed over the ELF frequency range (6-3066 Hz), the exposure levels were small compared to ambient levels. However, in restricted ELF frequency ranges (120 Hz and 606-3066 Hz) and in the VLF band, TV exposure levels were comparable to or larger than normal ambient levels. Even so, the strengths of the 120 Hz or 606-3066 Hz components of TV fields were small relative to the overall ambient levels. Consequently, our results provide little support for a linkage between childhood leukemia and exposure to the ELF magnetic fields produced by TV sets. Our results do suggest that any future research on possible health effects of magnetic fields from television sets might focus on the VLF electric and magnetic fields produced by TV sets because of their enhanced ability relative to ELF fields to induce electric currents.

  5. Facilitating Children's Understanding of Television as an Agent for Cultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, John Douglas

    This paper offers a collection of activity ideas to help children gain perspective on the present use of television. The activities address both advantages and drawbacks of a television society. Students develop a critical view of the impact of television on the culture by participating in the activities. The activities include: (1) "TV Timeline";…

  6. Viewing Violence: How Media Violence Affects Your Child's and Adolescent's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Madeline

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing media violence encourages aggression, desensitization, and pessimism in children. This book reviews research on the effects of television and movie violence on children and adolescents, offering parents suggestions for dealing with the problems it creates. It is asserted that parents frequently…

  7. The Impact of Adolescents' News and Action Movie Viewing on Risky Driving Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Traffic crashes remain an important cause of injury and death among young people. The aim of the current study was to examine whether adolescents' viewing of particular television genres predicted later risky driving. Data were collected with a two-wave panel survey (N = 426); structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships…

  8. Longitudinal Relations between Prosocial Television Content and Adolescents' Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior: The Mediating Role of Empathic Concern and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Collier, Kevin M.; Nielson, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined longitudinal cross-lagged associations between prosocial TV (content and time) and prosocial and aggressive behavior during adolescence, and explored the mediating role of empathic concern and self-regulation. Participants were 441 adolescents who reported on their 3 favorite TV shows at 2 time points, approximately 2…

  9. Attentional inertia reduces distractibility during young children's TV viewing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Choi, H P; Lorch, E P

    1987-06-01

    The longer a look at TV is maintained, the conditional probability that it will be further maintained rapidly increases for about 15 sec, after which it increases slowly. This increase in the conditional probability of maintaining a look is called "attentional inertia." An external audiovisual distractor stimulus was presented during 3- and 5-year-olds' TV viewing. The distractor was less effective in eliciting a head turn from the TV if it was presented after a look at the TV had been continuously maintained for at least 15 sec. If a head turn to the distractor following such a maintained look did occur, moreover, its reaction time was significantly increased. Parallel effects were found for the nonviewing pauses between looks. The results provide evidence of increasing attentional engagement as a look at TV is maintained.

  10. Can Television Enhance Children's Mathematical Problem Solving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisch, Shalom M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A summative evaluation of "Square One TV," an educational mathematics series produced by the Children's Television Workshop, shows that children who regularly viewed the program showed significant improvement in solving unfamiliar, complex mathematical problems, and viewers showed improvement in their mathematical problem-solving ability…

  11. Enhanced Television Strategy Models: A Study of TV Web Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Louisa

    2002-01-01

    Compares the use of enhanced television features and television commerce features on the Web sites of cable and broadcast television networks. Shows differences in strategies and site usability; proposes three enhanced television strategy models; and discusses implications on television revenue and viewership. (Author/LRW)

  12. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    PubMed

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure.

  13. Predicting Exposure to and Uses of Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krcmar, Marina; Greene, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between sensation seeking and exposure to violent and non-violent television, and the subsequent role violent television may play among high sensation-seeking secondary and college students. Finds disinhibition (positively) and experience seeking (negatively) related to adolescents' exposure to violent television. Shows…

  14. Theorizing without Totalizing: Specularity and Televised Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brummett, Barry; Duncan, Margaret Carlisle

    1990-01-01

    Examines specularity (the pleasure derived from looking at television) in the context of sports. Argues that televised sports' popularity reflects: (1) fetishism (motivation by fascinated desire); (2) voyeurism (uninvited viewing); and (3) narcissism (identification with athletes). Describes a study of sports telecast viewing. Argues against…

  15. Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (<8 h) on school days. The review of the literature (30 studies) showed that the Spanish adolescents sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.

  16. The Determination of TV Viewing Patterns in a Mental Hospital and Comment on Therapeutic Applications of This "Constant Companion."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Dennis W.; And Others

    In view of recent studies of media use in mental hospitals showing that television is the predominant mass medium and one with great potential for therapy, a study was conducted to determine the patterns of television viewing in this environment. A total of 1,204 observations were made in five lounges on two wards of a mental hospital.…

  17. Teaching Television Watchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Judy Lee

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities to help teachers address the needs and behaviors of students raised on television; includes resources to help teachers use television productively in the classroom, a send-home reproducible on children and television violence, and notes on an interview with Shari Lewis and television tips for primary students. (SM)

  18. Children and TV Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... behavior. Unfortunately, much of today's television programming is violent. Hundreds of studies of the effects of TV ... children causes greater aggressiveness. Sometimes, watching a single violent program can increase aggressiveness. Children who view shows ...

  19. The relation between television exposure and executive function among preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Amy I; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L; Rasmussen, Eric E; Christy, Katheryn

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which children began watching television. Preschoolers' EF was assessed via one-on-one interviews. We found that several indicators of television exposure were significantly related to EF. These findings suggest that EF may be an important construct for continued research on the effects of media on young children.

  20. Historical Development of Television Aesthetics/Television Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    Even though television scholar Herbert Zettl singlehandedly created the term "television aesthetics" by proclaiming that TV is an art, television studies are still excluded from the respectable divisions and disciplines of knowledge. Television is considered the epitome of mass culture/kitsch, and the very idea of a TV…

  1. Television and the New Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Fred

    In this speech the president of the National Broadcasting Company offers some views on the impact of new and developing home video services and technologies such as cassette recorders and cable and pay television. He also outlines his views on the competition superstations and "occasional networks" provide the commercial networks and concludes…

  2. Potential hazards of viewing 3-D stereoscopic television, cinema and computer games: a review.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Peter A

    2011-03-01

    The visual stimulus provided by a 3-D stereoscopic display differs from that of the real world because the image provided to each eye is produced on a flat surface. The distance from the screen to the eye remains fixed, providing a single focal distance, but the introduction of disparity between the images allows objects to be located geometrically in front of, or behind, the screen. Unlike in the real world, the stimulus to accommodation and the stimulus to convergence do not match. Although this mismatch is used positively in some forms of Orthoptic treatment, a number of authors have suggested that it could negatively lead to the development of asthenopic symptoms. From knowledge of the zone of clear, comfortable, single binocular vision one can predict that, for people with normal binocular vision, adverse symptoms will not be present if the discrepancy is small, but are likely if it is large, and that what constitutes 'large' and 'small' are idiosyncratic to the individual. The accommodation-convergence mismatch is not, however, the only difference between the natural and the artificial stimuli. In the former case, an object located in front of, or behind, a fixated object will not only be perceived as double if the images fall outside Panum's fusional areas, but it will also be defocused and blurred. In the latter case, however, it is usual for the producers of cinema, TV or computer game content to provide an image that is in focus over the whole of the display, and as a consequence diplopic images will be sharply in focus. The size of Panum's fusional area is spatial frequency-dependent, and because of this the high spatial frequencies present in the diplopic 3-D image will provide a different stimulus to the fusion system from that found naturally.

  3. The Television Generation, Television Literacy, and Television Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jodi R.

    Unlike the linear, serial process of reading books, learning to "read" television is a parallel process in which multiple pieces of information are simultaneously received. Perceiving images, only one aspect of understanding television, requires the concurrent processing of information that is compounded within a symbol system. The…

  4. Television Technologies in Combating Illiteracy. A Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchilonis, Barbara A.; Niebuhr, Herman

    Responding to a need indicated by President Reagan's 1983 Initiative on Adult Literacy, this monograph considers the past, present, and future uses of television technology in literacy programs. Recognizing the amount of time Americans spend viewing television and the new possibilities for service delivery offered by such technological…

  5. Causes of Death Associated With Prolonged TV Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Keadle, Sarah K.; Moore, Steven C.; Sampson, Joshua N.; Xiao, Qian; Albanes, Demetrius; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TV viewing is the most prevalent sedentary behavior and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality, but the association with other leading causes of death is unknown. This study examined the association between TV viewing and leading causes of death in the U.S. Methods A prospective cohort of 221,426 individuals (57% male) aged 50–71 years who were free of chronic disease at baseline (1995–1996), 93% white, with an average BMI of 26.7 (SD=4.4) kg/m2 were included. Participants self-reported TV viewing at baseline and were followed until death or December 31, 2011. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for TV viewing and cause-specific mortality were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, adjusted mortality risk for a 2-hour/day increase in TV viewing was significantly higher for the following causes of death (HR [95% CI]): cancer (1.07 [1.03, 1.11); heart disease (1.23 [1.17, 1.29]); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (1.28 [1.14, 1.43]); diabetes (1.56 [1.33, 1.83]); influenza/pneumonia (1.24 [1.02, 1.50]); Parkinson disease (1.35 [1.11, 1.65]); liver disease (1.33 [1.05, 1.67]); and suicide (1.43 [1.10, 1.85]. Mortality associations persisted in stratified analyses with important potential confounders, reducing causation concerns. Conclusions This study shows the breadth of mortality outcomes associated with prolonged TV viewing, and identifies novel associations for several leading causes of death. TV viewing is a prevalent discretionary behavior that may be a more important target for public health intervention than previously recognized. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00340015 PMID:26215832

  6. Black Television: Avenue of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Pamela

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes a few of the prominent issues in black television, examining public television, commercial television, black ownership of stations, cable television, and some projections for the future. (Author/JM)

  7. Delivering Extension to the Living Room Using Internet TV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Grant G., III

    2014-01-01

    Television is a widely adopted source for viewing educational information. Unfortunately, producing a television show on network television can be costly and time consuming. Internet TV offers Extension video content producers the opportunity to create a niche topic channel quickly and at low cost. Internet TV offers viewers a low-cost and…

  8. FEDERAL PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BYSTROM, JOHN W.

    THE GROWTH AND PROGRESS OF EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IS DESCRIBED. GRANTS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF NONCOMMERCIAL TELEVISION (TV) BROADCASTING STATIONS (EDUCATIONAL TV FACILITIES ACT), GRANTS OF SURPLUS PROPERTY UNDER THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT HAVE AIDED THE GROWTH OF EDUCATIONAL TV. GREATER USE IS MADE OF EDUCATIONAL TV BECAUSE OF GREATER USE…

  9. Effect of Illumination on Ocular Status Modifications Induced by Short-Term 3D TV Viewing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuanyuan; Xu, Aiqin; Jiang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to compare changes in ocular status after 3D TV viewing under three modes of illumination and thereby identify optimal illumination for 3D TV viewing. Methods. The following measures of ocular status were assessed: the accommodative response, accommodative microfluctuation, accommodative facility, relative accommodation, gradient accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, phoria, and fusional vergence. The observers watched 3D television for 90 minutes through 3D shutter glasses under three illumination modes: A, complete darkness; B, back illumination (50 lx); and C, front illumination (130 lx). The ocular status of the observers was assessed both before and after the viewing. Results. After 3D TV viewing, the accommodative response and accommodative microfluctuation were significantly changed under illumination Modes A and B. The near positive fusional vergence decreased significantly after the 90-minute 3D viewing session under each illumination mode, and this effect was not significantly different among the three modes. Conclusions. Short-term 3D viewing modified the ocular status of adults. The least amount of such change occurred with front illumination, suggesting that this type of illumination is an appropriate mode for 3D shutter TV viewing. PMID:28348893

  10. Results of a Survey of Pupils and Teachers Regarding Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia; Rapoport, Max

    To test the validity of hypotheses regarding television violence and social behavior of viewers, a survey was conducted of a large stratified sample of sixth grade and kindergarten pupils and of teachers. The student survey identified: (1) frequency with which pupils watch television; (2) parental control of television viewing; (3) family…

  11. Uses and Values for News on Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses cable television subscribers' perceptions and consumption patterns of television news and describes a survey that compared broadcast and cable television news viewing habits. Media dependency and media consumption are considered, attitudes toward news sources and the perceived monetary value of the Cable News Network (CNN) are studied,…

  12. Television and Growing Up: The Medium Gets Equal Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston-Stein, Aletha

    This paper presents a review of research on television viewing and child behavior. The first section of the paper presents a brief historical review of television research. This review includes research on the effect of television on people's lives, the effects of violent content on aggressive behavior and the possible harmful effects of…

  13. Television viewing, internet use, and self-reported bedtime and rise time in adults: implications for sleep hygiene recommendations from an exploratory cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the availability of the Internet and TV in the bedroom and overall Internet use and TV viewing were related to sleep variables in a sample of 711 residents of Flanders, Belgium. Although the relations were small, there was some evidence of time shifting: Internet access in the bedroom predicted later bedtime (β = .12, p < .05) and later rise time (β = .11, p < .05) on weekdays and later bedtime (β = .10, p < .001) on weekends. Internet use volume predicted later bedtime (β = .10, p < .001) and rise time (β = .07, p < .05) on weekends, and TV viewing predicted later bedtime (β = .10, p < .05) on weekends. However, neither the availability of the Internet or TV in the bedroom, nor the volume of Internet use or TV viewing, was a significant predictor of reduced sleep window or tiredness. Reducing media use might not be important for sleep hygiene advice to adults.

  14. The relations of early television viewing to school readiness and vocabulary of children from low-income families: the early window project.

    PubMed

    Wright, J C; Huston, A C; Murphy, K C; St Peters, M; Piñon, M; Scantlin, R; Kotler, J

    2001-01-01

    For two cohorts of children from low- to moderate-income families, time-use diaries of television viewing were collected over 3 years (from ages 2-5 and 4-7 years, respectively), and tests of reading, math, receptive vocabulary, and school readiness were administered annually. Relations between viewing and performance were tested in path analyses with controls for home environment quality and primary language (English or Spanish). Viewing child-audience informative programs between ages 2 and 3 predicted high subsequent performance on all four measures of academic skills. For both cohorts, frequent viewers of general-audience programs performed more poorly on subsequent tests than did infrequent viewers of such programs. Children's skills also predicted later viewing, supporting a bidirectional model. Children with good skills at age 5 selected more child-audience informative programs and fewer cartoons in their early elementary years. Children with lower skills at age 3 shifted to viewing more general-audience programs by ages 4 and 5. The results affirm the conclusion that the relations of television viewed to early academic skills depend primarily on the content of the programs viewed.

  15. Adolescents Viewing "Shogun": Cognitive and Attitudinal Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzer, Milton J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of exposure to television miniseries "Shogun" on adolescents' knowledge of Japanese language, history, and customs; attitudes of a closer social distance; and Japanese stereotypes. Exposure was a predictor of Japanese language, history, and customs knowledge and a limited predictor of social distance.…

  16. The Sound (and Sight) of Silence: Notes on Television and the Communication Ecology of Adolescent Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielwasser, Alfred P.; Wolf, Michelle A.

    Gay and lesbian adolescents are marginalized at many levels. Their needs and interests are slighted in the balance of advocacy work that purports a concern for the welfare of minority children. Their presence is overlooked in studies of youth and the mass media. Their existence is excluded from American popular culture. The symbolic annihilation…

  17. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  18. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  19. Schools' Television in Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blezard, Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Chronicles the short (1970-77) and troubled history of instructional television in Egypt. Among the problems which led to the discontinuation of television programing for schools were production delays, inadequate repair service, and lack of training. (LLS)

  20. The Impact of TV Viewing Motivations on Psychological and Sociocultural Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Guo-Ming

    A study examined the impact of TV viewing motivations on 126 Asian students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Subjects were enrolled in a midsize university in the New England area. TV viewing motivation was measured by A. M. Rubin's TV Viewing Motivations Scale. Psychological adjustment was measured by W. Zung's Self Rating Depression…

  1. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  2. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  3. Cable Television Service; Cable Television Relay Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) concerning cable television service and cable relay service are presented along with the comments of the National Cable Television Association, the National Association of Broadcasters, the Association of Maximum Service Telecasters, and a major group of program suppliers.…

  4. Measured Self-Esteem and Locus of Control of Students Related to Video Game, Home Computer, and Television Viewing Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, James D.

    This study was designed to investigate the influence of television on the lives of young people and the correlation between home computer programming, the playing of video games at home, and the playing of arcade games out of the home related to self-esteem and locus of control. Subjects were 405 students in grades 4 through 12 from 21 classrooms…

  5. The Television Iceberg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, P.L.

    This presentation is concerned with television as it relates to the planning and administration of facilities in which it is utilized. The role of television as a teaching aid, teaching medium, and teacher is discussed. Consideration is given to the following aspects concerned with implementing educational television: plant layout, amount of space…

  6. Coping with Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This book could be a useful supplement in any course dealing with television, such as mass media, communication, film, and humanities. The book is divided into six sections. "The Impact of Television" discusses the impact of television on society, the broadcast media, the Federal Communications Commission, public broadcasting, educational…

  7. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott…

  8. Television Aesthetics as Aesthetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    In opposition to popular disparaging of television as an artistic medium, television can be considered as having its own aesthetics and can be placed in the category of fine arts (as opposed to folk arts). Television art can and should be distinguished from video art and film art in the ways in which it imitates reality; program content and…

  9. Television Looks at Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briller, Bert R., Ed.; Knight, Pamela, Ed.

    How television is helping to make older adults more visible by drawing attention to their needs and by recognizing their contributions to society is examined in this book, which presents a sample of television programing in the 1980s. The book begins with an introduction by Mary Cassata that surveys the literature on television's roles as both…

  10. Television and the Humanist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigerell, James

    1986-01-01

    Discusses problems that mass media, particularly television, pose for humanities teachers. Considers how television affects viewers, urges teachers to help students guard against manipulation by the media, acknowledges the educational potential of television, and points to the dangers to thought and informed decision making presented by…

  11. Television in American Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Hermene D.

    What is television doing to our society and our culture? What has it done to education? Television has had a great impact on human behavior but rather than communicating, it dictates a philosophy of life, moral judgments and a lifestyle. Television presents a violent image of society where fantasy and reality are often confused. It is a system…

  12. Color Television in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Rudy

    In spite of repeated research into the matter, no evidence has been discovered to support the claim that color television is superior to black-and-white television as an instructional aid. It is possible that there are advantages to color television which are unmeasured or unmeasurable, but the current claims for color; that it heightens realism,…

  13. Color-televised medical microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. A.; Peck, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Color television microscopy used at laboratory range magnifications, reproduces a slide image with sufficient fidelity for medical laboratory and instructional use. The system is used for instant pathological reporting between operating room and remotely located pathologist viewing a biopsy through this medium.

  14. Field-sequential stereo television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    System includes viewing devices that provide low interference to normal vision. It provides stereo display observable from broader area. Left and right video cameras are focused on object. Output signals from cameras are time provided by each camera. Multiplexed signal, fed to standard television monitor, displays left and right images of object.

  15. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  16. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  17. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  18. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  19. 47 CFR 73.3521 - Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... television, television translators and television booster stations. 73.3521 Section 73.3521 Telecommunication... Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3521 Mutually exclusive applications for low power television, television translators and television booster stations. When there is a pending application for a new...

  20. Co-production and Pilot of a Structured Interview Using Talking Mats® to Survey the Television Viewing Habits and Preferences of Adults and Young People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunning, Karen; Alder, Ruth; Proudman, Lydia; Wyborn, Harriet

    2017-01-01

    Background: Capturing the views of people with learning disabilities is not straightforward. Talking Mats® has been used successfully to solicit the views of such individuals. The aim was to co-produce an interview schedule using Talking Mats® on the subject of television-viewing habits and preferences of adults and young people with learning…

  1. Children and Television. Current Issues in Education: A Bibliographic Series. Volume 5, No. 1, July 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christo, Doris Hedlund

    Focused on research concerning children and television, this annotated bibliography lists 44 articles selected from the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) database from 1983 to 1988. Topics include: (1) the effects of television violence on children; (2) television viewing patterns; (3) children's television programs; and (4)…

  2. Changes in Images of Adolescents on Television: Sibling Interaction on Family Sitcoms in the 50's and the 80's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Mary Strom

    A study examined the interactions of siblings in television families in three popular sitcoms of the 1950s--"Father Knows Best,""Leave it To Beaver," and "Ozzie and Harriet." Nine episodes of each sitcom were videotaped, and the behaviors were coded using a system developed to code sibling behavior in 1980s sitcoms.…

  3. Cable Television for Librarians. Cable Television Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Wallace C.

    1973-01-01

    The development of cable television, its present state, and future prospects, including a possible role for libraries, are discussed. (Other conference materials are LI 503071 and 503073 through 503084.) (SJ)

  4. The relationship between TV/computer time and adolescents' health-promoting behavior: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Wu, Jen-Yee

    2008-03-01

    Television and computers provide significant benefits for learning about the world. Some studies have linked excessive television (TV) watching or computer game playing to disadvantage of health status or some unhealthy behavior among adolescents. However, the relationships between watching TV/playing computer games and adolescents adopting health promoting behavior were limited. This study aimed to discover the relationship between time spent on watching TV and on leisure use of computers and adolescents' health promoting behavior, and associated factors. This paper used secondary data analysis from part of a health promotion project in Taoyuan County, Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was used and purposive sampling was conducted among adolescents in the original project. A total of 660 participants answered the questions appropriately for this work between January and June 2004. Findings showed the mean age of the respondents was 15.0 +/- 1.7 years. The mean numbers of TV watching hours were 2.28 and 4.07 on weekdays and weekends respectively. The mean hours of leisure (non-academic) computer use were 1.64 and 3.38 on weekdays and weekends respectively. Results indicated that adolescents spent significant time watching TV and using the computer, which was negatively associated with adopting health-promoting behaviors such as life appreciation, health responsibility, social support and exercise behavior. Moreover, being boys, being overweight, living in a rural area, and being middle-school students were significantly associated with spending long periods watching TV and using the computer. Therefore, primary health care providers should record the TV and non-academic computer time of youths when conducting health promotion programs, and educate parents on how to become good and healthy electronic media users.

  5. Canadian Public Television and Pre-Schoolers: Predictors of Users and Non-Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mitchell E.; And Others

    A study of the preschool television audience in Ontario, Canada, investigated the types of programs children aged two through six years old watch; in what kinds of households preschool children view TV Ontario (TVO), the Canadian public television network; and the kind of strategies that might best capture the potential preschool market.…

  6. The Future of Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Robert B.

    In order to predict the future of educational television, the author discusses first instructional television, then public television, and also comments on the applications of communications satellites to television in both industrialized and developing nations. He predicts that in the future instructional television will be mainly carried by…

  7. Television by Children in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Carla W.

    There are two categories of children's television in Kenya: television "for" children, most of which is imported, and television "by" children, all of which is produced in Kenya. Most of the television by children is produced and broadcast by Voice of Kenya television, much of it made up of programs growing out of…

  8. Bullying on Television: 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Petranovich, Kaitlin A; Bapty, Samantha J; Maestas, Travis S; Strasburger, Victor C

    2016-10-01

    Bullying is a serious issue for adolescents, with health consequences both at the time of victimization and later on in adulthood. Aggression in the media is an area that has been explored as a contributing factor to bullying behavior. This study aims to determine if the incidence of aggression in popular television shows over the past 50 years has changed. A total of 198 episodes of the most popular television shows between the years 1960 and 2010 were coded for incidents of aggression and analyzed using simple linear regression. The mean number of events per episode was 8.8. No statistically significant correlation was found between number of bullying events and the years in which they occurred. Whereas it is possible that aggression on television may have an impact on bullying behaviors, there is no evidence that the incidence of bullying on television has changed significantly in the past 5 decades.

  9. Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.

    PubMed

    Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.

  10. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  11. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... that need to be resolved to complete the low power television station digital transition....

  12. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Payload Operation Television System is a high performance closed-circuit TV system designed to determine the feasibility of using TV to augment purely visual monitoring of operations, and to establish optimum system design of an operating unit which can ultimately be used to assist the operator of a remotely manipulated space-borne cargo loading device. The TV system assembled on this program is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator.

  13. View generation for 3D-TV using image reconstruction from irregularly spaced samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Carlos

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional television (3D-TV) will become the next big step in the development of advanced TV systems. One of the major challenges for the deployment of 3D-TV systems is the diversity of display technologies and the high cost of capturing multi-view content. Depth image-based rendering (DIBR) has been identified as a key technology for the generation of new views for stereoscopic and multi-view displays from a small number of views captured and transmitted. We propose a disparity compensation method for DIBR that does not require spatial interpolation of the disparity map. We use a forward-mapping disparity compensation with real precision. The proposed method deals with the irregularly sampled image resulting from this disparity compensation process by applying a re-sampling algorithm based on a bi-cubic spline function space that produces smooth images. The fact that no approximation is made on the position of the samples implies that geometrical distortions in the final images due to approximations in sample positions are minimized. We also paid attention to the occlusion problem. Our algorithm detects the occluded regions in the newly generated images and uses simple depth-aware inpainting techniques to fill the gaps created by newly exposed areas. We tested the proposed method in the context of generation of views needed for viewing on SynthaGram TM auto-stereoscopic displays. We used as input either a 2D image plus a depth map or a stereoscopic pair with the associated disparity map. Our results show that this technique provides high quality images to be viewed on different display technologies such as stereoscopic viewing with shutter glasses (two views) and lenticular auto-stereoscopic displays (nine views).

  14. TV Beauty Ads and Role Expectations of Adolescent Female Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Alexis S.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the responses of 56 high school girls shows the cultivation effects of television beauty-related commercials on the girls' perceptions of the importance of sex appeal, youth, and beauty to women in four different roles. (GT)

  15. Television for World Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith

    Television will be a valuable tool in preparing people to cope with a shrinking and increasingly interdependent world. A child left to his own devices will equate "strangeness" with "danger". Television can bring a wide variety of experiences with different cultures to a child and help him to formulate an understanding of his place in the world.…

  16. Children and Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Timothy P.

    1973-01-01

    The question of whether violence depicted on television causes viewers to act aggressively is meaningless because it implies a simple "yes" or "no" response. Effects of mass media depend on the types of viewers and content as well as the conditions of message reception. Television violence can affect the behavior of children on some occasions.…

  17. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  18. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  19. Cable Television: Franchising Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Walter S.; And Others

    This volume is a comprehensive reference guide to cable television technology and issues of planning, franchising, and regulating a cable system. It is intended for local government officials and citizens concerned with the development of cable television systems in their communities, as well as for college and university classes in…

  20. Science on Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, John

    2011-01-01

    Television is frequently blamed for the problems adults face with some young people. Does television affect their understanding and behaviour? Of course it does. "Sesame Street", the most researched educational programme in the world, gave its pre-school viewers a head start in literacy that was still measurable ten years later. BBC…

  1. Television: The Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueulette, David

    1980-01-01

    Television, the author asserts, is the overwhelming factor in the continuous education and socialization of people of developed nations. Examines criticism of mass media's potential for behavior modification and subconscious manipulation. Advocates alternative uses of television based on Paulo Freier's "total language" approach, to teach…

  2. Television in the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateneo de Manila Univ., Quezon City (Philippines). Center for Educational Television.

    Information about instructional television (ITV) programing in the Philippines is summarized in this three part document. An outline of the status of the Center for Educational Television, Inc., (CETV) and a description of its current activities and financial support are provided in the first section. A narrative review of both CETV and other…

  3. Exploring Television Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhns, William; And Others

    This inquiry/discovery program is built on two assumptions: (1) that the students know more about television, have had more extensive television experience than their teachers; and (2) that the best moments in this course will spring from the students' ideas, projects, reports, and initiatives. Things to do before the course begins are suggested.…

  4. Exploring Television Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The textbook called "Exploring Television" was designed to be used in an inquiry/discovery course on the impact of television. This teacher's guide to the textbook establishes the instruction goals for the course, defines the inductive learning process, and describes the aims of the reformed English curriculum. The guidelines for each…

  5. Educational Television, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This basic brochure on educational television (ETV) explains what ETV is, how station licenses are granted, and which organizations have information about ETV. Briefly covered are: history; figures on growth and development; characteristics of ETV stations; short descriptions of instructional television fixed service, microwave translators, and…

  6. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  7. China: The Television Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivenburgh, Nancy K.

    What is currently happening in China is similar to what happened in the United States in the 1950s and the Soviet Union in the 1970s--television is quickly becoming a mainstay of popular entertainment and news. The Chinese government has made substantial efforts to provide television service to all regions of the country, with importance attached…

  8. Imitation of televised models by infants.

    PubMed

    Meltzoff, A N

    1988-10-01

    Studies indicate that infants in our culture are exposed to significant amounts of TV, often as a baby-sitting strategy by busy caretakers. The question arises whether TV viewing merely presents infants with a salient collection of moving patterns or whether they will readily pick up information depicted in this 2-D representation and incorporate it into their own behavior. Can infants "understand" the content of television enough to govern their real-world behavior accordingly? One way to explore this question is to present a model via television for infants to imitate. Infants' ability to imitate TV models was explored at 2 ages, 14 and 24 months, under conditions of immediate and deferred imitation. In deferred imitation, infants were exposed to a TV depiction of an adult manipulating a novel toy in a particular way but were not presented with the real toy until the next day. The results showed significant imitation at both ages, and furthermore showed that even the youngest group imitated after the 24-hour delay. The finding of deferred imitation of TV models has social and policy implications, because it suggests that TV viewing in the home could potentially affect infant behavior and development more than heretofore contemplated. The results also add to a growing body of literature on prelinguistic representational capacities. They do so in the dual sense of showing that infants can relate 2-D representations to their own actions on real objects in 3-D space, and moreover that the information picked up through TV can be internally represented over lengthy delays before it is used to guide the real-world action.

  9. Family Income, TV Viewing, and Children's Cereal Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 148 children revealed that although the majority of children from both low-income and moderate-to-high income backgrounds understood the selling intent of television commercials for cereals, there were significant differences between income groups in children's ability to evaluate the nutritional value of heavily advertised cereals.…

  10. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A; Vaala, Sarah E; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-02-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents' sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens' engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed.

  11. Does Self-Directed and Web-Based Support for Parents Enhance the Effects of Viewing a Reality Television Series Based on the Triple P--Positive Parenting Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew; Calam, Rachel; Durand, Marianne; Liversidge, Tom; Carmont, Sue Ann

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether providing self-directed and web-based support for parents enhanced the effects of viewing a reality television series based on the Triple P--Positive Parenting Programme. Method: Parents with a child aged 2 to 9 (N=454) were randomly assigned to either a standard or enhanced intervention condition. In…

  12. The Development of Critical Television Viewing Skills in Post-Secondary Students. Final Report (Phase I, September 30, 1978-December 31, 1979. Phase II, March 1, 1980-July 31, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondis, Donis

    This final report summarizes the activities of Phase 1 and Phase 2 of a project designed to develop curriculum materials to teach critical television viewing skills at the postsecondary level, including individuals in various community and professional groups, as well as students in formal educational programs. Defining such skills as those which…

  13. TV as storyteller: how exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2009-03-01

    Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives.

  14. High-definition television evaluation for remote handling task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Y.; Omori, E.; Hayashi, S.; Draper, J.V.; Herndon, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The experiments described in this paper compared the performance of four operators using HDTV with their performance while using other television systems. The experiments included four television systems: (1) high-definition color television, (2) high-definition monochromatic television, (3) standard-resolution monochromatic television, and (4) standard-resolution stereoscopic monochromatic television. The stereo system accomplished stereoscopy by displaying two cross-polarized images, one reflected by a half-silvered mirror and one seen through the mirror. Observers wore a pair of glasses with cross-polarized lenses so that the left eye received only the view from the left camera and the right eye received only the view from the right camera.

  15. Tuning in to Young Viewers: Social Science Perspectives on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeth, Tannis M., Ed.

    Research indicates that children are especially vulnerable to the effects of television viewing. Taking a psychological, social-science perspective, this book explores how television viewing affects children. Chapter 1, "Introduction," (MacBeth) discusses the issues involved, how researchers go about studying media effects, whether television…

  16. Live Versus Televised Observations of Social Behavior in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, F. Leon

    1972-01-01

    An investigation to compare systematic behavioral observations made live with those made on television was conducted. The study was designed to answer three questions: (1) Is there a difference in the agreement between observers (Os) when both view an event Live and when both view the same event on Television? (2) Is there a difference in…

  17. Television Literacy and Television vs. Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    1982-01-01

    Examines two issues: whether different modes of presentation used by communication media require their own unique brand of literacy, and whether the consequences of one kind of literacy, e.g., television literacy and all of its skill components, may affect those of another kind. (MBR)

  18. Television Studies: A Widening Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    1981-01-01

    Reviews three books concerned with the effects of television advertising upon children and their parents: "Television Advertising and Children," edited by June Esserman; "Children and the Faces of Television," edited by Edward Palmer and Aimee Dorr; and "The Effects of Television Advertising on Children," by Richard Adler and others. (JJD)

  19. Cable Television; A Bibliographic Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenung, James

    This bibliographic review of publications in the field of cable television begins with an introduction to cable television and an outline of the history and development of cable television. Particular attention is given to the regulatory activities of the Federal Communications Commission and the unfulfilled potential of cable television. The…

  20. Television vs. Your Child's Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Christine Ciensczyk

    Emphasizing the influence of television on children, this pamphlet explores some of the major criticisms of television and discusses ways parents can help their children get the most out of television. It is argued that the major problem with television is the amount of time that it steals from our lives, time that could be spent in developing…

  1. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  2. Attention Skills and Looking to Television in Children from Low Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Weatherholt, Tara N.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2010-01-01

    Attentional skills and home environment were examined as predictors of looking patterns during television viewing by 70 48- to 91-month-old children from low income families. Looking to the television was assessed in conditions without distractors and with continuous distractors. Looking patterns during television viewing reflected attentional…

  3. Television viewing and exposure to food-related commercials among European school children, associations with fruit and vegetable intake: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Klepp, Knut-Inge; Wind, Marianne; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Rodrigo, Carmen Perez; Due, Pernille; Bjelland, Mona; Brug, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake is low among European children and exposure to TV is negatively associated with the intake of fruit and vegetables. The aim of the present study was to explore exposure to food commercials on TV in nine European countries. Associations between such exposure and intake of fruit and vegetables and possible mediating effects of attitudes toward and liking of fruit and vegetables were assessed. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in nine European countries, i.e. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden, from October-December 2003, as a part of the Pro Children study. Data on usual intake of fruit and vegetables, and related correlates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire among 11-year-old school children (mean age 11.4 (sd = 0.48), 50.2% boys). Complete data was available for 13,035 children. Differences in exposure to TV ads between countries, gender and social class were explored by analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test associations between exposure to TV ads and intake and to assess mediating effects. Results The large majority of children in all nine countries report recent exposure to a number of TV ads for food, and they were more often exposed to ads for unhealthy food than for fruit and vegetables (mean of 2.2 (sd = 1.0) unhealthy ads vs. mean of 1.7 (sd = 1.0) healthy ads; p < 0.001). Boys reported somewhat higher TV viewing than girls did (2.5 (sd = 1.7) vs. 2.2 (sd = 1.6) hours per day; p < 0.001), and children from lower social classes reported higher TV viewing than higher social class children did (2.4 (sd = 1.7) vs. 2.0 (sd = 1.5); p < 0.001). Across all countries, exposure to TV ads for healthy foods was positively associated (r = 0.09–0.16) with reported fruit and vegetable intake. This association was in part mediated by attitudes toward and liking of fruit and vegetables. Conclusion Exposure to

  4. Television and teens: health implications. Executive summary.

    PubMed

    Blum, R

    1990-01-01

    Throughout the study group deliberations, there were issues that cross-cut all discussions and suggestions. While the focus of the conference was on television, it is not possible to talk about television without including advertising, cable, and independent stations as well as the networks. In addition, television cannot be discussed in isolation from movies, for with VCRs and television reruns, movies are an integral part of the television scene. A second theme that transcended most discussion was a reluctance to call upon external regulatory mechanisms to control what many see as the excesses of television. There was sensitivity and concern for striking a balance between safeguarding basic freedoms, on one hand, and assuring the health and well being of the nation on the other. In terms of specific recommendations, there were some key general agreements: 1. Need for Interdisciplinary Dialog. Repeatedly, concern was voiced on how little understanding there is among and between those who are primarily concerned with the health and development of young people and those who develop programs viewed by that population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

  6. Pressures on TV Programs: Coalition for Better Television's Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, John M., Jr.

    In 1981, the conservative Coalition for Better Television (CBTV) threatened an economic boycott against advertisers who marketed their wares on programs that the coalition felt had excessive sex and violence. Because television networks are dependent on advertising, the coalition believed economic pressure on advertisers would force a…

  7. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal...

  8. Television exposure in children after a terrorist incident.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, B; Nixon, S J; Tivis, R D; Doughty, D E; Pynoos, R S; Gurwitch, R H; Foy, D W

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bomb-related television viewing in the context of physical and emotional exposure on posttraumatic stress symptoms--intrusion, avoidance, and arousal--in middle school students following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. Over 2,000 middle school students in Oklahoma City were surveyed 7 weeks after the incident. The primary outcome measures were the total posttraumatic stress symptom score and symptom cluster scores at the time of assessment. Bomb-related television viewing in the aftermath of the disaster was extensive. Both emotional and television exposure were associated with posttraumatic stress at 7 weeks. Among children with no physical or emotional exposure, the degree of television exposure was directly related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology. These findings suggest that television viewing in the aftermath of a disaster may make a small contribution to subsequent posttraumatic stress symptomatology in children or that increased television viewing may be a sign of current distress and that it should be monitored. Future research should examine further whether early symptoms predict increased television viewing and/or whether television viewing predicts subsequent symptoms.

  9. Parental Involvement in Middle Childhood: Can It Protect Children from Harmful TV Viewing Habits and Behavior? Fact Sheet. Publication #2008-28

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mbwana, Kassim; Moore, Kristin Anderson

    2008-01-01

    School-age children spend more time watching television than in any other activity except sleeping. Although some studies have suggested that watching educational programs can have positive effects on learning and behavior, numerous studies have found an association between television viewing and negative childhood outcomes. This study finds that…

  10. Television: Education's Prometheus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Educational television offers a number of effective options for instruction. The development of several exemplary programs which have provided educational alternatives for schools, colleges, and other organizations are described. (Author/PP)

  11. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  12. EEG sensitivity to television: effects of ambient lighting.

    PubMed

    Binnie, C D; Darby, C E; De Korte, R A; Veldhuizen, R; Wilkins, A J

    1980-11-01

    The effect of ambient lighting on EEG sensitivity to television has been tested in 16 photosensitive epileptic patients. Those who were not sensitive to 50 Hz IPS responded to TV at a viewing distance of 1 m or less and showed a consistent increase of EEG activation by television when the room was brightly lit. Most of those who were sensitive to 50 Hz IPS were also TV-sensitive at viewing distances greater than 1 m and the effect was most marked with lights off. The results are discussed in the context of previous work showing that some patients with TV epilepsy respond to the raster pattern of the screen and some, at greater distance, to 50 Hz flicker.

  13. TV viewing time is associated with increased all-cause mortality in Brazilian adults independent of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Turi, Bruna Camilo; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Ribeiro Lemes, Ítalo; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Lynch, Kyle Robinson; Asahi Mesquita, Camila Angélica; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo

    2017-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between television (TV) viewing and all-cause mortality among Brazilian adults after six years of follow-up. This longitudinal study started in 2010 in the city of Bauru, SP, Brazil, and involved 970 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Mortality was reported by relatives and confirmed in medical records of the Brazilian National Health System. Physical activity (PA) and TV viewing were assessed by the Baecke questionnaire. Health status, sociodemographic and behavioural covariates were considered as potential confounders. After six years of follow-up, 89 deaths were registered (9.2% [95%CI= 7.4% to 11%]). Type 2 diabetes mellitus was associated with higher risk of mortality (p-value= 0.012). Deaths correlated significantly with age (rho= 0.188; p-value= 0.001), overall PA score (rho= -0.128; p-value= 0.001) and TV viewing (rho= 0.086; p-value= 0.007). Lower percentage of participants reported TV viewing time as often (16%) and very often (5.7%), but there was an association between higher TV viewing time ("often" and "very often" grouped together) and increased mortality after six years of follow-up (p-value= 0.006). The higher TV viewing time was associated with a 44.7% increase in all-cause mortality (HR= 1.447 [1.019 to 2.055]), independently of other potential confounders. In conclusion, the findings from this cohort study identified increased risk of mortality among adults with higher TV viewing time, independently of physical activity and other variables. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the Effect of Exposure to TV Sex on Adolescent Sexual Behavior Vary by Genre?

    PubMed Central

    Gottfried, Jeffrey A.; Vaala, Sarah E.; Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Jordan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Using the Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction, this study examines the effects of exposure to sexual content on television by genre, specifically looking at comedy, drama, cartoon, and reality programs, on adolescents’ sex-related cognitions and behaviors. Additionally, we compared the amount and explicitness of sexual content as well as the frequency of risk and responsibility messages in these four genres. Findings show that overall exposure to sexual content on television was not related to teens’ engagement in sexual intercourse the following year. When examined by genre, exposure to sexual content in comedies was positively associated while exposure to sexual content in dramas was negatively associated with attitudes regarding sex, perceived normative pressure, intentions, and engaging in sex one year later. Implications of adolescent exposure to various types of content and for using genre categories to examine exposure and effects are discussed. PMID:24187395

  15. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children's Viewing Times.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.

  16. The Depiction of Mental Illnesses in Children's Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Otto; Hanrahan, Erin; Karl, Kelly; Lasher, Erin; Swaye, Janel

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that negative attitudes toward people with mental illnesses begin to develop early in childhood. This study examines one of the possible sources of learning of such negative attitudes--children's television programs. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) hours of children's television programming were videotaped, viewed, and…

  17. Mood-Management during Pregnancy through Selective Exposure to Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helregel, Brenda K.; Weaver, James B.

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of mood management strategies focuses on a study of pregnant and non-pregnant women and new mothers, that was designed to examine television program preferences as a function of the physiologically induced affective stages of pregnancy. Television viewing habits are examined and affective dispositions are ascertained. (29 references)…

  18. Conceptualizing Culture as Commodity: The Problem of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meehan, Eileen R.

    1986-01-01

    Claims that most television research ignores the connections between its symbolic and economic influences. Argues for an integrated approach that views television as both a commodity and an artifact. Describes five analytical categories that researchers could use to provide information illuminating these relations to the public. (JD)

  19. Internet for Educational Television: An Opportunity or Threat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Pradeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Among several uses, educational use of television is a prominent one. The public broadcasters of many countries routinely provide locally-relevant and useful educational television programs. In other side, there has been phenomenal growth in Internet use worldwide. The researchers are of the view that Internet has challenged the supremacy of…

  20. The Effects of Dubbing Versus Subtitling of Television Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokhtar, Fattawi B.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate viewers' knowledge of program content under various television translation modes and viewing experiences. Subjects were 176 students from the Center for Matriculation Program, Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia. The Spanish version of an instructional television program was used; the program…

  1. Serial Monogamy: Extended Fictions and the Television Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Changes in television technology have fostered changes in how we view fiction on television. This article explores some of these changes in the context of the teenage series, "Felicity" (WBTV, 1998-2002). It draws comparisons with the experience of reading series fiction in print, referring to the children's print series, "The Beverly Gray College…

  2. Television and children's executive function.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected.

  3. Cruel intentions on television and in real life: can viewing indirect aggression increase viewers' subsequent indirect aggression?

    PubMed

    Coyne, Sarah M; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-07-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were shown an indirect, direct, or no-aggression video and their subsequent indirect aggression was measured by negative evaluation of a confederate and responses to a vignette. Participants viewing indirect or direct aggression gave a more negative evaluation of and less money to a confederate than participants viewing no-aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave less money to the confederate than those viewing direct aggression. Participants viewing indirect aggression gave more indirectly aggressive responses to an ambiguous situation and participants viewing direct aggression gave more directly aggressive responses. This study provides the first evidence that viewing indirect aggression in the media can have an immediate impact on subsequent aggression.

  4. [Reliability and validity of the Japanese revised version of the television affinity scale].

    PubMed

    Erikawa, Shigeru; Yamada, Kazunari

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the Japanese version of the Television Affinity Scale (TAS), and to examine the relationship between affinity for television and viewing behavior. Data was based on a random sample of 552 people in Hachioji City (Tokyo, Japan); the response rate was 55.2%. The results revealed the following: (a) the TAS 6-item version had sufficient reliability and validity, (b) the TAS provided information which could not be explained directly by demographic factors, and (c) affinity for television was positively correlated with unplanned and non-concentrated television viewing. These results are consistent with the findings of Erikawa, Yamada, Kawabata, and Numazaki (2007). In addition, the TAS scores correlated positively with entertainment program viewing. This is consistent with the findings of Rubin (1984) that television affinity correlated with ritualized television viewing. The implications of these results for contemporary television viewing are discussed.

  5. Beginnings and Beyond: The Relationship between Television Violence and Neurodevelopment of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on the effect of televised violence on young children's behavior and neurodevelopment. Suggests ways parents can manage their child's television viewing and outlines activities for early childhood educators to incorporate into their curriculum to help children cope with television. Asserts that it is essential that…

  6. Young Children's Perception of the Reality of Television in Relation to Conservation and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Mac Henry

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 64 six- and seven-year-old children's perception of the reality of television and the Piagetian construct of cognitive development. The children were asked to view two television episodes (a highly similar, closely matched pair from the television series "Star Trek")…

  7. Influences of Television on Children's Behavior: Implications for War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Television is robbing children of their childhood. Moreover, it is destroying children's developing symbolic processes, and inhibiting their creativity and play. Television has remarkable influence over children's behavior. At this point, it is plausible to hypothesize linkages between television viewing and numerous social problems involving…

  8. Television and Media Literacy in Young Children: Issues and Effects in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah

    2009-01-01

    Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…

  9. Integrative Review of Educational Television for Young Children: Implications for Children from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherholt, Tara N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the creation of "Sesame Street", children's educational television programs have grown in both number and popularity. However, controversy has shadowed the children's television arena for many years. Some have claimed that viewing television is a passive event, requiring little or no effort on the part of the viewer. However, research on…

  10. Maternal beliefs and parenting practices regarding their preschool child's TV viewing: An exploration in a sample of low-income Mexican-origin mothers

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Darcy A.; Polk, Sarah; Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Chrismer, Marilyn Camacho; Tschann, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore maternal beliefs about TV viewing and related parenting practices in low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 low-income Mexican-origin mothers of preschoolers. Interviews were audio recorded and analyzed using a theoretically based thematic analytic approach. Results Mothers described strong beliefs about the positive and negative impact of television content. Mothers emphasized the educational value of specific programming. Content restrictions were common. Time restrictions were not clearly defined; however, many mothers preferred short versus long episodes of viewing. Mothers spoke positively about family viewing and the role of TV viewing in enabling mothers to accomplish household tasks. Discussion These findings have implications for intervening in this population. Interventionists should consider the value mothers place on the educational role of TV viewing, the direct benefit to mothers of viewing time, the lack of clear time limits, and the common practice of family co-viewing. PMID:25724994

  11. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  12. Cruel Intentions on Television and in Real Life: Can Viewing Indirect Aggression Increase Viewers' Subsequent Indirect Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Archer, John; Eslea, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that viewing violence in the media can influence an individual's subsequent aggression, but none have examined the effect of viewing indirect aggression. This study examines the immediate effect of viewing indirect and direct aggression on subsequent indirect aggression among 199 children ages 11 to 14 years. They were…

  13. Television Criticism: A Multifarious Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oseguera, A. Anthony

    Recognizing the need for a multifarious approach to television, this paper provides the reader with the following multidimensional approaches to television criticism: rhetorical, dramatic, literary, cinematic, content analysis, myth, linguistics, semiotics, phenomenalism, phenomenology, interpersonal communication, public relations, image,…

  14. Educational Uses of Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable Television Information Center, Washington, DC.

    The different educational uses of cable television as well as the methods and problems of that use are described in a state of the art review. The Federal Communications Commission regulations and related franchise activity are described, and the methods of using the educational channel as open or closed circuit TV or pay TV are indicated for…

  15. Benchmarking the cultivation approach to video game effects: a comparison of the correlates of TV viewing and game play.

    PubMed

    Van Mierlo, Jan; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2004-02-01

    This study found significant relationships between first- and second-order cultivation measures and TV viewing, but found a relationship with video game play for only two variables in a sample of 322 Flemish 3rd and 6th year secondary school children. This suggests that the absence of a relationship with video game play is not the result of the absence of cultivation effects in Flanders. On the other hand it shows that the relationship between TV viewing and cultivation measures is not an artifact of systematic over reporting. The study concludes that cultivation measures typical of the "television world" are not related to playing video games. To study video game cultivation measures must be sought which reflect the mainstream of (particular genres of) video games. The role of selectivity needs to be studied more closely. As gamers play an active role in the violence of the games the possibility that self-protecting strategies are employed in processing video game contents must be taken into consideration. Existing process theories explaining what happens in television cultivation may be challenged by research into the cultivation effects of video games.

  16. Lower lateral orbitofrontal cortex density associated with more frequent exposure to television and movie violence in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Pulaski, Sarah J; Openshaw, Anne E; Zamboni, Giovanna; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between cortical grey matter density and media violence exposure in healthy male adolescents was investigated using voxel-based morphometry and the Childrens' Report of Exposure to Violence. Adolescents with more frequent exposure have lower left lateral orbitofrontal cortex density--a possible risk factor for altered socioemotional functioning.

  17. TV Viewing, Perceived Similarity, Coviewing, and Mental Well-Being among African American, Latino, and White Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Wallander, Jan; Elliott, Marc; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Tortolero, Susan; Cuccaro, Paula; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Research among adults has demonstrated concurrent and prospective negative associations between TV viewing and mental health, yet little research has examined these associations among African American and Latino youth or examined the role of children's involvement with TV and parental mediation of TV viewing via coviewing. The purpose of the…

  18. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  19. Longitudinal relations between prosocial television content and adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior: The mediating role of empathic concern and self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Collier, Kevin M; Nielson, Matthew G

    2015-09-01

    The current study examined longitudinal cross-lagged associations between prosocial TV (content and time) and prosocial and aggressive behavior during adolescence, and explored the mediating role of empathic concern and self-regulation. Participants were 441 adolescents who reported on their 3 favorite TV shows at 2 time points, approximately 2 years apart (M age of child at Time 3 = 13.31, SD = 1.06; 52% female; M age of child at Time 5 = 15.27, SD = 1.06). Results suggested that prosocial content at Time 3 was negatively associated with aggressive behavior 2 years later, and aggressive behavior at Time 3 was positively associated with aggressive content 2 years later. Results also suggested that prosocial behavior toward strangers at Time 3 was associated with both empathic concern and self-regulation at Time 4, which were in turn associated with prosocial and aggressive content at Time 5. Discussion focuses on the important role of behavior and prosocial personality on media selection during adolescence and the relevance of the target of prosocial behavior.

  20. What's on TV Tonight?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Provides instruction for a game for the ESL classroom in which students work in pairs, playing a husband and wife who want to sort out their TV viewing schedule. The exercise gives students practice in telling time, asking about programs, making suggestions, asking about preferences, and learning about English television programs. (PJM)

  1. Vocabulary Demands of Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart; Rodgers, Michael P. H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary coverage and the number of encounters of low-frequency vocabulary in television programs. Eighty-eight television programs consisting of 264,384 running words were categorized according to genre. Television shows were classified as either British or American and then put into the following genres: news, drama,…

  2. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  3. Cross-sectional study of diet, physical activity, television viewing and sleep duration in 233 110 adults from the UK Biobank; the behavioural phenotype of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Sophie; Chau, Josephine Y; Catt, Michael; Bauman, Adrian; Trenell, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Simultaneously define diet, physical activity, television (TV) viewing, and sleep duration across cardiometabolic disease groups, and investigate clustering of non-diet lifestyle behaviours. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting 22 UK Biobank assessment centres across the UK. Participants 502 664 adults aged 37–63 years old, 54% women. 4 groups were defined based on disease status; ‘No disease’ (n=103 993), ‘cardiovascular disease’ (CVD n=113 469), ‘Type 2 diabetes without CVD’ (n=4074) and ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ (n=11 574). Main outcomes Diet, physical activity, TV viewing and sleep duration. Results People with ‘CVD’ report low levels of physical activity (<918 MET min/week, OR (95% CI) 1.23 (1.20 to 1.25)), high levels of TV viewing (>3 h/day; 1.42 (1.39 to 1.45)), and poor sleep duration (<7, >8 h/night; 1.37 (1.34 to 1.39)) relative to people without disease. People with ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ were more likely to report low physical activity (1.71 (1.64 to 1.78)), high levels of TV viewing (1.92 (1.85 to 1.99)) and poor sleep duration (1.52 (1.46 to1.58)) relative to people without disease. Non-diet behaviours were clustered, with people with ‘CVD’ or ‘Type 2 diabetes + CVD’ more likely to report simultaneous low physical activity, high TV viewing and poor sleep duration than those without disease (2.15 (2.03 to 2.28) and 3.29 (3.02 to 3.58), respectively). By contrast, 3 in 4 adults with ‘Type 2 diabetes’, and 2 in 4 adults with ‘CVD’ have changed their diet in the past 5 years, compared with only 1 in 4 in the ‘No disease’ group. Models were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, Townsend Deprivation Index, ethnicity, alcohol intake, smoking and meeting fruit/vegetable guidelines. Conclusions Low physical activity, high TV and poor sleep duration are prominent unaddressed high-risk characteristics of both CVD and type 2 diabetes, and are likely to be clustered

  4. Visual Newsworkers' Attitudes toward Local Television News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshaw, Jim

    The voices of photographers and other visual-crafts workers rarely are heard in public discourse about local television news. All rank-and-file newsworkers potentially face reprisals resulting in shortened or blighted careers if they participate openly in assessing and criticizing the medium. A fresh examination of these newsworkers' views and…

  5. Energy-efficient lighting system for television

    DOEpatents

    Cawthorne, Duane C.

    1987-07-21

    A light control system for a television camera comprises an artificial light control system which is cooperative with an iris control system. This artificial light control system adjusts the power to lamps illuminating the camera viewing area to provide only sufficient artificial illumination necessary to provide a sufficient video signal when the camera iris is substantially open.

  6. A Q-Analysis of Television Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Documents an experiment in the application of R. H. Atkin's methodology of Q-analysis in the field of television which demonstrates how it may be applied to program schedules. A theoretical discussion illustrates the relationships between the program-time interval backcloth and the viewing patterns it can support. (Author/VT)

  7. Family and Television: Some Latinoamerican Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel Torres

    Highlighting the importance of media education in Latin America, this paper describes projects conducted by the Latin American Institute for Communicative Education and the National Council for the Population of Mexico to examine the family's influence in promoting critical television viewing. A theoretical model for media education is then…

  8. Should I Let My Child Watch Television?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-01-01

    While the prevalence of autism has been increasing globally, there is a search for the causative factors behind the rise. The point of view presented here examines the possibility of children brought up in social deprivation and watching television being at higher risk for developing autistic symptoms. The association is evident in the clinical…

  9. Concurring Statement In Re: Children's Television Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, Benjamin L.

    1974-01-01

    Three Federal Communications Commissioners (FCC) filed supplementary statements to the FCC Children's Television Report, elaborating on their individual views. Commissioner Benjamin L. Hooks concurred in the proposed limit on commercial minutes in children's programs, but suggested a lower figure. He also suggested that commercials be…

  10. Analyzing Value Content in Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Larry; Zelig, Mark

    Four prime time television programs--"Charlie's Angels,""Little House on the Prairie,""Grizzly Adams," and "Lou Grant" --were rated by university students for their portrayal of moral reasoning and values. Data were obtained from three episodes of each program by randomly assigning raters to one of two viewing groups, both of which used an…

  11. The Competitive Ethos in Television Newswork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Matthew C.

    1995-01-01

    Views competition in terms of a corporate drive for profit and as a way in which television news workers make sense of their jobs and socially construct their world. Argues that through these competitive norms and practices, news workers inadvertently help legitimate the societal status quo and perpetuate corporate control of the media, with…

  12. Viewing 3D TV over two months produces no discernible effects on balance, coordination or eyesight

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jenny C.A.; Godfrey, Alan; Bohr, Iwo; Simonotto, Jennifer; Galna, Brook; Smulders, Tom V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With the rise in stereoscopic 3D media, there has been concern that viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content could have long-term adverse effects, but little data are available. In the first study to address this, 28 households who did not currently own a 3D TV were given a new TV set, either S3D or 2D. The 116 members of these households all underwent tests of balance, coordination and eyesight, both before they received their new TV set, and after they had owned it for 2 months. We did not detect any changes which appeared to be associated with viewing 3D TV. We conclude that viewing 3D TV does not produce detectable effects on balance, coordination or eyesight over the timescale studied. Practitioner Summary: Concern has been expressed over possible long-term effects of stereoscopic 3D (S3D). We looked for any changes in vision, balance and coordination associated with normal home S3D TV viewing in the 2 months after first acquiring a 3D TV. We find no evidence of any changes over this timescale. PMID:26758965

  13. Viewing 3D TV over two months produces no discernible effects on balance, coordination or eyesight.

    PubMed

    Read, Jenny C A; Godfrey, Alan; Bohr, Iwo; Simonotto, Jennifer; Galna, Brook; Smulders, Tom V

    2016-08-01

    With the rise in stereoscopic 3D media, there has been concern that viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) content could have long-term adverse effects, but little data are available. In the first study to address this, 28 households who did not currently own a 3D TV were given a new TV set, either S3D or 2D. The 116 members of these households all underwent tests of balance, coordination and eyesight, both before they received their new TV set, and after they had owned it for 2 months. We did not detect any changes which appeared to be associated with viewing 3D TV. We conclude that viewing 3D TV does not produce detectable effects on balance, coordination or eyesight over the timescale studied. Practitioner Summary: Concern has been expressed over possible long-term effects of stereoscopic 3D (S3D). We looked for any changes in vision, balance and coordination associated with normal home S3D TV viewing in the 2 months after first acquiring a 3D TV. We find no evidence of any changes over this timescale.

  14. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Radio and T.V. Repair. Course: Television Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of four individualized courses included in a radio and television repair, curriculum, this course focuses on trouble-shooting procedures for both black and white and color television equipment. The course is comprised of ten units: (1) Introduction to/and Block Diagrams of Television, (2) Television Audio Section Troubles, (3) Television Video…

  15. "Feedback" For Instructioal Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur

    A number of different methods have been used by instructional television (ITV) projects to obtain audience feedback, and some of these are now being used in the ITV system in El Salvador. We know that pretesting programs on a representative sample can bring considerable gains in learning. Another feedback source can be a classroom of pupils in the…

  16. Pediatrics and Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallerstein, Edward; And Others

    The Department of Community Medicine of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine (New York City), in cooperation with the TelePrompTer Corporation and with funding from the Health Services and Mental Health Administration of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, has developed a bidirectional television system using coaxial cable which links…

  17. Information Retrieval by Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billowes, C. A.

    1968-01-01

    Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…

  18. Reality, Fiction and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sari

    1978-01-01

    Suggests that individuals may differentially identify with and learn from media presentation in terms of whether the images are structured as real or fictional events, and that, independent of the inherent real or fictional structure of the given events, the television format has a fictionalizing capacity in and out of itself. (JMF)

  19. Researching Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtzel, Alan; Lometti, Guy

    1984-01-01

    Two officals from the American Broadcasting Companies (ABC) (1) review a 1982 National Institute of Mental Health Study on television and violence, and (2) summarize the broadcast standards, practices, policies, and procedures employed by the network regarding the depiction of violence. (GC)

  20. FIESTA; Minority Television Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Wes; And Others

    The suggestions for planning, running, and evaluating minority television programing presented in this handbook are based on the experience and example of the FIESTA project (Tucson, Arizona). After initiating the reader into the topic of minority programing, the document disucsses the following topics: broadcast research, origins of the FIESTA…

  1. Television Microwave--1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger E.

    Since it became a reality just before World War II, terrestrial microwave has improved in systems and equipments, but with the improvements have come higher costs. Television microwave costs are so high because users are demanding more capability, land prices have increased, operating costs are higher, and there is frequency congestion along many…

  2. TELEVISION AND COLLEGE INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BECK, ISABEL H.

    STUDIES OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION (ITV) HAVE SHOWN IT TO BE AT LEAST AS PRODUCTIVE AS STANDARD METHODS. WHEN IT IS AVAILABLE, THE COLLEGE TEACHER CAN SELECT THE MEANS BY WHICH HE CAN DO HIS BEST TEACHING. MANY TEACHERS REGARD ITV AS AN IMPORTANT AID WHICH FREES THEM FOR MORE EFFECTIVE TEACHING, GUIDANCE, AND EVALUATION. AS…

  3. Children's Play and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

  4. Evaluation of Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, P. Jonathan, Ed.; And Others

    Eleven articles on the evaluation of educational television (ETV) in South Africa are provided. Under the heading "Theory" are: (1) "The Meaning of Evaluation and Its Practice" (D. Nevo); (2) "Criteria for Evaluating ETV: A Theoretical Framework" (R. Israeli); and (3) "Sources of Evaluation Criteria in Education,…

  5. Children's Attention to Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.

    This paper summarizes a series of studies investigating the nature of children's attention to television. In a study of distraction, children's visual attention was found to be affected by distractions in the environment, by the nature of the program and by the viewer's own patterns of attending. A study of the general patterns of attention to…

  6. Schools and Cable Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Educational Technology Div.

    The papers gathered here are designed to provide a foundation of background information for those charged with the responsibility of formulating school district goals regarding cable television (CATV) and of obtaining the necessary cooperation from the local CATV franchise operators to reach these goals. The position of the National Education…

  7. Writing for Instructional Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryan, Kenneth G.

    Writing considerations specific to instructional television (ITV) situations are discussed in this handbook written for the beginner, but designed to be of use to anyone creating an ITV script. Advice included in the handbook is based on information obtained from ITV wirters, literature reviews, and the author's personal experience. The ITV…

  8. Tourism on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bruce

    Thirteen half-hour television programs entitled "The Geography of Tourism" developed for use in Wilfrid Laurier University's (Canada) distance education program are discussed. Distance education embraces teaching, or communicating with, students who are not physically in the classroom with the instructor. The central theme of the series…

  9. Filming for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, A. Arthur; Petzold, Paul

    Film makers, professional or amateur, will find in this volume an extensive discussion of the adaptation of film technique to television work, of the art of the camera operator, and of the productive relationships between people, organization, and hardware. Chapters include "The Beginnings," an overview of the interrelationship between roles in…

  10. Play, Toys and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles

    In Western societies, television has transformed the life, culture, and points of reference of the child. Its particular sphere of influence is the child's play culture. This play culture is not hermetic: it is very oriented toward manipulation; has a symbolic role as a representational medium; evolves along with the child; has a certain amount of…

  11. Ultraminiature television camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deterville, R. J.; Drago, N.

    1967-01-01

    Ultraminiature television camera with a total volume of 20.25 cubic inches, requires 28 vdc power, operates on UHF and accommodates standard 8-mm optics. It uses microelectronic assembly packaging techniques and contains a magnetically deflected and electrostatically focused vidicon, automatic gain control circuit, power supply, and transmitter.

  12. Evaluation of high-definition television for remote task performance

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.; Fujita, Y.; Herndon, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    High-definition television (HDTV) transmits a video image with more than twice the number (1125 for HDTV to 525 for standard-resolution TV) of horizontal scan lines that standard-resolution TV provides. The improvement in picture quality (compared to standard-resolution TV) that the extra scan lines provide is impressive. Objects in the HDTV picture have more sharply defined edges, better contrast, and more accurate reproduction of shading and color patterns than do those in the standard-resolution TV picture. Because the TV viewing system is a key component for teleoperator performance, an improvement in TV picture quality could mean an improvement in the speed and accuracy with which teleoperators perform tasks. This report describes three experiments designed to evaluate the impact of HDTV on the performance of typical remote tasks. The performance of HDTV was compared to that of standard-resolution, monochromatic TV and standard-resolution, stereoscopic, monochromatic TV in the context of judgment of depth in a televised scene, visual inspection of an object, and performance of a typical remote handling task. The results of the three experiments show that in some areas HDTV can lead to improvement in teleoperator performance. Observers inspecting a small object for a flaw were more accurate with HDTV than with either of the standard-resolution systems. High resolution is critical for detection of small-scale flaws of the type in the experiment (a scratch on a glass bottle). These experiments provided an evaluation of HDTV television for use in tasks that must be routinely performed to remotely maintain a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. 5 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Reenactment of televised content by 2-year olds: toddlers use language learned from television to solve a difficult imitation problem.

    PubMed

    Barr, Rachel; Wyss, Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Parents commonly label objects on television and for some programs, verbal labels are also provided directly via voice-over. The present study investigated whether toddlers' imitation performance from television would be facilitated if verbal labels were presented on television via voice-over or if they were presented by parents who were co-viewing with their toddlers. Sixty-one 2-year olds were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (voice-over video, parent video, parent video no label, parent live) or to a baseline control condition. Toddlers were tested with novel objects after a 24h delay. Although, all experimental groups imitated significantly more target actions than the baseline control group, imitation was facilitated by novel labels regardless of whether those labels were provided by parents or by voice-over on television. These findings have important implications for toddler learning from television.

  14. The Media Environments and Television-Viewing Diets of Infants and Toddlers: Findings from a National Survey of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaala, Sarah E.; Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B.

    2013-01-01

    High rates of infant and toddler screen media use coupled with research indicating no benefit to this viewing have led the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to advise against any screen media use with children less than 2 years old and less than 2 hours per day of entertainment programming for children 2 years and older (AAP, 2011). Our survey…

  15. Lights, Television, Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clovis, Donna L.

    1997-01-01

    A veteran English-as-a-Second-Language teacher recently discovered the effectiveness of using videos and TV together with a diverse student population that speaks 22 languages. Video segments linked to tasks, close-captioned instructional TV programs, and interactive TV and video helped students with language acquisition skills. The idea was to…

  16. Predicting US Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing Rates: Mothers' Cognitions and Structural Life Circumstances

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E.; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been rising international concern over media use with children under two. As little is known about the factors associated with more or less viewing among very young children, this study examines maternal factors predictive of TV/video viewing rates among American infants and toddlers. Guided by the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this survey study examines relationships between children's rates of TV/video viewing and their mothers' structural life circumstances (e.g., number of children in the home; mother's screen use), and cognitions (e.g., attitudes; norms). Results suggest that mothers' structural circumstances and cognitions respectively contribute independent explanatory power to the prediction of children's TV/video viewing. Influence of structural circumstances is partially mediated through cognitions. Mothers' attitudes as well as their own TV/video viewing behavior were particularly predictive of children's viewing. Implications of these findings for international efforts to understand and reduce infant/toddler TV/video exposure are discussed. PMID:25489335

  17. Television: A One-Way Bridge between Cultures? Objectives for a Curriculum on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebrian de la Serna, Manuel

    1995-01-01

    Examines television as a means for providing multicultural education. Discusses the influence of television on children, the stereotypical message of television, how ethnic groups are portrayed, and objectives for a curriculum on television. (AEF)

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Radio and Television Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Radio and Television section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Two Pacific Powers View the World: News on CBS and TBS Television" (Anne Cooper-Chen); "Nicholas Johnson: The Public's Defender on the Federal Communication Commission, 1966-1973" (Max V. Grubb); "News Tips, TV Viewers, and Computer…

  19. TELEVISION AND OTHER MEDIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALE, EDGAR

    AN ANALYSIS OF WHAT EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION IS AND HOW IT CAN BE USED IS PRESENTED. IT MAY BE CONSIDERED AS A VEHICLE FOR CONVEYING A MESSAGE AND AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL. IT CAN BE A SUPPLEMENT FOR BOOKS AS WELL AS A MOTIVATOR FOR USING BOOKS AND FOR LEARNING. IT CAN ENLARGE ONE'S RANGE OF EXPERIENCE IN A LOW-POWERED, SLOWLY PACED, INFORMAL MANNER.…

  20. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  1. Interactive Cable Television. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Active Learning Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This report describes an interactive video system developed by Active Learning Systems which utilizes a cable television (TV) network as its delivery system to transmit computer literacy lessons to high school and college students. The system consists of an IBM PC, Pioneer LDV 4000 videodisc player, and Whitney Supercircuit set up at the head end…

  2. Online television library: organization and content browsing for general users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Donald, Kieran; Smeaton, Alan F.; Marlow, Sean; Murphy, Noel A.; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the organizational and playback features of Fischlar, a digital video library that allows users o record, browse and watch television programs on- line. Programs that can be watched and recorded are organized by personal recommendations, genre classifications, name and other attributes for access by general television users. Motivations and interactions of users with on-line television libraries are outlined and they are also supported by personalized library access, categorized programs, a combined player browse with content viewing history and content marks. The combined player browser supports a user who watches a program on different occasions in a non-sequential order.

  3. Online television library: organization and content browsing for general users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Donald, Kieran; Smeaton, Alan F.; Marlow, Sean; Murphy, Noel A.; O'Connor, Noel E.

    2000-12-01

    This paper describes the organizational and playback features of Fischlar, a digital video library that allows users o record, browse and watch television programs on- line. Programs that can be watched and recorded are organized by personal recommendations, genre classifications, name and other attributes for access by general television users. Motivations and interactions of users with on-line television libraries are outlined and they are also supported by personalized library access, categorized programs, a combined player browse with content viewing history and content marks. The combined player browser supports a user who watches a program on different occasions in a non-sequential order.

  4. No excuses: televised pornography harms children.

    PubMed

    Benedek, E P; Brown, C F

    1999-01-01

    All youngsters are at some risk from exposure to televised pornography, as described above. At particular risk for harm, however, are the most vulnerable children in our society--children in single-parent homes, children with mental and emotional disturbances, mentally challenged children, children who have been physically and/or sexually abused, and children in dysfunctional families. Youngsters for whom television serves as a babysitter or parental surrogate unfortunately are exposed to few competing influences to television viewing. In addition, parents in such homes are least likely to know what their children are viewing and to be able to pass on their own values about sex and sexual behavior. The main possible effects of televised pornography that must concern us as clinicians, educators, and parents are modeling and imitation of language heard and behaviors observed in televised pornography; negative interference with children's normal sexual development; emotional reactions such as nightmares and feelings of anxiety, guilt, confusion, and/or shame; stimulation of premature sexual activity; development of unrealistic, misleading, and/or harmful attitudes toward sex and adult male-female relationships; and undermining of family values with resultant conflict between parents and children. Much more research is clearly needed on this topic. Because of the ethical and procedural problems surrounding research on children exposed to pornography, ideal research designs may never be possible. Nonetheless, we hope that this article will stimulate further discussion and work. To devise public policy that protects children from potentially harmful material while at the same time respecting the media's First Amendment rights, such public discourse and responsible research are essential.

  5. A classroom-administered simulation of a television campaign on adolescent smoking: testing an activation model of information exposure.

    PubMed

    Helme, Donald W; Donohew, Robert Lewis; Baier, Monika; Zittleman, Linda

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, research has shown that mass media can be used effectively either alone or in conjunction with interpersonal and institutional channels, such as schools. Much has yet been be learned about the application of newer, more effective strategies for media campaigns for adolescent smoking prevention interventions. This article describes a study applying an activation model of information exposure and a sensation-seeking targeting approach to the design of a smoking prevention campaign for adolescents. The participants were 1,272 middle school students aged 12-14 from across the Colorado Front Range who were stratified by their level of sensation seeking and then exposed to both high and low sensation value anti tobacco public service announcements (PSAs) at three time points. Hypothesized effects of the intervention on the primary dependent measures--attitudes (against smoking) and behavioral intentions not to smoke--were strongly supported for high sensation seekers. Further support is offered from the secondary indicators, self-efficacy, perceived message effectiveness, and perceived risk from smoking. No differences were demonstrated, however, in message effects between those selected by focus groups to be high in sensation value and those selected to be low in sensation value.

  6. Concurrent and prospective analyses of peer, television and social media influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure.

  7. Pre- and Postdiagnosis Physical Activity, Television Viewing, and Mortality Among Patients With Colorectal Cancer in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Engels, Eric A.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Hollenbeck, Albert; Park, Yikyung; Matthews, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical inactivity has been associated with higher mortality risk among survivors of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the independent effects of pre- versus postdiagnosis activity are unclear, and the association between watching television (TV) and mortality in survivors of CRC is previously undefined. Methods We analyzed the associations between prediagnosis (n = 3,797) and postdiagnosis (n = 1,759) leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and TV watching and overall and disease-specific mortality among patients with CRC. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for known mortality risk factors. Results Comparing survivors of CRC reporting more than 7 hours per week (h/wk) of prediagnosis LTPA with those reporting no LTPA, we found a 20% lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.95; P for trend = .021). Postdiagnosis LTPA of ≥ 7 h/wk, compared with none, was associated with a 31% lower all-cause mortality risk (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.98; P for trend = .006), independent of prediagnosis activity. Compared with 0 to 2 TV hours per day (h/d) before diagnosis, those reporting ≥ 5 h/d of TV before diagnosis had a 22% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.41; P trend = .002), and more postdiagnosis TV watching was associated with a nonsignificant 25% increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.67; P for trend = .126). Conclusion LTPA was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, whereas more TV watching was associated with increased mortality risk. For both LTPA and TV watching, postdiagnosis measures independently explained the association with mortality. Clinicians should promote both minimizing TV time and increasing physical activity for longevity among survivors of CRC, regardless of previous behaviors. PMID:25488967

  8. Television, computer and portable display device use by people with central vision impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Russell L; Satgunam, PremNandhini

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To survey the viewing experience (e.g. hours watched, difficulty) and viewing metrics (e.g. distance viewed, display size) for television (TV), computers and portable visual display devices for normally-sighted (NS) and visually impaired participants. This information may guide visual rehabilitation. Methods Survey was administered either in person or in a telephone interview on 223 participants of whom 104 had low vision (LV, worse than 6/18, age 22 to 90y, 54 males), and 94 were NS (visual acuity 6/9 or better, age 20 to 86y, 50 males). Depending on their situation, NS participants answered up to 38 questions and LV participants answered up to a further 10 questions. Results Many LV participants reported at least “some” difficulty watching TV (71/103), reported at least “often” having difficulty with computer displays (40/76) and extreme difficulty watching videos on handheld devices (11/16). The average daily TV viewing was slightly, but not significantly, higher for the LV participants (3.6h) than the NS (3.0h). Only 18% of LV participants used visual aids (all optical) to watch TV. Most LV participants obtained effective magnification from a reduced viewing distance for both TV and computer display. Younger LV participants also used a larger display when compared to older LV participants to obtain increased magnification. About half of the TV viewing time occurred in the absence of a companion for both the LV and the NS participants. The mean number of TVs at home reported by LV participants (2.2) was slightly but not significantly (p=0.09) higher than NS participants (2.0). LV participants were equally likely to have a computer but were significantly (p=0.004) less likely to access the internet (73/104) compared to NS participants (82/94). Most LV participants expressed an interest in image enhancing technology for TV viewing (67/104) and for computer use (50/74), if they used a computer. Conclusion In this study, both NS and LV participants

  9. The Impact of the Cable Television Industry on Public Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeRoy, David J.; LeRoy, Judith M.

    This assessment of the possible impact of the cable television industry upon public television relies primarily on audience demographic characteristics as a convenient summary indicator and, in many instances, the only kind of evidence available for review. Primary sources of information used were the national Nielsen ratings; mail surveys of…

  10. Payload operation television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The TV system assembled is intended for laboratory experimentation which would develop operational techniques and lead to the design of space-borne TV equipment whose purpose would be to assist the astronaut-operator aboard a space station to load payload components. The TV system assembled for this program is a black and white, monocular, high performance system. The equipment consists principally of a good quality TV camera capable of high resolving power; a TV monitor; a sync generator for driving camera and monitor; and two pan/tilt units which are remotely controlled by the operator. One pan/tilt unit provides control of the pointing of the camera, the other similarly controls the position of a simulated payload.

  11. Television observations of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avanesov, G. A.; Bonev, B. I.; Boicheva, V.; Kempe, F.; Bazilevskii, A. T.; Duxbury, T.

    1989-01-01

    In February and March 1989 the Phobos 2 spacecraft took 37 television images of Phobos from a distance of 190-1100 km. The data are being used to update the three-dimensional model of Phobos, to provide improved determinations of its density and orbital dynamics, and to study its surface color, composition, and texture. Preliminary findings are presented here which include different integrated photometric behavior in visible and near-infrared bands, observation of a region immediately west of Stickney which is relatively free of large grooves, the prevalence of bright rims on grooves and younger craters, and low bulk density.

  12. Television multiplexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, L. G. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A television multiplexing system which includes a circuit that inserts a digital codes sync signal and a digital code into a video signal for identifying the channel is described. The digital sync signal and the digital coded signals are generated by a single crystal controlled clock so that they are always in synchronism with each other. In demultiplexing the signals are utilized for shifting the digital coded signals into a shift register. The shift register, in turn, activates a decoder according to the code stored in the shift register for selecting the proper recording disk or receiver for storing the video signal.

  13. Only Two Hours? A Qualitative Study of the Challenges Parents Perceive in Restricting Child Television Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Cortney A.; Jordan, Amy B.; Horner, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines parents' and children's reaction to the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation to limit children's television (TV) viewing to 2 hours a day or less. To better understand the challenges faced by parents who would seek to adhere to the guidelines, we conducted qualitative small group interviews with 60 parent/child dyads…

  14. The Effects of Time Context on Children's Perceptions of Aggressive Television Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Thomas F.

    The major question of this study is: Does the time context of a TV program affect children's conclusions about the action? If violent or aggressive behavior is viewed on television by children, how will they respond to the action when they know the action takes place in either the past, the present, or the future? Fifth and sixth grade boys viewed…

  15. The Role of Graphic and Sanitized Violence in the Enjoyment of Television Dramas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Andrew J.; Wilson, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment explores the relationship between television violence and viewer enjoyment. Over 400 participants were randomly assigned to one of 15 conditions that were created by editing five TV programs into three versions each: A graphically violent version, a sanitized violent version, and a nonviolent version. After viewing, participants…

  16. Children's Responses to Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Aimee Dorr; Roberts, Donald F.

    A paper-and-pencil measure of aggressive resonse was developed to study the effects on children of exposure to television-mediated violence. Using this measure, a series of experiments was conducted using actural television programs as stimulus material. The results of these studies suggest: 1) Although the majority of children understand the…

  17. Kansas Public Television Network (KPTN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemen, Jack A.

    The plans of the Kansas Public Television Board (KPTB) for development of the Kansas Television Network are detailed for the period extending from FY 1979 to FY 1983; the proposed system is designed to serve the needs of the communities by extending existing capabilities and resources, sharing common resources, and enriching the total system.…

  18. Television Violence and Violent Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnagel, Timothy F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a survey investigation of whether exposure to television violence is associated with an increased probability of engaging in violent behavior. Questionnaire data collected in 1970 in junior and senior high schools in Maryland, included self-reports of favorite television show, amount of violence in that show, and respondent's violent…

  19. The Evidence on Television Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    To some degree television is the current inheritor of anxiety over the effects of communications from outside the home, and is not alone among mass media in presenting sizeable amounts of violence. However the accessibility, pervasiveness, and very character of television make it the ultimate mass medium, and hence a cause for concern. Television…

  20. The Benefits of Watching Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Paul

    The unfounded and sometimes absurd attacks on television have tended to obscure many of the medium's obvious personal, social, and aesthetic benefits. It is easy to watch, and if its content does not always provide viewers with much to think about, television does not ask much of them either: they may eat, sleep, and unwind in front of it,…

  1. Cable Television and the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roud, Richard

    Although television presentations of theater, ballet and opera often lose something of the original, it can equally well be argued that almost any presentation of these arts on television provides large number of people with some access to arts which would otherwise be inaccessible. In addition, even though direct presentations of many works of…

  2. About Television Reality and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brice

    The author presents the argument that television reality is a new kind of performance in our environment: we don't respond to it and it doesn't acknowledge our presence. The images and sounds of television reality are "its", and our human organisms must be disconcerted by these "its" occuring in the privacy of our homes. We are being taught to…

  3. Empirical Studies on Television Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    A review of research on television's major compositional factors was undertaken to determine the status of such research and to note the major variables involved in the structure of television pictures. It was found that such research could be grouped in four categories--lighting and color, staging, editing, and sound--and that these areas covered…

  4. Graphic Design in Educational Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Beverley

    To help educational television (ETV) practitioners achieve maximum clarity, economy and purposiveness, the range of techniques of television graphics is explained. Closed-circuit and broadcast ETV are compared. The design process is discussed in terms of aspect ratio, line structure, cut off, screen size, tone scales, studio apparatus, and…

  5. Cable Television: Notebook Number Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notebook, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Cable television has been introduced to the public as a revolutionary development in communications, but its history, evolving structure, and present operation indicate otherwise. A few large industrial conglomerates have come to dominate the field of cable television and studies by private institutions and the regulatory activities of the Federal…

  6. Optimized watermarking for light field rendering based free-view TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolidis, Evlampios; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Manifavas, Charalampos; Triantafyllidis, Georgios A.

    2013-03-01

    In Free-View Television the viewers select freely the viewing position and angle of the transmitted multiview video. It is apparent that copyright and copy protection problems exist, since a video of this arbitrarily selected view can be recorded and then misused. In this context, the watermark in FTV should not only be resistant to common video processing and multi-view video processing operations (as in 2D case), but it should also be extracted from a generated video of an arbitrary view. Based on this remark, this paper focuses on this problem by evaluating the functionality and the efficiency of the watermarks and their corresponding Mathematical Distributions, in terms of "robustness" and "successful detection" from new constructed views of FTV, using Light Field Rendering (LFR) techniques. We studied the values which characterize the watermark's performance and the parameters introduced by the watermark's insertion-extraction scheme. Therefore, we ended up to the best five Mathematical Distributions, and we concluded that the watermark's robustness in FTV case does not depend only on the FTV image's characteristics, but it also relies on the characteristics of the Mathematical Distribution that is used as watermark generator. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in young children

    PubMed Central

    Wosje, Karen S.; Khoury, Philip R.; Claytor, Randal P.; Copeland, Kristen A.; Kalkwarf, Heidi J.; Daniels, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between baseline fat mass and gain in bone area and bone mass in preschoolers studied prospectively for 4 y, with a focus on the role of physical activity and TV viewing. Study design Children were part of a longitudinal study in which measures of fat, lean and bone mass, height, weight, activity, and diet were taken every 4 months from ages 3 to 7 y. Activity was measured by accelerometer, and TV viewing by parent checklist. We included 214 children with total body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (Hologic 4500A) scans at ages 3.5 and 7 y. Results Higher baseline fat mass was associated with smaller increases in bone area and bone mass over the next 3.5 y (p<0.001). More TV viewing was related to smaller gains in bone area and bone mass accounting for race, sex, and height. Activity by accelerometer was not associated with bone gains. Conclusions Adiposity and TV viewing are related to less bone accrual in preschoolers. PMID:18692201

  8. Relative effectiveness of several simulated jet engine noise spectral treatments in reducing annoyance in a TV-viewing situation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shigehisa, T.; Shepherd, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in order to determine the relative effectiveness of several hypothetical jet engine noise treatments and to test hypothesis that speech interference, at least in part, mediates annoyance in a TV-viewing situation. Twenty-four subjects watched television in a simulated living room. Recorded jet flyover noises were presented in such a way as to create the illusion that aircraft were actually flying overhead. There were 27 stimuli (nine spectra at three overall levels) presented at an average rate of approximately one flight every 2 minutes. Subjects judged the annoyance value of individual stimuli using either a category rating method or magnitude estimation method in each of two 1-hour sessions. The spectral treatments most effective in reducing annoyance were at 1.6 Khz and 800 Hz, in that order. The degree of annoyance reduction resulting from all treatments was affected by the overall sound level of the stimuli, with the greatest reduction at the intermediate overall sound level, about 88 to 89 db(A), peak value. The results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that speech interference, at least in part, mediates annoyance with aircraft noise in a TV-viewing situation.

  9. Television Violence and Aggression: A Genotype-Environment Correlation and Interaction Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships among aggression, viewing and enjoyment of television violence, and personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism in sibling pairs (N=386) ages 11 to 16. Found no support for theory of causal effect on amount of viewing television violence on aggression. Found no within family correlations between amount…

  10. Pro- and Anti-Social Behaviors Subsequent to Arousal and Observational Learning from Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; And Others

    Ninety-five college students participated in an investigation of the arousal and observational learning effects produced by television viewing. The subjects were assigned to one of three experimental television viewing conditions: a serious dramatic presentation with high physical and verbal violence, a comedy with high verbal conflict but no…

  11. Generating Stereoscopic Television Images With One Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Paul P.

    1996-01-01

    Straightforward technique for generating stereoscopic television images involves use of single television camera translated laterally between left- and right-eye positions. Camera acquires one of images (left- or right-eye image), and video signal from image delayed while camera translated to position where it acquires other image. Length of delay chosen so both images displayed simultaneously or as nearly simultaneously as necessary to obtain stereoscopic effect. Technique amenable to zooming in on small areas within broad scenes. Potential applications include three-dimensional viewing of geological features and meteorological events from spacecraft and aircraft, inspection of workpieces moving along conveyor belts, and aiding ground and water search-and-rescue operations. Also used to generate and display imagery for public education and general information, and possible for medical purposes.

  12. Broadcasting presence: immersive television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

    2000-06-01

    Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

  13. National Television Violence Study. Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  14. National Television Violence Study. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  15. National Television Violence Study. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seawell, Margaret, Ed.

    The National Television Violence Study (NTVS) was a 3-year effort to assess the effects of violence on television, of particular interest to education professionals is the effects of television violence on children. Funded by the National Cable Television Association, the project began in June 1994 and involved the participation of media scholars…

  16. Some Structural Characteristics of Music Television Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald L.; Fry, Virginia H.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates, by analyzing two types of montage structures, that music television is a hybrid form of television programing displaying visual characteristics of both television commercials and drama. Argues that this amalgam of different characteristics gives music television its distinctive look and power as a promotional tool for the record…

  17. The Mirror in the Corner; People's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Peter

    The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) during its period of monopoly television, the coming of ITV (independent television), the reaction and adaptation of the BBC to a competitive situation, and the effect on British television programing are the subjects of this history of British television. (RH)

  18. Television and the American Family. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jennings, Ed.; Bryant, J. Alison, Ed.

    Noting drastic changes in both television and the family since the 1990 edition, this revised volume provides an extensive consideration of television's role in the American family, from the uses families make of television and how extensions such as remote controls and VCRs affect usage, to the meanings families have for television, families'…

  19. The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaningam, Carl

    Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because…

  20. Presidential Elections in the Age of Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    2000-01-01

    Explores the role of television in politics providing historical examples of the use of television and its possible effects on elections. Focuses on television as the dominant medium for politics, the connections among television, advertising, and political money, and ideas for reforming the electoral process. Includes a teaching activity on…

  1. On learning science and pseudoscience from prime-time television programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Christopher Henry

    The purpose of the present dissertation is to determine whether the viewing of two particular prime-time television programs, ER and The X-Files, increases viewer knowledge of science and to identify factors that may influence learning from entertainment television programming. Viewer knowledge of scientific dialogue from two science-based prime-time television programs, ER, a serial drama in a hospital emergency room and The X-Files, a drama about two Federal Bureau of Investigation agents who pursue alleged extraterrestrial life and paranormal activity, is studied. Level of viewing, education level, science education level, experiential factors, level of parasocial interaction, and demographic characteristics are assessed as independent variables affecting learning from entertainment television viewing. The present research involved a nine-month long content analysis of target television program dialogue and data collection from an Internet-based survey questionnaire posted to target program-specific on-line "chat" groups. The present study demonstrated that entertainment television program viewers incidentally learn science from entertainment television program dialogue. The more they watch, the more they learn. Viewing a pseudoscientific fictional television program does necessarily influence viewer beliefs in pseudoscience. Higher levels of formal science study are reflected in more science learning and less learning of pseudoscience from entertainment television program viewing. Pseudoscience learning from entertainment television programming is significantly related to experience with paranormal phenomena, higher levels of viewer parasocial interaction, and specifically, higher levels of cognitive parasocial interaction. In summary, the greater a viewer's understanding of science the more they learn when they watch their favorite science-based prime-time television programs. Viewers of pseudoscience-based prime-time television programming with higher levels

  2. Alcohol Advertising in Sport and Non-Sport TV in Australia, during Children’s Viewing Times

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kerry S.; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot

    2015-01-01

    Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children’s viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6am-8.29pm) and evening periods (8.30pm-11.59pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0–4 years, 5–13 years, 14–17 years, 18–29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0–17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising. PMID:26263170

  3. Television Transmission Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

  4. Overview of FTV (free-viewpoint television)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-07-01

    We have developed a new type of television named FTV (Free-viewpoint TV). FTV is the ultimate 3DTV that enables us to view a 3D scene by freely changing our viewpoints. We proposed the concept of FTV and constructed the world's first real-time system including the complete chain of operation from image capture to display. FTV is based on the rayspace method that represents one ray in real space with one point in the ray-space. We have developed ray capture, processing and display technologies for FTV. FTV can be carried out today in real time on a single PC or on a mobile player. We also realized FTV with free listening-point audio. The international standardization of FTV has been conducted in MPEG. The first phase of FTV was MVC (Multi-view Video Coding) and the second phase is 3DV (3D Video). MVC was completed in May 2009. The Blu-ray 3D specification has adopted MVC for compression. 3DV is a standard that targets serving a variety of 3D displays. The view generation function of FTV is used to decouple capture and display in 3DV. FDU (FTV Data Unit) is proposed as a data format for 3DV. FTU can compensate errors of the synthesized views caused by depth error.

  5. Children's understanding of television advertising: a revisit in the Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kara; McNeal, James U

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted a survey of 1,758 elementary school children (6-14 years old) from December 2001, to March 2002, in 3 Chinese cities with different levels of television advertising. The authors used D. R. John's (1999) model of consumer socialization as the theoretical framework for their study. More than half of the children whom the authors interviewed were able to understand that television stations broadcast commercials to earn money. Their understanding of the purposes of television commercials and the persuasive intention of television commercials developed with age. The authors examined the influence of gender, level of advertising, and level of television viewing on children's understanding of television advertising by using 3-way factorial models.

  6. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers' Beliefs Regarding Infants' and Toddlers' TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction.

    PubMed

    Vaala, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents' decision-making about the extent of their young children's viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents' belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants' and toddlers' TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children's TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children's estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers' attitudes and intentions and children's viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  7. The Nature and Predictive Value of Mothers’ Beliefs Regarding Infants’ and Toddlers’ TV/Video Viewing: Applying the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Vaala, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    Viewing television and video programming has become a normative behavior among US infants and toddlers. Little is understood about parents’ decision-making about the extent of their young children’s viewing, though numerous organizations are interested in reducing time spent viewing among infants and toddlers. Prior research has examined parents’ belief in the educational value of TV/videos for young children and the predictive value of this belief for understanding infant/toddler viewing rates, though other possible salient beliefs remain largely unexplored. This study employs the integrative model of behavioral prediction (Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010) to examine 30 maternal beliefs about infants’ and toddlers’ TV/video viewing which were elicited from a prior sample of mothers. Results indicate that mothers tend to hold more positive than negative beliefs about the outcomes associated with young children’s TV/video viewing, and that the nature of the aggregate set of beliefs is predictive of their general attitudes and intentions to allow their children to view, as well as children’s estimated viewing rates. Analyses also uncover multiple dimensions within the full set of beliefs, which explain more variance in mothers’ attitudes and intentions and children’s viewing than the uni-dimensional index. The theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25431537

  8. High speed imaging television system

    DOEpatents

    Wilkinson, William O.; Rabenhorst, David W.

    1984-01-01

    A television system for observing an event which provides a composite video output comprising the serially interlaced images the system is greater than the time resolution of any of the individual cameras.

  9. Cable Television in Extension Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Mark W.

    1978-01-01

    The experience of producing and presenting two continuing education courses on cable television proved that this technique can be a valuable additional means of presenting courses, complementing classroom discussions, and efficiently extending the university into the community. (Author)

  10. British Control of Television Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marting, Leeda P.

    1973-01-01

    A discussion of controlling quantity and quality of television advertising by looking at the approach of Britain's Independent Broadcasting Authority and deals with its possible application in the U.S. (HB)

  11. Improved television signal processing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, R. Y.

    1967-01-01

    Digital system processes spacecraft television pictures by converting images sensed on a photostorage vidicon to pulses which can be transmitted by telemetry. This system can be applied in the processing of medical X ray photographs and in electron microscopy.

  12. Television violence and its effect on children.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M O

    1996-04-01

    Television (TV) has become a large part of children's activities. Much discussion exists as to the level of violence on TV programs and its effect on children's behavior. This article reviews the literature, discusses social issues, and presents some interventions available to nursing professionals to assist children and families in coping with the impact of TV on children's lives.

  13. Retinally stabilized differential resolution television display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, C. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A remote television viewing system employing an eye tracker is disclosed, wherein a small region of the image appears in high resolution, and the remainder of the image appears in low resolution. The eye tracker monitors the position of the viewer's line of sight. The eye tracker position data is transmitted to the remote television camera and control. Both the remote camera and television display are adapted to have selectable high-resolution and low resolution raster scan modes. The position data from the eye tracker is used to determine the point at which the high-resolution scan is to commence. The video data defining the observed image is encoded in a novel format, wherein in each data field, the data representing the position of the high resolution region of predetermined size appears first, followed by the high resolution zone video data and then the low-resolution region data. As the viewer's line of sight relative to the displayed image changes, the position of the high resolution region changes to track the viewer's line of sight.

  14. Doctors on display: the evolution of television's doctors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science. PMID:20944763

  15. [Televised education: experience in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Toure, C T

    2002-01-01

    As a possible response to the shortage of qualified teachers in Africa, a promising pilot study using television is being carried out at the A. Le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal. Trainees at the Dakar Medical School receive long-distance coaching mainly in video-assisted surgery from experts at several partner centers in Europe, namely: Rangueil Hospital in Toulouse, France, IRCAD in Strasbourg, France and Saint Peter's Hospital in Brussels, Belgium. Results support more widespread use of televised courses.

  16. Stereoscopic television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    In this system, both left and right optical images pass through same set of optical lenses and same TV transmission and receiving systems. Transmitted stereo images are of high quality because differences in image tone and gray scales, disparities in relative focusing and magnification, and nonsimilar distortions produced by electrical and optical imperfections are minimized.

  17. Television multiplexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkins, L. G.

    1971-01-01

    System with single, standard, wideband line transmits ten or more real time TV video data displays over hard wire to recorders more than 22.5 km from source. Digital logic and integrated circuits ensure high reliability and low maintenance. System is adaptable for video sampling applications.

  18. Parenting practices and adolescent sexual behavior: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N=887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic regressions indicated that adolescents reporting greater parental disapproval and limits on viewing at Wave 1 were less likely to initiate oral sex between Waves 1 and 2. Adolescents who reported more sexual communication with parents were more likely to initiate oral sex. Results for vaginal intercourse were similar to those for oral sex. Co-viewing was a significant negative predictor of initiation of sexual behavior. Parental attitudes and television mediation can delay potentially risky adolescent sexual behaviors. PMID:19750131

  19. View of Earth from Apollo 10 taken from reproduction of tv transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A cloud-covered earth from about 12,800 nautical miles away is seen in this color reproduction taken from the second TV transmission made by the color television camera onboard the Apollo 10 spacecraft. The United States and Mexico are located at right center. The more cloud-free area is the western and southwestern part of the U.S. and northern Mexico. Clouds cover the eastern half of the U.S.

  20. Double dose: the cumulative effect of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's activity patterns and weight status.

    PubMed

    Taverno Ross, Sharon; Dowda, Marsha; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how screen-based sedentary behavior at home and in preschool influences children's health and activity patterns. The current study examined the individual and cumulative influence of TV viewing at home and in preschool on children's physical activity (PA) and weight status. Children (n = 339) attending 16 preschools in South Carolina were grouped into high and low TV groups based on parent report of children's TV viewing at home and director report of TV use/rules in preschool. T-tests and mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in weight status and PA (min/hr) by high and low TV groups. Results revealed that children who were classified as High TV both at home and in pre- school had significantly lower levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with their Low TV counterparts (8.3 (0.3) min/hr vs. 7.6 (0.2) min/hr, p < .05). However, there were no significant differences in weight status or physical activity between the high and low TV groups at home or in preschool when examined individually. These findings demonstrate the importance of total environmental TV exposure on preschooler's PA. Longitudinal and observational research to assess preschoolers' cumulative screen-based sedentary behavior and its relationship with PA and weight status is needed.

  1. TV Characters at Work: Television's Role in the Occupational Aspirations of Economically Disadvantaged Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia A.; Levine, Kenneth J.; Sullivan, Quintin E.; Crowell, Dennis; Pedrick, Laura; Berndt, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    Television regularly depicts work-related activities of fictional characters and is one of several important sources of occupational information for young people. However, no research appears to have examined the influence of televised occupational portrayals on economically disadvantaged youths, although television may be an especially important…

  2. How Young Children Spend Their Time: Television and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston, Aletha C.; Wright, John C.; Marquis, Janet; Green, Samuel B.

    1999-01-01

    Examined television viewing over three years among two cohorts of 2- and 4-year olds. Found that viewing declined with age. With age, time in reading and educational activities increased on weekdays but declined on weekends, and sex differences in time-use patterns increased. Increased time in educational activities, social interaction, and video…

  3. Adolescents' Motivations for Viewing Graphic Horror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Deirdre D.

    1995-01-01

    Identifies four motivations adolescents report for viewing graphic horror films: gore watching, thrill watching, independent watching, and problem watching. Argues that viewing motivations are predictors of responses to graphic horror. Finds that viewing motivations were related to viewers' cognitive and affective responses and a tendency to…

  4. Adolescent screen-viewing behaviour is associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: the role of habit strength and perceived parental norms.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; van der Horst, Klazine; Brug, Johannes

    2007-05-01

    The association between adolescent screen-viewing behaviour (i.e., television viewing and computer use) and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was studied in a Dutch sample of adolescents (N=383) using self-administered questionnaires. In particular, the previously understudied role of habit and perceived parental norms in the execution of these behaviours was investigated. Results showed that screen-viewing behaviour was associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (r=.32). Habit strength of both behaviours correlated with a large effect size (r=.50). The interaction between both behaviours was underlined by the finding that consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was explained by perceived parental norms regarding screen-viewing behaviour (beta=.12; adjusted for the behaviour and perceived parental norm regarding sugar-sweetened beverage consumption). Consequences of the identified role of habit and parental norms in the interplay between sedentary behaviour and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages among adolescents are discussed.

  5. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  6. Winners of the First 1960 Televised Presidential Debate between Kennedy and Nixon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Sidney

    1996-01-01

    Reviews the events, studies, and comments (from 1960 to the present) regarding the controversial question of who won the first 1960 televised debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon. Supports the view that, for television viewers, Kennedy was the winner, whereas radio listeners gave Nixon the edge. (SR)

  7. Children and Television in the Socialization Process. Some Results of Scandinavian Research. No. 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feilitzen, Cecilia

    This study briefly reviews the findings of Scandinavian research on children and television in the socialization process. Viewing habits of children, their social situations, and the breakdown of various viewer groups are explored. The interactive nature of television programs that seek active responses from children are discussed, as well as…

  8. Substance Use and Sexual Intimacy on Commercial Television. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Collado, Carlos; And Others

    This study reports a content analysis of 1976-1977 commercial television programing for incidents of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use and sexual behavior. The analysis included one episode of each prime time and Saturday morning dramatic series, comprising 77 programs and 58 hours of television viewing. A concurrent survey among 300 fourth, sixth,…

  9. 76 FR 35831 - Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...; DA 11-1034] Television Broadcasting Services; Eau Claire, WI AGENCY: Federal Communications... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WEAU-TV, channel 13, Eau Claire... CFR 1.415 and 1.420. List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television broadcasting....

  10. The Frequency of Unhealthy Food Advertising on Mainland Chinese Television (TV) and Children and Adolescents’ Risk of Exposure to Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenghua; Diao, Qinqin; Shao, Nan; Liang, Youke; Lin, Li; Lei, Yan; Zheng, Lingmei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct an analysis of the frequency of unhealthy food advertising on mainland Chinese television (TV) and children and adolescents’ risk of exposure to them. Methods The frequencies of all types of advertisements (ads) on forty TV channels in mainland China, the exact ad broadcast times, and the name and brand of all snacks and western fast foods advertised were recorded from 0800 hours to 2400 hours on both a weekday and a weekend day in a week. The difference in the frequencies of the diverse types of ads over eight time intervals (each time interval was 2 hours) were compared, and the trends in ad frequencies during the time intervals were described. Results The TV channels broadcast 155 (91-183) (expressed as median [P25-P75]) food ads, 87 (38-123) snack ads, 49 (11-85) beverage ads, and 58 (25-76) ads of snacks suitable for limited consumption (SSLCs) in a day. The proportion of snack ads among food ads (SPF%) was 55.5% (40.3%-71.0%), and the proportion of SSLC ads among snack ads (LPS%) was 67.4% (55.4%-79.3%). The ad frequencies for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages demonstrated significant differences among the eight time intervals (all P=0.000). TV channels broadcast the most frequent ads for food, snacks, SSLCs, and beverages during the time interval from 2000 hours to 2200 hours among the eight time intervals. Conclusions Chinese children and adolescents may be at a high risk of exposure to unhealthy food advertising on TV. Reducing the exposure risk strongly requires multisectoral cooperation. PMID:26133984

  11. The TV Book: The Kids' Guide to Talking Back.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Shelagh

    This book is a guide for encouraging critical television viewing skills in children, allowing them to make up their own minds about the power and influence of television. The introduction addresses the importance of television in North America and compares viewing patterns with those in other countries. The text throughout is accompanied by…

  12. Television Use, Sexual Behavior, and Relationship Status at Last Oral Sex and Vaginal Intercourse.

    PubMed

    Bersamin, Melina M; Bourdeau, Beth; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W

    2010-06-01

    The current longitudinal study explores the relationship between adolescent television use at time 1 and sexual experience and relationship status (i.e., committed/romantic versus casual) 1 year later. The sample (N = 824) comprised youth aged 14-18. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting group membership from television exposure variables were conducted controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and prior sexual behavior. Results indicate that sexually inexperienced youth watched more television overall than sexually experienced youth, but less adult, premium and music television on cable networks. Premium cable exposure predicted group membership among sexually active youth. Youth who watched more premium cable at time 1 were more likely to be in casual relationship at last intercourse than a committed one. A more complete understanding of media effects on adolescent sexual relationships can help guide policy development, media education/literacy efforts, and contribute to the design of interventions to reduce the negative consequences associated with adolescent sexual behavior.

  13. Television Use, Sexual Behavior, and Relationship Status at Last Oral Sex and Vaginal Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, Beth; Fisher, Deborah A.; Grube, Joel W.

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study explores the relationship between adolescent television use at time 1 and sexual experience and relationship status (i.e., committed/romantic versus casual) 1 year later. The sample (N = 824) comprised youth aged 14–18. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting group membership from television exposure variables were conducted controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and prior sexual behavior. Results indicate that sexually inexperienced youth watched more television overall than sexually experienced youth, but less adult, premium and music television on cable networks. Premium cable exposure predicted group membership among sexually active youth. Youth who watched more premium cable at time 1 were more likely to be in casual relationship at last intercourse than a committed one. A more complete understanding of media effects on adolescent sexual relationships can help guide policy development, media education/literacy efforts, and contribute to the design of interventions to reduce the negative consequences associated with adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:20657790

  14. The diffusion of television in India.

    PubMed

    Singhal, A; Doshi, J K; Rogers, E M; Rahman, S A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1987, the number of television sets increased by 10 times in India. Television now reaches an audience of about 800 million, 10% of the population. 3 main reasons account for the rapid diffusion of television in India: the role of communication satellites in expanding access to television signals, the introduction and popularity of soap operas, and the increasing revenues to the national television system (Doordarshan) from commercial advertising. Hum Log, the 1st soap opera on the national network, was patterned after pro-development soap operas in Mexico and addresses social issues such as family communication, women's status, small family size, national integration, dowry, and alcoholism. The main lesson from the Hum Log experience was that indigenous soap operas can attract large audiences and substantial profits. A 1987 household survey indicated that television ownership is more common in urban areas (88% of households) than rural areas (52%) and among households with incomes above RS 1500 (75% of television owners). The commercialization of Indian television has precipitated a policy debate about television's role. Supporters of further expansion of television services cite popular will, the potential to use this medium for educational development, high advertising incomes, the ability of satellite television to penetrate rural areas, and high government expenditures for television broadcasting. On the other hand, detractors of the commercialization policy argue that television promotes consumerism, widens the gap between the urban elite and the rural poor, disregards regional sociocultural norms, and diverts funding from development programs in areas such as health and education.

  15. How young children spend their time: television and other activities.

    PubMed

    Huston, A C; Wright, J C; Marquis, J; Green, S B

    1999-07-01

    Time-use diaries were collected over a 3-year period for 2 cohorts of 2- and 4-year-old children. TV viewing declined with age. Time spent in reading and educational activities increased with age on weekdays but declined on weekends. Time-use patterns were sex-stereotyped, and sex differences increased with age. As individuals' time in educational activities, social interaction, and video games increased, their time watching entertainment TV declined, but time spent playing covaried positively with entertainment TV. Educational TV viewing was not related to time spent in non-TV activities. Maternal education and home environment quality predicted frequent viewing of educational TV programs and infrequent viewing of entertainment TV. The results do not support a simple displacement hypothesis; the relations of TV viewing to other activities depend on the program content, the nature of the competing activity, and the environmental context.

  16. Tapping the television cable.

    PubMed

    Clarke, M; Findlay, A; Canac, J F; Vergez, A

    1996-01-01

    Immediate access to patient data is essential to support good clinical decision making and support. However, away from the surgery, the doctor is currently unable to have any access to the clinical database. Solutions exist to support remote access, such as modems or radio data networks, but these are slow, with typical speeds in the 2-10 kbaud region. We propose a novel solution, to use the TV cable already installed in many homes. Using this technology, a suitably equipped computer (RF modern) is capable of connecting at speeds in excess of 500 kbaud and will run applications in exactly the same way as if connected to a surgery network: the cable TV becomes a LAN, but on a metropolitan scale. Brunel University, in collaboration with the Cable Corporation, has been piloting such a network. Issues include not only levels of service, but also security on the network and access, since the data are being effectively received in every home. However, close scrutiny of channel use can create closed networks reserved for specific users. The technology involves use of an RF modem to transmit data on a reverse channel (based at 16 MHz) on each subnet to a router at the head end of the cable network. This frequency translates the packet and retransmits it to all the subnets on a forward channel (based at 178 MHz). Each channel occupies the bandwidth normally allocated to one TV channel. Access is based on a modified CSMA/CD protocol, so treating the cable network as single multiple access network. The modem comes as a standard card installed in a PC and appears much as an ethernet card, but at reduced speed. With an NDIS driver it is quite able to support almost any network software, and has successfully demonstrated Novell and TCP/IP. We describe the HomeWorker network and the results from a pilot study being undertaken to determine the performance of the system and its impact on working practice.

  17. TV Violence: Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hepburn, Mary A.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, with an average national television viewing time of more than seven hours daily, the prevalence of violence in broadcasts is a serious concern. Summarizes research on the effects of television violence on children. Includes eight suggested student activities to develop critical media skills. (CFR)

  18. Technology for Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A project being conducted by Varian Associates, Inc. and Lewis Research Center would allow a Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) TV station to save 50% of its electricity cost. Because UHF stations need substantially more transmitter power, an amplifying device was needed. In the early 1970's Dr. Henry Kosmahl of Lewis had developed a radiowave amplifier to improve satellite transmission. He later worked with modifying klystron transmitters, electronic vacuum tubes used to generate and amplify UHF frequencies. If Dr. Kosmahl's multistage depressed collector or MDC can be incorporated into the klystron, the magnetic field shapes of electron beams can be changed to aid the energy recovery function of the MDC.

  19. Television habits in relation to overweight, diet and taste preferences in European children: the IDEFICS study.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Lauren; Lanfer, Anne; Gwozdz, Wencke; Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Eiben, Gabriele; Moreno, Luis A; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Kovács, Eva; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Loit, Helle-Mai; Kourides, Yiannis; Pala, Valeria; Pohlabeln, Hermann; De Henauw, Stefaan; Buchecker, Kirsten; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Reisch, Lucia

    2012-09-01

    Early television exposure has been associated with various health outcomes including childhood obesity. This paper describes associations between patterns of television viewing, on one hand, and diet, taste preference and weight status, on the other, in European preschoolers and schoolchildren. The IDEFICS baseline survey was conducted at examination centers in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain. 15,144 children aged 2-9 completed the basic protocol, including anthropometry and parental questionnaires on their diets and television habits. A subsample of 1,696 schoolchildren underwent further sensory testing for fat and sweet taste preferences. Three dichotomous indicators described: children's habitual television exposure time; television viewing during meals; and having televisions in their bedrooms. Based on these variables we investigated television habits in relation to overweight (IOTF) and usual consumption of foods high in fat and sugar. A possible role of taste preference in the latter association was tested in the sensory subgroup. All television indicators were significantly associated with increased risk of overweight, with odds ratios ranging from 1.21 to 1.30, in fully adjusted models. Children's propensities to consume high-fat and high-sugar foods were positively and, in most analyses, monotonically associated with high-risk television behaviors. The associations between television and diet propensities were not explained by preference for added fat or sugar in test foods. To summarize, in addition to being more overweight, children with high-risk television behaviors may, independent of objectively measured taste preferences for fat and sugar, passively overconsume higher-fat and particularly higher-sugar diets.

  20. Food and nutrition in Canadian "prime time" television commercials.

    PubMed

    Ostbye, T; Pomerleau, J; White, M; Coolich, M; McWhinney, J

    1993-01-01

    Television is, arguably, the most influential mass medium and "prime time" viewing attracts the largest audiences. To assess the type, number and nutritional content of foods advertised on TV, commercial breaks during "prime time" (7:00 to 11:00 p.m.) on five Canadian channels (CBC-English, CBC-French, CTV, CFPL, Much Music) were recorded and analyzed. A similar analysis of Saturday morning children's TV commercials was also performed. Commercials for foods and food products constituted between 24-35% of all commercials, the largest advertising output for any group of products. The combination of food presented in commercials reflected average current consumption patterns. Of special concern was the emphasis on low nutrition beverages, especially beer, as well as snacks and candy on Much Music. While further government intervention to restrict advertising practices may be an impractical option, there is scope for increasing the alternative promotion of healthy dietary choices.