Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S
The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) predictor of unit position classification, with an odds ratio of 2.35, indicating that the players with a higher body mass were twice as likely to be classified as forwards. The results of this study indicate that at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model, forward and back units have distinctly different anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis.
Sivertsen, Børge; Harvey, Allison G; Lundervold, Astri J; Hysing, Mari
Both sleep problems and depression are common problems in adolescence, but well-defined large epidemiological studies on the relationship are missing in this age group. The aim of this study was to examine the association between depression and several sleep parameters, including insomnia, in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-18 years, and to explore potential gender differences. A large population-based study in Hordaland County in Norway conducted in 2012, the ung@hordaland study, surveyed 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls) about sleep and depression. The sleep assessment included measures of the basic sleep parameters for weekdays and weekends. Depression was defined as scoring above the 90th percentile on the total score of Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). There was a large overlap between insomnia and depression in both genders and across depressive symptoms. Depressed adolescents exhibited significantly shorter sleep duration and time in bed as well as significantly longer sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake after sleep onset (WASO). Adolescents with insomnia had a 4- to 5-fold increased odds of depression compared to good sleepers. There was also a significant interaction between insomnia, sleep duration and depression, with a more than eightfold increase in odds of depression for those who met criteria for insomnia and who slept <6 h. These associations held for both genders, but were stronger in boys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first population-based study to investigate sleep and insomnia in relation to depression among adolescents. The findings call for increased awareness of sleep problems and depression as a major public health issue.
Lehtinen, Matti; Eriksson, Tiina; Apter, Dan; Hokkanen, Mari; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Zima, Julia; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary
This community-randomized controlled trial was initiated to assess the overall and herd effects of 2 different human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization strategies in over 80,000 girls and boys aged 12-15 y in 33 communities in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00534638). Overall, 14,838 adolescents received HPV-16/18 vaccine (2,440 boys and 12,398 girls) and 17,338 received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) vaccine (9,221 boys and 8,117 girls). In an interim analysis, vaccine safety was assessed by active monitoring and surveillance via health registry linkage. Active monitoring showed that the HPV-16/18 vaccine has acceptable safety and reactogenicity in boys. In all study participants, the observed incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of serious adverse events (SAEs) possibly related to vaccination were 54.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 34.0-82.1) in the HPV-16/18 group and 64.0 (95% CI: 43.2-91.3) in the HBV group. During the follow-up period for this interim analysis, the most common new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs; with incidence rate ≥15 per 100,000) in any group based on hospital discharge registry (HILMO) download were ulcerative colitis, juvenile arthritis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Crohn's disease. No increased NOAD incidences were observed in HPV-16/18 vaccine recipients compared to HBV vaccine recipients. In both the SAE possibly related- and HILMO-analyses, a lower incidence of IDDM was observed in HPV-16/18 vaccinees compared to HBV vaccinees (relative risks, 0.26 [95% CI: 0.03-1.24] and 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03-0.55], respectively).
Lehtinen, Matti; Eriksson, Tiina; Apter, Dan; Hokkanen, Mari; Natunen, Kari; Paavonen, Jorma; Pukkala, Eero; Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Zima, Julia; David, Marie-Pierre; Datta, Sanjoy; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary
ABSTRACT This community-randomized controlled trial was initiated to assess the overall and herd effects of 2 different human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization strategies in over 80,000 girls and boys aged 12–15 y in 33 communities in Finland (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00534638). Overall, 14,838 adolescents received HPV-16/18 vaccine (2,440 boys and 12,398 girls) and 17,338 received hepatitis-B virus (HBV) vaccine (9,221 boys and 8,117 girls). In an interim analysis, vaccine safety was assessed by active monitoring and surveillance via health registry linkage. Active monitoring showed that the HPV-16/18 vaccine has acceptable safety and reactogenicity in boys. In all study participants, the observed incidences (per 100,000 person-years) of serious adverse events (SAEs) possibly related to vaccination were 54.3 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 34.0–82.1) in the HPV-16/18 group and 64.0 (95% CI: 43.2–91.3) in the HBV group. During the follow-up period for this interim analysis, the most common new-onset autoimmune diseases (NOADs; with incidence rate ≥15 per 100,000) in any group based on hospital discharge registry (HILMO) download were ulcerative colitis, juvenile arthritis, celiac disease, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Crohn's disease. No increased NOAD incidences were observed in HPV-16/18 vaccine recipients compared to HBV vaccine recipients. In both the SAE possibly related- and HILMO-analyses, a lower incidence of IDDM was observed in HPV-16/18 vaccinees compared to HBV vaccinees (relative risks, 0.26 [95% CI: 0.03–1.24] and 0.16 [95% CI: 0.03–0.55], respectively). PMID:27841725
Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique
Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose.
Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine administered according to 2- and 3-dose schedules in girls aged 9-14 years: Results to month 12 from a randomized trial.
Leung, Ting Fan; Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Lim, Fong Seng; Thollot, Franck; Oh, Helen May Lin; Lee, Bee Wah; Rombo, Lars; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Rouzier, Roman; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Hezareh, Marjan; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank
This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18(2D)) vs. 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D)) in healthy girls aged 9-14 y. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive HPV-16/18(2D) at months (M) 0,6 (N = 359), HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M0,6 (N = 358) or HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M0,2,6 (N = 358). The primary objective was non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by ELISA for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M7 in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I) and total vaccinated cohort, respectively. Secondary objectives included non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7, non-inferiority/superiority at M12, HPV-16/18 neutralizing antibodies, frequencies of T-cells/B-cells, reactogenicity and safety. Antibody responses at M7 for HPV-16/18(2D) were superior to those for HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) (lower limit of 95% confidence interval for geometric mean titer ratio (GMR) was >1): HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) GMRs were 1.69 [1.49-1.91] for anti-HPV-16 and 4.52 [3.97-5.13] for anti-HPV-18; HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) GMRs were 1.72 [1.54-1.93] for anti-HPV-16 and 3.22 [2.82-3.68] for anti-HPV-18; p = 0.0001 for all comparisons. Non-inferiority/superiority was also demonstrated at M12. Among initially seronegative girls in the ATP-I, neutralizing antibody titers were at least 1.8-fold higher for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7 and M12. Frequencies of HPV-16/18-specific T-cells and B-cells were in similar ranges between groups. Reactogenicity and safety were in line with the known profile of each vaccine. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine compared with 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in girls (9-14 years).
Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine administered according to 2- and 3-dose schedules in girls aged 9–14 years: Results to month 12 from a randomized trial
Leung, Ting Fan; Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Lim, Fong Seng; Thollot, Franck; Oh, Helen May Lin; Lee, Bee Wah; Rombo, Lars; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Rouzier, Roman; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Hezareh, Marjan; Folschweiller, Nicolas; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank
This observer-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01462357) compared the immunogenicity and safety of 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18(2D)) vs. 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D)) in healthy girls aged 9–14 y. Girls were randomized (1:1:1) to receive HPV-16/18(2D) at months (M) 0,6 (N = 359), HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M0,6 (N = 358) or HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M0,2,6 (N = 358). The primary objective was non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by ELISA for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) at M7 in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort (ATP-I) and total vaccinated cohort, respectively. Secondary objectives included non-inferiority/superiority of HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7, non-inferiority/superiority at M12, HPV-16/18 neutralizing antibodies, frequencies of T-cells/B-cells, reactogenicity and safety. Antibody responses at M7 for HPV-16/18(2D) were superior to those for HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) (lower limit of 95% confidence interval for geometric mean titer ratio (GMR) was >1): HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) GMRs were 1.69 [1.49–1.91] for anti-HPV-16 and 4.52 [3.97–5.13] for anti-HPV-18; HPV-16/18(2D)/HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) GMRs were 1.72 [1.54–1.93] for anti-HPV-16 and 3.22 [2.82–3.68] for anti-HPV-18; p = 0.0001 for all comparisons. Non-inferiority/superiority was also demonstrated at M12. Among initially seronegative girls in the ATP-I, neutralizing antibody titers were at least 1.8-fold higher for HPV-16/18(2D) vs. HPV-6/11/16/18(2D) and HPV-6/11/16/18(3D) at M7 and M12. Frequencies of HPV-16/18-specific T-cells and B-cells were in similar ranges between groups. Reactogenicity and safety were in line with the known profile of each vaccine. In conclusion, superior HPV-16/18 antibody responses were elicited by 2 doses of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine compared with 2 or 3 doses of the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in girls (9–14
Franco-Mariscal, Antonio-Joaquín; Oliva-Martínez, José María; Almoraima Gil, M. L.
The work reported here involved a comparative study regarding the understanding that high school students (16-18 years) have of the concept of chemical elements and their periodic classification. More specifically, the level of knowledge on this topic was compared before and after the completion of baccalaureate studies in a sample of Spanish…
Comparative humoral and cellular immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in healthy women aged 18-45 years: follow-up through Month 48 in a Phase III randomized study.
Einstein, Mark H; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Takacs, Peter; Catteau, Grégory; Dessy, Francis J; Moris, Philippe; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary
We previously reported higher anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine compared with HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine at Month 7 (one month after completion of full vaccination series) in women aged 18-45 y in an observer-blind study NCT00423046; the differences of immune response magnitudes were maintained up to Month 24. Here we report follow-up data through Month 48. At Month 48, in according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), geometric mean titers of serum neutralizing antibodies were 2.0- to 5.2-fold higher (HPV-16) and 8.6- to 12.8-fold higher (HPV-18) in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. The majority of women in both vaccine groups remained seropositive for HPV-16. The same trend was observed for HPV-18 in HPV-16/18 vaccine group; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably, particularly in the older age groups. In the total vaccinated cohort (regardless of baseline serological and HPV-DNA status), anti-HPV-16 and -18 neutralizing antibody levels induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine were higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. CD4+ T-cell response for HPV-16 and HPV-18 was higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Memory B-cell responses appeared similar between vaccine groups. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Overall, the higher immune response observed with the HPV-16/18 vaccine was maintained up to Month 48. A head-to-head study incorporating clinical endpoints would be required to confirm whether the observed differences in immune response between the vaccines influence the duration of protection they provided.
Comparison of long-term immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in healthy women aged 18-45 years: End-of-study analysis of a Phase III randomized trial
Einstein, Mark H; Takacs, Peter; Chatterjee, Archana; Sperling, Rhoda S; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Blatter, Mark M; Lalezari, Jacob; David, Marie-Pierre; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary
The observer-blind, randomized, age-stratified, head-to-head study (NCT00423046) comparing immunogenicity and safety of HPV-16/18 and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 y was completed. Five y after vaccination, in subjects from the Month 60 according-to-protocol cohort (seronegative and DNA negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine remained 7.8-fold (18-26-y stratum), 5.6-fold (27-35-y stratum) and 2.3-fold (36-45-y stratum) higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the fold differences were 12.1, 13.0 and 7.8, respectively. At Month 60, all (100%) subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group and the majority (95.7%-97.5%) in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group were seropositive for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the majority (98.1%-100%) of subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group were seropositive; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably (61.1%-76.9%) across the 3 age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥ 1 dose regardless of baseline HPV serostatus and DNA status), geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 nAb were higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Based on the 5-y data, piece-wise and modified power-law models predicted a longer durability of nAb response for HPV-16/18 vaccine compared to HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Beyond the differences apparent between the vaccines in terms of immunogenicity and modeled persistence of antibody responses, comparative studies including clinical endpoints would be needed to determine whether differences exist in duration of vaccine-induced protection. PMID:25483701
Comparison of long-term immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in healthy women aged 18-45 years: end-of-study analysis of a Phase III randomized trial.
Einstein, Mark H; Takacs, Peter; Chatterjee, Archana; Sperling, Rhoda S; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Blatter, Mark M; Lalezari, Jacob; David, Marie-Pierre; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary
The observer-blind, randomized, age-stratified, head-to-head study (NCT00423046) comparing immunogenicity and safety of HPV-16/18 and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 y was completed. Five y after vaccination, in subjects from the Month 60 according-to-protocol cohort (seronegative and DNA negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine remained 7.8-fold (18-26-y stratum), 5.6-fold (27-35-y stratum) and 2.3-fold (36-45-y stratum) higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the fold differences were 12.1, 13.0 and 7.8, respectively. At Month 60, all (100%) subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group and the majority (95.7%-97.5%) in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group were seropositive for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the majority (98.1%-100%) of subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group were seropositive; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably (61.1%-76.9%) across the 3 age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 dose regardless of baseline HPV serostatus and DNA status), geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 nAb were higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Based on the 5-y data, piece-wise and modified power-law models predicted a longer durability of nAb response for HPV-16/18 vaccine compared to HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Beyond the differences apparent between the vaccines in terms of immunogenicity and modeled persistence of antibody responses, comparative studies including clinical endpoints would be needed to determine whether differences exist in duration of vaccine-induced protection.
Harper, Diane M
Cervical cancer of both squamous and adenocarcinoma types is considered virtually 100% attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV-16 and -18 are the predominant types worldwide accounting for over 70% of all cervical cancer. Persistent oncogenic HPV infection has been confirmed as one key determinant in the development of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2+) and cervical cancer. The impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination on the reduction of virological and cytohistological outcomes related to HPV-16 and -18 has been evaluated in clinical trials with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine (Cervarixtrade mark) through a Phase IIb study with a long-term follow-up of efficacy up to 5.5 years, and a large Phase III trial in women 15-25 years of age. These individual studies include populations with different underlying risk factors, each of which shows high efficacy against both HPV-16/18 persistent infections and CIN2+. When the two studies are combined and the respective populations are evaluated, vaccine efficacy against HPV-16 and -18-related CIN2+ remains at 100%. As this vaccine is used over time in universal prophylactic HPV-16/18 vaccination of girls and women, reductions in cervical cancers at both the individual and public health levels will be appreciated.
Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine: follow-up from months 12-24 in a Phase III randomized study of healthy women aged 18-45 years.
Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary
In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N=1,106), stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck & Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5-100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0-100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3-84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4-5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7-9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p< 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4⁺ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection.
Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; Pitisuttithum, P; Ferris, D; Monsonego, J; Ault, K; Luna, J; Myers, E; Mallary, S; Bautista, O M; Bryan, J; Vuocolo, S; Haupt, R M; Saah, A
Background: Previous analyses from a randomised trial in women aged 24–45 years have shown the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine to be efficacious in the prevention of infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and external genital lesions (EGLs) related to HPV 6/11/16/18. In this report, we present end-of-study efficacy, safety, and immunogenicity data with a median follow-up time of 4.0 years. Methods: We enrolled 3819 24–45-year-old women with no history of cervical disease or genital warts in the past 5 years. Women received quadrivalent vaccine or placebo at day 1, and at months 2 and 6. Ascertainment of CIN/EGL was accomplished through Pap testing, genital inspection, and cervicovaginal sampling (every 6 months). The main analysis was conducted in a per-protocol efficacy population (that received three doses, was naive to the relevant HPV types at day 1, and remained free of infection through month 7). Efficacy was also estimated in other naive and non-naive populations. Results: Vaccine efficacy against the combined incidence of persistent infection, CIN/EGL related to HPV6/11/16/18 in the per-protocol population was 88.7% (95% CI: 78.1, 94.8). Efficacy for women who were seropositive and DNA negative for the relevant vaccine HPV type at the time of enrolment who received at least 1 dose was 66.9% (95% CI: 4.3, 90.6). At month 48, 91.5, 92.0, 97.4, and 47.9% of vaccinated women were seropositive to HPV 6/11/16/18, respectively. No serious vaccine-related adverse experiences were reported. Conclusions: The qHPV vaccine demonstrated high efficacy, immunogenicity, and acceptable safety in women aged 24–45 years, regardless of previous exposure to HPV vaccine type. PMID:21629249
Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank
Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9-17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26-45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18-25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9-17 years) vs. young women (18-25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26-45 year-old women vs. 18-25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18-25 minus 26-45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [-1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [-1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9-17 years) as compared with young women (18-25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9-45 years.
Zhu, Fengcai; Li, Juan; Hu, Yuemei; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Junzhi; Yang, Jianguo; Xia, Guodong; Dai, Qinyong; Tang, Haiwen; V Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank
Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were evaluated in healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years in 2 phase IIIB, randomized, controlled trials. Girls aged 9–17 years (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00996125) received vaccine (n = 374) or control (n = 376) and women aged 26–45 years (NCT01277042) received vaccine (n = 606) or control (n = 606) at months 0, 1, and 6. The primary objective was to show non-inferiority of anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune responses in initially seronegative subjects at month 7, compared with Chinese women aged 18–25 years enrolled in a separate phase II/III trial (NCT00779766). Secondary objectives were to describe the anti-HPV-16 and -18 immune response, reactogenicity and safety. At month 7, immune responses were non-inferior for girls (9–17 years) vs. young women (18–25 years): the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (women/girls) was below the limit of 2 for both anti-HPV-16 (0.37 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.43]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.42 [0.36, 0.49]). Immune responses at month 7 were also non-inferior for 26–45 year-old women vs. 18–25 year-old women: the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in seroconversion (18–25 minus 26–45) was below the limit of 5% for both anti-HPV-16 (0.00% [–1.53, 1.10]) and anti-HPV-18 (0.21% [–1.36, 1.68]). GMTs were 2- to 3-fold higher in girls (9–17 years) as compared with young women (18–25 years). The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had an acceptable safety profile when administered to healthy Chinese females aged 9–45 years. PMID:25424785
Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Stanley, Margaret; Muñoz, Nubia; Torres, Leticia; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Salmerón, Jorge; Rojas, Rosalba; Herrero, Rolando; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
For middle and low-income countries, the cost of HPV vaccines remains challenging. We conducted an open-label nonrandomized clinical trial evaluating immune response to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered on a standard (months (M) 0-1-6) versus extended schedule (M 0-6-60) at 7, 21, 60, 72 and 120 months post-vaccination. Participants were females recruited in Morelos, Mexico: 474 girls aged 9-10 years and 500 women aged 18-24 years receiving a standard schedule, and 1026 girls aged 9-10 years receiving an extended schedule (currently the girls in the extended schedule had received only the first 2 doses). This report presents the interim analysis results for non-inferiority between the regimes conducted with the current available data at 21 months after the first dose, with serum antibodies assessed by ELISA. A pre-stated margin of non-inferiority was defined by post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (upper 95% confidence interval [CI]≤2.0) between the standard and the two-dose schedule in girls at month 21. Immune response to the vaccine was strongest in adolescent girls and in the 3-dose group. Statistical non-inferiority of the two-dose versus three-dose groups was demonstrated. At 21 months, comparing the adolescent 2-dose versus 3-dose groups, the GMT ratio and 95% CI were 1.66 (1.55-1.81) and 1.67 (1.51-1.86) for HPV16 and 18, respectively. The two-dose regimen was non-inferior when compared to the three-dose response in same-age girls and with women aged 18-24 years after 21 months of follow-up. The reduction in the number of doses from the current three-dose schedule may lower overall costs associated with the vaccination and increase accessibility and compliance with the recommended dosing of the HPV vaccine.
Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Huang, Li-Min; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Ren-Bin; Schwarz, Tino F.; Esposito, Susanna; Frenette, Louise; Giaquinto, Carlo; McNeil, Shelly; Rheault, Paul; Durando, Paolo; Horn, Michael; Klar, Maximilian; Poncelet, Sylviane; De Simoni, Stéphanie; Friel, Damien; De Muynck, Benoit; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju V.; Hezareh, Marjan; Descamps, Dominique; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank
Background. This randomized, open trial compared regimens including 2 doses (2D) of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9–14 years with one including 3 doses (3D) in women aged 15–25 years. Methods. Girls aged 9–14 years were randomized to receive 2D at months 0 and 6 (M0,6; (n = 550) or months 0 and 12 (M0,12; n = 415), and women aged 15–25 years received 3D at months 0, 1, and 6 (n = 482). End points included noninferiority of HPV-16/18 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D (primary), 2D (M0,12) versus 3D, and 2D (M0,6) versus 2D (M0,12); neutralizing antibodies; cell-mediated immunity; reactogenicity; and safety. Limits of noninferiority were predefined as <5% difference in seroconversion rate and <2-fold difference in geometric mean antibody titer ratio. Results. One month after the last dose, both 2D regimens in girls aged 9–14 years were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15–25 years and 2D (M0,12) was noninferior to 2D (M0,6). Geometric mean antibody titer ratios (3D/2D) for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, .97–1.22) and 0.85 (.76–.95) for 2D (M0,6) versus 3D and 0.89 (.79–1.01) and 0.75 (.67–.85) for 2D (M0,12) versus 3D. The safety profile was clinically acceptable in all groups. Conclusions. The 2D regimens for the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in girls aged 9–14 years (M0,6 or M0,12) elicited HPV-16/18 immune responses that were noninferior to 3D in women aged 15–25 years. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01381575. PMID:26908726
... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-18 Installation. (a)...
... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-18 Installation. (a)...
... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-18 Installation. (a)...
... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-18 Installation. (a)...
... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installation. 58.16-18 Section 58.16-18 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-18 Installation. (a)...
Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Ferguson, Linda; Peters, Klaus; Dionne, Marc; Behre, Ulrich; Schulze, Karin; Hillemanns, Peter; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank
In this randomized, partially-blind study (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00541970), the licensed formulation of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (20 μg each of HPV-16/18 antigens) was found highly immunogenic up to 4 y after first vaccination, whether administered as a 2-dose (2D) schedule in girls 9–14 y or 3-dose (3D) schedule in women 15–25 y. This end-of-study analysis extends immunogenicity and safety data until Month (M) 60, and presents antibody persistence predictions estimated by piecewise and modified power law models. Healthy females (age stratified: 9–14, 15–19, 20–25 y) were randomized to receive 2D at M0,6 (N = 240 ) or 3D at M0,1,6 (N = 239). Here, results are reported for girls 9–14 y (2D) and women 15–25 y (3D). Seropositivity rates, geometric mean titers (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and geometric mean titer ratios (GMRs; 3D/2D; post-hoc exploratory analysis) were calculated. All subjects seronegative pre-vaccination in the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort were seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and −18 at M60. Antibody responses elicited by the 2D and 3D schedules were comparable at M60, with GMRs close to 1 (anti-HPV-16: 1.13 [95% confidence interval: 0.82–1.54]; anti-HPV-18: 1.06 [0.74–1.51]). Statistical modeling predicted that in 95% of subjects, antibodies induced by 2D and 3D schedules could persist above natural infection levels for ≥ 21 y post-vaccination. The vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile in both groups. In conclusion, a 2D M0,6 schedule of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine was immunogenic for up to 5 y in 9–14 y-old girls. Statistical modeling predicted that 2D-induced antibodies could persist for longer than 20 y. PMID:26176261
Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique
Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines (HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck & Co., Inc.) differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo post-vaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed (HPV-010 [NCT00423046]). Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0-16.7%) versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0-5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA. HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio [GMR] =2.0; p=0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR=2.6; p=0.0092]), as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p=0.0009; HPV-45, p=0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.
Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary
In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ≥1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation. 16.18 Section 16.18 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES OF THE DEPARTMENTAL GRANT APPEALS... mediation skills to aid in resolving the dispute. Mediation services will only be offered at the request,...
Zhu, Feng-Cai; Hu, Shang-Ying; Hong, Ying; Hu, Yue-Mei; Zhang, Xun; Zhang, Yi-Ju; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhang, Cheng-Fu; Yang, Xiaoping; Yu, Jia-Xi; Zhu, Jiahong; Zhu, Yejiang; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hong; Wang, Changrong; Bi, Jun; Xue, Shiyin; Shen, Lingling; Zhang, Yan-Shu; He, Yunkun; Tang, Haiwen; Karkada, Naveen; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank
We previously reported the results of a phase II/III, double-blind, randomized controlled study in Chinese women (NCT00779766) showing a 94.2% (95% confidence interval: 62.7-99.9) HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or higher (CIN1+) and/or 6-month (M) persistent infection (PI) with a mean follow-up of <2 years, and immunogenicity until 7 months post-dose 1. Here, we report efficacy and safety results from an event-triggered analysis with ~3 years longer follow-up, and immunogenicity until M24. Healthy 18-25-year-old women (N = 6051) were randomized (1:1) to receive three doses of HPV-16/18 vaccine or Al(OH)3 (control) at M0, 1, 6. VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+, and cross-protective VE against infections with nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types, immunogenicity, and safety were assessed. In the according-to-protocol efficacy cohort, in initially seronegative/DNA-negative women (vaccine group: N = 2524; control group: N = 2535), VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was 87.3% (5.3-99.7); VE against incident infection or against 6-month persistent infection associated with HPV-31/33/45 was 50.1% (34.3-62.3) or 52.6% (24.5-70.9), respectively. At least, 99.6% of HPV-16/18-vaccines remained seropositive for anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies; anti-HPV-16 and -18 geometric mean titers were 1271.1 EU/mL (1135.8-1422.6) and 710.0 EU/ml (628.6-801.9), respectively. Serious adverse events were infrequent (1.7% vaccine group [N = 3026]; 2.5% control group [N = 3026]). Of the 1595 reported pregnancies, nine had congenital anomalies (five live infants, three elective terminations, one stillbirth) that were unlikely vaccination-related (blinded data). VE against HPV-16/18-associated CIN2+ was demonstrated and evidence of cross-protective VE against oncogenic HPV types was shown. The vaccine was immunogenic and had an acceptable safety profile.
Steitz, Jean A.; Verner, Betty S.
Increasing the amount of contact with older persons is often proposed as a way to inform young people about aging. This study compared adolescents' knowledge of aging with the amount and quality of contact they had with an older person and compared knowledge of aging in a 1978 sample of adolescents with knowledge in a 1985 sample. For the 1985…
Persistence of immune responses to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women aged 15–55 years and first-time modelling of antibody responses in mature women: results from an open-label 6–year follow-up study
Schwarz, T; Spaczynski, M; Kaufmann, A; Wysocki, J; Gałaj, A; Schulze, K; Suryakiran, P; Thomas, F; Descamps, D
Objective Evaluation of the long-term HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine immunogenicity persistence in women. Design Multicentre, open-label, long-term follow-up (NCT00947115) of a primary phase–III study (NCT00196937). Setting Six centres in Germany and Poland. Population 488 healthy women (aged 15–55 years, age-stratified into groups: 15–25, 26–45, and 46–55 years) who received three vaccine doses in the primary study. Methods Immune responses were evaluated in serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples 6 years after dose 1. Anti-HPV-16/18 geometric mean titres (GMTs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and were used to fit the modified power-law and piecewise models, predicting long-term immunogenicity. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were recorded. Main outcome measures Anti-HPV-16/18 seropositivity rates and GMTs 6 years after dose 1. Results At 6 years after dose 1, all women were seropositive for anti-HPV–16 and ≥97% were seropositive for anti-HPV–18 antibodies. GMTs ranged from 277.7 to 1344.6 EU/ml, and from 97.6 to 438.2 EU/ml, for anti-HPV–16 and anti-HPV–18, respectively. In all age groups, GMTs were higher (anti-HPV–16, 9.3–45.1-fold; anti-HPV–18, 4.3–19.4-fold) than levels associated with natural infection (29.8 EU/ml). A strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16/18 levels was observed, with correlation coefficients of 0.81–0.96 (anti-HPV–16) and 0.69–0.84 (anti-HPV–18). Exploratory modelling based on the 6–year data predicted vaccine-induced anti-HPV-16/18 levels above natural infection levels for at least 20 years, except for anti-HPV–18 in the older age group (piecewise model). One vaccine-related and two fatal SAEs were reported. Conclusions At 6 years after vaccination, immune responses induced by the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine were sustained in all age groups. PMID:25208608
Glover, Elbert D.; And Others
Negative views about the elderly held by adolescents can result in a negative outlook on aging. Physical, mental, and social aging experiential activities are given which can be done at home or at school. (JN)
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.
Hubley, Anita M.; Arim, Rubab G.
Subjective age generally refers to the age that one feels. In a cross-sectional questionnaire study of 245 adolescents ages 10-14 years, we examined (a) whether, and when, a cross-over in subjective age occurs, (b) differences in subjective age among pubertal timing groups, (c) correlations between subjective age and each of desired age and five…
Kreimer, Aimée R.; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T.; Quint, Wim; Jimenez, Silvia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Struijk, Linda; Schussler, John; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula
Background: Previous Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) reports separately demonstrated vaccine efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 (HPV16/18) infections at the cervical, anal, and oral regions; however, the combined overall multisite efficacy (protection at all three sites) and vaccine efficacy among women infected with HPV16 or HPV18 prior to vaccination are less known. Methods: Women age 18 to 25 years from the CVT were randomly assigned to the HPV16/18 vaccine (Cervarix) or a hepatitis A vaccine. Cervical, oral, and anal specimens were collected at the four-year follow-up visit from 4186 women. Multisite and single-site vaccine efficacies (VEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed for one-time detection of point prevalent HPV16/18 in the cervical, anal, and oral regions four years after vaccination. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The multisite woman-level vaccine efficacy was highest among “naïve” women (HPV16/18 seronegative and cervical HPV high-risk DNA negative at vaccination) (vaccine efficacy = 83.5%, 95% CI = 72.1% to 90.8%). Multisite woman-level vaccine efficacy was also demonstrated among women with evidence of a pre-enrollment HPV16 or HPV18 infection (seropositive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 but cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative at vaccination) (vaccine efficacy = 57.8%, 95% CI = 34.4% to 73.4%), but not in those with cervical HPV16 and/or HPV18 DNA at vaccination (anal/oral HPV16/18 VE = 25.3%, 95% CI = -40.4% to 61.1%). Concordant HPV16/18 infections at two or three sites were also less common in HPV16/18-infected women in the HPV vaccine vs control arm (7.4% vs 30.4%, P < .001). Conclusions: This study found high multisite vaccine efficacy among “naïve” women and also suggests the vaccine may provide protection against HPV16/18 infections at one or more anatomic sites among some women infected with these types prior to HPV16/18 vaccination. PMID:26467666
29. August, 1970 WEST ELEVATIONS OF 14, 16, 18, 20 UNION STREET (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA
Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz
The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…
Nomaguchi, Kei M.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…
Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel
Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…
Naud, Paulo S; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; De Carvalho, Newton S; Teixeira, Julio C; de Borba, Paola C; Sanchez, Nervo; Zahaf, Toufik; Catteau, Gregory; Geeraerts, Brecht; Descamps, Dominique
HPV-023 (NCT00518336; ClinicalTrial.gov) is a long-term follow-up of an initial double-blind, randomized (1:1), placebo-controlled study (HPV-001, NCT00689741) evaluating the efficacy against human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 infection and associated cyto-histopathological abnormalities, persistence of immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Among the women, aged 15–25 years, enrolled in HPV-001 and who participated in the follow-up study HPV-007 (NCT00120848), a subset of 437 women from five Brazilian centers participated in this 36-month long-term follow-up (HPV-023) for a total of 113 months (9.4 years). During HPV-023, anti-HPV-16/18 antibodies were measured annually by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and pseudovirion-based neutralisation assay (PBNA). Cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA every 6 months, and cyto-pathological examinations were performed annually. During HPV-023, no new HPV-16/18-associated infections and cyto-histopathological abnormalities occurred in the vaccine group. Vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 incident infection was 100% (95%CI: 66.1, 100). Over the 113 months (9.4 years), VE was 95.6% (86.2, 99.1; 3/50 cases in vaccine and placebo groups, respectively) against incident infection, 100% (84·1, 100; 0/21) against 6-month persistent infection (PI); 100% (61·4, 100; 0/10) against 12-month PI; 97·1% (82.5, 99.9; 1/30) against ≥ ASC-US; 95·0% (68.0, 99.9; 1/18) against ≥ LSIL; 100% (45.2, 100; 0/8) against CIN1+; and 100% (–128.1, 100; 0/3) against CIN2+ associated with HPV-16/18. All vaccinees remained seropositive to HPV-16/18, with antibody titers remaining several folds above natural infection levels, as measured by ELISA and PBNA. There were no safety concerns. To date, these data represent the longest follow-up reported for a licensed HPV vaccine. PMID:25424918
Essau, Cecilia A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R.
Background Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Objective The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Method Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Results Childhood anxiety only predicted less years of completed education at age 30, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted income, unemployment, maladjustment, poor coping skills, more chronic stress and life events. Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) was the only disorder predicted by childhood anxiety, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted MDD, substance (SUD) and alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD) in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult MDD, SUD and AUD partially or completely mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. Limitations The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Conclusion Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through MDD, SUD and AUD. PMID:24456837
Stephenson, K G; Quintin, E M; South, M
While research regarding emotion recognition in ASD has focused primarily on social cues, musical stimuli also elicit strong emotional responses. This study extends and expands the few previous studies of response to music in ASD, measuring both psychophysiological and behavioral responses in younger children (ages 8-11) as well as older adolescents (ages 16-18). Compared to controls, the ASD group demonstrated reduced skin conductance response to music-evoked emotion. Younger groups, regardless of diagnosis, showed greater physiological reactivity to scary stimuli than to other emotions. There was a significant interaction of age group and diagnostic group in identifying scary music stimuli, possibly evidencing disrupted developmental trajectories in ASD for integrating physiological and cognitive cues that may underlie symptoms of anxiety.
Smith, Carolyn R.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Gillespie, Gordon L.; Beery, Theresa A.; Gates, Donna M.
Aggression exposure is a critical health issue facing adolescents in the United States. Exposure occurs in various settings including home, school, and the community. An emerging context for aggression exposure is in the workplace. Thirty adolescent employees age 16-18 participated in a qualitative study exploring proposed responses to future…
Hawe, J. Michael, Comp.
A survey investigated what employers in the Thames Valley, England, were looking for in their recruitment of young people aged 16-18. Of 600 companies, 37 percent responded. Twenty percent did not recruit at that age level; 76 percent required two advanced ("A") levels and Pass grades. Recruitment of young people with a General…
Lee, Jayoung; Puig, Ana; Lea, Eunkyoung; Lee, Sang Min
Korean adolescents experience considerable stress because of an educational system that focuses primarily on college entrance examinations, pressure for academic achievement, and a competitive atmosphere in school. The main purpose of this study was to explore age differences in the construct of Korean adolescents' academic burnout. Once…
Perez, Gonzalo; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; García, Patricia J; Muñoz, Nubia; Villa, Luisa L; Bryan, Janine; Taddeo, Frank J; Lu, Shuang; Esser, Mark T; Vuocolo, Scott; Sattler, Carlos; Barr, Eliav
The prevalence of HPV infection in Latin America is among the highest in the world. A quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine has been shown to be 95-100% effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical and genital disease in women naive to vaccine HPV types. A total of 6,004 female subjects aged 9-24 were recruited from Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Peru. Subjects were randomized to immunization with intramuscular (deltoid) injections of HPV vaccine or placebo at enrollment (day 1), month 2 and month 6. Among vaccinated subjects in the per-protocol population from Latin America, quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 92.8 and 100% effective in preventing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and external genital lesions related to vaccine HPV types, respectively. These data support vaccination of adolescents and young adults in the region, which is expected to greatly reduce the burden of cervical and genital cancers, precancers and genital warts.
Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.
Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong
Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139
Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David
We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.
Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.
The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384
Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.
Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…
Fryer, Susanna L.; Frank, Lawrence R.; Spadoni, Andrea D.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Tapert, Susan F.
Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed microstructural aspects of adolescent brain development, the cognitive correlates of which remain relatively uncharacterized. Methods: DTI was used to assess white matter microstructure in 18 typically developing adolescents (ages 16-18). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD)…
The dynamics of communicating with children change in adolescence. Children who, in elementary school, readily responded to and initiated conversations and interactions with adults, now display new mannerisms and tendencies, in a time when they question, challenge, and separate, and are less willing to admire or trust adults. As such, adults must…
Ye, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Cheng, Yi-fan; Yao, Ye-li; Xie, Xing; Lu, Wei-guo; Cheng, Xiao-dong
Histological low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (LSIL/CIN1) preceded by normal or mildly abnormal cytology is recommended for conservative follow-up, with no separated management. In this study, we assessed the triage value of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 genotyping in 273 patients with LSIL/CIN1. HPV16/18 genotyping was performed at baseline and follow-up was at 6-monthly intervals for up to 2 years. At each follow-up, women positive for cytology or high-risk HPV (hrHPV) were referred for colposcopy. Enrollment cytology, HPV16/18 genotyping, and questionnaire-obtained factors were linked to the 2-year cumulative progression rate. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed taking into account time-to-event with Cox proportional hazard regression. The results showed that 190 cases (69.6%) regressed, 37 (13.6%) persisted, and 46 (16.8%) progressed. HPV16/18 positivity (hazard ratio (HR), 2.708; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.432–5.121; P=0.002) is significantly associated with higher 2-year cumulative progression rate. Sub-analysis by enrollment cytology and age restricted the positive association among patients preceded by mildly abnormal cytology and aged 30 years or older. Immediate treatment is a rational recommendation for the high-risk subgroup, when good compliance is not assured. PMID:28271660
Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; Feenstra, Dineke; Hutsebaut, Joost
Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand. Therefore we investigated which items of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems-118 (SIPP-118) were developmentally sensitive throughout adolescence and adulthood and which could be considered more age-specific markers requiring other content or thresholds over age groups. Applying item response theory (IRT) we detected differential item functioning (DIF) in 36% of the items in matched samples of 639 adolescents versus 639 adults. The DIF across age groups mainly reflected a different degree of symptom expressions for the same underlying level of functioning. The threshold for exhibiting symptoms given a certain degree of personality dysfunction was lower in adolescence for areas of personality functioning related to the Self and Interpersonal domains. Some items also measured a latent construct of personality functioning differently across adolescents and adults. This suggests that several facets of the SIPP-118 do not solely measure aspects of personality pathology in adolescents, but likely include more developmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record
Oluwole, David Adebayo
This study investigated the patterns of spirituality, gender, and age in cybergossip practices among Nigerian adolescents. The study utilized a descriptive survey method. Five hundred thirty adolescent students, randomly selected from four major cities in Nigeria, participated in the study. Their age range was 16 to 21. General Spirituality and Gossip Purpose scales were used to collect data from the participants. Data collected were subjected to t test statistics. Findings showed that there is no significant difference in the cybergossiping practices of adolescents based on their levels of spirituality. This reveals that spirituality is not an inhibiting factor in cybergossiping practices among the adolescents. However, there is significant difference between male and female youths in their cybergossiping practices. The results showed that females are more likely than males to be involved in cybergossiping activities. There is also significant difference between early and late adolescents' cybergossiping activities. The implication is that gossip and cybergossip is a natural tendency that involves communicative expression with a pleasure-seeking purpose. It is a habit that excludes no one despite spiritual, gender, or age factors. Therefore, this behavior should be positively directed away from abusive computing and communication. This work is unique because of the need for parents, guardians, and psychologists to design measures to identify and manage various moderating variables in children's computing practices for optimal positive outcomes.
Oman, Roy F.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.; Vesely, Sara; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Smith, David W.; Penn, David A.
Investigated relationships among youth risk behaviors and demographic factors. Data on risk behaviors (delinquency, truancy, weapon carrying, fighting, sexuality, substance use, demographics, and family structure) were compared within specific demographic factors and by age group for diverse inner-city adolescents. Survey and interview data…
Pereira, Rafaelly Fernandes; de Freitas, Maria Célia; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção
Qualitative research, based on the Theory of Social Representations, which aimed to apprehend the social representations of teenagers in a public school and a private on ageing, and to compare them between these two groups. Participants were 60 adolescents, 30 from the private school and 30 from the public school, who responded to semi-structured interviews in the period May-June 2012. The collected data were subjected to content analysis techniques, from which emerged three categories, namely: representations of ageing, the treatment of the elderly, and the recognition of oneself as a subject in the aging process. The adolescents' social representations have showed negative and positive aspects in relation to old age, marked by the influence of socio-cultural aspects.
Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly
BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945
Kreimer, Aimée R.; Gonzalèz, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando
Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ∼1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naïve at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was
Angelo, Maria-Genalin; David, Marie-Pierre; Zima, Julia; Baril, Laurence; Dubin, Gary; Arellano, Felix; Struyf, Frank
Purpose The purpose of this study is to further evaluate the safety of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18-AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18-vaccine Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) through a pooled analysis of data from 42 completed/ongoing clinical studies. Methods Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were reported for 30 days after each dose. Medically significant conditions, serious AEs (SAEs), potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) and pregnancy outcomes were captured until study completion. Events leading to subject withdrawal were reviewed. Relative risks compared incidences of spontaneous abortion and pIMDs in controlled studies. Results Thirty one thousand one hundred seventy-three adolescent girls/women received HPV-16/18-vaccine alone (HPV group), 2166 received HPV-16/18-vaccine coadministered with another vaccine and 24 241 were controls. Mean follow-up was 39 months (range 0–113.3). Incidences of unsolicited AEs reported within 30 days after any dose were similar between HPV and Control groups (30.8%/29.7%). During the entire study period, reports of medically significant conditions (25.0%/28.3%) and SAEs (7.9%/9.3%) were also similarly distributed between groups. Deaths were rare: HPV (alone/coadministered) n = 25, controls n = 20 (n = 18 in blinded groups). pIMDs within 1 year were reported by 0.2% of HPV-16/18 vaccinees and controls. For each pIMD event category, no increased relative risks were reported for HPV-16/18 vaccinees versus controls. Coadministration did not change the overall safety profile. Pregnancy outcomes and withdrawal rates were similar between groups. Conclusions Analysis of safety data arising from 57 580 subjects and 96 704 HPV-16/18-vaccine doses shows that the incidences and distribution of AEs were similar among HPV-16/18-vaccine recipients and controls. No new safety signals were identified. The data confirm previous findings that HPV-16/18-vaccine has an acceptable benefit-risk profile in adolescent girls and
Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Solomon, Diane; González, Paula; Kreimer, Aimee R.; Porras, Carolina; Schussler, John; Jiménez, Silvia; Sherman, Mark E.; Quint, Wim; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiffman, Mark; Hildesheim, Allan
Target groups for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination are controversial. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) against 1-year persistent infection, stratified by age and sexual behavior, among young women in Costa Rica. We randomized 7,466 healthy women 18 to 25 years of age to HPV16/18 or hepatitis A vaccine (follow-up, 50.4 months). According-to-protocol (ATP) cohorts included compliant HPV-negative women; intention-to-treat (ITT) included all randomized women. ATP VE was 90.9% (95% CI, 82.0–95.9) against HPV16/18 infections, 44.5% against HPV31/33/45 (95% CI, 17.5–63.1), and 12.4% (95% CI, −3.2 to 25.6) against any oncogenic infection. Overall ITT VE against HPV16/18 infections was 49.0%, but ATP and ITT VE almost reached 100% in year 4 of follow-up. ATP efficacy against HPV16/18 was similar by age, but ITT VE was greatest among youngest women (68.9% among those 18–19 years of age; 21.8% among those 24–25 years of age) and 79.8% among virgins. Among previously unexposed women, vaccination is highly efficacious against HPV16/18 and partially against HPV31/33/45. Vaccination is most effective in women and girls before they initiate sexual activity, with programmatic and individual decision implications. PMID:22586631
Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda
Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15–24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01–0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705
Goldie, Sue J; Grima, Daniel; Kohli, Michele; Wright, Thomas C; Weinstein, Milton; Franco, Eduardo
The object of our study is to project the impact of a prophylactic vaccine against persistent human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 infection on age-specific incidence of invasive cervical cancer. We developed a computer-based mathematical model of the natural history of cervical carcinogenesis to incorporate the underlying type-specific HPV distribution within precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. After defining plausible ranges for each parameter based on a comprehensive literature review, the model was calibrated to the best available population-based data. We projected the age-specific reduction in cervical cancer that would occur with a vaccine that reduced the probability of acquiring persistent infection with HPV 16/18, and explored the impact of alternative assumptions about vaccine efficacy and coverage, waning immunity and competing risks associated with non-16/18 HPV types in vaccinated women. The model predicted a peak age-specific cancer incidence of 90 per 100,000 in the 6th decade, a lifetime cancer risk of 3.7% and a reproducible representation of type-specific HPV within low and high-grade cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. A vaccine that prevented 98% of persistent HPV 16/18 was associated with an approximate equivalent reduction in 16/18-associated cancer and a 51% reduction in total cervical cancer; the effect on total cancer was attenuated due to the competing risks associated with other oncogenic non-16/18 types. A vaccine that prevented 75% of persistent HPV 16/18 was associated with a 70% to 83% reduction in HPV-16/18 cancer cases. Similar effects were observed with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) although the impact of vaccination on the overall prevalence of HPV and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) was minimal. In conclusion, a prophylactic vaccine that prevents persistent HPV-16/18 infection can be expected to significantly reduce HPV-16/18-associated LSIL, HSIL and cervical cancer. The
Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise
The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…
Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David
In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807
La Greca, Annette M; Ingles, Candido J; Lai, Betty S; Marzo, Juan C
Social anxiety is a common psychological disorder that often emerges during adolescence and is associated with significant impairment. Efforts to prevent social anxiety disorder require sound assessment measures for identifying anxious youth, especially those from minority backgrounds. We examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in Hispanic American adolescents (N = 1,191; 56% girls; 15-18 years) using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Results indicated that the factorial configuration of the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was invariant across gender and age. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that boys exhibited higher structured means than girls on the Social Avoidance and Distress-General (SAD-General) subscale. On all SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation, Social Avoidance and Distress-New, and SAD-General, estimates of the structured means decreased with adolescent age. Implications for further research and clinical practice are discussed.
Haupt, Richard M; Wheeler, Cosette M; Brown, Darron R; Garland, Suzanne M; Ferris, Daron G; Paavonen, Jorma A; Lehtinen, Matti O; Steben, Marc; Joura, Elmar A; Giacoletti, Katherine E D; Radley, David R; James, Margaret K; Saah, Alfred J; Sings, Heather L
The impact of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2-3 or adenocarcinoma in situ (CIN2-3/AIS) in women with ongoing HPV16 or 18 infections prevaccination is reported. Seventeen thousand six-hundred and twenty-two women aged 16-26 were enrolled in 1 of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, efficacy trials (Protocols 013 and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at day 1, month 2 and 6. Women were tested for HPV6/11/16/18 DNA and antibodies at day 1. We focus on the subset of women who were seropositive and DNA positive to HPV16 or HPV18 prevaccination. Incidence is expressed as the number of women with an endpoint per 100 person-years-at-risk. In total, 419 vaccine and 446 placebo recipients were both seropositive and DNA positive to HPV16 or HPV18 prevaccination and had at least one follow-up visit. In Protocol 013, the incidence of HPV16/18-related CIN2-3/AIS among these women was 10.9 in the vaccine arm and 7.0 in the placebo arm (vaccine efficacy = -54.9; 95% CI: -181.7, 13.0). In Protocol 015, the incidence of HPV16/18-related CIN2-3/AIS was 5.5 in the vaccine arm and 6.2 in the placebo arm (vaccine efficacy = 12.2%; 95% CI: -29.8, 40.9). These data suggest HPV vaccination neither reduces nor enhances progression to HPV16/18-related high grade cervical lesions, and cervical cytology screening and corresponding management should continue as per local recommendations. Ultimately, population-based surveillance of vaccinated individuals beyond these clinical trials will be required to further address questions regarding the impact of vaccination in women exposed to vaccine HPV types before vaccination.
Dietrich, Janan; Khunwane, Mamakiri; Laher, Fatima; de Bruyn, Guy; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Gray, Glenda
This study explored perceptions about sexual behaviors and attitudes of adolescents living in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, from the perspective of parents, counselors and adolescents. A qualitative methodology was applied. Nine focus group discussions (FGDs) were held; three with parents of adolescents, two with counselors who work with adolescents, two with female adolescents aged 16-18 years and two with male adolescents aged 16-18 years. In total, 80 participants were recruited from in and around Soweto. FGDs were guided by a semi-structured interview guide, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. Data were analyzed using Maxqda, a qualitative software analysis program. There were eight key themes related to adolescent sexuality and perceived attitudes towards relationships. Five themes were common to all participant groupings (parents, counselors and adolescents): (1) dating during adolescence, (2) adolescent females dating older males, (3) condom use amongst adolescents, (4) pregnancy and (5) homosexuality. (6) Sex as a regular and important activity among adolescents and (7) group sex practices among adolescents emerged as themes from adolescent and counselor FGDs. Lastly, (8) the role of the media as an influence on adolescent sexuality was common to adolescent and parent groups. Risky sexual behaviors continue among adolescents, with group sex parties a concerning emergent phenomenon that necessitates further study. HIV, other STIs and pregnancy prevention interventions should address multiple levels of influence to address context-specific influences. PMID:22844344
Goldie, Sue J; O'Shea, Meredith; Diaz, Mireia; Kim, Sun-Young
Approximately 70% of cases of cervical cancer worldwide are caused by genotypes 16 and 18 of human papillomavirus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted. With the availability of an effective vaccine against these HPV types, there is real hope for reducing the global burden of cervical cancer in developing countries. Stakeholders faced with decisions about where to invest money to improve health must consider the burden of disease caused by cervical cancer relative to other priorities and the comparative benefits of different interventions. We conducted a series of analyses to obtain information for agencies drafting immunisation policy recommendations, financing coordination mechanisms, and country decision-makers on the benefits, cost requirements and cost-effectiveness of the HPV16,18 vaccine. We found that making an HPV16,18 vaccine accessible to 70% of young adolescent girls in 72 of the poorest countries, China, Thailand, and all of Latin America and the Caribbean, could prevent the future deaths of more than four million women vaccinated over the next decade. Provided the cost per vaccinated girl is less than $10-$25, adolescent HPV16,18 vaccination would be cost-effective even in relatively poor countries. Concerns about financial costs and affordability highlight the need for lowering vaccine prices, cost-efficient mechanisms for delivery of vaccinations to adolescents, and creative sources of financing.
Wheeler, Cosette M; Bautista, Oliver M; Tomassini, Joanne E; Nelson, Margaret; Sattler, Carlos A; Barr, Eliav
Adolescents and young adults are at high risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, which are preventable by currently available, safe and effective, prophylactic vaccines. However, development of a combined immunization strategy may lead to better compliance for these vaccines, thereby contributing to the overall goal of protection against these diseases. This study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of co-administered quadrivalent HPV-6/11/16/18 L1 VLP and HBV vaccines in women (n=1877) aged 16-23 years. Co-administration of HPV and HBV vaccines induced robust anti-HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18 geometric mean titers (GMTs) and > or =99% seroconversion rates (Month 7) that were both non-inferior (p<0.001) to those induced by HPV vaccine alone. High Month 7 anti-HBs GMTs were also observed following concomitant vaccination. These GMTs were lower compared to those induced by the HBV vaccine itself; however, >96% of subjects achieved an anti-HBs seroprotection level of > or =10 mIU/mL that was non-inferior (p<0.001) to that of HBV vaccine alone. Overall, co-administered and individual vaccines were generally well-tolerated and did not interfere with the immune response of either vaccine (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00092521).
Felice, M. E.; James, M.; Shragg, P.; Hollingsworth, D. R.
A low chronologic age (less than or equal to 15 years) and low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2 years) have been considered factors that increase medical complications among adolescent pregnant women. Gynecologic age (GA) is defined in this study as age in years at conception minus age at menarche. Two hundred twelve consecutive pregnant teenagers were followed prospectively in the Teen OB Clinic at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center, between August 1978 and July 1981. The clinic population consisted of 37.3 percent Whites, 35.8 percent Hispanics, 20.8 percent Blacks, and 6.1 percent other (mostly Indochinese). Sixty-eight percent of the patients were funded by MediCal. The patient population was divided by chronological age (CA) at conception into those 15 years or less or 16 years or older. A low chronological age was found to be a significant risk factor for premature rupture of membranes. Teenagers with a low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2) had a lower mean pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (Kg/M2) than teenagers with a higher gynecologic age. In this study, we did not find that a low CA or GA was correlated with a higher frequency of pregnancy-induced hypertension, prenatal medical problems, obstetrical problems at labor or delivery, or an excessive number of low-birthweight infants. PMID:6523906
Marques-Silva, Luciano; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; de Oliveira, Marcos Vinícius Macedo; Cardos, Cláudio Marcelo; Fonseca-Silva, Thiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavalieri; De-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago
Recently, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has emerged as a possible agent associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in younger patients. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of age on the distribution of HPV-16/18 in HNSCC, together with the impact of the virus on patient prognosis. A longitudinal prospective study was used adjusted for age, gender, TNM staging, smoking status and alcohol consumption. HPV was detected by PCR with consensus primers. Results showed there was no difference in the frequency of HPV-16/18 positivity when younger patients were compared to the older patients. No association was found among high-risk HPV positivity, gender, smoking habit and anatomical site. High-risk HPV was associated with advanced TNM in bivariate analyses; however, it did not impact on survival. Only TNM staging was associated with risk of mortality. Our study supports the theory that age does not affect the presence of HPV-16/18 in HNSCC and has no impact on patient prognosis. The incidence of HNSCC among patients under the age of 45 years is reportedly on the increase worldwide. The factors associated with HNSCC in younger adults are not well established. Findings of this study indicate that HPV-16/18 may not play a role in HNSCC patients under the age of 45 years. PMID:22741024
Mata, Ignacio F.; Yearout, Dora; Alvarez, Victoria; Coto, Eliecer; de Mena, Lorena; Ribacoba, Renee; Lorenzo-Betancor, Oswaldo; Samaranch, Lluis; Pastor, Pau; Cervantes, Sebastian; Infante, Jon; Garcia-Gorostiaga, Ines; Sierra, Maria; Combarros, Onofre; Snapinn, Katherine W.; Edwards, Karen L.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.
Background Recent genome-wide association studies of Parkinson’s disease have nominated three new susceptibility loci (PARK16-18) and confirmed two known risk genes (MAPT and SNCA) in populations of European ancestry. We sought to replicate these findings. Methods We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms in each of these genes/loci in 1,445 Parkinson’s disease patients and 1,161 controls from Northern Spain. Logistic regression was used to test for association between genotype and Parkinson’s disease under an additive model, adjusting for sex, age, and site. We also performed analyses stratified by age at onset. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms in MAPT (rs1800547; p = 3.1 × 10−4) and SNCA (rs356219; p = 5.5 × 10−4) were significantly associated with Parkinson’s disease. However, none of the markers in PARK16-18 associated with Parkinson’s disease in the overall sample, or in any age stratum, with p values ranging from 0.09–0.88. Conclusions While our data further validate MAPT and SNCA as Parkinson’s disease susceptibility genes, we failed to replicate PARK16, 17, and 18. Potential reasons for the discordance between our study and previous genome-wide association studies include effects of population structure, power, and population-specific environmental interactions. Our findings suggest that additional studies of PARK16-18 are necessary to establish the role of these loci in modifying risk for Parkinson’s disease in European-derived populations. PMID:21425343
McLean, Kate C; Mansfield, Cade D
The current study aimed to situate the development of adolescent narrative identity in the context of past-event conversations between adolescents and their mothers, extending work on conversational contexts in early childhood to adolescence. We examined a cross-section of 63 adolescents with 2 goals: (1) to examine how adolescent age and gender interacted with mothers' scaffolding behaviors and how those interactions were associated with adolescents' narrative processes of meaning-making, vulnerability, and resolution; (2) to examine mothers' behaviors in conversation and how the interactions between those behaviors and event type (important, sad, and happy themes) were associated with those narrative processes. We found that maternal behavior in the conversation was related to adolescent narrative processes, yet this link varied as a function of characteristics of the adolescent and type of event discussed. Overall results suggest that those with potentially less practice at narrating the self in elaborative ways--younger adolescents and boys--receive more supportive scaffolding, and that for those with likely more practice with elaborative narration--girls and older adolescents--mothers engage in more negation behavior. The role of these scaffolding behaviors in adolescent narrative identity development is discussed.
Kim, Ryang Hui
This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…
Metzger, Aaron; Ferris, Kaitlyn
Domain-specific judgments about different forms of civic engagement were assessed in a sample 467 primarily White adolescents (M age = 15.26, range = 11-19). Adolescents reported on the obligatory nature and social praiseworthiness (respect) of different forms of civic involvement. Adolescents distinguished among four different categories of civic…
Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Gonzalez, Paula; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Schiffman, Mark; Struijk, Linda; Chen, Sabrina; Quint, Wim; Lowy, Douglas R.; Porras, Carolina; DelVecchio, Corey; Jimenez, Silvia; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Schiller, John T.; Wacholder, Sholom; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Kreimer, Aimée R.
Background Vaccine efficacy (VE) against vulvar human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has not been reported and data regarding its epidemiology are sparse. Methods Women (n = 5404) age 22–29 present at the 4-year study visit of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial provided vulvar and cervical samples. A subset (n = 1044) was tested for HPV DNA (SPF10/LiPA25 version 1). VE against 1-time detection of vulvar HPV16/18 among HPV vaccinated versus unvaccinated women was calculated and compared to the cervix. Prevalence of and risk factors for HPV were evaluated in the control arm (n = 536). Results Vulvar HPV16/18 VE (54.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9%–79.1%) was comparable to cervix (45.8%; 95% CI, 6.4%–69.4%). Vulvar and cervical HPV16 prevalence within the control arm was 3.0% and 4.7%, respectively. Independent risk factors for vulvar HPV were similar to cervix and included: age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.5 [95% CI, .3–.9] ≥28 vs 22–23]); marital status (aOR 2.3 [95% CI, 1.5–3.5] single vs married/living-as-married); and number of sexual partners (aOR 3.6 [95% CI, 1.9–7.0] ≥6 vs 1). Conclusions In this intention-to-treat analysis, VE against vulvar and cervical HPV16/18 were comparable 4 years following vaccination. Risk factors for HPV were similar by anatomic site. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00128661. PMID:24958910
Alshihri, Amin M.; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc
Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of the London Atlas of Human Tooth Development and Eruption for age estimation in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents (aged 2–20 years), for forensic odontology application. Materials and methods This cross-sectional survey analyzed orthopantomograms (OPGs) of the complete dentition (including root development) to estimate the deviation from chronological age. Each OPG was de-identified and analyzed individually and classified into age-groups by the lead author, using the methods of the Atlas of Tooth Development. Results OPGs from a total of 252 patients [110 (44%) males, 142 (56%) females] aged 2–20 years (24–240 months) were examined in this study. The average estimated and chronological ages of subjects differed significantly p < 0.001 (143 ± 55.4 vs. 145 ± 57.9 months). Most (65.5%) estimates were within 12 months of subjects’ chronological ages; 19% overestimated and 15.5% underestimated age by >12 months. Conclusion This study, conducted in a sub-population of different origin than the UK sample used for the development of the London Atlas, identified variation in age estimates that may have significant impacts on results. The establishment of a composite international repository of atlas-based data for diverse ethnic sub-populations would be of great value to clinicians across the globe. PMID:26236126
Wright, Michelle F.
The present study examined multiple sources of strain, particular cyber victimization, and perceived stress from parents, peers, and academics, in relation to late adolescents' (ages 16-18; N = 423) cyber aggression, anxiety, and depression, each assessed 1 year later (Time 2). Three-way interactions revealed that the relationship between Time 1…
Efficacy of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer in young women: final event-driven analysis of the randomized, double-blind PATRICIA trial.
Apter, Dan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Paavonen, Jorma; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Naud, Paulo; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry C; Teixeira, Julio C; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; Mindel, Adrian; de Sutter, Philippe; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary
We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus 16 and 18 ((HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15 to 25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomized participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n = 9,319; control, n = 9,325) at months 0, 1, and/or 6. The TVC-naive (vaccine, n = 5,822; control, n = 5,819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline, approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programs. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers postvaccination tended to be higher among 15- to 17-year-olds than among 18- to 25-year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% confidence interval [CI], 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7), and 33.6% (-1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1), and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and was consistently significant only in 15- to 17-year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7], and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naive, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100), and 100% (64.7, 100), and irrespective of HPV DNA it was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9), and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0), and that against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years
Caspi, A; Henry, B; McGee, R O; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A
We assessed relations between early temperament and behavior problems across 12 years in an unselected sample of over 800 children. Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed children at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11, and by parents at ages 13 and 15. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems; Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys; and Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. These results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of later psychopathology.
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Annual licenses for projects subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. 16.18 Section 16.18 Conservation of Power... Projects Subject to Sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act § 16.18 Annual licenses for...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annual licenses for projects subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. 16.18 Section 16.18 Conservation of Power... Projects Subject to Sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act § 16.18 Annual licenses for...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual licenses for projects subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. 16.18 Section 16.18 Conservation of Power... Projects Subject to Sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act § 16.18 Annual licenses for...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annual licenses for projects subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. 16.18 Section 16.18 Conservation of Power... Projects Subject to Sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act § 16.18 Annual licenses for...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annual licenses for projects subject to sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act. 16.18 Section 16.18 Conservation of Power... Projects Subject to Sections 14 and 15 of the Federal Power Act § 16.18 Annual licenses for...
Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed
Utilized the Family Environment Scale and the Experience Sampling Method to evaluate how family discord was related to adolescents' age, in 101 single-mother families. Mothers' reports of overall discord decreased across adolescence. In immediate interactions, boys reported feeling more anger towards their mothers with age, while girls reported…
Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…
Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose
The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…
Vasilenko, Sara A.
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally…
Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336
Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike
This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.
Urošević, Snežana; Luciana, Monica; Jensen, Jonathan B.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Thomas, Kathleen M.
Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD) and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age) associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus), suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development. PMID:27114896
Moline, Judi, Ed.; And Others
This report constitutes the proceedings of a three day workshop on Hypertext Standardization held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on January 16-18, 1990. Efforts towards standardization of hypertext have already been initiated in various interested organizations. The major purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum…
Lundequist, Aiko; Böhm, Birgitta; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Forssberg, Hans; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate long-term cognitive outcome in a cohort of 18-year-olds born preterm and previously assessed at the age of 5.5. Methods We tested 134 adolescents born preterm with a very low birthweight of <1500 g and 94 term-born controls with a comprehensive cognitive battery at 18 years of age. The cohort was subdivided into 73 extremely preterm, 42 very preterm and 19 moderately preterm infants with gestational ages of 23–27, 28–31 and 32–36 weeks, respectively. The moderately preterm group was dominated by adolescents born small for gestational age. Results Very preterm adolescents performed on a par with term-born controls. In contrast, extremely preterm adolescents displayed inferior results on all cognitive tests, more so if they had suffered neonatal complications. Moderately preterm adolescents scored lower than very preterm and full-term born adolescents, particularly on complex cognitive tasks. Conclusion Adolescents born at 28 weeks of gestation or later, with appropriate birthweight and no perinatal complications, functioned like term-born peers at 18 years of age. Extremely preterm birth per se posed a risk for long-term cognitive deficits, particularly executive deficits. Adolescents born moderately preterm but small for gestational age were at risk of general cognitive deficits. PMID:25394225
Allen, Keith D.; Burke, Raymond V.; Howard, Monica R.; Wallace, Dustin P.; Bowen, Scott L.
We evaluated audio cuing to facilitate community employment of individuals with autism and intellectual disability. The job required promoting products in retail stores by wearing an air-inflated WalkAround[R] costume of a popular commercial character. Three adolescents, ages 16-18, were initially trained with video modeling. Audio cuing was then…
Boo, Hong-Kwen; Watson, J. R.
Explores the development over time of students' understandings of the concept of chemical reaction in the context of two familiar reactions in solution. Based on interviews (n=48), results show that students made some progress in their understanding of the concept of chemical reaction but some fundamental misconceptions remained. (Author/MM)
Hammerslag, Lindsey R; Gulley, Joshua M
Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed.
Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).
This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505).[This retracts the article DOI: 10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505.].
Yode, Miangotar; LeGrand, Thomas
This study explores the relationship between age at first sexual intercourse and four indicators of sexual behaviour among adolescents aged 14 to 19 years in Burkina Faso, Malawi and Uganda. Analyses are conducted using data from National Surveys of Adolescents, organized in 2004. Multivariate analyses are performed using dichotomous logistic regression and ordered polychotomic logistic regression. Analyses show that initiation of sexual activity before age 14 is more likely to be associated with having a casual sex partner. It is less likely to be associated with condom use at first sexual relation or with systematic condom use in the past 12 months. These associations vary depending on adolescents' country and gender. Delaying onset of sexuality could be a surer and safer way to protect health during adolescence. However, sexual and reproductive health programs that advocate abstinence only are likely to have few positive effects on young people. To better implement this strategy, sexual education for adolescents should be integrated.
Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A
While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified.
Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf
Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…
Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro
A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…
Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.
The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…
Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Holub, Shayla C.; Arnett, Mitzi
Examines the importance of peer influence and personal attitudes in relation to self-reported use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana for 213 younger adolescents and 219 older adolescents. Friends' use was significantly related to substance use for both age groups, both sexes, and all substances examined. Resistance self- efficacy was…
The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between social anxiety and social adaptation among adolescents. This is the first study to research these parameters among three age groups: early, middle and late adolescence. On the whole, a negative relation was found between social anxiety and social adaptation. Specifically, for adolescents…
Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.
This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…
Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.
This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming victims,…
Marqués, F. Miguel; Leblond, Sylvain; Gibelin, Julien; Orr, Nigel A.; Ogoshi, Shun; Minakata, Ryogo; Kondo, Yosuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Ryuki; Achouri, N. Lynda; Aumann, Thomas; Baba, Hidetada; Delaunay, Franck; Doornenbal, Pieter; Fukuda, Naoki; Hwang, Jongwong; Inabe, Naohito; Isobe, Tadaaki; Kameda, Daisuke; Kanno, Daiki; Kim, Sunji; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Lee, Jenny; Motobayashi, Tohru; Murai, Daichi; Murakami, Tetsuya; Muto, Kotomi; Nakashima, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Noritsugu; Navin, Alahari; Nishi, Seijiro; Otsu, Hideaki; Sato, Hiromi; Satou, Yoshiteru; Shimizu, Yohei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kento; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Togano, Yasuhiro; Tuff, Adam G.; Vandebrouck, Marine; Yoneda, Ken-ichiro
As part of the first phase program of experiments utilizing the SAMURAI spectrometer and NEBULA neutron array, we have undertaken invariant mass spectroscopy of 16,18,20,21B using the complementary probes of neutron and proton knockout. After a brief introduction to the experimental setup and analysis techniques, the results for 16,18B are discussed and compared to earlier work, where in addition to substantially improving our knowledge of the known threshold states in both systems, evidence for new levels has been found. Finally, the first results for 20,21B are presented, and the influence of the sequential decay of 21B on the low-energy 20B spectrum discussed.
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio
The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…
Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Fitzmaurice, Shannon; Black, Maureen M.
This study extends the "determinants of parenting model" to adolescent mothers by examining how adolescent mother-grandmother psychological conflict and perceptions of infant fussiness from birth through age 2 years relate to children's problem behaviors at age 7. Participants were 181 adolescent mother, child, and grandmother triads living in…
This policy statement focuses on children and adolescents 5 through 18 years of age. Research suggests both benefits and risks of media use for the health of children and teenagers. Benefits include exposure to new ideas and knowledge acquisition, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health-promotion messages and information. Risks include negative health effects on weight and sleep; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. Parents face challenges in monitoring their children's and their own media use and in serving as positive role models. In this new era, evidence regarding healthy media use does not support a one-size-fits-all approach. Parents and pediatricians can work together to develop a Family Media Use Plan (www.healthychildren.org/MediaUsePlan) that considers their children's developmental stages to individualize an appropriate balance for media time and consistent rules about media use, to mentor their children, to set boundaries for accessing content and displaying personal information, and to implement open family communication about media.
Salzman, Stephanie A.; Girvan, James T.
A survey of health risk behaviors was administered to a representative sample of 7,776 Idaho students in grades 8-12. Respondents were 86% White, 6% Hispanic, 4% American Indian, 3% Asian, and 2% Black. These rural adolescents reported that they had engaged in some health risk behaviors at rates comparable to those of other U.S. adolescents: 57%…
Plagiarism in the article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini et al. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505)
This retracts article Emphysematous cystitis and emphysematous pyelitis: a clinically misleading association. Mustapha Ahsaini, Amadou Kassogue, Mohammed Fadl Tazi, Anas Zaougui, Jalal Edine Elammari, Abdelhak Khallouk, Mohammed Jamal El Fassi, My Hassan Farih. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;16:18. (doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.16.18.2505). PMID:26328003
Age-appropriate communication style is a core condition in order to screen successfully for exploratory behaviours during adolescence. To offer the adolescent patient to see the doctor alone for some time and to provide assurance of confidentiality even with regard to their parents enhances the doctor-patient relationship and enables the communication about personal issues such as the consumption of psychoactive substances and other potentially harmful behaviours. In order to assure confidentiality even with regard to the adolescent's parents, an evaluation of the adolescent patient's rights for minor consent as well as the potential risk for self-harm and / or homicide has to be performed. Age-appropriate communication that includes conversation about psychoactive drugs and other harmful behaviours has the potential to improve the adolescents' health substantially.
Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Derinöz, Okşan; Akkoyun, Esra Betül; Güçlü Pınarlı, Faruk; Bideci, Aysun
Objective: The aim of the present study was to document ovarian cyst frequency and characteristics as well as distribution of these parameters with respect to age in children and adolescents. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1009 girls between the ages of 5-18 years who presented to our pediatric emergency department (PED) with pelvic pain and therefore underwent pelvic ultrasound examination between June 2011 and May 2014. Results: In total, 132 of 1009 girls (13.1%) were identified as having ovarian cysts ≥1 cm in diameter. The frequency of ovarian cysts was found to be 1.8% (6/337) in children aged 5-9 years and 18.8% (126/672) in those aged 10-18 years. All the cysts detected in children aged 5-9 years were small (<3 cm) and simple with age-specific frequencies ranging between 1.5-2.7%. With the onset of adolescence, ovarian cyst frequency started to increase with age and ranged between 3.8-31.3% throughout adolescence. Age of peak ovarian cyst frequency was 15 years with a rate of 31.3%. Large ovarian cysts (>5 cm) were identified in 19 adolescents (15.1%) with most occurring during middle adolescence. Of the 19 adolescents, five were found to have cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies including cystadenoma (n=3) and ovarian torsion (n=2). Conclusion: In children aged 5-9 years, ovarian cysts were infrequent and small (<3 cm). Peak ovarian cyst frequency was detected at the age of 15 years. All patients diagnosed with cyst-related significant ovarian pathologies were adolescents having a cyst >5 cm in diameter with a complex appearance in most. PMID:28044991
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen
This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…
...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....
...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....
...., Me esters, epoxidized. 721.10313 Section 721.10313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....
Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M
Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.
Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita
To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.
Denny, Lynette; Hendricks, Bronwyn; Gordon, Chivaugn; Thomas, Florence; Hezareh, Marjan; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Durand, Christelle; Hervé, Caroline; Descamps, Dominique
In developing countries, risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be increased by the high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in HIV-infected women in South Africa. Asymptomatic HIV-positive women aged 18-25 years (N=120) were stratified by CD4⁺ T-cell count and randomised (1:1) to receive HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®; GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) or placebo (Al[OH]3) at 0, 1 and 6 months (double-blind). HIV-negative women (N=30) received HPV-16/18 vaccine (open label). Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody and CD4⁺ T-cell responses, CD4⁺ T-cell count, HIV viral load, HIV clinical stage and safety were evaluated for 12 months. The safety and reactogenicity profile of the HPV-16/18 vaccine was comparable in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Irrespective of baseline HPV status, all HIV-positive and HIV-negative women who received the HPV-16/18 vaccine were seropositive for both HPV-16 and HPV-18 after the second vaccine dose (month 2) and remained seropositive for both antigens at month 12. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody titres at month 12 remained substantially above levels associated with natural infection. The HPV-16/18 vaccine induced sustained anti-HPV-16/18 CD4⁺ T-cell responses in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. No impact of baseline CD4⁺ T-cell count or HIV viral load was observed on the magnitude of the immune response in HIV-positive women. In HIV-positive women, CD4⁺ T-cell count, HIV viral load and HIV clinical stage were unaffected by HPV-16/18 vaccine administration. In conclusion, the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears immunogenic and well-tolerated in women with HIV infection. Study ID: 107863/NCT00586339.
Vasilenko, Sara A
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record
Pires, Raquel; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela; Pereira, Joana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina
Age at first sexual intercourse (AFSI) is the initial factor related to adolescents' sexual life that may increase the risk of adolescent pregnancy. We explored the biological, social, cultural, and political predictors of AFSI addressing several gaps that prevent us from generalizing the results of past research to adolescent pregnancy prevention. We also explored the moderating effects of cultural variables on the links between social and political predictors and AFSI. Our sample consisted of 889 Portuguese female adolescents aged 12-19. Earlier age at menarche, non-intact family structure, maternal history of adolescent pregnancy, lower maternal emotional warmth, absence of religious involvement, and living in Portugal's mainland and in a legal context penalizing abortion predicted earlier AFSI. School attendance predicted earlier AFSI among adolescents of European ethnic origin; adolescents of non-European ethnic origin presented the opposite, but non-significant, pattern. These findings suggest that, in addition to isolated characteristics, factors from different ecological contexts should be considered when planning interventions designed to foster healthy and informed transitions to sexual initiation and prevent the related risks of unwanted outcomes. We discuss implications for future research and practice.
Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar
Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in
Hallal, Pedro Curi; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Gonçalves, Helen; Victora, Cesar Gomes
Physical activity in adolescence is associated with several health benefits, including a direct influence on adolescent morbidity and an indirect effect on adult health mediated by physical activity levels in adulthood. This study assessed the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated variables in 4,452 adolescents aged 10-12 years, belonging to the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, representing 87.5% of the original cohort. Sedentary lifestyle, defined as < 300 minutes per week of physical activity, was reported by 58.2% (95%CI: 56.7-59.7) of the cohort. In the multivariate analysis, sedentary lifestyle was positively associated with female gender, socioeconomic status, maternal physical inactivity, and television viewing, but inversely correlated with time spent playing videogames. Adolescents with low socioeconomic status were more likely to walk or bicycle to and from school. Effective strategies against sedentary lifestyle in adolescence are needed because of its high prevalence and association with physical inactivity in adulthood.
Allen, M T; Matthews, K A
The objectives of the present study were threefold: (a) to compare the patterns of hemodynamic responding of children and adolescents during behavioral challenges, (b) to examine whether previously reported cardiovascular reactivity differences between Black and White children are dependent on pubertal status, and (c) to assess whether gender differences in hemodynamic response reported for adults is similar in children. One hundred fifty-nine children (ages 8-10 years) and adolescents (ages 15-17 years), equally divided along gender and racial lines, participated in a laboratory protocol consisting of a reaction time task, a mirror tracing task, a cold forehead challenge, and a stress interview. Results indicated that adolescents responded with greater beta-adrenergic activation than did children and that gender differences in reactivity often reported for adults emerged more clearly in the adolescents than in the children. This study failed to replicate prior findings of greater vasoconstrictive responses in Black children as compared with White children.
Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy
Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.
Brumback, T Y; Arbel, Yael; Donchin, Emanuel; Goldman, Mark S
Entry into adolescence is marked by dramatic changes resulting from a dynamic interplay among biological and psychosocial processes. Despite the complexity, development is often indexed only by age in event-related potential (ERP) studies. To broaden this approach, we address the effects of gender and pubertal development, along with age, in adolescents using a psychophysiological probe of decision making, the P300 component. Overall, girls exhibited shorter P300 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes compared to boys, suggesting more efficient information processing. In both genders, P300 latency and amplitude also diminished as age and pubertal status increased, again suggesting increasing efficiency of information processing with development. Our findings highlight the necessity of considering more than age when examining cognitive functioning in adolescents and, in particular, the necessity of considering gender whenever developmental issues are addressed.
Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and…
Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.
Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…
van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande
Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…
Cameron, Jack R.; Plattor, Emma E.
Some uses of the mass media for educating the adolescent are discussed, and the fact that teachers have generally neglected using mass media devices is emphasized. Multisensory stimuli are seen to enhance the excitement and drama of the written page and to be essential to a concept of literacy broad enough to encompass all aspects of critical and…
McCormick, C M; Mongillo, D L; Simone, J J
We previously observed that social instability stress (SS: daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partners for 16 days) in adolescence, but not in adulthood, decreased context and cue memory after fear conditioning in male rats. Effects of stress are typically sex-specific, and so here we investigated adolescent and adult SS effects in females on the strength of acquired contextual and cued fear conditioning, as well as extinction learning, beginning either the day after the stress procedure or four weeks later. For SS in adolescence, SS females spent more time freezing (fear measure) during extinction than did controls, whereas SS in adulthood had no effect on any measure of fear conditioning. The results also indicated an effect of age: females in late adolescence show more rapid extinction of cue and better memory of extinction of context compared to adult females, which may indicate resilience to acute footshock in adolescence. Thus fear circuitry continues to mature into late adolescence, which may underlie the heightened plasticity in response to chronic stressors of adolescents compared to adults.
Hammerslag, Lindsey R.; Gulley, Joshua M.
Compared to adults, adolescents are at heightened risk for drug abuse and dependence. One of the factors contributing to this vulnerability may be age-dependent differences in reward processing, with adolescents approaching reward through stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed, processes. However, the empirical evidence for this in rodent models of adolescence, particularly those that investigate both sexes, is limited. To address this, male and female rats that were adolescents (P30) or adults (P98) at the start of the experiment were trained in a Pavlovian approach (PA) task and were subsequently tested for the effects of reward devaluation, extinction, and re-acquisition. We found significant interactions between age and sex: females had enhanced acquisition of PA and poorer extinction, relative to males, while adolescents and females were less sensitive to reward devaluation than male adults. These results suggest that females and adolescents exhibit reward behavior that is more stimulus-directed, rather than goal-directed. PMID:23754712
Shah, Ruchita; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Anoop Krishna; Sen, Mahadev Singh
Social media activities have gained popularity amongst children and adolescents as a means of communication; giving them the opportunity for independence and social development as well as rendering them vulnerable to negative influences. In traditionally collectivistic societies like India, moving rapidly towards modernisation, not only is there a divide between parents and adolescents over the endorsement of these sites, but also regarding value systems related to autonomy and dating that are facilitated by such activities. We present cases of two adolescent girls to highlight adolescent parent conflict that arises in the age of social media in a cultural context. Further, the cases underscore that value systems and culture play an important role in resolution of such conflict.
Philliber, S G; Namerow, P B; Jones, J E
During the past decade, much has been written about adolescents' use of contraception and their experience of pregnancy. Few researchers, however, have distinguished between the experiences of older and younger adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to provide such a comparison. The data were collected during more than 7,000 visits made by 4,318 patients during almost 5 years of operation of an adolescent contraceptive service in the Washington Heights area of New York City. Characteristics of four groups--14 years and younger, 15-17 years, 18-19 years, and 20-21 years--were examined. The youngest teens initiated sexual intercourse 4 years earlier than the oldest group. Among those 14 or younger, 87 percent had never used contraception, and 9 percent had been pregnant. In the oldest group, more than two-thirds had used a contraceptive method, and three-fifths had already experienced a pregnancy. Results of multivariate analyses indicate that older teens are more likely to come to the clinic for contraception and to be consistent users of the first method of contraception that they select. On the other hand, younger teens are significantly more likely to revisit the clinic and to be pregnant at a second or later visit. PMID:3918321
Lara, Lúcia A S; Abdo, Carmita H N
Adolescence is characterized by marked changes in the body, psychology, and sexual behavior due to increasing production of hormones. In this review we aimed to assess the effect of age at the time of first sexual intercourse (sexarche) on the health of adolescent girls, and identify factors that might protect against early initiation of sexual relations in girls. The PubMed, Lilacs, and Google Scholar databases were searched for clinical trials, comparative studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, multicenter studies, observational studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews published up to December 2014 on this theme. The search terms were: "sexual debut," "coitarche," "sexarche," and "young people," "adolescent," "unplanned pregnancy," "adolescent contraception," and "STDs." Data were extracted from 28 studies and 41 references were used to introduce the theme and to support the discussion. Sexarche has been occurring in increasingly younger girls. A young age at sexarche can lead to subsequent risky sexual behavior. Girls who have sexarche when they are 14 years old or younger are less likely to use contraception on this occasion, take more time before they start using contraception in subsequent sexual relations, are more likely to have several sex partners, have a higher risk for depression, have lower self-esteem and more episodes of repentance, and have a higher risk for a sexually transmitted disease and cervical cancer. Girls with low educational, socioeconomic, and cultural status, little parental monitoring, parental separation, and absence of religiosity tend to experience sexarche at a younger age. Adolescent girls who postpone sexarche until they are 16 years old are physically and psychologically healthier than those who have sexarche at a younger age. This suggests that providing adolescent girls with appropriate education about sexual relations might reduce the negative effect of sexual relations at a young age.
Butte, Nancy F; Garza, Cutberto; de Onis, Mercedes
The development of an international growth standard for the screening, surveillance, and monitoring of school-aged children and adolescents has been motivated by 2 contemporaneous events, the global surge in childhood obesity and the release of a new international growth standard for infants and preschool children by the WHO. If a prescriptive approach analogous to that taken by WHO for younger children is to be adopted for school-aged children and adolescents, several issues need to be addressed regarding the universality of growth potential across populations and the definition of optimal growth in children and adolescents. A working group of experts in growth and development and representatives from international organizations concluded that subpopulations exhibit similar patterns of growth when exposed to similar external conditioners of growth. However, based on available data, we cannot rule out that observed differences in linear growth across ethnic groups reflect true differences in genetic potential rather than environmental influences. Therefore, the sampling frame for the development of an international growth standard for children and adolescents must include multiethnic sampling strategies designed to capture the variation in human growth patterns. A single international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents could be developed with careful consideration of the population and individual selection criteria, study design, sample size, measurements, and statistical modeling of primary growth and secondary ancillary data. The working group agreed that existing growth references for school-aged children and adolescents have shortcomings, particularly for assessing obesity, and that appropriate growth standards for these age groups should be developed for clinical and public health applications.
Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle
This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group.
Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R
One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.
Dorn, Lorah D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa M.; Pabst, Stephanie; Tissot, Abbigail; Susman, Elizabeth J.
Age at menarche is critical in research and clinical settings, yet there is a dearth of studies examining its reliability in adolescents. We examined age at menarche during adolescence, specifically, (a) average method reliability across 3 years, (b) test-retest reliability between time points and methods, (c) intraindividual variability of…
Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R.; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel
Background: Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. Objectives: The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Design: Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Results: Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls’ height (p < 0.05) was below the standards. However, the boys’ height (p < 0.05) was less at ages, 15, 16, and 17. Biological age showed up in girls at age 12.7 years and for boys at 15.2 years. Stunted growth (8.7% boys and 18.0% girls) and over weight (11.3% boys and 8.8% girls) occurred in both groups. A relationship existed in both sexes between the categories of weight for the age and stunted growth by sex. Conclusions: Adolescents living at a moderate altitude exhibited stunted linear growth and biological maturation. Furthermore, adolescents of both sexes showed the presence of the double nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight). PMID:26404334
Hartley, Jane E K
Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism.
Stephenson, Rob; Simon, Calleen; Finneran, Catherine
Using data from the National Survey of Adolescents (2004), we examine the community-level factors associated with early age at first sex among adolescents 14-19 years old in four African countries. Regression models are fitted separately by sex for each country for an outcome measuring early age at first sex, with a focus on community-level factors as potential influences of age on sexual debut. The community-level factors associated with adolescents' sexual debut vary widely by both country and gender. Community influences that emerge as risk or protective factors of early sexual debut include community levels of adolescent marriage, wealth, religious group affiliation, sex education, parental monitoring, reproductive health knowledge, media exposure, membership in adolescent social group, and use of alcohol. Results indicate the importance of context-specific understanding of adolescents' sexual behaviour and suggest how elements of place should be harnessed in the development of effective HIV and sexual health interventions.
Grey, J.; Hamdan, L. A.
The AIAA/NASA Symposium on Space Tracking and Data Systems, held in Pentagon City, Virginia, on June 16-18, 1981, had the purpose of reviewing international activities in space tracking and data systems for civil use in the 1980-2000 time frame. Participants included 225 representatives from industrial and government organizations in eight nations. The nations represented include the United States, France, Germany, India, Japan, Norway, Spain, and Sweden. The major functions of the systems described at the Symposium are related to the initial downlink of telemetry and spacecraft status data, attendant tracking activities, and uplink of spacecraft commands; communication between the associated acquisition sites and central processing and control stations; formulation and implementation of commands that control the spacecraft and its payload; and processing of spacecraft data needed to make command decisions. Attention is given to an overview of current activities and plans, and supporting developments, taking into account the time from 1980 to 1990. New developments are also considered.
Ibralic, Inga; Sinanovic, Osman; Memisevic, Haris
The issues involving menstruation are the topic of many scientific inquires in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology and anthropology. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and the most common symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in adolescent girls with intellectual disability. The main method of data collection…
Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer
Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)
Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara
Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…
Hongxing, L; Astrøm, A N; List, T; Nilsson, I-M; Johansson, A
This study aimed to (i) assess the prevalence and perceived need for treatment of TMD pain, and its association with socio-economic factors and gender, in adolescents in Xi᾽an, Shaanxi Province, China, and (ii) compare the prevalence and association with gender of TMD pain in Xi᾽an to an age-matched Swedish population. We surveyed Chinese adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Xi'an, China (n = 5524), using a questionnaire with two-stage stratified sampling and the school as the sampling unit. The study included second-year students at selected high schools. It also included an age-matched Swedish population (n = 17,015) surveyed using the same diagnostic criteria for TMD pain as that used in the Chinese sample. The survey found TMD pain in 14·8% (n = 817) of the Chinese sample and 5·1% (n = 871) of the Swedish sample (P < 0·0001). Girls had significantly more TMD pain than boys in both the Chinese (P < 0·05) and Swedish (P < 0·001) samples. TMD pain increased with age in the Chinese population. Of the Chinese adolescents with TMD pain, 47% reported that they felt a need for treatment. Rural schools, low paternal education levels, poverty, living outside the home, poor general and oral health, and dissatisfaction with teeth all showed significant positive correlations with TMD pain. Prevalence of TMD pain in Chinese adolescents was significantly higher than in the Swedish sample.
Are our current ways of talking about "the problem of adolescence" really that different than those of past generations? For the past decade, Act Your Age! has provided a provocative and now classic analysis of the accepted ways of viewing teens. By employing a groundbreaking "history of the present" methodology that resists traditional…
Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.
Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…
Reinke, Diane C.
The general purpose of this study was to examine the proportions of children and adolescents identified with behavioral, emotional and cognitive clinical findings and disabilities. Data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) were used in this study. Participants in this study included 7672 children aged 0 to 15…
Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle
Considerable research has focused on youth depression, but further information is needed to characterize different patterns of onset and recurrence during adolescence. Four outcome groups by age 20 were defined (early onset-recurrent, early-onset-desisting, later-onset, never depressed) and compared on three variables predictive of youth…
McCullum, Christine; Achterberg, Cheryl L.
Examines label use behavior among high school-aged adolescents (N=90) to uncover gender differences related to these behaviors. Results show that students were five times more likely to rely on front label/nutrition claims than nutrient labels. Females were more likely than males to use front label/nutrition claims. (RJM)
Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio
This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids...
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10297 Tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as tin, C16-18 and C18-unsatd. fatty acids...
Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B
Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a
At ages 11 through 12 years, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that preteens receive 1 dose of tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, 1 dose of meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY) vaccine, and 3 doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. ACIP recommends administration of all age-appropriate vaccines during a single visit. ACIP also recommends that pre-teens and older adolescents receive an annual influenza vaccine as well as any overdue vaccines (e.g., varicella). To monitor vaccination coverage among persons aged 13-17 years, CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey-Teen (NIS-Teen). This report highlights findings of that analysis. From 2011 to 2012, coverage increased for ≥1 Tdap vaccine dose (from 78.2% to 84.6%), ≥1 MenACWY vaccine dose (from 70.5% to 74.0%) and, among males, ≥1 HPV vaccine dose (from 8.3% to 20.8%). Among females, vaccination coverage estimates for each HPV vaccine series dose were similar in 2012 compared with 2011. Coverage varied substantially among states. Regarding Healthy People 2020 targets for adolescents, 36 states achieved targets for Tdap, 12 for MenACWY, and nine for varicella vaccine coverage. Large and increasing coverage differences between Tdap and other vaccines recommended for adolescents indicate that substantial missed opportunities remain for vaccinating teens, especially against HPV infection. Health-care providers should administer recommended HPV and meningococcal vaccinations to boys and girls during the same visits when Tdap vaccine is given. In addition, whether for health problems or well-checks, providers, parents, and adolescents should use every health-care visit as an opportunity to review adolescents' immunization histories and ensure that every adolescent is fully vaccinated.
Joseph, Gary; Baptista Menezes, Ana Maria; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.
Objective To evaluate the effect of menarche before 11 years of age on the incidence of wheezing/asthma in girls 11 to 18 years of age. Methods The study sample comprised 1,350 girls from a birth cohort that started in 1993 in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil; this cohort was followed until 18 years of age. We assessed wheezing by the question, “Have you ever had wheezing in the chest at any time in the past?,” from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Early menarche was defined as occurring before 11 years of age. We estimated the cumulative incidence of wheezing excluding from the analysis all those participants who reported wheezing before age of 11 years. We performed the chi-square test to assess the association between ever wheezing and independent variables. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate cumulative incidence ratios. Results The average age at menarche in the cohort girls was 12 years (95% CI: 11.1–12.1). The prevalence of early menarche before 11 years of age was 11% (95% CI: 9.7–12.3). The cumulative incidence of wheezing from 11 to 18 years of age was 33.5% (95% CI: 30.9– 36.0). The crude association between ever wheezing in adolescence and early menarche before age 11 was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96–1.48). After adjusting for early childhood and contemporaneous variables, no significant association for early menarche before 11 years of age and wheezing during adolescence was found (CIR: 1.18; CI95%: 0.93-1.49). Conclusion Early menarche before 11 years of age is not associated with an increased risk of wheezing during adolescence. PMID:26870751
Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
In the present study, we investigated genetic and environmental effects on motor impulsivity from childhood to late adolescence using a longitudinal sample of twins from ages 9 to 18 years. Motor impulsivity was assessed using errors of commission (no-go errors) in a visual go/no-go task at 4 time points: ages 9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years.…
Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J
While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.
Giuliano, Anna R.; Palefsky, Joel M.; Goldstone, Stephen; Moreira, Edson D.; Vardas, Eftyhia; Aranda, Carlos; Jessen, Heiko; Ferris, Daron G.; Coutlee, Francois; Marshall, J. Brooke; Vuocolo, Scott; Haupt, Richard M.; Guris, Dalya; Garner, Elizabeth I. O.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can lead to significant disease in males, including anogenital warts, intraepithelial neoplasias, and several types of oral and anogenital cancers. The quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (qHPV vaccine; Gardasil) has recently been demonstrated to prevent persistent infection and associated disease related to vaccine HPV types in males. We report the overall immunogenicity results from a trial of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in males. Overall, 3,463 heterosexual men and 602 men who had sex with men were enrolled into a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study. Serum samples were collected prior to vaccination at day 1 and at months 7, 24, and 36 postvaccination. Immunogenicity was evaluated with a multiplex, competitive Luminex immunoassay. Almost all subjects (97.4 to 99.2%) seroconverted for vaccine HPV types by month 7. At month 36, 88.9%, 94.0%, 97.9%, and 57.0% of subjects were still seropositive for HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18, respectively. For all vaccine HPV types, black subjects had significantly higher antibody titers at month 7 than did both Caucasian and Asian subjects. An anamnestic antibody response was seen in men seropositive before vaccination. The vaccine was highly immunogenic in males 16 to 23 years of age; responses were comparable to those observed in women. Furthermore, the immune responses were consistent with the established efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of incident and persistent HPV infection, anogenital warts, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:22155768
Endo, Fumiko; Tabata, Tsutomu; Sadato, Daichi; Kawamura, Machiko; Ando, Noriyuki; Ukaji, Masako; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Shibasaki, Futoshi
Immunochromatography (IC) is widely used to detect target molecules in biological fluids. Since this method can be performed without a special technique or device, IC is a convenient way to assess the existence of antibodies or pathogens such as viruses and bacteria, simply and quickly. In this study, we established an IC method to detect serum antibodies against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 and HPV-18 L1 proteins using recombinant L1 proteins produced by silkworms as antigens. Infection of oncogenic HPVs is a major risk factor of cervical cancer, which is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. We first measured blood sera of two groups by magnetic beads enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MB-ELISA). For the first group, sera were collected prospectively from young women who planned to receive HPV vaccination. The second group consisted of children under 20 years of age, non-vaccinated healthy women, vaccinated healthy women, dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, and cervical cancer patients. We confirmed that standard vaccination doses significantly increased serum HPV antibody concentrations, and the level was sustained at least more than 30 months after vaccination. In contrast, an increase in antibody concentration was not observed in patients with precancerous cervical changes and cervical cancer. We next measured the samples in both groups using the IC method we originally developed, and found that the measurement values of IC highly correlated with those of MB-ELISA. The simple and quick IC method would be a useful tool for rapid monitoring of L1 specific antibody levels in a non-laboratory environment. With less than one drop of serum, our IC can easily detect serum HPV-16/-18 antibodies within 15 minutes, without the need for electronic devices or techniques. PMID:28158224
Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Ferguson, Linda M; Ferguson, Murdo; Peters, Klaus; Dionne, Marc; Schulze, Karin; Ramjattan, Brian; Hillemanns, Peter; Behre, Ulrich; Suryakiran, Pemmaraju; Thomas, Florence; Struyf, Frank
This randomized, partially-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number NCT00541970) evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of 2-dose (2D) schedules of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine. Results to month (M) 24 have been reported previously and we now report data to M48 focusing on the licensed vaccine formulation (20 μg each of HPV-16 and -18 antigens) administered at M0,6 compared with the standard 3-dose (3D) schedule (M0,1,6). Healthy females (age stratified: 9–14, 15–19, 20–25 years) were randomized to receive 2D at M0,6 (n = 240) or 3D at M0,1,6 (n = 239). In the according-to-protocol immunogenicity cohort, all initially seronegative subjects seroconverted for HPV-16 and -18 antibodies and remained seropositive up to M48. For both HPV-16 and -18, geometric mean antibody titer (GMT) ratios (3D schedule in women aged 15–25 years divided by 2D schedule in girls aged 9–14 years) at M36 and M48 were close to 1, as they were at M7 when non-inferiority was demonstrated. The kinetics of HPV-16, -18, -31, and -45 antibody responses were similar for both groups and HPV-16 and -18 GMTs were substantially higher than natural infection titers. The vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile in both groups. In summary, antibody responses to a 2D M0,6 schedule of the licensed vaccine formulation in girls aged 9–14 years appeared comparable to the standard 3D schedule in women aged 15–25 years up to 4 years after first vaccination. A 2D schedule could facilitate implementation of HPV vaccination programs and improve vaccine coverage and series completion rates. PMID:24576907
Ribolsi, Michele; Lin, Ashleigh; Wardenaar, Klaas J; Pontillo, Maria; Mazzone, Luigi; Vicari, Stefano; Armando, Marco
There is limited research on clinical features related to age of presentation of the Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome in children and adolescents (CAD). Based on findings in CAD with psychosis, we hypothesized that an older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome would be associated with less severe symptoms and better psychosocial functioning than presentation in childhood or younger adolescence. Ninety-four CAD (age 9-18) meeting Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome criteria participated in the study. The sample was divided and compared according to the age of presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (9-14 vs 15-18 years). The predictive value of age of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome presentation was investigated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-curve calculations. The two Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome groups were homogeneous in terms of gender distribution, IQ scores and comorbid diagnoses. Older Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome patients showed better functioning and lower depressive scores. ROC curves revealed that severity of functional impairment was best predicted using an age of presentation cut-off of 14.9 years for social functioning and 15.9 years for role functioning. This study partially confirmed our hypothesis; older age at presentation of Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome was associated with less functional impairment, but age was not associated with psychotic symptoms.
Glozah, Franklin N; Pevalin, David J
Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey (N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents.
Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one's health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7-13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of the
Meireles, Adriana Lúcia; Xavier, César Coelho; de Souza Andrade, Amanda Cristina; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira
Health status is often analyzed in population surveys. Self-rated health (SRH) is a single-item summary measure of the perception of one’s health. In Brazil, studies on the SRH of adolescents remain scarce, especially those aiming to understand the domains that compose this construct. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of poor SRH and its associated factors among 11- to 13-year-olds and 14- to 17-year-olds living in a large urban center in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a household survey across Belo Horizonte that included 1,042 adolescents. Stratified logistic regression models were used for each age group to assess the associations between worse SRH and the following variables: socio-demographic, social and family support, lifestyles, psychological health, and anthropometry. Approximately 11% (95% CIs = 8.7–13.6) of the studied adolescents rated their health as poor, and SHR decreased with age among males and females. This trend was more pronounced among girls (from 6.9% among 11- to 13-year-old girls to 16.9% among 14- to 17-year-old girls) than boys (from 8.3% among 11- to 13-year-old boys to 11% among 14- to 17-year-old boys). Worse SRH was associated with family support (as assessed by the absence of parent-adolescent conversations; odds ratio [OR] = 3.5 among 11- to 13-year-olds), family structure (OR = 2.8 among 14- to 17-year-olds), and argument reporting (OR = 8.2 among 14- to 17-year-olds). Among older adolescents, the consumption of fruit fewer than five times per week (OR = 2.4), life dissatisfaction (OR = 2.8), underweight status (OR = 6.7), and overweight status (OR = 2.7) were associated with poor SRH. As adolescents age, their universe expands from their relationship with their parents to include more complex issues, such as their lifestyles and life satisfaction. Therefore, these results suggest the importance of evaluating SRH across adolescent age groups and demonstrate the influence of
There has been a move in recent years towards the greater inclusion of social and ethical issues within science courses. This paper examines a new context-based course for 16-18 year-olds (Salters-Nuffield Advanced Biology) who are studying biology in England and Wales. The course is taught through contexts and has an emphasis on social issues and…
Adewuya, Abiodun O.; Ola, Bola A.; Adewumi, Tomi A.
Aims: To estimate the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety disorders among Nigerian secondary school adolescents aged 13-18 years. Method: A representative sample of adolescents (n=1090) from senior secondary schools in a semi-urban town in Nigeria was assessed for the 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV-specific anxiety. Results: The 12-month…
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…
Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank
Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types.
Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal
There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.
Esteban, Angeles; Tabernero, Carmen
To assess the relationship between impulsiveness and deviant behavior among 103 adolescents, taking into account their sociodemographic characteristics, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale and a self-assessment measure with regard to disruptive and deviant behaviors which had occurred in the last 90 days were used. The results show that impulsiveness and disruptive behavior in the classroom were related to deviant behavior outside of the classroom. Therefore, age and sex explained the relationship between impulsiveness and behavior. The older adolescents and the girls showed less disruptive behaviors than the younger participants and the boys; both variables showed an interactive effect on disruptive behavior. The age at which sexual activity commenced and the number of sexual partners were also significantly related to impulsiveness and disruptive and deviant behavior. Similarly, impulsiveness was shown to have a significant relationship with disruptive and deviant behavior, and disruptive behavior was shown to have a significant relationship with deviant behavior.
Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A
The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.
Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia
The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.
Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay
At an ungraded, democratically structured school, we documented 196 naturally occurring interaction sequences between adolescents (ages 12-19) and children (ages 4-11) who were at least four years younger than the adolescent. Children and adolescents appeared to be drawn together by common interests and play styles, personal attraction, and…
Uddin Ahamed, Nizam; Taha, Zahari; Alqahtani, Mahdi; Altwijri, Omar; Rahman, Matiur; Deboucha, Abdelhakim
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in the amplitude of the EMG signal among five different age groups of adolescent's muscle. Fifteen healthy adolescents participated in this study and they were divided into five age groups (13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 years). Subjects were performed dynamic contraction during lifting a standard weight (3-kg dumbbell) and EMG signals were recorded from their Biceps Brachii (BB) muscle. Two common EMG analysis techniques namely root mean square (RMS) and mean absolute values (MAV) were used to find the differences. The statistical analysis was included: linear regression to examine the relationships between EMG amplitude and age, repeated measures ANOVA to assess differences among the variables, and finally Coefficient of Variation (CoV) for signal steadiness among the groups of subjects during contraction. The result from RMS and MAV analysis shows that the 17-years age groups exhibited higher activity (0.28 and 0.19 mV respectively) compare to other groups (13-Years: 0.26 and 0.17 mV, 14-years: 0.25 and 0.23 mV, 15-Years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV, 16-years: 0.23 and 0.16 mV respectively). Also, this study shows modest correlation between age and signal activities among all age group's muscle. The experiential results can play a pivotal role for developing EMG prosthetic hand controller, neuromuscular system, EMG based rehabilitation aid and movement biomechanics, which may help to separate age groups among the adolescents.
witrtehurrntrear xplicit, reswith which a consultation system such as MUM man. s histicated control ith xplicit reasoning about un- ages uncertainty...ciar6 4c1 4l ditgnubtic bequeiice of questions and tests a aging Uncertainty in Medicine" by Paul Cohen, David workup. MUM’s primary goal is to generate...control strategies can be developed to man- ACTIONS: begin age uncertainty. do test 2 This last point colors our reading of the Al literature if
Hernández-Molina, Francisco Javier; Stow, Dorrik A. V.; Llave, Estefanía; Rebesco, Michele; Ercilla, Gemma; van Rooij, David; Mena, Anxo; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Voelker, Antje H. L.
Deep-water circulation is a critical part of the global conveyor belt that regulates Earth's climate. The bottom (contour)-current component of this circulation is of key significance in shaping the deep seafloor through erosion, transport, and deposition. As a result, there exists a high variety of large-scale erosional and depositional features (drifts) that together form more complex contourite depositional systems on continental slopes and rises as well as in ocean basins, generated by different water masses flowing at different depths and at different speeds either in the same or in opposite directions. Yet, the nature of these deep-water processes and the deposited contourites is still poorly understood in detail. Their ultimate decoding will undoubtedly yield information of fundamental importance to the earth and ocean sciences. The international congress Deep-water Circulation: Processes & Products was held from 16-18 June 2010 in Baiona, Spain, hosted by the University of Vigo. Volume 31(5/6) of Geo-Marine Letters is a special double issue containing 17 selected contributions from the congress, guest edited by F.J. Hernández-Molina, D.A.V. Stow, E. Llave, M. Rebesco, G. Ercilla, D. Van Rooij, A. Mena, J.-T. Vázquez and A.H.L. Voelker. The papers and discussions at the congress and the articles in this special issue provide a truly multidisciplinary perspective of interest to both academic and industrial participants, contributing to the advancement of knowledge on deep-water bottom circulation and related processes, as well as contourite sedimentation. The multidisciplinary contributions (including geomorphology, tectonics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, physical oceanography, and deep-water ecology) have demonstrated that advances in paleoceanographic reconstructions and our understanding of the ocean's role in the global climate system depend largely on the feedbacks among disciplines. New insights into the link between the biota of
Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K
Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development.
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...
Kreimer, Aimée R; Struyf, Frank; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Hildesheim, Allan; Skinner, S Rachel; Wacholder, Sholom; Garland, Suzanne M; Herrero, Rolando; David, Marie-Pierre; Wheeler, Cosette M
Background Limited data suggest one or two doses of the HPV vaccines confer similar protection to the three-dose regimen. This study aimed to further evaluate the question of reduced-dose efficacy of the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Methods Summary-level data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT; NCT00128661) and the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA; NCT001226810), two phase III controlled, randomized, double-blind, clinical trials of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine among young women, were combined in a post-hoc analysis (GSK e-track 202142) to investigate efficacy of fewer doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine after four years of follow-up. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV-16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine; yet some received fewer doses. After excluding women with <12-months follow-up or those HPV16/18 DNA-positive at enrollment (for the HPV16/18 endpoint), vaccine efficacy (VE) was calculated against one-time detection of incident HPV infections after three (n=11,110 HPV:11,217control), two (n=611:574), and one (N=292:251) dose(s). The main aim of the study was to ascertain HPV16/18 VE in both full and naïve cohorts, as well as to explore protection conferred against non-vaccine HPV types, by number of doses received. Findings VE against incident HPV16/18 infections for three doses was 77·0% (95%CI 74·7 to 79·1%), two doses was 76·0% (95%CI 62·0 to 85·3%), and one dose was 85·7% (95%CI 70·7 to 93·7%). VE against incident HPV31/33/45 infections for three doses was 59·7% (95%CI 56·0 to 63·0%), two doses was 37·7% (95%CI 12·4 to 55·9%), and one dose was 36·6% (95%CI −5·4 to 62·2%). However, two-dose women who received their second dose at six months, but not those receiving it at one month, had efficacy estimates against HPV 31/33/45 similar to the three-dose group (VE 68·1%, 95%CI 27·0 to 87·0%; CVT data only). Interpretation Four years following vaccination of women aged 15 to 25 years, one
Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands.
Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff
Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.
Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark
This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.
Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M
The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging.
Tucker, Joan S; Martínez, José Felipe; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Edelen, Maria Orlando
This study examined the temporal associations of cigarette smoking with prosmoking social influences, academic performance, and delinquency in a cohort of 6,527 adolescents surveyed at ages 13, 16, 18, and 23 years. Prosmoking peer and family influences were risk factors for future smoking throughout adolescence, with family influences perhaps also operating indirectly through the adolescent's exposure to prosmoking peers. There were reciprocal associations of youth smoking with parental approval, peer smoking, and poor grades (but not delinquency), with youth smoking emerging as a stronger antecedent than consequence of these psychosocial factors. Few gender differences in these associations were observed. Implications of these findings for efforts to prevent youth smoking are discussed.
Gowen, L. Kris; Feldman, S. Shirley; Diaz, Rafael; Yisrael, Donnovan Somera
Sexual behaviors and attitudes of female adolescents were studied as a function of age of boyfriend. Boyfriend's age was dichotomized: similar-aged was defined as within 2 years of the girls' age; older aged was 3 or more years older than the girl. A school-based, ethnically diverse sample of 9th-grade girls (N = 146) who had been in a serious…
Johnson, Wendi L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.; Longmore, Monica A.
Research on intimate partner violence (IPV) has evolved over the last decade with increasing interest in how IPV develops over adolescence and young adulthood. Studies examining patterns of IPV over time have generally focused on victimization with less attention to temporal shifts in perpetration. While it is generally assumed that IPV peaks during young adulthood, this has not been empirically verified and documented. Additionally, prior longitudinal analyses of IPV have focused on identifying trajectories and their accompanying risk factors, with less attention given to within-individual change in IPV experiences across and within relationships. Drawing on five waves of data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS), we examined patterns of the perpetration of IPV among a diverse sample of adolescents and young adults (51.1% female, 63.9% non-Hispanic White, 24.6% non-Hispanic Black, 11.5% Hispanic) spanning the ages of 13–28 years (N = 1,164). Analyses demonstrated that IPV patterns deviate from the age-crime curve, with women’s involvement in IPV increasing, while their involvement in other antisocial behaviors is decreasing. Traditional behavioral and psychological risk factors (delinquency, alcohol and drug use, depressive symptoms) accounted for some of the age variation in IPV for men, but these factors did not account for age variation in IPV among women. Relationship risk factors including frequency of disagreements, trust, jealousy, validation and self-disclosure, however, accounted for substantial portions of the age-IPV perpetration relationship for male and female youth. These findings reinforce recent calls for prevention efforts that focus on the development and maintenance of healthy relationships. PMID:25081024
Yang, Hao; Chen, Lei; Lei, Chong; Zhang, Ju; Li, Ding; Zhou, Zhi-Min; Bao, Chen-Chen; Hu, Heng-Yao; Chen, Xiang; Cui, Feng; Zhang, Shuang-Xi; Zhou, Yong; Cui, Da-Xiang
Quick and parallel genotyping of human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16/18 is carried out by a specially designed giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) based microchannel system. Micropatterned soft magnetic ribbon exhibiting large GMI ratio serves as the biosensor element. HPV genotyping can be determined by the changes in GMI ratio in corresponding detection region after hybridization. The result shows that this system has great potential in future clinical diagnostics and can be easily extended to other biomedical applications based on molecular recognition.
Gonzalez, Paula; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Porras, Carolina; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Jimenez, Silvia; Darragh, Teresa M; Cortes, Bernal; Befano, Brian; Schiffman, Mark; Carvajal, Loreto; Palefsky, Joel; Schiller, John; Ocampo, Rebeca; Schussler, John; Lowy, Douglas; Guillen, Diego; Stoler, Mark H; Quint, Wim; Morales, Jorge; Avila, Carlos; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Kreimer, Aimée R
The Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (CVT) was a randomized clinical trial conducted between 2004 and 2010, which randomized 7466 women aged 18 to 25 to receive the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine or control Hepatitis-A vaccine. Participants were followed for 4 years with cross-over vaccination at the study end. In 2010 the long term follow-up (LTFU) study was initiated to evaluate the 10-year impact of HPV-16/18 vaccination, determinants of the immune response, and HPV natural history in a vaccinated population. Herein, the rationale, design and methods of the LTFU study are described, which actively follows CVT participants in the HPV-arm 6 additional years at biennial intervals (3 additional study visits for 10 years of total follow-up), or more often if clinically indicated. According to the initial commitment, women in the Hepatitis-A arm were offered HPV vaccination at cross-over; they were followed 2 additional years and exited from the study. 92% of eligible CVT women accepted participation in LTFU. To provide underlying rates of HPV acquisition and cervical disease among unvaccinated women to compare with the HPV-arm during LTFU, a new unvaccinated control group (UCG) of women who are beyond the age generally recommended for routine vaccination was enrolled, and will be followed by cervical cancer screening over 6 years. To form the UCG, 5000 women were selected from a local census, of whom 2836 women (61% of eligible women) agreed to participate. Over 90% of participants complied with an interview, blood and cervical specimen collection. Evaluation of comparability between the original (Hepatitis-A arm of CVT) and new (UCG) control groups showed that women's characteristics, as well as their predicted future risk for cervical HPV acquisition, were similar, thus validating use of the UCG. LTFU is poised to comprehensively address many important questions related to long-term effects of prophylactic HPV vaccines.
Brown, Stephen L; Coyne, Sarah M; Barlow, Alexandra; Qualter, Pamela
In adults, alcohol-related stimuli prime aggressive responding without ingestion or belief of ingestion. This represents either experiential or socially-and culturally-mediated learning. Using a laboratory-based competitive aggression paradigm, we replicated adult findings in 103 11-14 year old adolescents below the legal UK drinking age. Using a two-independent group design, priming with alcohol-related imagery led participants to deliver louder noise punishments in a competition task than priming with beverage-related images. This effect was stronger in participants scoring low on an internalization measure. Priming effects in relatively alcohol-naïve participants could constitute evidence of socio-cultural transmission of scripts linking alcohol use and aggression. The enhanced effect in lower internalization scorers suggests that alcohol priming might undermine behavioral inhibition processes in otherwise stable adolescents.
Matarazzo, Patrizia; Lala, Roberto; Andreo, Maria; Einaudi, Silvia; Altare, Franco; Viora, Elsa; Buzi, Fabio; De Luca, Filippo; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Rigon, Franco; Wasniewska, Malgorzata; de Sanctis, Luisa; de Sanctis, Carlo
Gonadal hyperfunction is the most frequent endocrine dysfunction in females with McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS). Peripheral precocious puberty is usually the first MAS manifestation in children, characterized by episodes of hypersecretion of estrogens with a consequent reduction in gonadotropin secretion. Little is known about the course of this endocrine disease in adolescence and during young adult life. The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian function in 10 females with MAS (age 11.4-20.1 years) to detect the persistence of autonomous ovarian hyperfunction throughout and following adolescence, after at least 1 year wash out of any treatment for precocious puberty. LH, FSH, estradiol, prolactin, androgen secretion, ovarian and breast sonography in luteal and follicular phases of some menstrual cycles were evaluated. We demonstrated the persistence of some ovarian autonomy, documented by hyperestrogenism and/or low or absent gonadotropin secretion and/or ovarian cysts.
Cain, Neralie; Gradisar, Michael
Electronic media have often been considered to have a negative impact on the sleep of children and adolescents, but there are no comprehensive reviews of research in this area. The present study identified 36 papers that have investigated the relationship between sleep and electronic media in school-aged children and adolescents, including television viewing, use of computers, electronic gaming, and/or the internet, mobile telephones, and music. Many variables have been investigated across these studies, although delayed bedtime and shorter total sleep time have been found to be most consistently related to media use. A model of the mechanisms by which media use may affect sleep is presented and discussed as a vehicle for future research.
Hummer, Tom A; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P
Characterizing brain maturation in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) may provide insight into the progression of their behavioral deficits. Therefore, this study examined how age and executive functioning were related to structural neural characteristics in DBD. Thirty-three individuals (aged 13-17) with a DBD, along with a matched control sample, completed neuropsychological testing and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gray matter volume and microstructural white matter properties. Voxel-based morphometry quantified gray matter volume, and diffusion tensor imaging measured fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter tracts. In the anterior cingulate, gray matter volume decreased with age in healthy controls but showed no such change in the DBD sample. In the corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), FA increased with age in the control sample significantly more than in the DBD sample. Executive functioning, particularly working memory, was associated with SLF FA bilaterally. However, the relationship of SLF FA to working memory performance was weaker in the DBD sample. These data suggest that youth with DBD have altered brain development compared with typically developing youth. The abnormal maturation of the anterior cingulate and frontoparietal tracts during adolescence may contribute to the persistence of behavioral deficits in teens with a DBD.
Henry, Kimberly L; McDonald, James N; Oetting, Eugene R; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Beauvais, Fred
The objective was to assess the effect of early onset intoxication on subsequent alcohol involvement among urban American Indian youth. The data come from the American Indian Research (AIR) project, a panel study of urban Indian youth residing in King County, Washington. Data were collected annually from the adolescent and his/her primary caregiver from the 1988-89 school year to the 1996-97 school year, providing a total of nine waves of data. Early intoxication (by age 14) was related to delinquency, family history of alcohol abuse or dependence, poverty, broken family structure, less family cohesiveness, and more family conflict. The effects of these characteristics were, therefore, partialed out in testing effects of early intoxication on later alcohol involvement. Two-part latent growth models of alcohol use and alcohol problems were specified. Effects of early onset intoxication on these trajectories, as well as lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence by the transition to young adulthood, were examined. Findings indicate that adolescents who experienced their first intoxication early (by age 14), used alcohol more heavily from the ages of 16 to 18, experienced more problems related to the alcohol's use from the ages of 16 to 18, and were more likely to have a diagnosed alcohol disorder by the final wave of data collection. Congruent with similar studies in the general population, early intoxication appears to be associated with a deleterious course of alcohol involvement during adolescence and into the transition to young adulthood among urban American Indian youth. Implications for prevention are discussed.
The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.
Suárez-Ortegón, M F; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Mosquera, M; Méndez, F; Aguilar-de Plata, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in adolescents using three different definitions for this age group. The evaluated sample consisted of 718 male and 743 female adolescents. Definitions by Cook et al., de Ferranti et al. and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for adolescents were used to estimate the prevalence of MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 8.5, 2.5 and 1.2% by de Ferranti et al., Cook et al. and IDF definitions, respectively. High fasting glucose component had the lower prevalence whereas high triglycerides levels component was the most prevalent. In obese adolescents, the prevalence of MetS was higher. MetS classification in adolescents strongly depends on the definition chosen. Further research is required for the evaluation of the current definitions (multicentric studies), and for addition or design of new and useful criteria.
Baker, Fiona C.; Willoughby, Adrian R.; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Franzen, Peter L.; Prouty, Devin; Javitz, Harold; Hasler, Brant; Clark, Duncan B.; Colrain, Ian M.
Study Objectives: To investigate age-related differences in polysomnographic and sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) measures, considering sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, and scalp topography in a large group of adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA). Methods: Following an adaptation/clinical screening night, 141 healthy adolescents (12–21 y, 64 girls) had polysomnographic recordings, from which sleep staging and EEG measures were derived. The setting was the SRI International Human Sleep Laboratory and University of Pittsburgh Pediatric Sleep Laboratory. Results: Older age was associated with a lower percentage of N3 sleep, accompanied by higher percentages of N2, N1, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Older boys compared with younger boys had more frequent awakenings and wakefulness after sleep onset, effects that were absent in girls. Delta (0.3–4 Hz) EEG power in nonrapid eye movement NREM sleep was lower in older than younger adolescents at all electrode sites, with steeper slopes of decline over the occipital scalp. EEG power in higher frequency bands was also lower in older adolescents than younger adolescents, with equal effects across electrodes. Percent delta power in the first NREM period was similar across age. African Americans had lower EEG power across frequency bands (delta to sigma) compared with Caucasians. Finally, replacing age with pubertal status in the models showed similar relationships. Conclusions: Substantial differences in sleep architecture and EEG were evident across adolescence in this large group, with sex modifying some relationships. Establishment and follow-up of this cohort allows the investigation of sleep EEG-brain structural relationships and the effect of behaviors, such as alcohol and substance use, on sleep EEG maturation. Citation: Baker FC, Willoughby AR, de Zambotti M, Franzen PL, Prouty D, Javitz H, Hasler B, Clark DB, Colrain IM. Age-related differences in
van Goethem, Anne A J; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A G; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio
The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues and thinking about public responsibility towards these issues. In turn, moral understanding, along with being personally committed to act upon moral issues, were positively associated with identity. Extending the number of identity contexts tended to be related to being more likely to volunteer and to more volunteering involvement. Adolescents' identity integration was not related to how likely they were to volunteer, and was negatively related to their volunteering involvement. Clearer effects were found when differentiating between adolescent gender and age groups. Future research could examine this process over time, along with additional factors that may further explain adolescents' volunteering, and examine their age and gender specific effects.
Mesher, David; Panwar, Kavita; Thomas, Sara L; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate
Objectives The human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme in England was introduced in 2008. Monitoring changes in type-specific HPV prevalence allows assessment of the population impact of this vaccination programme. Methods Residual vulva-vaginal swab specimens were collected from young sexually active women (aged 16–24 years) attending for chlamydia screening across England. Specimens were collected between 2010 and 2013 for type-specific HPV-DNA testing. HPV prevalence was compared to a similar survey conducted in 2008 prior to the introduction of HPV vaccination. Results A total of 7321 specimens collected in the postvaccination period, and 2354 specimens from the prevaccination period were included in this analysis. Among the individuals aged 16–18 years, with an estimated vaccination coverage of 67%, the prevalence of HPV16/18 infection decreased from 17.6% in 2008 to 6.1% in the postvaccination period. Within the postvaccination period, there was a trend towards lower HPV16/18 prevalence with higher vaccination coverage and increasing time since vaccine introduction from 8.5% in the period 2–3 years postvaccination to 4.0% in the period 4–5 years postvaccination. The prevalence of HPV31 reduced from 3.7% in the prevaccination period to 0.9% after vaccine introduction, although this no longer reached statistical significance after additional consideration of the uncertainty due to the assay change. Smaller reductions were seen in the individuals aged 19–21 years with lower estimated vaccination coverage, but there was no evidence of a reduction in the older unvaccinated women. Some overall increase in non-vaccine types was seen in the youngest age groups (ORs (95% CI); 1.3 (1.0 to 1.7) and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0) for individuals aged 16–18 and 19–21 years, respectively, when adjusted for known population changes and the change in assay) although this should be interpreted with caution given the potential unmasking effect
Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend
Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with
Randomized trial of the immunogenicity and safety of the Hepatitis B vaccine given in an accelerated schedule coadministered with the human papillomavirus type 16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine.
Leroux-Roels, Geert; Haelterman, Edwige; Maes, Cathy; Levy, Jack; De Boever, Fien; Licini, Laurent; David, Marie-Pierre; Dobbelaere, Kurt; Descamps, Dominique
The human papillomavirus type 16/18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine is licensed for females aged 10 years and above and is therefore likely to be coadministered with other licensed vaccines, such as hepatitis B. In this randomized, open-label study, we compared the immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine administered alone (HepB group) or with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HepB+HPV group) in healthy women aged 20 to 25 years (clinical trial NCT00637195). The hepatitis B vaccine was given at 0, 1, 2, and 12 months (an accelerated schedule which may be required by women at high risk), and the HPV-16/18 vaccine was given at 0, 1, and 6 months. One month after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine, in the according-to-protocol cohort (n = 72 HepB+HPV; n = 76 HepB), hepatitis B seroprotection rates (titer of ≥10 mIU/ml) were 96.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.5 to 99.6) and 96.9% (CI, 89.2 to 99.6) in the HepB+HPV and HepB groups, respectively, in women initially seronegative for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs) and anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc). Corresponding geometric mean titers of anti-HBs antibodies were 60.2 mIU/ml (CI, 40.0 to 90.5) and 71.3 mIU/ml (CI, 53.9 to 94.3). Anti-HBs antibody titers rose substantially after the fourth dose of hepatitis B vaccine. All women initially seronegative for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies seroconverted after the second HPV-16/18 vaccine dose and remained seropositive up to 1 month after the third dose. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated, with no difference in reactogenicity between groups. In conclusion, coadministration of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine did not affect the immunogenicity or safety of the hepatitis B vaccine administered in an accelerated schedule in young women.
Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey
The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.
Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Milne, Barry J
This article reports a comparison on outcomes of 26-year-old males who were defined several years ago in the Dunedin longitudinal study as exhibiting childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial behavior and who were indistinguishable on delinquent offending in adolescence. Previous studies of these groups in childhood and adolescence showed that childhood-onset delinquents had inadequate parenting, neurocognitive problems, undercontrolled temperament, severe hyperactivity, psychopathic personality traits, and violent behavior. Adolescent-onset delinquents were not distinguished by these features. Here followed to age 26 years, the childhood-onset delinquents were the most elevated on psychopathic personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, numbers of children, financial problems, work problems, and drug-related and violent crime, including violence against women and children. The adolescent-onset delinquents at 26 years were less extreme but elevated on impulsive personality traits, mental-health problems, substance dependence, financial problems, and property offenses. A third group of men who had been aggressive as children but not very delinquent as adolescents emerged as low-level chronic offenders who were anxious, depressed, socially isolated, and had financial and work problems. These findings support the theory of life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior but also extend it. Findings recommend intervention with all aggressive children and with all delinquent adolescents, to prevent a variety of maladjustments in adult life.
Bekker, Liza; Barnea, Royi; Brauner, Akiva; Weller, Aron
Binge eating (BE) is characterized by repeated, intermittent over-consumption of food in a brief period of time. This study aims to advance the understanding of potential risk factors for BE such as obesity, overeating and adolescence as an age group. We used the Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a genetic overeating-induced obesity model with increased preferences for sweet and fat. Adolescent and adult rats from both strains (OLETF and the lean control strain, Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO]) received limited access to a palatable liquid diet (Ensure vanilla) for three weeks. Water and chow were available throughout the study, but access to Ensure was limited to two hours, three times a week (3TW group) or every work day (5TW group). As expected, OLETF rats consumed more Ensure and were more BE-prone (BEP) than LETO rats at both ages. Adolescent rats showed a significantly larger binge size as demonstrated by a greater increase in Ensure intake, compared to adults. Furthermore, while the adults reduced their chow intake, compensating for increased Ensure intake, the adolescents increased their chow intake too. Finally, the adolescent rats showed binge like behavior earlier in the study and they tended to be BEP more than the adults. Our findings in rats suggest that adolescents and in particular obese adolescents are at risk for BE, and BE can lead to overweight, thus providing the basis for examination of biological mechanisms of this process in animal models.
López Larrosa, Silvia; Rodríguez-Arias Palomo, José Luis
Adolescents' drug use has huge social and personal implications, so it is essential to identify risk and protective factors. In this research, the CTCYS was used with 2440 adolescents to detect risk and protective factors for drug use in the community, family, school and peers/individual; differences in risk and protective factors by age and sex; and relationships between risk and protective factors and substance use. Protective factors are high. Risk factors are high in the community, the school and the individual. Older adolescents have more risks and less protection than the youngest; and there are sex differences, because males have less protection and more risks. The risk factors more closely related to drug use are availability of drugs in the community, family attitudes favourable to drug use, family history of antisocial behaviour, early start and use of drugs by friends, perceived risk and attitudes favourable to drug use. In the protective factors, the role played by social skills for alcohol use is important.
Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p < 0.05) more sedentary, much less physically active, especially with vigorous physical activity, and there were fewer days per week when they consumed breakfast, fruit, milk and diary products, sugar-sweetened drinks, fast foods and energy drinks than did males. However, the females' intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the males'. Screen time was significantly (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p < 0.05) positive relationship with fruit and vegetable intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and
...., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine, di-Me sulfate-quaternized. 721.10395 Section 721.10395... Fatty acids, C14-18 and C16-18 unsatd., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine, di-Me sulfate... identified as fatty acids, C14-18 and C16-18 unsat., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine,...
...., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine, di-Me sulfate-quaternized. 721.10395 Section 721.10395... Fatty acids, C14-18 and C16-18 unsatd., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine, di-Me sulfate... identified as fatty acids, C14-18 and C16-18 unsat., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine,...
...., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine, di-Me sulfate-quaternized. 721.10395 Section 721.10395... Fatty acids, C14-18 and C16-18 unsatd., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine, di-Me sulfate... identified as fatty acids, C14-18 and C16-18 unsat., polymers with adipic acid and triethanolamine,...
Tachezy, R; Hamsíková, E; Hájek, T; Mikysková, I; Smahel, M; Van Ranst, M; Kanka, J; Havránková, A; Rob, L; Guttner, V; Slavík, V; Anton, M; Kratochvíl, B; Kotrsová, L; Vonka, V
Because the biological spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes present in cervical cancer lesions varies according to the geographical region studied, and because little genotype information is available for Central and Eastern European countries, we studied the endemic HPV-genotype spectrum in cervical samples collected from women visiting gynaecological departments of selected hospitals in the Czech Republic. In a series of 389 samples, 171 (44.0%) were positive for HPV DNA using a consensus-primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genotyping of the HPV PCR products was done using dot-blot hybridisation with type-specific oligonucleotide probes and thermocycle DNA sequencing. Twenty-two different HPV types were detected, HPV-16 being the most prevalent type irrespective of severity of the lesions (55.0%). Multiple HPV types were found in 16.4% of our HPV-DNA-positive samples. The prevalence of HPV infection was 23.0% in women with normal findings and 59.4% in patients with cervical neoplasia, and increased significantly with the severity of the disease: 52.9% in low-grade lesions, 58.0% in high-grade lesions, and 73.5% in cervical carcinomas (P for trend < .00001). In the sera of 191 subjects, 89 with normal findings and 102 with different forms of cervical neoplasia, the prevalence of HPV-specific IgG antibodies was tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles (VLPs) of HPV-16, -18, and -33. Antibodies were significantly more prevalent in HPV-DNA-positive than in HPV-DNA-negative women and there was no association with age. In agreement with the results of HPV genotyping, antibodies reactive with HPV-16 VLPs were the most frequent and, moreover, their prevalence increased with the cervical lesion severity. About half of the subjects with smears in which either HPV-16 or HPV-33 DNA had been detected possessed antibodies reactive with homotypic VLPs. With HPV-18-DNA-positive subjects, however, fewer than 25% displayed
Blankenship, Kelly; Erickson, Craig A; Stigler, Kimberly A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J
Aripiprazole was recently US FDA-approved to treat irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder aged 6–17 years. There are currently only two psychotropics approved by the FDA to treat irritability in the autistic population. This drug profile will discuss available studies of aripiprazole in individuals with pervasive developmental disorders, two of which led to its recent FDA approval. We will discuss the efficacy, as well as the safety and tolerability of the drug documented in these studies. In addition, the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, metabolism and mechanism of action of aripiprazole will be reviewed. PMID:21359119
Schlenz, Alyssa M.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Bradley, Catherine; Charles, Jane; Boan, Andrea
This paper evaluated age differences in emergency department care and inpatient hospitalizations in 252 preadolescent and adolescent youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs; ages 9-18). Records from youth with ASDs were linked to acute care utilization records and were compared to a demographically similar comparison group of youth without ASDs…
Robbins, Hilary A; Waterboer, Tim; Porras, Carolina; Kemp, Troy J; Pawlita, Michael; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Esser, Mark; Matys, Katie; Poncelet, Sylviane; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh
The glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay has favorable properties for use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, including low cost, high throughput capacity, and low serum volume requirement. Therefore, we evaluated the GST-L1 assay as a measure of HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity. Our study population included 65 women selected from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial who received the bivalent HPV16/18 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine at the recommended 0/1/6-month schedule. We tested replicate serum samples from months 0/1/12 (i.e., after 0/1/3 doses) by GST-L1 and 3 other commonly used serology assays, VLP-ELISA, SEAP-NA, and cLIA. We calculated the percentage of women seropositive by GST-L1 by time point and HPV type (14 HPV types), and compared GST-L1 to other assays using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. After 1 vaccine dose, seropositivity by GST-L1 was 40% each for HPV16 and HPV18, increasing to 100% and 98%, respectively, after 3 doses. Seropositivity after 3 doses ranged from 32% to 69% for HPV types 31/33/45, for which partial vaccine efficacy is reported, though increases also occurred for types with no evidence for cross-protection (e.g., HPV77). GST-L1 correlated best after 3 doses with VLP-ELISA (HPV16 and HPV18 each ρ = 0.72) and SEAP-NA (HPV16 ρ = 0.65, HPV18 ρ = 0.71) (all P < 0.001); correlation was lower with cLIA. The GST-L1 is suitable for evaluating HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity after 3 vaccine doses, although in contrast to other assays it may classify some samples as HPV16/18 seronegative. The assay's utility is limited for lower antibody levels such as after receipt of 1 dose.
Scharf, Sebastian H; Sterlemann, Vera; Liebl, Claudia; Müller, Marianne B; Schmidt, Mathias V
Exposure to chronic stress during developmental periods is a risk factor for a number of psychiatric disorders. While the direct effects of stress exposure have been studied extensively, little is known about the long-lasting effects and the interaction with ageing. The same holds true for the treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which have been shown to prevent or reverse some stress-induced effects. Here, we studied the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence and the impact of chronic treatment with the SSRI paroxetine in adulthood and aged animals. Therefore, male CD1 mice at the age of 28 days were subjected to 7 weeks of chronic social stress. Treatment with paroxetine was performed per os with a dosage of 20 mg/g BW. We were able to reverse most of the effects of chronic social stress in adult mice (4 months old) and to some extend in aged animals (15 months old) with the SSRI treatment. Especially the regulation of the HPA axis seems to be affected in aged mice with a shift to the use of vasopressin. Our results demonstrate that chronic stress exposure and antidepressant treatment at the end of the developmental period can have a significant and long-lasting impact, highly relevant for healthy ageing.
Bowman, Rachel E; Luine, Victoria; Khandaker, Hameda; Villafane, Joseph J; Frankfurt, Maya
Bisphenol-A (BPA), a common environmental endocrine disruptor, modulates estrogenic, androgenic, and antiandrogenic effects throughout the lifespan. We recently showed that low dose BPA exposure during adolescence increases anxiety and impairs spatial memory independent of sex. In this study, six week old Sprague Dawley rats (n=24 males, n=24 females) received daily subcutaneous injections (40 µg/kg bodyweight) of BPA or vehicle for one week. Serum corticosterone levels in response to a 1 h restraint stress and spine density were examined at age 7 (cohort 1) and 11 (cohort 2) weeks. Adolescent BPA exposure did not alter stress dependent corticosterone responses but decreased spine density on apical and basal dendrites of pyramidal cells in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampal CA1 region (CA1). Sex differences in spine density were observed on basal dendrites of the mPFC and CA1 with females having greater spine density than males. This sex difference was further augmented by both age and treatment, with results indicating that BPA-dependent decreases in spine density were more pronounced in males than females on mPFC basal dendrites. Importantly, the robust neuronal alterations were observed in animals exposed to BPA levels below the current U.S.E.P.A. recommended safe daily limit. These results are the first demonstrating that BPA given during adolescence leads to enduring effects on neural morphology at adulthood. Given that humans are routinely exposed to low levels of BPA through a variety of sources, the decreased spine density reported in both male and female rats after BPA exposure warrants further investigation.
Background There is strong evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and restriction of intrauterine growth, but the effects of this exposure on postnatal linear growth are not well defined. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the role of tobacco smoke exposure also after pregnancy on linear growth until adolescence. In this study we investigated the effect of maternal smoking exposure during pregnancy and preschool age on linear growth from birth to adolescence. Methods We evaluated a cohort of children born between 1994 and 1999 in Cuiabá, Brazil, who attended primary health clinics for vaccination between the years 1999 and 2000 (at preschool age) and followed-up after approximately ten years. Individuals were located in public and private schools throughout the country using the national school census. Height/length was measured, and length at birth was collected at maternity departments. Stature in childhood and adolescence was assessed using the height-for-age index sex-specific expressed as z-score from curves published by the World Health Organization. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking, during pregnancy and preschool age, and height of children assessed at birth, preschool and school age, adjusted for age of the children. Results We evaluated 2405 children in 1999–2000, length at birth was obtained from 2394 (99.5%), and 1716 at follow-up (71.4% of baseline), 50.7% of the adolescents were male. The z-score of height-for-age was lower among adolescents exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and childhood (p < 0.01). Adjusting for age, sex, maternal height, maternal schooling, socioeconomic position at preschool age, and breastfeeding, children exposed to maternal smoking both during pregnancy and preschool age showed persistent lower height-for-age since birth to adolescence (coefficient: −0.32, p < 0.001) compared to non
Cools, Ann M.; Palmans, Tanneke; Johansson, Fredrik R.
Context: Tennis requires repetitive overhead movements that can lead to upper extremity injury. The scapula and the shoulder play a vital role in injury-free playing. Scapular dysfunction and glenohumeral changes in strength and range of motion (ROM) have been associated with shoulder injury in the overhead athlete. Objective: To compare scapular position and strength and shoulder ROM and strength between Swedish elite tennis players of 3 age categories (<14, 14–16, and >16 years). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Tennis training sports facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifty-nine adolescent Swedish elite tennis players (ages 10–20 years) selected based on their national ranking. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used a clinical screening protocol with a digital inclinometer and a handheld dynamometer to measure scapular upward rotation at several angles of arm elevation, isometric scapular muscle strength, glenohumeral ROM, and isometric rotator cuff strength. Results: Players older than 16 years showed less scapular upward rotation on the dominant side at 90° and 180° (P < .05). Although all absolute scapular muscle strength values increased with age, there was no change in the body-weight–normalized strength of the middle (P = .9) and lower (P = .81) trapezius or serratus anterior (P = .17). Glenohumeral internal-rotation ROM and total ROM tended to decrease, but this finding was not statistically significant (P = .052 and P = .06, respectively). Whereas normalized internal-rotator strength increased from 14 to 16 years to older than 16 years (P = .009), normalized external-rotator and supraspinatus strength remained unchanged. Conclusions: Age-related changes in shoulder and scapular strength and ROM were apparent in elite adolescent tennis players. Future authors should examine the association of these adaptations with performance data and injury incidence. PMID:25098662
Galanter, C A; Wasserman, G; Sloan, R P; Pine, D S
Developmental changes in the cardiovascular system could have an impact on risks associated with psychopharmacological interventions. Children may be more vulnerable to adverse cardiac events due to immaturity in autonomic control of the heart. These changes are incompletely understood and are characterized in this study. A consecutive series of 70 boys, aged 6-14 years, was recruited. Developmental variation in the autonomic nervous system was evaluated by assessing heart period variability (HPV), pulse, and blood pressure in response to orthostasis. Increased age correlated significantly with greater heart rate and diastolic blood pressure response to orthostasis. HPV at rest and in response to tilt did not significantly correlate with age. Boys with family histories of hypertension had a significantly greater blood pressure response to orthostasis. These findings suggest that developmental age-related changes in the sympathetic nervous system, as reflected by changes of pulse and blood pressure response to tilt, occur across this age range. Parasympathetic changes, as reflected by HPV, do not. In light of these findings, more research is needed on children's and adolescents' relative cardiac risk with psychotropic medications as opposed to adults'.
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study were to assess bullying and its associated factors in school-going adolescents in Thailand. Using data from the Thailand Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2008, the prevalence of being bullied and its associated factors among adolescents (N=2758) was assessed. The study found an overall prevalence of being bullied on one or more days during the past 30 days of 27.8%, 32.9% among males and 23.2% among females. The predominant forms of being bullied were among boys being hit, kicked, pushed, shoved around, or locked indoors and among girls making fun of with sexual jokes, comments, and gestures. Among boys risk factors for having been bullied were younger age (adjusted odds ratio to (AOR): 0.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18-0.65), having been in a physical fight (AOR: 3.64; 95% CI: 2.84-4.66), being physically inactive (AOR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.04-2.15), truancy (AOR: 1.66; 95% CI: 1.13-2.45), and psychosocial distress (AOR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.14-3.74), and among girls risk factors for having been bullied were having been in a physical fight (AOR: 2.91; 95% CI: 2.00-4.24), lack of parental bonding (AOR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.99), and psychosocial distress (AOR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.39-4.03). Results may inform school health programmes on the prevalence and correlates of bullying among adolescents in Thailand.
Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M
This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and
Cohall, A; Kassotis, J; Parks, R; Vaughan, R; Bannister, H; Northridge, M
The purpose of this study is twofold: to evaluate the extent of knowledge possessed by young people residing in an urban sexually transmitted disease (STD) and AIDS epicenter about STDs, including AIDS; and to determine whether knowledge levels varied by age, gender, race/ ethnicity, and/or previous health instruction. A total of 867 adolescents (472 females and 395 males) attending a large public high school in New York City completed a self-administered survey. Levels of knowledge about AIDS transmission and prevention were high (mean percentage correct = 91.8%). Nonetheless, adolescent respondents locked awareness about the prevalence of common STDs, had limited understanding of the ways in which these diseases can be transmitted and prevented, and were unaware of potentially serious sequelae resulting from exposure to infectious agents (e.g., infertility from chlamydial infections). Young people who had taken a health education course in which STDs were discussed did slightly better on the knowledge survey than did their peers. While the prevention of HIV infection is, and should be, a national priority, more concerted efforts are needed to better educate young people about other STDs in the overall context of sexual health.
Carlin Filho, N.; Coimbra, M. M.; Acquadro, J. C.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto, E. M.; Farrelly-Pessoa, E.; Szanto de Toledo, A.
From the energy spectra of light particles produced in light-heavy-ion-induced reactions, level densities of the final nuclei as well as the critical angular momenta for fusion may be obtained. The 14N, 16,18O+ 12C reactions were investigated in the energy range 30 MeV
Ewins, David J.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Segalman, Daniel Joseph
The NSF/SNL joint mechanics workshop, held in Arlington, Virginia, 16-18 October, 2006, attempted to assess the current state of the art for modeling joint mechanics for the purpose of structural dynamics calculation, to identify the underlying physics issues that must be addressed to advance the field, and to propose a path forward. Distinguished participants from several countries representing research communities that focus on very different length and time scales identified multiple challenges in bridging those scales. Additionally, two complementary points of view were developed for addressing those challenges. The first approach - the 'bottom-up' perspective - attempts to bridge scales by starting from the smallest length scale and working up. The other approach starts at the length scale of application and attempts to deduce mechanics at smaller length scales through reconciliation with laboratory observation. Because interface physics is a limiting element of predictive simulation in defense and transportation, this issue will be of continuing importance for the foreseeable future.
van den Bergh, Sanne F. W. M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander; Koot, Hans M.; Geurts, Hilde M.
Numerous studies investigated executive functioning (EF) problems in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using laboratory EF tasks. As laboratory task performances often differ from real life observations, the current study focused on EF in everyday life of 118 children and adolescents with ASD (6-18 years). We investigated age-related and…
Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…
McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kover, Sara; Kim, Jee-Seon; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted
The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, we found statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and…
Kuo, Ben C. H.; Roysircar, Gargi
In a sample of 506 Chinese adolescents living in Canada from 3 cohort groups, age at the time of arrival in Canada, length of stay in Canada, socioeconomic status, and English reading ability predicted acculturation. The results of the study discussed in this article showed English reading ability and socioeconomic status predicted acculturative…
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Courville, Troy
This article examines invariance of the three-factor structure of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents across age band and gender within normative samples. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the three-factor model fits for all groups. In addition, invariance analysis shows no statistical differences in factor structure between…
Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.
Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…
Fava, Nicole M.; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.
Research examining oral sex during adolescence tends to investigate only potential negative consequences without considering its place in sexual development or distinctions between cunnilingus and fellatio. Using retrospective reports from 418 undergraduate women, we examined the relations among young women's ages of initiation of both cunnilingus…
Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas
This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In addition to differences for the various operationalizations of prejudice, detailed findings revealed different age-related changes in prejudice toward higher versus lower status out-groups and positive effects of contact opportunities with the out-group on prejudice development. Results confirm that prejudice changes systematically with age during childhood but that no developmental trend is found in adolescence, indicating the stronger influence of the social context on prejudice with increasing age.
Lang, Michael J; David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population.
David, Victoria; Giese-Davis, Janine
This scoping review was conducted to understand the extent, range, and nature of current research on adolescents and young adults (AYA) with cancer and distress, depression, and anxiety (DDA). This information is necessary to find and aggregate valuable data on the AYA population embedded in generalized studies of DDA. Keyword searches of six relevant electronic databases identified 2156 articles, with 316 selected for abstract review and 40 for full text review. Full-text reviews and data extraction resulted in 34 studies being included, which ranged widely in design, sample size, age-range categorization, analysis methods, DDA measurement tool, overall study rigor, and quality of evidence. Studies very seldom reported using theory to guide their age categorization, with only four studies giving any rationale for their age-group definitions. All 34 studies found a significant association between at least one DDA construct and the younger age group relative to the older age groups at some point along the cancer trajectory. However, age as an independent risk factor for DDA is still unclear, as the relationship could be confounded by other age-related factors. Despite the wide range of definitions and effect sizes in the studies included in this review, one thing is clear: adolescents and young adults, however defined, are a distinct group within the cancer population with an elevated risk of DDA. Widespread adoption of a standard AYA age-range definition will be essential to any future meta-analytical psycho-oncology research in this population. PMID:26697266
Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael
Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…
Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Pilver, Corey E.; Desai, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
The aim of this study was to characterize the association between problem gambling severity and multiple health, functioning and gambling variables in adolescents aged 13–18 stratified by age of gambling onset. Survey data in 1624 Connecticut high school students stratified by age of gambling onset (≤11 years vs. ≥ 12 years) were analyzed in descriptive analyses and in logistic regression models. Earlier age of onset was associated with problem gambling severity as indexed by a higher frequency of at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG). Most health, functioning and gambling measures were similarly associated with problem gambling severity in the earlier- and later-age-of-gambling-onset groups with the exception of participation in non-strategic forms of gambling, which was more strongly associated with ARPG in the earlier-onset (OR=1.74, 95%CI=[1.26, 2.39]) as compared to later-onset (OR=0.94, 95%CI=[0.60, 1.48]) group (Interaction OR=1.91, 95%CI=[1.18, 3.26]). Post-hoc analysis revealed that earlier-onset ARPG was more strongly associated with multiple forms of non-strategic gambling including lottery (instant, traditional) and slot-machine gambling. The finding that problem gambling severity is more closely associated with multiple non-strategic forms of gambling amongst youth with earlier onset of gambling highlights the relevance of these types of youth gambling. The extent to which non-strategic forms of gambling may serve as a gateway to other forms of gambling or risk behaviors warrants additional study, and efforts targeting youth gambling should consider how best to address non-strategic gambling through education, prevention, treatment and policy efforts. PMID:22410208
He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.
Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775
Hiyoshi, Ayako; Udumyan, Ruzan; Osika, Walter; Bihagen, Erik; Fall, Katja; Montgomery, Scott
It is unclear whether psychological resilience to stress in adolescence represents a persistent characteristic relevant to the subsequent risk for depression and anxiety in later adulthood. We aimed to test whether low psychological stress resilience assessed in adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving medication for depression and anxiety in middle age. We utilized Swedish register-based cohort study. Men born between 1952 and 1956 (n = 175,699), who underwent compulsory assessment for military conscription in late adolescence were followed to examine subsequent risk of pharmaceutically-treated depression and anxiety in middle age, from 2006 to 2009 corresponding to ages between 50 and 58 years, using Cox regression. The associations of stress resilience with prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytics medication through potential mediating factors cognitive and physical function and adult socioeconomic factors were calculated. Low stress resilience was associated with elevated risks for antidepressant (hazard ratio (HR):1.5 (95% CI 1.4 1.6)) and anxiolytics (HR:2.4 (CI 2.0 2.7)) medication. Adjustment for measures of childhood living circumstances attenuated the associations somewhat. Around a third of association with low stress resilience, and a half of that with moderate resilience, was mediated through cognitive and physical function in adolescence and adult socioeconomic factors. The magnitude of the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication was eliminated among those with low stress resilience. These results indicate that low stress resilience in adolescence is associated with an increased risk for antidepressant and anxiolytics medication over 30 years later, in part mediated through developmental factors in adolescence and socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood, and low stress resilience can diminish or eliminate the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant
Monahan, Janean Carter
A surgical experience can be stressful for any patient. When the patient is an adolescent, however, the surgical experience can create significant stress, which is related to normal adolescent development. Perioperative nursing care should address what adolescent patients perceive as stressful and should provide a safe environment so that a successful surgical outcome can be achieved. To accomplish this, a nursing model specific to perioperative nursing practice should be developed to guide nurses when providing care to adolescents. The Adolescent Perioperative System Stability Model based on the Neuman Systems Model provides a framework for defining scope of practice and organizing nursing care that is appropriate for the adolescent during a surgical experience. In addition to guiding nursing practice, this model provides direction and guidance for future studies of adolescents in the perioperative setting.
The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls) participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile) and obesity (≥95 th percentile). Multivariate regression analyses (adjusted for age and sex) of body mass index (BMI) revealed that about 18% (R2 = 0.185) of total variance of BMI could be explained by monthly family income, participants think obese, consumption of too much junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.
Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford
We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1) causal association not confirmed; 2) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth.
Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J
The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.
Hale, Lauren; Guan, Stanford
Summary We systematically examined and updated the scientific literature on the association between screen time (e.g., television, computers, video games, and mobile devices) and sleep outcomes among school-aged children and adolescents. We reviewed 67 studies published from 1999 to early 2014. We found that screen time is adversely associated with sleep outcomes (primarily shortened duration and delayed timing) in 90% of studies. Some of the results varied by type of screen exposure, age of participant, gender, and day of the week. While the evidence regarding the association between screen time and sleep is consistent, we discuss limitations of the current studies: 1.) causal association not confirmed; 2.) measurement error (of both screen time exposure and sleep measures); 3.) limited data on simultaneous use of multiple screens, characteristics and content of screens used. Youth should be advised to limit or reduce screen time exposure, especially before or during bedtime hours to minimize any harmful effects of screen time on sleep and well-being. Future research should better account for the methodological limitations of the extant studies, and seek to better understand the magnitude and mechanisms of the association. These steps will help the development and implementation of policies or interventions related to screen time among youth. PMID:25193149
Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid
Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095
Monterosa Castro, A
According to the 1990 Demographic and Health Survey, 21% of fertile-aged women in Colombia are adolescents aged 15-19. Research throughout the world has revealed that young people are initiating their sexual lives at ever earlier ages, due to earlier sexual maturation, constant erotic stimuli, and a mistaken understanding of sexuality. A Colombian survey showed that 49% of males and 11% of females had sex by age 18. Earlier sexual activity is leading to increased incidence of unwanted pregnancy. 78 of each 1000 adolescents become mothers each year. Among adolescents aged 16-18 with positive pregnancy tests at the Profamilia Adolescent Clinic in Bogota, 80% did not use contraception and 85% did not with to be pregnant. Unwanted adolescent pregnancy is usually traumatic, with implications for all areas of life. None of the options open to an adolescent with an undesired pregnancy is desirable. Keeping the baby exposes the mother to ostracism and rejection by the family, expulsion from school, and societal rejection. Forced marriages almost always end in separation. Adoption leads to frustration and feelings of guilt in the future. Abortion in Colombia is illegal and exposes the women to emotional and physical trauma and to risk of death or injury. The unwanted child is at risk of mistreatment, abandonment, or rejection. A demographic survey by Profamilia showed that 25% of Colombian women are mothers by age 19. 62% of uneducated adolescents are mothers by this age. Low educational level is associated with early pregnancy and limited economic opportunity. Adolescents are at higher risk of pregnancy complications due to physiological immaturity, stress, poor adaptability to pregnancy, and inadequate prenatal care. Adolescent pregnancy should be prevented. The prevention should be achieved through integrated sex education beginning at the first contact of the child with the world outside the family. The child should learn basic concepts of self-esteem, values, and
Bahchachi, N; Dahel-Mekhancha, C C; Rolland-Cachera, M F; Badis, N; Roelants, M; Hauspie, R; Nezzal, L
Measurements of height and weight provide important information on growth and development, puberty, and nutritional status in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to develop contemporary reference growth centiles for Algerian children and adolescents (6-18 years of age). A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted in government schools on 7772 healthy schoolchildren (45.1% boys and 54.9% girls) aged 6-18 years in Constantine (eastern Algeria) in 2008. Height and weight were measured with portable stadiometers and calibrated scales, respectively. Smooth reference curves of height and weight were estimated with the LMS method. These height and weight curves are presented together with local data from Arab countries and with the growth references of France, Belgium (Flanders), and the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007. In girls, median height and weight increased until 16 and 17 years of age, respectively, whereas in boys, they increased through age 18 years. Between ages 11 and 13 years (puberty), girls were taller and heavier than boys. After puberty, boys became taller than girls, by up to 13 cm by the age of 18 years. Median height and weight of Algerian boys and girls were generally intermediate between those observed in other Arab countries. They were higher than the French reference values up to the age of 13 years and lower than Belgian and WHO reference values at all ages. The present study provides Algerian height- and weight-for-age growth charts, which should be recommended as a national reference for monitoring growth and development in children and adolescents.
Liao, Shujie; Deng, Dongrui; Zhang, Weina; Hu, Xiaoji; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hui; Lu, Yunping; Wang, Shixuan; Meng, Li; Ma, Ding
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) are consistently associated with human cervical cancer Additionally, the early oncoproteins of HPVs E5, E6 and E7 are known to contribute to tumor progression. The role of E5 is still nebulous. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of E5 action during the human cervical carcinogenesis process. We created four cell models overexpressing HPV16 or HPV18 E5 (HPV16/18 E5) and investigated their ability to proliferate, along with their metastatic characteristics such as migration and invasion. The expression of HPV16/18 E5 protein in various cell lines was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, we compared the levels of phosphorylated paxillin as well as E-cadherin in cell models and controls by western blot analysis. Finally, we assessed the tumor growth rate of human cervical cancer cells overexpressing HPV16/18 E5 in vivo. We discovered that the expression of HPV16/18 E5 consistently increased the malignant potential of various human cervical cancer cells compared with the primary counterparts. We demonstrated the involvement of HPV16/18 E5 in proliferation, migration, invasion and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in human cervical cancer cells. In particular we discovered that HPV16/18 E5 overexpression in human cervical cancer cells correlated with higher levels of paxillin proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine residues and with the downregulation of E-cadherin. Importantly, injection of HPV16/18 E5-overexpressing human cervical cancer cells into mice increased both HPV-and non-HPV-derived tumor growth. Collectively, our data indicate that HPV16/18 E5 influences progression of the human cervical cancer malignant phenotype. This study provides new insights into HPV16/18 E5 as a possible agent that may have an impact on the therapeutic strategies targeting human cervical cancer.
Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea
Little is known about the effects of risk factors on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom over time. Here, we longitudinally studied the role of candidate genes, pre- and perinatal factors, and their interactions on ADHD symptoms between ages 10 and 18 years. Subjects were part of the general population or clinic-referred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 1667). At mean ages of 11.1 (T1), 13.4 (T2), and 16.2 years (T3), ADHD symptoms were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear Mixed Models were used to examine the association of candidate genes (i.e., DRD4, DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, and MAOA), pre- and perinatal factors (i.e., index measure of various pregnancy and delivery complications, maternal smoking, maternal drinking, and low birth weight), and their interactions with ADHD symptoms across adolescence. Pregnancy and delivery complications were associated with a higher level of ADHD symptoms across all time points, but with a significantly declining influence over time (p = 0.006). We found no main effects of the candidate genes on ADHD symptoms throughout adolescence. The simultaneous presence of the low activity MAOA genotype and low birth weight (p < 0.001) and of the 5-HTTLPR LL-allele and respectively pregnancy and delivery complications (p = 0.04) and maternal smoking (p = 0.04) were associated with more ADHD symptoms particularly during early adolescence, and these influences significantly decreased over time. Findings suggest an age-dependent role of gene-environment interactions on ADHD symptoms across adolescence.
Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William; Holstein, Bjørn; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Richter, Matthias
Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross-national levels in over 30 countries in Europe and North America. We present an overview of HBSC papers published to date that examine FAS-related socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour, using data from the HBSC study. Findings suggest consistent inequalities in self-reported health, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together with ideas for future development of the measure.
Chen, Gui; Guo, Guiping; Gong, Jingbo; Xiao, Shuiyuan
The current study investigated the moderating effects of gender, age, and weight status on the relationship between body dissatisfaction and depression among adolescents. Data were collected on body dissatisfaction, depression, and demographic characteristics from a convenience sample of 1,101 adolescents (505 girls, 596 boys). The relationship…
MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A
Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is
Sumter, S R; Bokhorst, C L; Miers, A C; Van Pelt, J; Westenberg, P M
During adolescence pubertal development is said to lead to an increase in general stress sensitivity which might create a vulnerability for the emergence of psychopathology during this period. However, the empirical evidence for increasing stress sensitivity is scarce and mixed. Biological responses (salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase) were investigated during a social-evaluative stressor, the Leiden Public Speaking Task, in 295 nine to 17-year olds. Specific attention was paid to different elements of the task, that is anticipation to and delivery of the speech. Biological reactivity to the speech task increased with age and puberty, particularly during anticipation. Current findings support the idea that biological stress sensitivity increases during adolescence, at least in response to a social-evaluative situation. The increasing stress sensitivity appears related to both age and pubertal maturation, but unique contribution could not be distinguished. The importance of measuring anticipation is discussed.
Lurbe, Empar; Torró, María Isabel; Alvarez, Julio
Over the last years, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been introduced into the pediatric population, contributing to a significant increase in the bulk of knowledge of crucial clinically relevant issues. Guidelines have established the currently known conditions where ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is useful and where it will provide additional information in children and adolescents. How common and important the intra-individual differences are within clinical and ambulatory blood pressure is the keystone to the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as a diagnostic tool. By using not only office, but also ambulatory blood pressure, four possible situations arise. Two of these have values in agreement for normotension or hypertension. Two have values that are discrepant. The latter two are known as white coat and masked hypertension. The relationship with hypertension-induced organ damage, the prognostic value and the assessment of treatment goals are key issues of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. In children, the accurate identification of hypertension at the earliest possible age would, therefore, give health-care providers the opportunity to initiate preventive measures, thereby reducing the chance of developing end-organ damage and its attendant morbidity and mortality.
Background With the increasing stress from oil price and environmental pollution, aroused attention has been paid to the microbial production of chemicals from renewable sources. The C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols are important feedstocks for the production of surfactants and detergents, which are widely used in the most respected consumer detergents, cleaning products and personal care products worldwide. Though bioproduction of fatty alcohols has been carried out in engineered E. coli, several key problems have not been solved in earlier studies, such as the quite low production of C16/18 alcohol, the lack of optimization of the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, and the uncharacterized performance of the engineered strains in scaled-up system. Results We improved the fatty alcohol production by systematically optimizing the fatty alcohol biosynthesis pathway, mainly targeting three key steps from fatty acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) to fatty alcohols, which are sequentially catalyzed by thioesterase, acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase and fatty acyl-CoA reductase. By coexpression of thioesterase gene BTE, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene acr1, 210.1 mg/L C12/14 alcohol was obtained. A further optimization of expression level of BTE, fadD and acr1 increased the C12/14 alcohol production to 449.2 mg/L, accounting for 75.0% of the total fatty alcohol production (598.6 mg/L). In addition, by coexpression of thioesterase gene ‘tesA, acyl-CoA synthase gene fadD and fatty acyl-CoA reductase gene FAR, 101.5 mg/L C16/18 alcohol was obtained, with C16/18 alcohol accounting for 89.2% of the total fatty alcohol production. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on selective production of C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols by microbial fermentation. This work achieved high-specificity production of both C12/14 and C16/18 alcohols. The encouraging 598.6 mg/L of fatty alcohols represents the highest titer reported so far. In
Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F
The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.
Jones, Randall M.; Dick, Andrew J.; Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Ogletree, Mark
Erikson (1950) contends that the physical changes associated with puberty serve as a catalyst for adolescents to question childhood identifications and to consolidate these with current self-conceptions, personal ideologies, interpersonal values, and future aspirations. Erikson describes the adolescent identity crisis as the developmental period…
Larm, Peter; Silva, Teresa C; Hodgins, Sheilagh
Little is known about adult outcomes of males who as adolescents sought treatment for alcohol misuse or drug use, and who additionally were engaging or not engaging in other forms of delinquency. Since the rates of negative outcomes vary in the general population, the study determined whether the sub-groups of clinic attendees fared differently as compared to males of the same age who had not sought treatment for substance misuse from age 21 to 45. Adolescent males who consulted the only substance misuse clinic in a Swedish city between 1968 and 1971 were divided into four groups: ALCOHOL no drug use, no criminal offending (n=52); ALCOHOL+D no drug use, plus criminal offending (n=105); DRUG use, no criminal offending (n=92); and DRUG+D plus criminal offending (n=474). These four groups were compared to a general population sample (GP) of males matched on age and birthplace, who did not seek treatment for SM in adolescence. National Swedish registers provided data on death, hospitalizations for substance misuse (SM), mental and physical disorders, and criminal convictions. Compared to the GP, and after controlling for co-occurring adult outcomes, ALCOHOL showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization and convictions for violent crimes, and DRUG showed elevated risks for SM hospitalization, convictions for non-violent crimes, and hospitalization for psychosis. ALCOHOL+D and DRUG+D showed increased risk for SM hospitalization, violent and non-violent convictions, and DRUG+D additionally, for death, and hospitalizations for psychosis and physical illness. Misuse of alcohol without drug use or other delinquency in adolescence was associated with increased risk for convictions for violent crimes during the subsequent 25 years, in addition to SM, while adolescent drug use without other forms of delinquency was associated with increased risks for convictions for non-violent crimes, hospitalizations for SM, and non-affective psychosis. Cannabis use, with and without
Krey, Karl-Friedrich; Hirsch, Christian
Orthodontic treatment is a common dental procedure in developed countries. However, the frequency and factors associated with treatment demand are different between countries. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of orthodontic treatment in German children and adolescents and to analyse the influence of age, gender, and socio-economic status (SES; education and region) on the frequency of treatment. Subjects in a random population sample of 1538 German children and adolescents, aged 11-14 years, were interviewed at home in the autumn of 2008 regarding current orthodontic treatment and associated factors. Approximately one-third (33.5 per cent) of the subjects interviewed were undergoing orthodontic treatment at that time. In a multivariable logistic regression model, the likelihood of receiving orthodontic treatment was higher for girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.65], for high school pupils (OR = 1.19, 95 per cent CI: 1.06-1.34), and for children and adolescents living in the western part of Germany (OR = 1.45, 95 per cent CI: 1.00-2.08) and increased with age (OR = 1.13 per year, 95 per cent CI: 1.02-1.25). Subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment more often received prophylactic measures (OR = 2.06, 95 per cent CI: 1.63-2.59) compared with those not currently receiving orthodontic treatment. The frequency of orthodontic treatment in Germany largely depends on gender and SES.
Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M
Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.
Fitzgerald, Amanda; Heary, Caroline; Nixon, Elizabeth; Kelly, Colette
Food choices established during childhood and adolescence tend to persist into adulthood with consequences for long-term health. Yet, to date, relatively little research has examined factors that influence the food choices of children and adolescents from their perspectives. In this article, previous research is extended by examining developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing their food choices. Focus group discussions were conducted with 29 young people from three age groups (9-10, 13-14 and 16-18 years). An inductive thematic analysis identified three key factors as influencing food choices. These factors included intra-individual factors: the link between food preferences and awareness of healthy eating; intra-familial factors: the role of the home food environment; and extra-familial factors: eating away from the home. Findings indicate that there were developmental differences between children's and adolescents' perceptions of factors influencing food choice. Among adolescents, parental control began to diminish and adolescents exercised increased autonomy over their food choices compared with children. To develop effective nutrition interventions, it is important to gather child and adolescent input regarding factors perceived as influencing their food choices.
Kolahdooz, Fariba; Butler, Jennie L.; Christiansen, Karina; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Hansel, Nadia N.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Sheehy, Tony; Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita
Objective To describe food and nutrient intake for low-income, urban African American children and adolescents to highlight the need for further nutrition intervention programs and appropriate tools to address overweight and obesity. Methods This was a cross sectional study using interviewer-administered single 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were low income African American boys and girls aged 5–16 years or their caregivers in Baltimore City. Frequency of food consumption and dietary intakes were analysed by gender and age groups. Results Eighty-one participants were included for analysis. Mean daily energy intakes exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) from 10 to 71% across all gender-age groups: 2,304 kcal for children aged 5–8 years; 2,429 kcal and 2,732 kcal for boys and girls aged 9–13 years, respectively; and 3,339 kcal and 2,846 kcal for boys and girls aged 14–16 years, respectively. The most frequently reported consumed foods were sweetened drinks, chips, candies, and milk across all age groups. The majority of participants (79–100%) did not meet the DRIs for dietary fiber and vitamin E across all gender-age groups. Milk accounted for 14%, 17%, and 21% of energy, fat, and protein intake, respectively, among children 5–8 years of age, while pizza was the top source of energy, fat, and protein (11%, 13%, and 18%, respectively) among 14–16 year old adolescents. Sweetened drinks and sweetened juices were major sources of sugar, contributing 33% for 5–8 year olds, 29% for 9–13 year olds and 35% for 14–16 year olds. Conclusions Mean daily energy intake exceeded dietary recommendations across all gender-age groups. This study has provided previously unavailable information on diet and highlights foods to be targeted in nutrition intervention programs. PMID:25856051
Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne
This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were interviewed about their own romantic experiences when they were at the age of their daughters. Adolescent girls (mean age = 16.98 years; range 16-18) were administered a comprehensive interview about romantic competence. Findings indicated that adolescent girls from divorced families showed lower levels of romantic competence, which were expressed in their behavior, attitudes toward relationships and skill in handling those relationships. Divorce was found to have had an adverse effect on girls' romantic competence, whereas continued adaptive parenting and spousal relationships alleviated the effect of divorce. Mothers' coherent representation of their own adolescent romantic experiences also alleviated the effect of divorce on daughters' romantic behavior. Results show the important role of family relationships in fostering romantic competence among adolescent girls.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
There are limited studies on the prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behavior among adolescents in Pacific Island countries. In order to inform public sexual and reproductive health interventions, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of various sexual risk behaviors among in-school adolescents in 4 Pacific Island countries using data from the Global School-Based Health Survey. In a cross-sectional study, 6792 school-going adolescents (49.7% boys and 50.3% girls; 13-16 years old) from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, and Vanuatu were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire. Overall, 18.9% of students reported to ever had sex (ranging from 12.9% in Vanuatu to 57.5% in Samoa), and of those sexually active, 38.0% had an early sexual debut (<14 years), 38.1% had 2 or more sexual partners during their lifetime, 39.5% had not used a condom at last sex, 50.9% had not used birth control at last sex, and 77.8% engaged in sexually risky behavior using a composite measure. Multivariate logistic regression found that male sex, older age, tobacco use, alcohol use, mental distress, having no close friends, and truancy were associated with several of 5 or all 5 sexual risk behaviors. Sexual and reproductive health promotion programs are indicated to address the high risk of sexually transmitted infection, HIV, and pregnancy in this adolescent population.
Robinson, Candice L; Romero, José R; Kempe, Allison; Pellegrini, Cynthia
In October 2016, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) approved the Recommended Immunization Schedule for Children and Adolescents Aged 18 Years or Younger-United States, 2017. The 2017 child and adolescent immunization schedule summarizes ACIP recommendations, including several changes from the 2016 immunization schedules, in three figures, and footnotes for the figures. These documents can be found on the CDC immunization schedule website (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html). These immunization schedules are approved by ACIP (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html), the American Academy of Pediatrics (https://www.aap.org), the American Academy of Family Physicians (https://www.aafp.org), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (http://www.acog.org). Health care providers are advised to use the figures and the combined footnotes together. The full ACIP recommendations for each vaccine, including contraindications and precautions, can be found at https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/acip-recs/index.html. Providers should be aware that changes in recommendations for specific vaccines can occur between annual updates to the childhood/adolescent immunization schedules. If errors or omissions are discovered within the child and adolescent schedule, CDC posts revised versions on the CDC immunization schedule website.
Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion.
Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat
Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.
Hernández-Avila, M; Lazcano-Ponce, E C; Berumen-Campos, J; Cruz-Valdéz, A; Alonso de Ruíz, P P; Gonźalez-Lira, G
Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the principal public health problems in Mexico. The national mortality rate due to CC was estimated at 21.8 per 100,000 among women over 15 years old during 1994. Despite this high incidence little is known in Mexico about the risk factors for CC. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the association between CC and HPV types 16 and 18 in women living in Mexico City. From August, 1990 to December, 1992, a case-control study was carried out in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. HPV 16-18 types were determined in a sample of 148 CC cases and 204 controls randomly selected from a sample frame representative of the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Sixty cases corresponded to in situ CC and 88 cases to the invasive phase. Determination of HPV 16 and 18 types was done by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific to E6/E7. Results showed that 48.3% of in situ CC cases and 48.8% of invasive CC cases were positive for HPV 16 while only 13.2% were positive among the 204 controls. Association between HPV 16 infection in the in situ cancer cases had an estimated odds ratio (OR) of 5.17 (95% CI 2.60-10.51). In the invasive cervical cancer cases, association between HPV 16 infection and invasive CC in this sample had an OR of 3.84 (95% CI 2.04-7.22). For the total sample, the estimated OR was 5.48 (95% CI 3.07-9.62). In the total sample, those women with a strong positive reaction to PCR were associated with a large increase in the risk, OR of 38.0 (95% CI 8.66-167.1). The prevalence the HPV 18 was 6.7%, only observed in the invasive cervical cancer cases. At present there is general consensus that HPV is the principal causal agent in C C etiology. This study intends to contribute to the knowledge concerning the etiology of cervical cancer. However, it is necessary to consider that the single most effective tool in the reduction of mortality due to cervical cancer has been the Pap test. Secondary prevention has proven to be highly
Sanders, Jolene M
This research aims to uncover aspects of adolescent masculine development among adult substance abusers. In-depth interviews and the resulting narrative provide the data for this exploratory analysis. Three main areas of adolescent masculinities are discussed: substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, and recreation. The findings are interpreted in light of Connell's conceptualization of hegemonic masculinities. Based on this sample, masculinities are constructed via a menu of adolescent behaviors that are descriptive of a working class lifestyle. It is the cultural context that sets the stage for substance abuse and its meaning to identity formation in adolescence, as well as in adulthood. Substance abuse in adolescence, along with other forms of juvenile delinquency and recreation, is a means of achieving masculinity. Unfortunately, for these men the use of substance abuse to achieve masculinity in adolescence becomes problematic later in adulthood. This article concludes that to successfully recover from substance abuse and addiction, these men must revisit and reframe their adolescent constructions of masculinity to better fit the problems and challenges they face as adults.
Bauermeister, Jose A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Xue, Yange; Gee, Gilbert C
Partner age is associated with youth's sex risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections. At present, however, it is not known whether the co-occurrence of other risk behaviors is associated with having older sex partners during adolescence and young adulthood. Using growth curve modeling, this study first describes the shape of the age difference between participants and their sex partners across adolescence and young adulthood in a sample of African American youth. Second, whether this model varied systematically by sex, mother's education, and high school dropout was tested. Third, whether age differences were associated with youth's self-acceptance, alcohol use, and employment trajectories over these two developmental periods was assessed. Finally, whether these associations had non-proportional effects over both periods was tested. This study modeled sex partners' age differences nonlinearly, with females being more likely to date older partners at baseline and over time. High school dropouts also reported older partners at baseline. Self-acceptance and the number of hours worked were associated with sex partners' age differences over time, with the effect decreasing over young adulthood years. Alcohol use frequency was also associated with having older partners over time. This study discusses the findings from a health perspective on youth's sexual development.
American Society of Newspaper Editors, Easton, PA.
This document reports the 1975 proceedings of the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE) convention held in Washington, D.C., April 16-18. The contents include a list of officers and directors, past presidents of the society, and a copy of the ASNE Code of Ethics. Also contained in the document are reports on such individual sessions as…
Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS), Washington, DC.
This document presents the proceedings for the Office of Special Education Programs' 6th Annual Technical Assistance and Dissemination Meeting held on January 16-18, 1996, in Washington, DC. Conference discussions centered around changing expectations for local and state education agencies and technical assistance and dissemination (TA&D)…
Fox, Matthew P.; Evans, Denise; Govindasamy, Darshini; Jamieson, Lise; Malete, Given; Mongwenyana, Constance; Technau, Karl
Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date) up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4). A total of 47 (38%) adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years) were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR) = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95). Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18) as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents. PMID:27867661
Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Kahn, Lauren E.; Merchant, Junaid S.; Peake, Shannon J.; Veroude, Kim; Masten, Carrie L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Mazziotta, John C.; Dapretto, Mirella
Self-evaluations undergo significant transformation during early adolescence, developing in parallel with the heightened complexity of teenagers’ social worlds. Intuitive theories of adolescent development, based in part on animal work, suggest that puberty is associated with neural-level changes that facilitate a “social reorientation” (Nelson, Leibenluft, McClure, and Pine, 2005). However, direct tests of this hypothesis using neuroimaging are limited in humans. This longitudinal fMRI study examined neurodevelopmental trajectories associated with puberty, self-evaluations, and the presumed social reorientation during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Participants (N = 27, M age = 10.1 and 13.1 years at timepoints one and two, respectively) engaged in trait evaluations of two targets (the self and a familiar fictional other), across two domains of competence (social and academic). Responses in ventromedial PFC increased with both age and pubertal development during self-evaluations in the social domain, but not in the academic domain. These results suggest changes in social self-evaluations are intimately connected with biology, not just peer contexts, and provide important empirical support for the relationship between neurodevelopment, puberty, and social functioning. PMID:23616547
D'Onofrio, B M; Murrelle, L; Eaves, L J; McCullough, M E; Landis, J L; Maes, H H
Research has consistently shown that religiousness is associated with lower levels of alcohol and drug use, but little is known about the nature of adolescent religiousness or the mechanisms through which it influences problem behavior in this age group. This paper presents preliminary results from the Mid-Atlantic School Age Twin Study, a prospective, population-based study of 6-18-year-old twins and their mothers. Factor analysis of a scale developed to characterize adolescent religiousness, the Religious Attitudes and Practices Inventory (RAPI), revealed three factors: theism, religious/spiritual practices, and peer religiousness. Twin correlations and univariate behavior-genetic models for these factors and a measure of belief that drug use is sinful reveal in 357 twin pairs that common environmental factors significantly influence these traits, but a minor influence of genetic factors could not be discounted. Correlations between the multiple factors of adolescent religiousness and substance use, comorbid problem behavior, mood disorders, and selected risk factors for substance involvement are also presented. Structural equation modeling illustrates that specific religious beliefs about the sinfulness of drugs and level of peer religiousness mediate the relationship between theistic beliefs and religious/spiritual practices on substance use. Limitations and future analyses are discussed.
dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837
Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Coyne, Sarah M; Fraser, Ashley M; Dyer, W Justin; Yorgason, Jeremy B
The current study examined how parents' use of restrictive and active monitoring and deference changed over three years, and examined both adolescent and parent characteristics as predictors of initial levels of media monitoring, as well as change in media monitoring. Participants included 276 mother-child dyads (M age of child = 12.08, SD = .63, 50% female) taken from Time 2 of the Flourishing Families Project, 96% of whom had complete data for Time 4 (N = 266). Active monitoring was the most common approach at the first and second time points, while active monitoring and deference were equally common by the final time point. Latent growth curve analysis revealed that restrictive and active monitoring decreased over time, while deference increased. In addition, both adolescent and parent characteristics were predictive of initial levels of all three types of monitoring, and of change in restrictive monitoring. Discussion focuses on developmental implications of these findings.
Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph
The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.
Webb, Lindsey; Stegall, Sheri; Mirabile, Scott; Zeman, Janice; Shields, Ashley; Perry-Parrish, Carisa
Understanding of the role that positive emotions play in adolescent social development requires studying the normative development of these emotions. This research examined pride expression and management across adolescence, focusing on gender and developmental differences. Participants were 206 Caucasian youth (52.9% girls) in grades 5 (Mage = 11.10 years), 8 (Mage = 14.45), 11 (Mage = 17.26), and university (Mage = 19.61). Youth responded to two vignettes assessing reactions to pride-eliciting situations. Compared to boys, girls reported more intense pride experience and a higher likelihood of expressing pride. Increases across adolescence were found for self-efficacy in suppressing pride expression, and for expressing modesty in pride-eliciting situations. Older adolescents were less likely than younger adolescents to expect to receive a negative peer reaction when inhibiting pride. These results indicate the importance of gender-specific examinations of pride across adolescent development with implications for adaptive psychosocial functioning and positive psychology.
Background Population-based studies for prevalence of metabolic syndrome (M.S) in children and adolescents are relatively rare. The aim of this study was to assess the Prevalence of M.S and correlated factors among children and adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in Ahvaz. Methods In this descriptive-analytical population- based study, 2246 children and adolescents, 10–19 years old (1113 male and 1133 female) in Ahvaz, were evaluated. Anthropometry, biochemical measurement and blood pressure (BP) were assessed. Modified ATP III criteria 2005 were used for M.S. definition. Center for disease and Control preventions (CDC) percentile were applied to define cut off points of waist circumference and BP. Results Prevalence of M.S. was 9% (95% CI: 8-10%) with prevalence in male 11% (95% CI: 10-12%) and female 7% (95% CI 6-8%). Among individuals with M.S, triglyceride (TG) and decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were the most common components (33.5% and 24.1%, respectively). Prevalence of M.S was higher in overweight persons comparing to participants with at risk and normal weight group (in male: 24.1%, 14.3% and 9.9% respectively P = 0.0001), (in female: 22.6%, 18.3% and 4.5% respectively P = 0.0001). Among the correlated factors of M.S age (P = 0.0006), sex and BMI (P = 0.0001) had significant differences between subjects with and without M.S. whereas there was no significant difference between two groups in ethnicity, history of breast fed, birth weight neonatal ICU admission, maternal history(GDM, gestational HTN, Parity) and family history of HTN, obesity and DM (P > 0.05). Conclusion This study shows high prevalence of M.S in Children and Adolescents in south west of Iran (Ahvaz) especially in overweight persons. PMID:24860794
Contractor, Ateka A; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Ford, Julian D; Elhai, Jon D
A substantial body of evidence documents that the frequency and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are linked to such demographic variables as female sex (e.g., Kaplow et al., 2005) and age (e.g., Meiser-Stedman et al., 2008). Considerably less is known about relations between biological sex and age with PTSD's latent factor structure. This study systematically examined the roles that sex and age may play as candidate moderators of the full range of factor structure parameters of an empirically supported five-factor PTSD model (Elhai et al., 2011). The sample included 6591 trauma-exposed children and adolescents selected from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set. Confirmatory factor analysis using invariance testing (Gregorich, 2006) and comparative fit index difference values (Cheung and Rensvold, 2002) reflected a mixed pattern of test item intercepts across age groups. The adolescent subsample produced lower residual error variances, reflecting less measurement error than the child subsample. Sex did not show a robust moderating effect. We conclude by discussing implications for clinical assessment, theory building, and future research.
Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie
Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify. PMID:25525281
Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Hysing, Mari; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Tell, Grethe S; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the study was to investigate mental health and resilience in adolescents who have been internationally adopted and their non-adopted peers and examine the potential interaction between adoption status and resilience on mental health problems. Data from the population based youth@hordaland-survey, conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in 2012 was used. In all, 10 257 adolescents aged 16-19 years provided self-reported data on several mental health instruments. Of these, 45 adolescents were identified as internationally adopted. Adoptees reported more symptoms of depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and perfectionism than non-adopted adolescents, but there were no differences regarding resilience. Adolescents with higher resilience scores reported fewer symptoms of mental health problems, however, no interaction effects were found for adoption status and total resilience score on measures of mental health problems. Our findings indicate that knowledge of resilience factors can form the basis for preventive interventions.
Gábris, Katalin; Márton, Sándor; Madléna, Melinda
The aim of this epidemiological study was to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, associated caries experience, and level of oral hygiene in the Hungarian population using the World Health Organisation (WHO) questionnaire designed to assess dentofacial anomalies. A total of 483 adolescents (289 girls, 194 boys), aged 16-18 years, were assessed. Orthodontic anomalies were detected in 70.4 per cent of the sample. Crowding and spacing were observed in 14.3 and 17 per cent, respectively, with the latter being more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible (10.4 and 2.9 per cent, respectively). A Class I occlusion was found in 52.8 per cent of the subjects. A half cusp anomaly in the antero-posterior molar relationship was more prevalent than a full cusp anomaly (26.9 and 20.3 per cent, respectively). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS), and the visible plaque indices scores (VPI) of the 340 adolescents with malocclusion were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the adolescents who displayed no anomalies. The prevalence of malocclusion in the Hungarian population seems to be comparable with other European communities.
Lemola, Sakari; Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Brand, Serge; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F; Grob, Alexander
Adolescence is a time of increasing vulnerability for poor mental health, including depression. Sleep disturbance is an important risk factor for the development of depression during adolescence. Excessive electronic media use at night is a risk factor for both adolescents' sleep disturbance and depression. To better understand the interplay between sleep, depressive symptoms, and electronic media use at night, this study examined changes in adolescents' electronic media use at night and sleep associated with smartphone ownership. Also examined was whether sleep disturbance mediated the relationship between electronic media use at night and depressive symptoms. 362 adolescents (12-17 year olds, M = 14.8, SD = 1.3; 44.8% female) were included and completed questionnaires assessing sleep disturbance (short sleep duration and sleep difficulties) and depressive symptoms. Further, participants reported on their electronic media use in bed before sleep such as frequency of watching TV or movies, playing video games, talking or text messaging on the mobile phone, and spending time online. Smartphone ownership was related to more electronic media use in bed before sleep, particularly calling/sending messages and spending time online compared to adolescents with a conventional mobile phone. Smartphone ownership was also related to later bedtimes while it was unrelated to sleep disturbance and symptoms of depression. Sleep disturbance partially mediated the relationship between electronic media use in bed before sleep and symptoms of depression. Electronic media use was negatively related with sleep duration and positively with sleep difficulties, which in turn were related to depressive symptoms. Sleep difficulties were the more important mediator than sleep duration. The results of this study suggest that adolescents might benefit from education regarding sleep hygiene and the risks of electronic media use at night.
Tang, Sandra; Davis-Kean, Pamela E
This article uses a nationally representative dataset to investigate the extent to which academic-related parenting practices and the home environment during middle childhood (ages 11-13) predict achievement in late adolescence (N = 486; age range: 16-18 years). Results from path analyses indicated that parental endorsement of punitive strategies (e.g., lecture, punish, restrict activities) in response to academic underperformance during middle school predict lower literacy and math achievement 5 years later. In contrast, more cognitively stimulating homes predict higher literacy and math achievement 5 years later. Parenting practices and the home environment indicators, however, did not predict changes in achievement. Socioeconomic and race and ethnicity differences in parenting were also found.
Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós
The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.
Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Viruela, Ana M.; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós
The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121
Andre, Julia; Picchioni, Marco; Zhang, Ruibin; Toulopoulou, Timothea
Working memory ability matures through puberty and early adulthood. Deficits in working memory are linked to the risk of onset of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, and there is a significant temporal overlap between the peak of first episode psychosis risk and working memory maturation. In order to characterize the normal working memory functional maturation process through this critical phase of cognitive development we conducted a systematic review and coordinate based meta-analyses of all the available primary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (n = 382) that mapped WM function in healthy adolescents (10-17 years) and young adults (18-30 years). Activation Likelihood Estimation analyses across all WM tasks revealed increased activation with increasing subject age in the middle frontal gyrus (BA6) bilaterally, the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10), the left precuneus and left inferior parietal gyri (BA7; 40). Decreased activation with increasing age was found in the right superior frontal (BA8), left junction of postcentral and inferior parietal (BA3/40), and left limbic cingulate gyrus (BA31). These results suggest that brain activation during adolescence increased with age principally in higher order cortices, part of the core working memory network, while reductions were detected in more diffuse and potentially more immature neural networks. Understanding the process by which the brain and its cognitive functions mature through healthy adulthood may provide us with new clues to understanding the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders.
Selkie, Ellen M.; Fales, Jessica L.; Moreno, Megan A.
Background Cyberbullying has established links to physical and mental health problems including depression, suicidality, substance use, and somatic symptoms. Quality reporting of cyberbullying prevalence is essential to guide evidence-based policy and prevention priorities. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate study quality and reported prevalence among cyberbullying research studies conducted in populations of US adolescents of middle and high school age. Methods Searches of peer-reviewed literature published through June 2015 for “cyberbullying” and related terms were conducted using PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Included manuscripts reported cyberbullying prevalence in general populations of U.S. adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. Using a review tool based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, reviewers independently scored study quality on study methods, results reporting, and reported prevalence. Results Search results yielded 1,447 manuscripts; 81 manuscripts representing 58 unique studies were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Quality scores ranged between 12 and 37 total points out of a possible 42 points (M = 26.7, SD = 4.6). Prevalence rates of cyberbullying ranged as follows: perpetration, 1% to 41%; victimization, 3% to 72%; and overlapping perpetration and victimization, 2.3% to 16.7%. Conclusions Literature on cyberbullying in US middle and high school aged students is robust in quantity but inconsistent in quality and reported prevalence. Consistent definitions and evidence-based measurement tools are needed. PMID:26576821
Dayan, Gustavo H; Garbes, Pedro; Noriega, Fernando; Izoton de Sadovsky, Ana Daniela; Rodrigues, Patricia Marques; Giuberti, Camila; Dietze, Reynaldo
Immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue disease vaccine (CYD-TDV) was evaluated in children/adolescents in Brazil. In this observer-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II single-center study, children/adolescents (ages 9-16 years) were randomized to receive CYD-TDV or placebo at 0, 6, and 12 months. Immunogenicity was assessed using a 50% plaque neutralization test. Overall, 150 participants were enrolled (CYD-TDV: N = 100; placebo: N = 50). Injection site pain and headache were the most common solicited injection site and systemic reactions. Unsolicited adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were similar between groups. No serious AEs were vaccine-related. Geometric mean titers against all dengue virus serotypes increased with CYD-TDV vaccination and were 267, 544, 741, and 432 1/dil for serotypes 1-4, respectively, after dose 3, representing a mean fold increase from baseline of 5, 6, 6, and 20, respectively. CYD-TDV vaccination elicited a neutralizing antibody response against serotypes 1-4 and was well-tolerated in children/adolescents in a dengue-endemic region.
Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.
Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338
Oberlander, Sarah E; Black, Maureen M
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included 120 primiparous, urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers who participated in a randomized controlled trial of home intervention. Group-based trajectories were used to examine the pattern of caregiving involvement over time. Two distinct, consistent trajectories of caregiving involvement were found: maternal and shared. Maternal caregiving involvement over the first 24 months postpartum predicted positive child behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. In keeping with both transactional and life span theories, findings suggest that adoption of the parent role may lead to positive long-term outcomes for children of adolescent mothers.
Ramezanian, Maryam; Soares, Joaquim; Khankeh, Hamid; Macassa, Gloria
Background: Socioeconomic status has been found to have a significant impact on the health as well as risk behaviors of adolescents across different contexts. This study was conducted to assess the effect of social relations adjusted by social class on physical and psychological well-being of adolescences in Teheran, Iran. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study and carried out on 1,742 adolescences living in Tehran during 2011. Adolescences were selected, using proportional stratified sampling method and a questionnaire was filled over an interview for data gathering. Data were analyzed, using SPSS18 logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of psychological symptoms was more than 24% and had a large range (24%-93%), while physical symptoms showed a lower prevalence with a smaller range (12%-33%). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between the adolescences gender and feeling the need for others’ help (p<0.001). Factors related to feeling the need for others help, anxiety, and worrying were the most prevalent among both boys and girls. In the section of family social relations, talking to the mother and talking to the father had the lowest and the highest prevalence among girls and boys, respectively. With respect to relations, the number of close friends and after school gathering time with close friends had the highest prevalence among girls, while the number of close friends and E-communication with close friends had the lowest and the highest prevalence among boys, respectively. Conclusion: The physical and psychological symptoms were common among adolescents from families with high socioeconomic status. PMID:28210612
This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.
The relationships of adolescent school-related deviant behaviour and victimization with psychological distress: testing a general model of the mediational role of parents and teachers across groups of gender and age.
Herrero, Juan; Estévez, Estefanía; Musitu, Gonzalo
Deviant behaviour and victimization at school have been consistently related to poor psychological adjustment in adolescents. This research explores the mediating role that parents and teachers have in adolescent psychological distress in 973 Spanish students aged 11-16 years old. Structural equation analyses results showed that adolescent deviant behaviour and victimization were positively related to psychological distress as seen by the total effects. However, while victimization was directly related to psychological distress, the association of deviant behaviour and psychological distress was mediated by adolescent-parent communication and adolescent-teacher relationships. Multigroup analyses showed that relationships among variables were not significantly different for groups of age and gender.
Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C
This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.
Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel
Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…
Reviewed nine contemporary novels (1971-86) to examine dominant themes evident in contemporary novels involving American Indian adolescents. In contrast to earlier novels, these contemporary novels reflected greater realism toward and less stereotyping of American Indians. Most salient themes dealt with prejudice and discrimination, hopelessness…
Nippold, Marilyn A.
This book focuses on the more advanced language abilities of upper grade youth and adolescents. It discusses how language develops from childhood to adulthood. The book compiles, integrates, and interprets the extensive research on this population for numerous topics. It is useful to anyone seeking an increased understanding of the relationships…
Blanc, Ann K.; Bruce, Judith
This special issue addresses an ambitious set of concerns around the experience of adolescents in the majority world: expanded models of development, successful models of intervention, and the impact of globalization. The papers, which vary widely in both substance and methodology, make a substantial contribution to pushing forward the boundaries…
Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.
The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…
Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.
Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…
Greydanus, Donald E., Ed.
The second in a three-volume series of childcare books developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics and Feeling Fine Programs, this reference book addresses medical and parenting concerns related to raising an adolescent. The book provides scientific information and advice on how to promote the physical, emotional, cognitive, and psychological…
The purpose of this study was to explore the transition process in congenital heart disease (CHD) care through the perceived needs and concerns of adolescents (pretransition) and the experiential insight from adults (post-transition), in order to inform future transition initiatives and information ...
Gabriels, Robin L., Ed.; Hill, Dina E., Ed.
Individuals with autism and their caregivers face unique challenges in later childhood and adolescence, yet this period is often neglected in the professional literature. This much-needed volume translates current research on the needs of this population into practical recommendations for clinicians and educators. Featuring vivid case examples and…
Gunasekera, Sashya; Houghton, Stephen; Glasgow, Kenneth; Boyle, Christopher
Setting clear achievable goals that enhance reputational status has been shown to direct the energies of adolescents into socially conforming or non-conforming activities. It appears to be the case that following transition from Intensive English Centres (IECs) into mainstream schooling, students from African refugee backgrounds experience…
Adolescents who occupy virtual spaces construct identities for a dual audience, those intimate friends whose favor they seek and a broader public audience whose purpose for viewing cannot be known. The digital world of MySpace, Facebook, and Instant Messaging has simultaneously complicated and enhanced the process of identity construction. The…
Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.
The United States continues to have the highest incidence of adolescent births among industrialized nations. This study used transactional and life span theories of development to examine whether caregiving patterns assessed over the first 24 months postpartum predicted children's behavior and academic achievement at 7 years. Participants included…
Poulsen, Catherine; Picton, Terence W.; Paus, Tomas
Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize…
Yao, Lie; Xie, Zhi-Bo; Jin, Chen; Jiang, Yong-Jian; Li, Ji; Yang, Feng; Lin, Quan-Jun; Fu, De-Liang
Abstract Pancreatic tumors rarely occur in adolescents, and the appropriateness of radical resection for these patients remains controversial. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients younger than 19 years who underwent radical resection or limited resection (enucleation) between 2000 and 2015. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, operative details, growth, and survival were analyzed. During the study period, 11 adolescents (mean age, 16.18 years; standard deviation, 1.99; interquartile range, 15.0–18.0) underwent radical resection (n = 7) or enucleation (n = 4) to treat solid pseudopapillary tumors (n = 5), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (n = 5), or pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (n = 1). None of the 7 patients who underwent radical resection experienced recurrence or serious complications, while 3 of 4 patients who underwent enucleation experienced recurrence (P = 0.02). Recurrence-free survival was slightly longer in patients who underwent radical resection, and this procedure did not appear to affect adolescent growth and development. Radical resection might be safe and effective for adolescents with pancreatic tumors. PMID:28328854
Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.
Background Functional neuroimaging data from adults have, in general, found frontocerebellar dysfunction associated with acute and chronic marijuana (MJ) use (Loeber & Yurgelun-Todd, 1999). One structural neuroimaging study found reduced cerebellar vermis volume in young adult MJ users with a history of heavy polysubstance use (Aasly et al., 1993). The goal of this study was to characterize cerebellar volume in adolescent chronic MJ users following one month of monitored abstinence. Method Participants were MJ users (n=16) and controls (n=16) aged 16-18 years. Extensive exclusionary criteria included history of psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Drug use history, neuropsychological data, and structural brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Trained research staff defined cerebellar volumes (including three cerebellar vermis lobes and both cerebellar hemispheres) on high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results Adolescent MJ users demonstrated significantly larger inferior posterior (lobules VIII-X) vermis volume (p<.009) than controls, above and beyond effects of lifetime alcohol and other drug use, gender, and intracranial volume. Larger vermis volumes were associated with poorer executive functioning (p’s<.05). Conclusions Following one month of abstinence, adolescent MJ users had significantly larger posterior cerebellar vermis volumes than non-using controls. These greater volumes are suggested to be pathological based on linkage to poorer executive functioning. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine typical cerebellar development during adolescence and the influence of marijuana use. PMID:20413277
Lee, JoAnn S; Courtney, Mark E; Harachi, Tracy W; Tajima, Emiko A
This study uses labeling theory to examine the role that adolescent legal system involvement may play in initiating a process of social exclusion, leading to higher levels of adult criminal activities among foster youth who have aged out of care. We used data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth (Midwest Study), a prospective study that sampled 732 youth from Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin as they were preparing to leave the foster care system at ages 17 or 18. The youth were interviewed again at ages 19, 21, and 23 or 24. We used structural equation modeling to examine pathways to self-reported adult criminal behaviors from juvenile legal system involvement. The path model indicated that legal system involvement as a juvenile was associated with a lower likelihood of having a high school diploma at age 19, which was associated with a reduced likelihood of employment and increased criminal activities at age 21. Legal system involvement is more common among foster youth aging out of care, and this legal system involvement appears to contribute to a process of social exclusion by excluding former foster youth from conventional opportunities.
KAPLAN, LEON L.
A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASCERTAIN NECESSARY PROCEDURES FOR ESTABLISHING WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS FOR ACTUAL OR POTENTIAL DROPOUTS, AGES 16 AND 17, IN THE LOS ANGELES UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT. THIS SURVEY WAS MADE TO HELP PROVIDE MEANS TO MEET THE CALIFORNIA EDUCATION CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR COMPULSORY CONTINUATION EDUCATION. THE STUDY DETERMINED THAT…
Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff
Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, adolescents have become primary targets of a new "Media and Marketing Ecosystem." Digital media resonate particularly well with many of the fundamental developmental tasks of adolescence by enabling instantaneous and constant contact with peers, providing opportunities for self-expression, identity exploration, and social interaction, and facilitating mobility and independence. Six key features of interactive media--ubiquitous connectivity, personalization, peer-to-peer networking, engagement, immersion, and content creation--are emblematic of the ways in which young people are both shaping and being shaped by this new digital culture. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that teenagers have with new media, with online marketing campaigns that create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Major food and beverage companies, including Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Burger King, and Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), have incorporated these elements into their interactive marketing strategies, posing particular risks to adolescents, who are not being addressed in the current U.S. policy and self-regulatory regimens. However, recent and emerging neuroscience and psychological research on adolescents suggests a need to revisit the traditional approach to regulation of advertising. Despite the growth of interactive marketing, academic research on the impact of digital advertising on children and youth remains underdeveloped. Additional research and policy initiatives are needed to address the growing health threat facing youth in the digital marketplace.
Richards, Meghan A.; Oinonen, Kirsten A.
A cross-sectional retrospective design was employed to examine the relationship between age at menarche (AAM) and alcohol use patterns from middle childhood (age 7) to early adulthood in 265 University-aged women. Earlier menarche was associated with: (a) earlier ages at first drink and first intoxication, (b) greater use between ages 9 and 14…
Murphy, Jeremy W; Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie
The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks compared to young adults. The amplitude of oscillations in the alpha band (~8-14 Hz) tracks the top-down deployment of attention, and there is growing evidence that alpha can act as a suppressive mechanism to bias attention away from distracting sensory input. Moreover, the amplitude of alpha has also been shown to be sensitive to the demands of switching tasks. To understand the neural basis of protracted development of these executive functions, we recorded high-density electrophysiology from school-aged children (8-12 years), adolescents (13-17), and young adults (18-34) as they performed a cued inter-sensory selective attention task. The youngest participants showed increased susceptibility to distracting inputs that was especially evident when switching tasks. Concordantly, they showed weaker and delayed onset of alpha modulation compared to the older groups. Thus the flexible and efficient deployment of alpha to bias competition among attentional sets remains underdeveloped in school-aged children.
Burggraaf, Rudolf; Frens, Maarten A; Hooge, Ignace T C; van der Geest, Jos N
Cognitive functions mature at different points in time between birth and adulthood. Of these functions, visuospatial skills, such as spatial memory and part-to-whole organization, have often been tested in children and adults but have been less frequently evaluated during adolescence. We studied visuospatial memory and ability during this critical developmental period, as well as the correlation between these abilities, in a large group of 330 participants (aged 11 to 20 years, 55% male). To assess visuospatial memory, the participants were asked to memorize and reproduce sequences of random locations within a grid using a computer. Visuospatial ability was tested using a variation of the Design Organization Test (DOT). In this paper-and-pencil test, the participants had one minute to reproduce as many visual patterns as possible using a numerical code. On the memory task, compared with younger participants, older participants correctly reproduced more locations overall and longer sequences of locations, made fewer mistakes and needed less time to reproduce the sequences. In the visuospatial ability task, the number of correctly reproduced patterns increased with age. We show that both visuospatial memory and ability improve significantly throughout adolescence and that performance on both tasks is significantly correlated.
Sourander, Andre; Helstelä, Leila
The aim of this study was to assess the childhood predictors of externalizing and internalizing symptoms in adolescence in an epidemiological sample. Behavior ratings were obtained from 609 children at two time-points, accounting for 71% of the target sample. At age 8, children were evaluated with parental and teacher Rutter scales, and with the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), and at age 16 with the Child Behavior Checklist. Evaluations by all informants had a unique contribution to later outcome. In multivariate analysis, among boys, parental reports of hyperactivity independently predicted externalizing problems and teacher reports of hyperactivity independently predicted internalizing problems. Teacher reports of conduct problems independently predicted externalizing problems among both boys and girls. Furthermore, parent reports of emotional problems independently predicted internalizing problems among both boys and girls. Children's own reports of internalized distress measured with CDI predicted a high level of internalizing problems among girls. Perceived need of treatment was the strongest predictor for outcome among girls. Change in family structure (e. g., divorce or remarriage) during follow-up independently predicted externalizing and internalizing problems among boys. The study supports the findings from earlier studies showing that the stability of behavior problems from childhood to adolescence is substantial. This implies a need for early recognition and initiation of treatment efforts.
Hansen, Caitlin E; Credle, Marisol; Shapiro, Eugene D; Niccolai, Linda M
Routine vaccination with three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls and boys at 11 or 12 years of age; however, vaccine uptake remains suboptimal. To understand the reasons why parents may accept or refuse HPV vaccine for their children at age 11 or 12 years, we conducted a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents or guardians (n = 45) whose adolescents receive care at an urban, hospital-based primary care practice. Data were analyzed using an iterative thematic approach. We found that many parents expressed high levels of support for HPV vaccine, including a majority who agreed with vaccination at age 11-12 years. Parents recognized that for prevention of consequences of HPV infection, vaccination of their child early in adolescence was desirable conceptually. However, many parents also expressed that in practice, HPV vaccine should be given to adolescents at the onset of sexual activity, a perception that led to preferences to delay administration of HPV vaccine among certain parents. These apparently contradictory views indicate the need for interventions focused on the benefits of vaccination at the recommended ages. Our findings may be useful in providers' discussions with parents about the vaccine, as pediatric and adolescent health care providers have the unique opportunity to educate parents and clarify misconceptions about vaccination.
Willame, Corinne; Rosillon, Dominique; Zima, Julia; Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Stuurman, Anke L.; Vroling, Hilde; Boggon, Rachael; Bunge, Eveline M.; Pladevall-Vila, Manel; Baril, Laurence
ABSTRACT To assess the risk of autoimmune disease (AD) in 9–25 year-old women within 1 year after the first AS04-HPV-16/18vaccine dose, a retrospective, observational database cohort study was conducted using CPRD GOLD. From CPRD GOLD 4 cohorts (65,000 subjects each) were retrieved: 1 exposed female cohort (received ≥1 AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine dose between Sep2008–Aug2010) and 3 unexposed cohorts: historical female (Sep2005–Aug2007), concurrent male, and historical male. Co-primary endpoints were confirmed neuroinflammatory/ophthalmic AD and other AD, secondary endpoints were confirmed individual AD. Risk of new onset of AD was compared between cohorts (reference: historical cohort) using Poisson regression. The main analysis using confirmed cases showed no neuroinflammatory/ophthalmic AD cases in the female exposed cohort. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) (95% CI) of other AD was 1.41 (0.86 to 2.31) in female and 1.77 (0.94 to 3.35) in male cohorts when compared to the female and male historical cohort, respectively. Secondary endpoints were evaluated for diseases with >10 cases, which were Crohn's disease (IRR: 1.21 [0.37 to 3.95] for female and 4.22 [0.47 to 38.02] for male cohorts), autoimmune thyroiditis (IRR: 3.75 [1.25 to 11.31] for female and no confirmed cases for male cohorts) and type 1 diabetes (IRR: 0.30 [0.11 to 0.83] for female and 2.46 [1.08 to 5.60] for male cohorts). Analysis using confirmed and non-confirmed cases showed similar results, except for autoimmune thyroiditis in females, IRR: 1.45 (0.79 to 2.64). There was no evidence of an increased risk of AD in women aged 9 to 25 years after AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccination. PMID:27428517
This paper examines the dominant themes evident in contemporary novels involving American Indian adolescents. Nine novels written between 1971 and 1986 are reviewed. In contrast to earlier novels, those reviewed here reflect greater realism toward and less stereotyping of American Indians. Several themes in the novels are reflective of problems and issues confronting adolescents from a variety of backgrounds. The more salient themes, however, are specific to American Indian culture, including the prejudice and discrimination experienced by American Indians, the hopelessness and helplessness of an American minority group, racially mixed marriages of parents, alienation from non-Indian peers, Indian and Anglo friendships, the search for a sense of self, recapturing Indian traditions, and Indian spirituality.
Fuligni, Andrew J; Tsai, Kim M
The socioeconomic and cultural changes that result from an increasingly interconnected world have been speculated to have important implications for the nature of adolescent development. Unfortunately, the historical time necessary for these changes to take place means that definitive research on the impact of globalization necessarily will be slow in forthcoming. Adolescents from immigrant families, however, already experience the social and cultural shifts thought to typify globalization, and an analysis of their experiences could shed light on what to expect as existing national barriers become more permeable. The value of flexibility in the face of great social and cultural change appears to be the dominant theme from research on immigrant youth, although that flexibility can be constrained by socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial stratification systems in host societies. This review highlights the implications of these findings for what may lie ahead for teenagers as globalization continues to expand.
Gray, Peter; Feldman, Jay
Examined age and gender mixing among students, ages 4-19, at an ungraded, self-directed, democratically structured school. Found that age mixing was more frequent for 12- to 15-year-olds than for younger or older students, and that gender mixing was less frequent for 8- to 11-year-olds than for any other age group. (MDM)
Persaud, Deborah; Patel, Kunjal; Karalius, Brad; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Ziemniak, Carrie; Ellis, Angela; Chen, Ya Hui; Richman, Douglas; Siberry, George K.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Burchett, Sandra; Seage, George R.; Luzuriaga, Katherine
Importance Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiated within several weeks of HIV infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure. Objectives To quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study including 144 perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth (median age: 14.3 years), enrolled in the US-based Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study, on durable (median: 10.2 years) cART, stratified by age at virologic control. Main Outcome and Measures The primary endpoint was peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proviral load following virologic control at different ages. Correlations between proviral load and markers of active HIV production (HIV-specific antibodies, 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles), and markers of immune activation and inflammation were also assessed. Results Proviral reservoir size was markedly reduced in the PHIV+ youth who achieved virologic control by age 1 year (4.2 [interquartile range, 2.6-8 6] copies per 1 million PBMCs) compared to those who achieved virologic control between 1-5 years of age (19.4 [interquartile range, 5.5-99.8] copies per 1 million PBMCs) or after age 5 years (−(70.7 [interquartile range, 23.2-209.4] copies per 1 million PBMCs; P < .00l). A proviral burden <10 copies/million PBMCs was measured in 11 (79%), 20 (40%), and 13 (18%) participants with virologic control at ages <1 year, 1-5 years, and >5 years, respectively (p<0.001). Lower proviral load was associated with undetectable 2-LTR circles (p<0.001) and HIV negative or indeterminate serostatus (p<0.001), but not with concentrations of soluble immune activation markers CD14 and CD163. Conclusions and Relevance Early effective cART along with prolonged virologic suppression after perinatal HIV
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…
Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; González, Paula; Solomon, Diane; Jiménez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Quint, Wim; Sherman, Mark E.; Schussler, John; Wacholder, Sholom
Background Three-dose regimens for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are expensive and difficult to complete, especially in settings where the need for cervical cancer prevention is greatest. Methods We evaluated the vaccine efficacy of fewer than three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine Cervarix in our Costa Rica Vaccine Trial. Women were randomly assigned to receive three doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine or to a control vaccine and were followed for incident HPV16 or HPV18 infection that persisted in visits that were 10 or more months apart (median follow-up 4.2 years). After excluding women who had no follow-up or who were HPV16 and HPV18 DNA positive at enrollment, 5967 women received three vaccine doses (2957 HPV vaccine vs 3010 control vaccine), 802 received two doses (422 HPV vs 380 control), and 384 received one dose (196 HPV vs 188 control). Reasons for receiving fewer doses and other pre- and post-randomization characteristics were balanced within each dosage group between women receiving the HPV and control vaccines. Results Incident HPV16 or HPV18 infections that persisted for 1 year were unrelated to dosage of the control vaccine. Vaccine efficacy was 80.9% for three doses of the HPV vaccine (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.1% to 87.7%; 25 and 133 events in the HPV and control arms, respectively), 84.1% for two doses (95% CI = 50.2% to 96.3%; 3 and 17 events), and 100% for one dose (95% CI = 66.5% to 100%; 0 and 10 events). Conclusion Four years after vaccination of women who appeared to be uninfected, this nonrandomized analysis suggests that two doses of the HPV16/18 vaccine, and maybe even one dose, are as protective as three doses. PMID:21908768
Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.
Aims To determine how genetic and environmental contributions affecting the number of psychoactive substances used varies with age and gender over the course of adolescence Design Estimates of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental contributions to total variance in diversity of substances used at ages 11, 14 , and 17 were obtained by fitting a multivariate behavior genetic (Cholesky) model. Participants 711 male and 675 female twins. Measurements Participants reported whether they had used each of 11 substances. Findings The average diversity of substances used increased over time for both males and females, and males generally reported a wider diversity of substances used than females. Influences of genetic factors increased with age and were greater for males than for females at ages 14 and 17. Genetic factors remained consistent (i.e. highly correlated) across ages for both males and females, as did shared environmental influences for males. Non-shared environmental factors for both sexes and females’ shared environmental factors were age-specific. Conclusions Regardless of sex, the proportion of variance in substances used attributable to genetic factors increases during adolescence, although it is greater for males than females at later ages. These findings indicate that prevention interventions may be most effective if they target early adolescence when environmental factors account for the majority of variance in substance use. The high correlation of genetic factors across ages suggests that early use may sometimes signal an early expression of a developmentally stable genetic predisposition. PMID:18821880
Salari, Raziye; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B
This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more "at-risk" samples, these findings could also suggest that parent-child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.
NOTES .1 ’ ; R CT A!tI AA IGIUFI 2" T 19. KEY WORDS (Cowntinuw on revereo side. it nriwa!*1W. I ,.&nab~ Basic Skills Education Program Critical Task...Analysis Seminar held at the Hampton Holiday Inn, VA; 16-18 July 1980. The major ,i themes of this seminar were the TRAnOC Basic Skills Education Program...VA was held at the HIpton Holiday Inn, Hampton, Virginia, 16 thru 18 July 1980. The major thes of this seminar was the TRADxC Basic Skills Education
Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta
The aim of the study was to analyze nutritional habits of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław. They are one of three elements shaping health attitude of girls. This research indicates mostly committing nutritional mistakes of the girls e.g.: irregularity of meals consumption 73% of girls, incorrect number of meals about 60% of girls, omission of breakfast about 15% of girls and lunch 20% of girls, movement of main meal up to late evening and night hours, and regular snaking meals 53.0% of girls.
Colardyn, Danielle; Malglaive, Gerard
In 1982, the French Government instituted a new National Vocational Education Plan (NVEP) to combat the nationwide problem of students leaving the school system prior to receiving adequate vocational preparation. This plan affects 100,000 young people between the ages of 16 and 18 years. The NVEP gave to each Regional Government the opportunity to create its own programmes and curricula; it renewed counselling and individual assessment facilities; it established new tracks within the education system; it also established co-operative education (linking education to the world of work). Concurrently, an Assessment and Observation System was created. During the first assessment year (1982-1983), information was gathered about existing local educational resources, counselling facilities, characteristics of the 16 to 18 year-old population, functioning of the educational tracks and co-operative education system. During the second year (1983-1984), the assessment provided quantitative statistical results. The most striking result concerns the configurations of educational and employment experiences which seemed to determine the ability of students to find employment. Students with a background of `job intensive experiences' were more successful in finding subsequent employment than those without. Students with `education intensive experiences' entered an educational programme because they were unable to find a first job. While the benefits of the NVEP were not immediately apparent, it nevertheless became evident that at this level of training, education was not necessarily the royal road to employment. However, employment criteria cannot be the only way to assess a vocational education system.
Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean
We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…
Feldman, Jay; Gray, Peter
Observation of 200 children ages 4 to 19 attending a Massachusetts nongraded alternative school disclosed substantial age mixing. Younger children used older children to develop skills and acquire knowledge. Age mixing encouraged opportunities for creativity, helped match abilities, and fostered older children's sense of responsibility for younger…
Arbeau, Kelly J.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael
This study examined in a random community-based sample of 664 12-19-year-olds, the relation of subjective experience of age (SEA) with chronological age, dating experience, sexual activity, and substance use. The results revealed a positive linear relation between SEA and chronological age: individuals who were chronologically older felt…
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others
This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…
Karp, Sharon M; Gesell, Sabina B
The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation's health.
Karp, Sharon M.; Gesell, Sabina B.
The rise in the rate of obesity in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults in the last 30 years is a clear healthcare crisis that needs to be addressed. Despite recent national reports in the United States highlighting positive downward trends in the rate of obesity in younger children, we are still faced with approximately 12.7 million children struggling with obesity. Given the immediate and long-term health consequences of obesity, much time and effort has been expended to address this epidemic. Yet, despite these efforts, we still only see limited, short-term success from most interventions. Without changes to how we address childhood obesity, we will continue to see inadequate improvements in the health of our children. Clinicians and researchers need to be lobbying for evidence-based policy changes, such as those identified by systems science, in order to improve the nation’s health. PMID:26161007
Gibson, Stephen; Hamilton, Lorna
Recent debates concerning the age of electoral majority in the UK have focused on the levels of knowledge and maturity of young people. However, little research has explored the ways in which adolescents orient to these concerns themselves. In this article, we present analyses from a qualitative interview investigation in Northern England, and…
Cote, James E.
The controversy between Margaret Mead and Derek Freeman about Mead's work (1928) on coming of age in Samoa in the 1920s is analyzed. Freeman's claim to have refuted Mead's findings can be easily refuted itself. Mead's study, arguing that adolescent turmoil is not universal, stands the test of time. (SLD)
Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena
This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…
Rodrigues, L C; Speck, N M de Gois; Focchi, G R de Azevedo; Schimidt, M A; Marques, R M; Ribalta, J C Lascasas
The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of human papillomavirus genotypes 16 and 18 (E6 and E7) oncoproteins in cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. These results were also compared to the persistence and/or recurrence of lesions after loop electrosurgical excision procedure. Cervical samples from 158 patients were divided into three groups according to the presence or absence of HSIL in women who were or were not HIV-positive. By using the tissue microarray technique, immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins. Cervical samples from 95 HIV-positive women and 63 HIV-negative women were studied. A statistically significant difference was found in the immunoexpression of E6 and E7 oncoproteins in samples from HIV-positive women with HSIL and that of women with non-neoplastic tissue (P < 0.001). There was also a statistically significant correlation between the immunoexpression of E6 (P = 0.012) and E7 (P < 0.001) oncoproteins in lesion persistence among HIV-positive women. Within the limitations of this study, the immunoexpression of HPV 16/18 E6 and E7 oncoproteins may have prognostic value regarding lesion persistence in HIV-positive women.
Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary
Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175
Ilie, Gabriela; Adlaf, Edward M.; Mann, Robert E.; Boak, Angela; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Colantonio, Angela; Turner, Nigel E.; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.
Background Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI) among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. Methods and Findings Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th–12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8). Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying), bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. Conclusions TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for more tailored
Larson, Nicole; Harnack, Lisa; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Objective Assessing changes in dietary intake during the transition from adolescence to adulthood is challenging given the need for age-appropriate tools at different developmental stages. The present study investigated the comparability of intake estimates as assessed with the youth/adolescent and adult forms of Willett’s FFQ. Design Young adults were first asked to complete the adult FFQ as part of a larger study, Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). A stratified random sample of respondents was invited to complete the youth/adolescent FFQ by mail within a 3-week period. Setting Participants were members of a longitudinal cohort who completed baseline surveys (including the adolescent FFQ) at schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota and completed Project EAT-III surveys online or by mail in 2008–2009. Subjects There were ninety-one men and 103 women (median age = 24·6 years) who completed both forms of the FFQ. Results The adolescent and adult forms did not provide comparable absolute intake estimates. However, with few exceptions, correlation coefficients between intake estimates were moderate (r = 0·4–0·6). Furthermore, the percentage of individuals classified into the same quartile rank category based on their responses to the adolescent and adult forms was ≥50 % for fibre, vitamins A and E, and servings of fruit (excluding juice), vegetables, dairy, whole grains and soft drinks. Conclusions Although responses on the adolescent and adult FFQ cannot be compared to describe changes in absolute intake over time, these tools provide comparable intake rankings and may be used together in longitudinal studies to investigate influences on diet. PMID:21929844
Hawley, Patricia H.
Adolescence is a period characterized by well-documented growth and change, including reproductive, social, and cognitive development. Though not unheard of, modern evolutionary approaches to adolescence are still relatively uncommon. Recent treatises in developmental biology, however, have yielded new tools through which to explore human…
Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa
This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…
Vervoort, Tine; Logan, Deirdre E; Goubert, Liesbet; De Clercq, Bart; Hublet, Anne
The current cross-sectional study examined child and adolescent pain severity in relation to various domains of school functioning and, in line with self-determination theory, the potentially protective role of perceived teacher support of child/adolescent autonomy and competence. Data from a large representative sample of Flemish school children and adolescents (N=10650; 50.8% boys; age range 10-21years; mean age=14.33) was collected as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey. Child/adolescent pain severity was graded based on a pediatric pain classification system adapted from that of Von Korff et al. The current study thus provided insight regarding the prevalence of pain among Flemish children/adolescents and, extending the limitations of existing literature, examined the specific role of pain severity across various domains of school functioning. Findings indicated that a sizeable proportion of children reported moderate to severe pain problems (ie, about 14% of children and adolescents were classified in the highest pain grades: ie, grade III or IV). Furthermore, higher pain grades were associated with poorer outcomes across all indices of school functioning (ie, school absenteeism, school-related pressure and satisfaction, and bullying experiences), with the exception of academic performance. However, the association between pain grade and school absenteeism was less pronounced when children perceived their teachers to be highly supportive of competence and autonomy. Furthermore, teacher support of competence appeared to buffer against the harmful effects of severe pain upon instances of bullying experiences at school. Future research directions and implications for school-based interventions are discussed.
Leonard, Laurence B.; Miller, Carol A.; Finneran, Denise A.
Sixteen-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI), nonspecific language impairment (NLI), and those showing typical language development (TD) responded to target words in sentences that were either grammatical or contained a grammatical error immediately before the target word. The TD participants showed the expected slower response times (RTs) when errors preceded the target word, regardless of error type. The SLI and NLI groups also showed the expected slowing, except when the error type involved the omission of a tense/agreement inflection. This response pattern mirrored an early developmental period of alternating between using and omitting tense/agreement inflections that is characteristic of SLI and NLI. The findings could not be readily attributed to factors such as insensitivity to omissions in general or insensitivity to the particular phonetic forms used to mark tense/agreement. The observed response pattern may represent continued difficulty with tense/agreement morphology that persists in subtle form into adolescence. PMID:19690626
Lamb, Diane J.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catarina E. M.; Bartels, Meike; van der Aa, Niels; Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.
Objective: To explain the differential course of anxiety and depression in individuals from childhood to adulthood by examining age-related changes in the genetic and environmental etiology of anxious and depressive symptoms. Method: A sample of 1470, 1839, and 2023 Dutch twins aged 12, 14, and 16 years reported on symptoms of anxious depression…
The aim of this paper was to establish whether the influence of socioeconomic factors on BMI and the prevalence of underweight and overweight changes with age. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. Their height and body mass were measured and their BMIs calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. The girls were measured by trained school nurses at 7, 9, 14 years of age. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found to increase with age. Parents' higher education and urban environment were associated with smaller BMI gain between the ages of 7 and 18 years. Among subjects whose mother and/or father had higher education the prevalence of underweight increased with age, and in other groups it remained at a similar level. In the younger age categories (7- and 9-year-olds) underweight was less frequent in subjects from towns than those from rural areas, while in the older categories (14, 16-18 years of age) the opposite tendency was found. As subjects grew up, there was a decline in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in all groups. Parental education and place of residence seem to influence weight status in a different way in childhood than during adolescence.
Sircar, Kanta; Martin, Colleen
Background: The observed age of menarche has fallen, which may have important adverse social and health consequences. Increased exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Objective: Our objective was to assess the relationship between EDC exposure and the age of menarche in adolescent girls. Methods: We used data from female participants 12–16 years of age who had completed the reproductive health questionnaire and laboratory examination for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for years 2003–2008 (2005–2008 for analyses of phthalates and parabens). Exposures were assessed based on creatinine-corrected natural log urine concentrations of selected environmental chemicals and metabolites found in at least 75% of samples in our study sample. We used Cox proportional hazards analysis in SAS 9.2 survey procedures to estimate associations after accounting for censored data among participants who had not reached menarche. We evaluated body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared), family income-to-poverty ratio, race/ethnicity, mother’s smoking status during pregnancy, and birth weight as potential confounders. Results: The weighted mean age of menarche was 12.0 years of age. Among 440 girls with both reproductive health and laboratory data, after accounting for BMI and race/ethnicity, we found that 2,5-dichlorophenol (2,5-DCP) and summed environmental phenols (2,5-DCP and 2,4-DCP) were inversely associated with age of menarche [hazard ratios of 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19 and 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19, respectively]. Other exposures (total parabens, bisphenol A, triclosan, benzophenone-3, total phthalates, and 2,4-DCP) were not significantly associated with age of menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest an association between 2,5-DCP, a potential EDC, and earlier age of menarche in the general U
Luciana, Monica; Wahlstrom, Dustin; Porter, James N.; Collins, Paul F.
Behavioral activation that is associated with incentive-reward motivation increases in adolescence relative to childhood and adulthood. This quadratic developmental pattern is generally supported by behavioral and experimental neuroscience findings. We suggest that a focus on changes in dopamine neurotransmission is informative in understanding the mechanism for this adolescent increase in reward-related behavioral activation and subsequent decline into adulthood. We present evidence to indicate that incentive-reward motivation is modulated by mesoaccumbens dopamine and that it increases in adolescence before declining into adulthood due to normative developmental changes at the molecular level. Potential mechanisms of variation in functional mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission are discussed with a focus on the interplay between tonic and phasic modes of DA transmission in modulating both general incentive-motivational biases and the efficacy of reward learning during exposure to novel reward experiences. Interactions between individual difference factors and these age-related trends are discussed. PMID:22390660
Bolognini, M; Plancherel, B; Nuñez, R; Bettschart, W
The transition from childhood to adolescence is widely believed to be a stressful period in which the child faces multiple changes: physical changes, school choices, development of new social roles, and changes in the relation with his or her parents and friends. We investigated the effects of the timing of puberty on mental health, studied in a population of 219 young adolescents who were followed during three years (mean age at the beginning of the study was 12.5 years). The changes in the perception of the individual's body associated with puberty depended on the child's gender. Significant events during puberty had a negative effect on mental health. Although puberty remains a critical period of temporary unstable and fragile transition, most of the young adolescents coped relatively well with the physiological, psychological and social changes they faced.
Park, Joon Hyeong; Seo, Yu Mi; Han, Seung Beom; Kim, Ki Hwan; Rhim, Jung Woo; Chung, Nack Gyun; Kim, Myung Shin; Kang, Jin Han
Recurrent macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is very rare. We present the case of an adolescent boy with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B27-positive ankylosing spondylitis (AS), who experienced episodes of recurrent MAS since he was a toddler. A 16-year-old boy was admitted because of remittent fever with pancytopenia and splenomegaly after surgical intervention for an intractable perianal abscess. He had been diagnosed with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) 4 different times, which was well controlled with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids since the age of 3. We were unable to identify the cause for the HLH. He remained symptom-free until the development of back pain and right ankle joint pain with swelling at 15 years of age. He was diagnosed with HLA B27-positive AS with bilateral active sacroiliitis. He showed symptom aggravation despite taking naproxen and methotrexate, and the symptoms improved with etanercept. On admission, his laboratory data showed leukopenia with high ferritin and triglyceride levels. Bone marrow biopsy examination showed histiocytic hyperplasia with hemophagocytosis. There was no evidence of infection. He received naproxen alone, and his symptoms and laboratory data improved without any other immunomodulatory medications. Genetic study revealed no primary HLH or inflammasome abnormalities. In this case, underlying autoimmune disease should have been considered as the cause of recurrent MAS in the young patient once primary HLH was excluded. PMID:27826329
Gupta, Swati; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Nagpal, Ruchi; Gupta, Ramakant
Introduction: Age estimation is a preliminary step in the identification of an individual. It is a crucial and often most critical step for forensic experts. The assessment has been standardized utilizing common dental diagnostic x-rays, but most such age-estimating systems are European population-based and their applicability has not been determined in the context of the Indian population. Aims and Objectives: To assess the applicability and to compare the methods of dental age estimation by Demirjian's method and the same method as modified by Willems (i.e. the Willems method) in Indian children of the National Capital Region (NCR). Also, to find a correlation among skeletal maturity using the Cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI), dental maturity, and chronological age in the same population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using dental radiographs of 70 orthodontic patients (37 males, 33 females) in the age range 9-16 years selected by simple random sampling. pantomogram were used to estimate dental age by Demirjian's method and the Willems method using their scoring tables. Lateral cephalograms were used to estimate skeletal maturity using CVMI. The latter was compared with Demirjian's stage for mandibular left second molar. Results: Overestimation of age among males by 0.856 years and 0.496 years was found by Demirjian's and the Willems methods, respectively. Among females, both the methods underestimated the age by 0.31 years and 0.45 years, respectively. Demirjian's stage G corresponded to CVMI stage 3 in males and stage 2 in females. Conclusion: In our study, the Willems method has proved to be more accurate for age estimation among Indian males, and Demirjian's method for Indian females. A statistically significant association appeared between Demirjian's stages and CVMI among both males and females. Our study recommends the derivation of a regression formula by studying a larger section of the Indian population
Gustafsson, Per E; Janlert, Urban; Theorell, Töres; Westerlund, Hugo; Hammarström, Anne
While the importance of social relations for health has been demonstrated in childhood, adolescence and adulthood, few studies have examined the prospective importance of peer relations for adult health. The aim of this study was to examine whether peer problems in the school setting in adolescence relates to the metabolic syndrome in middle-age. Participants came from the Northern Swedish Cohort, a 27-year cohort study of school leavers (effective n = 881, 82% of the original cohort). A score of peer problems was operationalized through form teachers' assessment of each student's isolation and popularity among school peers at age 16 years, and the metabolic syndrome was measured by clinical measures at age 43 according to established criteria. Additional information on health, health behaviors, achievement and social circumstances were collected from teacher interviews, school records, clinical measurements and self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression was used as the main statistical method. Results showed a dose-response relationship between peer problems in adolescence and metabolic syndrome in middle-age, corresponding to 36% higher odds for the metabolic syndrome at age 43 for each SD higher peer problems score at age 16. The association remained significant after adjustment for health, health behaviors, school adjustment or family circumstances in adolescence, and for psychological distress, health behaviors or social circumstances in adulthood. In analyses stratified by sex, the results were significant only in women after adjustment for covariates. Peer problems were significantly related to all individual components of the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that unsuccessful adaption to the school peer group can have enduring consequences for metabolic health.
Mosley, Michelle; Delormier, Treena
A number of factors contribute to the development of obesity in adolescents, including various dietary and lifestyle behaviors, and a host of social and environmental factors, such as socioeconomic status, parental education, and culture. Research examining beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in adolescents, such as food intake, can create a better understanding of risk factors for obesity. This study explored beliefs about behaviors related to weight status in 20 early adolescent girls aged 9 to 13 years and their mothers in O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted to elucidate beliefs through discussion of food purchasing, feeding practices, portion control strategies, eating outside the home, and body size perception. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and examined using directed content analysis. Both mothers and daughters believed that diets should consist of fresh foods and be based on principles of variety, balance, and moderation, and had negative perceptions of school lunch. In describing ideal body size, mothers expressed greater concern for overweight, as well as ethno-cultural beauty standards, than daughters. Mothers believed daughters should have a positive relationship with food but also applied various portion control strategies with them. Findings reveal how mothers' and daughters' beliefs may influence daily food-related practices in adolescent girls. Future studies may seek to investigate the role these factors may play in determining weight status in adolescents in Hawai‘i, with findings to be used to inform health promotion programs. PMID:27099805
Oteri, Giacomo; Lentini, Maria; Pisano, Michele; Cicciù, Marco
The Extraosseous or Peripheral Ameloblastoma (PA) is a rare and benign odontogenic tumour, representing 1% to 5% of all ameloblastomas. It is usually localized in the soft oral tissues, without deep bone involvement. Its biological behaviour is specific, and several authors define PA as a non-infiltrating hamartomatous lesion. Indeed, recurrences rarely occur and progression in malignant tumors appears to be rare. The PA originates from the tooth-forming apparatus and it consists of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, exhibiting the same histological cell types and patterns of the intraosseous counterpart or infiltrating ameloblastoma. The peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma (PDA) can be classified as a newly recognized and very rare histological variant. To our knowledge, only a few cases of adult patients affected by PDA have been published. The aim of this paper is to report a case of PDA affecting an adolescent patient. The clinical-pathological and immunohistological features are discussed in order to improve knowledge regarding a correct diagnosis and to differentiate PDA lesions from similar diseases.
Tsao, Jennie C. I.; Seidman, Laura C.; Evans, Subhadra; Lung, Kirsten C.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Naliboff, Bruce D.
Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) refers to the diminution of perceived pain intensity for a test stimulus following application of a conditioning stimulus to a remote area of the body, and is thought to reflect the descending inhibition of nociceptive signals. Studying CPM in children may inform interventions to enhance central pain inhibition within a developmental framework. We assessed CPM in 133 healthy children (mean age = 13 years; 52.6% girls) and tested the effects of sex and age. Participants were exposed to four trials of a pressure test stimulus before, during, and after the application of a cold water conditioning stimulus. CPM was documented by a reduction in pressure pain ratings during cold water administration. Older children (12–17 years) exhibited greater CPM than younger (8–11 years) children. No sex differences in CPM were found. Lower heart rate variability (HRV) at baseline and after pain induction was associated with less CPM controlling for child age. The findings of greater CPM in the older age cohort suggest a developmental improvement in central pain inhibitory mechanisms. The results highlight the need to examine developmental and contributory factors in central pain inhibitory mechanisms in children to guide effective, age appropriate, pain interventions. PMID:23541066
Díaz, Janepsy; Cárcamo, Marcela; Seoane, Mabel; Pidal, Paola; Cavada, Gabriel; Puentes, Rodrigo; Terrazas, Solana; Araya, Pamela; Ibarz-Pavon, Ana B; Manríquez, Macarena; Hormazábal, Juan C; Ayala, Salvador; Valenzuela, María T
In 2011, Chile experienced an increase in the number of cases of IMD caused by Neisseria meningitidis group W. This epidemiological scenario prompted authorities to implement prevention strategies. As part of these strategies, the Institute of Public Heath of Chile conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of N. meningitidis in a representative sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 10-19 years. The identification of presumptive N. meningitidis strains was performed by testing carbohydrate utilization in the National Reference Laboratory at the ISP. Association of meningococcal carriage with risk factors was analyzed by calculating the Odds Ratio. Selected variables were included in a logistic model for risk analyses. The prevalence of carriage of N. meningitidis was 6.5% (CI: 5.7-7.3%). Older age (carriers: 14.2±0.29 vs. non-carriers: 13.8±0.08 years old; p=0.009), cohabitation with children (carriers: 0.9±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.7±0.03; p=0.028), number of smoking cohabitants (carriers: 0.55±0.13 vs. non-carriers: 0.44±0.03) and frequent attendance to crowded social venues (carriers: 49% vs. non-carriers: 37%; p=0.008) were determined to favor carriage. Statistical modeling showed that meningococcal carriage was associated with older age (OR: 1.077, p-value: 0.002) and cohabitation with children (OR: 1.182, p-value: 0.02).
Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene
Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…
Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung
This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…
This study investigated the content, realism, stability, and coherence of the career aspirations of 262 students in seventh grade in Switzerland (ages 13-15 years). The content analysis revealed that 82% of the participants named at least one realistic career aspiration, and aspirations showed clear resemblance to existing opportunities in the…
Understanding physical activity is the key to fighting childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certian wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 yearsto assess acceptabi...
Understanding physical activity is key in the fight against childhood obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using certain wearable devices to measure physical activity among children. A qualitative study was conducted with 25 children aged 7 to 10 years to assess ac...
Michaud, David; McNamee, James; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Ramage-Morin, Pamela; Beauregard, Yves
Objectives: There are no nationally representative hearing loss (HL) prevalence data available for Canadian youth using direct measurements. The present study objectives were to estimate national prevalence of HL using audiometric pure-tone thresholds (0.5 to 8 kHz) and or distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) for children and adolescents, aged 3 to 19 years. Design: This cross-sectional population-based study presents findings from the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey, entailing an in-person household interview and hearing measurements conducted in a mobile examination clinic. The initial study sample included 2591 participants, aged 3 to 19 years, representing 6.5 million Canadians (3.3 million males). After exclusions, subsamples consisted of 2434 participants, aged 3 to 19 years and 1879 participants, aged 6 to 19 years, with valid audiometric results. Eligible participants underwent otoscopic examination, tympanometry, DPOAE, and audiometry. HL was defined as a pure-tone average >20 dB for 6- to 18-year olds and ≥26 dB for 19-year olds, for one or more of the following: four-frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) pure-tone average, high-frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz) pure-tone average, and low-frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) pure-tone average. Mild HL was defined as >20 to 40 dB (6- to 18-year olds) and ≥26 to 40 dB (19-year olds). Moderate or worse HL was defined as >40 dB (6- to 19-year olds). HL in 3- to 5-year olds (n = 555) was defined as absent DPOAEs as audiometry was not conducted. Self-reported HL was evaluated using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 hearing questions. Results: The primary study outcome indicates that 7.7% of Canadian youth, aged 6 to 19, had any HL, for one or more pure-tone average. Four-frequency pure-tone average and high-frequency pure-tone average HL prevalence was 4.7 and 6.0%, respectively, whereas 5.8% had a low-frequency pure-tone average HL. Significantly more children/adolescents had unilateral HL
Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Chung, Chin Youb; Park, Moon Seok; Lee, Kyoung Min; Akhmedov, Bekhzad; Choi, In Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon; Sung, Ki Hyuk
This study aimed to examine the correlations between physical examinations and gait kinematics, and age-related changes in 47 normally developing children. Physical examinations were not found to be significantly correlated with kinematics, except for Thomas and Staheli tests. Unilateral and bilateral popliteal angles decreased significantly by 2.2 and 1.6° per annum, and ankle dorsiflexion with knee extension and 90° flexion decreased significantly by 0.7 and 0.8°. Physical examinations and gait parameters might represent different dimensions of gait, and care should be taken when assessing gait problems. Age-related changes should be considered when interpreting physical examination and gait kinematics for surgery.
Sowińska-Przepiera, Elzbieta; Andrysiak-Mamos, Elzbieta; Syrenicz, Anhelli
The research carried out in Poland reflected that sexual initiation before 18 years of age is a common phenomenon and refers to roughly 80% of teenagers. In Poland there is no uniform standing of medical and legal environments with regard to dealing with a juvenile patient who has become sexually active and expects the advice of a gynaecologist, gynaecologic examination and often asks for prescribing contraceptives. The procedures must take into account the fact that in Poland, until 18 years of age, a juvenile functions under the parental or tutelary authority, while a consent for medical service requires beside of the consent of legal guardian also the consent of a juvenile who is 16 years of age and becomes a full-right patient. According to the Act on Health Care Institutions, a patient has the right to self-decisions, the respect of physical and mental integrity and the respect of privacy, while the participation of a statutory representative post 16th year of age refers practically to co-deciding on a medical service provision. Therefore, the information received from such juvenile patient in subjective and objective examination does not have to be passed to the statutory representative, if the juvenile patient requires confidentiality and if this does not affect the patient's health and the planned medical procedures (e.g. the necessity of making an operation). The knowledge of conduct procedures with regard to a juvenile patient as a carrier of rights shall enable doctors to make aware choices of conduct and provide services or, in most cases, only advice, without the necessity to breach the laws of Poland.
Garmy, Pernilla; Clausson, Eva K; Nyberg, Per; Jakobsson, Ulf
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents (6-16 years), and relationships between being overweight and sleep, experiencing of fatigue, enjoyment of school, and time spent in watching television and in sitting at the computer. Trained school nurses measured the weight and height of 2891 children aged 6, 7, 10, 14, and 16, and distributed a questionnaire to them regarding television and computer habits, sleep, and enjoyment of school. Overweight, obesity included, was present in 16.1% of the study population. Relationships between lifestyle factors and overweight were studied using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Having a bedroom television and spending more than 2 h a day watching television were found to be associated with overweight (OR 1.26 and 1.55 respectively). No association was found between overweight and time spent at the computer, short sleep duration, enjoyment of school, tiredness at school, or difficulties in sleeping and waking up. It is recommended that the school health service discuss with pupils their media habits so as to promote their maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
Stockdale, Keira C; Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health facility. The PCL: YV significantly predicted any general, nonviolent, and violent recidivism in the aggregate sample over a 7-year follow-up; however, when results were disaggregated by youth and adult outcomes, the PCL: YV consistently appeared to be a stronger predictor of youth recidivism. The PCL: YV predicted youth recidivism for subsamples of female and Aboriginal youths, and very few differences in the predictive accuracy of the tool were observed for younger vs. older adolescent groups. Both the 13-item (i.e., D. J. Cooke & C. Michie, 2001, 3-factor) and the 20-item (i.e., R. D. Hare, 2003, 4-factor) models appeared to predict various recidivism criteria comparably across the aggregate sample and within specific demographic subgroups (e.g., female and Aboriginal youth). The Antisocial facet contributed the most variance in the prediction of adult outcomes, whereas the 3-factor model contributed significant incremental variance in the prediction of youth recidivism outcomes. Potential implications concerning the use of the PCL: YV in clinical and forensic assessment contexts are discussed.
Jones, Andrew D; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Cantoral, Alejandra; Levy, Teresa Shamah
We aimed to determine the association between household food insecurity (HFI) and the co-occurrence of overweight and anemia among women of reproductive age in the Mexican population. We analyzed data on 4,039 nonpregnant female adolescents (15-19 years) and 10,760 nonpregnant adult women of reproductive age (20-49 years) from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Mexico. The survey uses a two-stage sampling design, stratified by rural and urban regions. The Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale was used to assess HFI. We assessed overweight and obesity in women based on World Health Organization classifications for body mass index, and BMI-for-age Z-scores for female adolescents, and defined anemia as an altitude-adjusted hemoglobin (Hb) concentration < 120 g/L based on measurement of capillary Hb concentrations. In multiple logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounding covariates, HFI was not associated with the co-occurrence of anemia and overweight among female adolescents. The adjusted odds of women of reproductive age from mildly and moderately food-insecure households, respectively, experiencing concurrent anemia and overweight were 48% (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.91) and 49% (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.06) higher than among women from food-secure households. Severe HFI was not associated with concurrent overweight and anemia among female adolescents or women. HFI may be a shared mechanism for dual forms of malnutrition within the same individual, simultaneously contributing to overconsumption and dietary inadequacy.
Data on metabolic rates (n = 81) and clothing insulation (n = 96) of school children and adolescents (A, primary school: age 9-10; B, primary school: age 10-11 year; C, junior vocational (technical) education: age 13-16 (lower level); D, same as C but at advanced level; and E, senior vocational (technical) education, advanced level: age 16-18) were collected (Diaferometer, Oxylog, Heart Rate derivation) during theory-, practical- and physical education- lessons. Clothing insulation was calculated from clothing weight, covered body surface area, and the number of clothing layers worn. Clothing insulation was found to be similar to that expected for adults in the same (winter) season, with minimal variation with age or school type (0.9 to 1.0 clo; 1.38 clo where coverall was worn), but more variation within groups (coefficient of variation 6-12%). Metabolic rate values (W.m(-2)) were lower than expected from adult data for similar activities, but are supported by other child data. The results of this study can be used to establish design criteria for school climate control systems or as general data on energy expenditure for children and adolescents. The results emphasize the need for specific child data and show the limited value of size-corrected adult data for use in children.
Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon
During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.
Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M
Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm.
Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.
Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 weeks gestation weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n = 65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n = 35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β = −.27, p < .05, R2 = .07, verbal memory, β = .31, p < .05, R2 = .09, and reading comprehension, β = .28, p < .05, R2 = .08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-age children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100
Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji
Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…
George, Madeleine J; Odgers, Candice L
Close to 90% of U.S. adolescents now own or have access to a mobile phone, and they are using them frequently. Adolescents send and receive an average of over 60 text messages per day from their devices, and over 90% of adolescents now access the Internet from a mobile device at least occasionally. Many adults are asking how this constant connectivity is influencing adolescents' development. In this article, we examine seven commonly voiced fears about the influence of mobile technologies on adolescents' safety (e.g., cyberbullying and online solicitation), social development (e.g., peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and identity development), cognitive performance, and sleep. Three sets of findings emerge. First, with some notable exceptions (e.g., sleep disruption and new tools for bullying), most online behaviors and threats to well-being are mirrored in the offline world, such that offline factors predict negative online experiences and effects. Second, the effects of mobile technologies are not uniform, in that benefits appear to be conferred for some adolescents (e.g., skill building among shy adolescents), whereas risk is exacerbated among others (e.g., worsening existing mental health problems). Third, experimental and quasi-experimental studies that go beyond a reliance on self-reported information are required to understand how, for whom, and under what conditions adolescents' interactions with mobile technologies influence their still developing social relationships, brains, and bodies.
Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others
Compares the extent to which adolescents worry about nuclear war to their frequency of worry about other issues. Looks at the empirical relationships among worry and grade level, gender, trait emotionality, and drug use. Results indicate that adolescents worry more often about school performance and social interactions than about nuclear war.…
Latimore, Amanda D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Sherman, Susan G; Galai, Noya; Srirojn, Bangorn; Thompson, Nick; Ellen, Jonathan M; Willard, Nancy; Celentano, David D
Sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and risks in a sample of rural Thai adolescents and young adults (14-29 years) were examined. Unprotected sex with a casual partner conferred the greatest risk for prevalent STIs, particularly for younger adolescents, and alcohol use increased the STI risk for women but not for men.
Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.
Adolescence is an evolutionarily conserved developmental phase characterized by hormonal, physiological, neural and behavioral alterations evident widely across mammalian species. For instance, adolescent rats, like their human counterparts, exhibit elevations in peer-directed social interactions, risk-taking/novelty seeking and drug and alcohol…
Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John Winston; Osborn, Amber; Smith, Rachel; Hall, Jessica Kate; Kremer, Peter; Kelly, Adrian B; Williams, Joanne; Leslie, Eva
Introduction Throughout the world, alcohol consumption is common among adolescents. Adolescent alcohol use and misuse have prognostic significance for several adverse long-term outcomes, including alcohol problems, alcohol dependence, school disengagement and illicit drug use. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether randomisation to a community mobilisation and social marketing intervention reduces the proportion of adolescents who initiate alcohol use before the Australian legal age of 18, and the frequency and amount of underage adolescent alcohol consumption. Method and analysis The study comprises 14 communities matched with 14 non-contiguous communities on socioeconomic status (SES), location and size. One of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention. Baseline levels of adolescent alcohol use were estimated through school surveys initiated in 2006 (N=8500). Community mobilisation and social marketing interventions were initiated in 2011 to reduce underage alcohol supply and demand. The setting is communities in three Australian states (Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia). Students (N=2576) will complete school surveys in year 8 in 2013 (average age 12). Primary outcomes: (1) lifetime initiation and (2) monthly frequency of alcohol use. Reports of social marketing and family and community alcohol supply sources will also be assessed. Point estimates with 95% CIs will be compared for student alcohol use in intervention and control communities. Changes from 2006 to 2013 will be examined; multilevel modelling will assess whether random assignment of communities to the intervention reduced 2013 alcohol use, after accounting for community level differences. Analyses will also assess whether exposure to social marketing activities increased the intervention target of reducing alcohol supply by parents and community members. Trial registration ACTRN12612000384853. PMID:23355674
Rohayem, J; Fricke, R; Czeloth, K; Mallidis, C; Wistuba, J; Krallmann, C; Zitzmann, M; Kliesch, S
Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) represents a chance for azoospermic men with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) to father children. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for the success of mTESE from adolescents and adults with KS. The clinical data of 50 late pubertal adolescents (13-19 years) and 85 adult patients (20-61 years) with non-mosaic KS, who underwent mTESE, were analysed with respect to factors, potentially predictive of active spermatogenesis; specifically a history of cryptorchidism, age, testicular volumes, serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone (T) and estradiol at the time of surgery. Inhibin B, AMH and INSL3 were additionally analysed in the adolescents. A younger age and a near-compensated Leydig cell function were associated with higher success of sperm retrieval via mTESE: In adolescents ≥15-19 years, spermatozoa were retrieved in 45%, compared to 31% in adults; in adolescents aged 13-14 years, spermatozoa were collected in only 10%. Adolescents with an LH ≤17.5 U/L, along with a T level ≥7.5 nmol/L had the best success rate (54%), which fell to 44% with higher LH, whereas those with low T (<7.5 nmol/L), irrespective of LH had no sperm retrieval. In adults with T levels above and LH below these thresholds, the success rate was 51%, falling to 19%, if LH was higher. When T was lower than threshold, the rate was 17%. No association between testicular volumes, serum levels of FSH, Inhibin B, AMH, estradiol and mTESE success was found. A history of cryptorchidism was associated with lower retrieval rates. A window of opportunity for an approximate 50% chance to retrieve spermatozoa via mTESE exists for young, late pubertal KS patients between age 15 and young adulthood, when Leydig cell function is at its best. In these cases, referral to a centre of expertise should be considered.
Burns, Ryan D; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Shultz, Barry B; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Mahar, Matthew T
A popular algorithm to predict VO2Peak from the one-mile run/walk test (1MRW) includes body mass index (BMI), which manifests practical issues in school settings. The purpose of this study was to develop an aerobic capacity model from 1MRW in adolescents independent of BMI. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years. The 1MRW was administered on an outside track and a laboratory VO2Peak test was conducted using a maximal treadmill protocol. Multiple linear regression was employed to develop the prediction model. Results yielded the following algorithm: VO2Peak = 7.34 × (1MRW speed in m s(-1)) + 0.23 × (age × sex) + 17.75. The New Model displayed a multiple correlation and prediction error of R = 0.81, standard error of the estimate = 4.78 ml kg(-1) · min(-1), with measured VO2Peak and good criterion-referenced (CR) agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zone (Kappa = 0.62; percentage agreement = 84.4%; Φ = 0.62). The New Model was validated using k-fold cross-validation and showed homoscedastic residuals across the range of predicted scores. The omission of BMI did not compromise accuracy of the model. In conclusion, the New Model displayed good predictive accuracy and good CR agreement with measured VO2Peak in adolescents aged 13-16 years.
Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys
Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.
Gil-Mohapel, J; Titterness, A K; Patten, A R; Taylor, S; Ratzlaff, A; Ratzlaff, T; Helfer, J; Christie, B R
Exposure to ethanol in utero is associated with a myriad of sequelae for the offspring. Some of these effects are morphological in nature and noticeable from birth, while others involve more subtle changes to the brain that only become apparent later in life when the individuals are challenged cognitively. One brain structure that shows both functional and structural deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure is the hippocampus. The hippocampus is composed of two interlocking gyri, the cornu ammonis (CA) and the dentate gyrus (DG), and they are differentially affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. The CA shows a more consistent loss in neuronal numbers, with different ethanol exposure paradigms, than the DG, which in contrast shows more pronounced and consistent deficits in synaptic plasticity. In this study we show that significant deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis are apparent in aged animals following prenatal ethanol exposure. Deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis were not apparent in younger animals. Surprisingly, even when ethanol exposure occurred in conjunction with maternal stress, deficits in neurogenesis did not occur at this young age, suggesting that the capacity for neurogenesis is highly conserved early in life. These findings are unique in that they demonstrate for the first time that deficits in neurogenesis associated with prenatal ethanol consumption appear later in life.
Demetriou, A; Efklides, A
According to experiential structuralism, thought abilities have six capacity spheres: experimental, propositional, quantitative, imaginal, qualitative, and metacognitive. The first five are applied to the environment. The metacognitive capacity is applied to the others, serving as the interface between reality and the cognitive system or between any of the other capacities. To test this postulate, 648 subjects aged 12 to 40 years, solved eight tasks that were addressed, in pairs, to the first four capacity spheres. One of the tasks in each pair tapped the first and the other the third formal level of the sphere. Having solved the tasks, the subjects were required to rate each pair of tasks in terms of similarity of operations, difficulty, and success of solution. Factor analysis of difficulty and success evaluation scores revealed the same capacity-specific factors as the analysis of performance scores. Factor analysis of similarity scores differentiated between same- and different-sphere pairs. Analysis of variance showed that difficulty and success evaluation scores preserved performance differences between the first and the third formal tasks. Cognitive level, age, socioeconomic status, and sex were related to the metacognitive measures in ways similar to their relations to performance measures. These findings were integrated into a model aimed at capturing real-time metacognitive functioning.
Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…
Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge
The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group.
Daniel, William A., Jr.
Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…
Pike, Nancy A; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Doering, Lynn V; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Lewis, Alan B; Child, John S
Single-ventricle congenital heart disease (SVCHD) requires multiple palliative surgical procedures that leave visible surgical scars and physical deficits, which can alter body-image and self-esteem. This study aimed to compare sex and age differences in body-image, self-esteem, and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents and adults with SVCHD after surgical palliation with those of a healthy control group. Using a comparative, cross-sectional design, 54 adolescent and adult (26 male and 28 female) patients, age 15–50 years, with SVCHD were compared with 66 age-matched healthy controls. Body-image and self-esteem were measured using the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire–Appearance Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Height and weight were collected from retrospective chart review, and BMI was calculated. Female adolescents and adult patients with SVCHD reported lower body image compared with males patients with SVCHD and healthy controls (p = 0.003). Specific areas of concern were face (p = 0.002), upper torso or chest (p = 0.002), and muscle tone (p = 0.001). Patients with SVCHD who were \\21 years of age had lower body image compared with healthy controls (p = 0.006). Self-esteem was comparable for both patients with SVCHD and healthy peers. There were no sex differences in BMI; BMI was higher in subjects[21 years of age (p = 0.01). Despite the similarities observed in self-esteem between the two groups, female patients with SVCHD\\21 years of age reported lower perceived body-image. Our findings support the need to recognize poor psychological adjustment related to low self-esteem in patients with SVCHD; female patients warrant increased scrutiny. Strategies to help patients with SVCHD cope with nonmodifiable aspects of body-image during the difficult adolescent–to–young adult years may potentially enhance self-esteem and decrease psychological distress.
Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa
This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years) of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old) from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati) and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa). The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours. PMID:26437423
Peterson, Kirk A.; Figgen, Detlev; Goll, Erich; Stoll, Hermann; Dolg, Michael F.
Series of correlation consistent basis sets have been developed for the post-d group 16-18 elements in conjunction with small-core relativistic pseudopotentials (PPs) of the energy-consistent variety. The latter were adjusted to multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock data based on the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian. The outer-core (n-1)spd shells are explicitly treated together with the nsp valence shell with these PPs. The accompanying cc-pVnZ-PP and aug-cc-pVnZ-PP basis sets range in size from DZ to 5Z quality and yield systematic convergence of both Hartree-Fock and correlated total energies. In addition to the calculation of atomic electron affinities and dipole polarizabilities of the rare gas atoms, numerous molecular benchmark calculations (HBr, HI, HAt, Br2, I2, At2, SiSe, SiTe, SiPo, KrH+, XeH+, and RnH+) are also reported at the coupled cluster level of theory. For the purposes of comparison, all-electron calculations using the Douglas-Kroll-Hess Hamiltonian have also been carried out for the halogen-containing molecules using basis sets of 5Z quality.
Payal, R; Gupta, S; Aggarwal, R; Handa, S; Radotra, B D; Arora, S K
Cutaneous warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevalence studies of the types of HPV present in cutaneous warts have been carried out more frequently in immunosuppressed patients. The present study was designed to study the association of high-risk HPV in cutaneous warts of immunocompetent patients. A total of 45 cases of cutaneous warts from various sites in immunocompetent subjects were analyzed for HPV. Samples included both archival material i.e., paraffin embedded and fresh tissue. Highly sensitive and comprehensive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology for detection of HPV of high oncogenic potential, HPV 16/18, was employed. Human papillomavirus 16 was detected in 3 (6.6%) patients. None of the lesions demonstrated HPV 18. None of the cutaneous warts demonstrated histopathological features associated with dysplasia or neoplasia. The identification of HPV 16 in cutaneous warts, which are benign proliferations of the skin, further expands the spectrum of HPV-linked lesions. It remains of critical interest to determine whether these types are specifically associated with the development of malignant lesions analogous to those seen in anogenital cancer.
Ntova, Chara Kleio; Kottaridi, Christine; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Spathis, Aris; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros
The present study explores nucleotide variability, phylogeny and association with cervical neoplasia in high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 collected from Greek women. Of the 1894 women undergoing routine cervical cytology examination, 160 samples test positive for single infections of HPV type 16 (n = 104), HPV 31 (n = 40), HPV 33 (n = 7), HPV 18 (n = 5), and HPV 45 (n = 4) were typed by microarrays method, amplified by PCR then sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. For HPV 16, 9 variants with nucleotide variations were included into the study. For HPV 31, 33, 18 and 45, nucleotide variations were identified in 6, 4, 2 and 3 variants, respectively. The Bayesian inference and Maximum Parsimony methods were used in order to construct the phylogenetic trees. When types were analyzed independently HPV 16 (European and non-European) and HPV 18 (African and non-African) formed distinct clades. The genomic characterization of HPV variants will be important for illuminating the geographical relatedness and biological differences and for the determination of their risk.
Ntova, Chara Kleio; Kottaridi, Christine; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Spathis, Aris; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros
The present study explores nucleotide variability, phylogeny and association with cervical neoplasia in high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 collected from Greek women. Of the 1894 women undergoing routine cervical cytology examination, 160 samples test positive for single infections of HPV type 16 (n = 104), HPV 31 (n = 40), HPV 33 (n = 7), HPV 18 (n = 5), and HPV 45 (n = 4) were typed by microarrays method, amplified by PCR then sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. For HPV 16, 9 variants with nucleotide variations were included into the study. For HPV 31, 33, 18 and 45, nucleotide variations were identified in 6, 4, 2 and 3 variants, respectively. The Bayesian inference and Maximum Parsimony methods were used in order to construct the phylogenetic trees. When types were analyzed independently HPV 16 (European and non-European) and HPV 18 (African and non-African) formed distinct clades. The genomic characterization of HPV variants will be important for illuminating the geographical relatedness and biological differences and for the determination of their risk. PMID:22312235
Tsakogiannis, D; Papacharalampous, M; Toska, E; Kyriakopoulou, Z; Dimitriou, T G; Ruether, I G A; Komiotis, D; Markoulatos, P
Long-term infection with high-risk HPV genotypes is the leading cause of cervical cancer. In the present study a Duplex Real-time PCR assay was developed in order to identify HPV types 16, 18, 31, 35, 51 and 66 in three reactions, through SYBR green I melting curve analysis. The method utilizes type-specific primer sets that allowed the amplification of highly conserved regions of L1 gene. Reconstitution experiments were conducted by using HPV DNA plasmids in order to determine the sensitivity of the assay. The newly designed assay has a limit of detection of 10 copies per reaction. The most prevalent HPV genotype in single and in multiple HPV infections was HPV16 followed by HPV18, HPV51, HPV31, HPV35 and HPV66. The proposed method is a simple, specific, sensitive and cost-effective assay that can be easily incorporated in small and medium size laboratories for the rapid identification of the most clinically important HPV genotypes.
Adaletli, Hilal; Gunes, Hatice; Kilicoglu, Ali Guven; Mutlu, Caner; Bahali, Mustafa Kayhan; Aytemiz, Tugce; Uneri, Ozden Sukran
Abstract Background: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder; therefore, there is a need for identifying more homogeneous subtypes. This study aimed to examine the clinical characteristics and comorbidity pattern of a large sample of pediatric OCD subjects, and to examine the impact of gender, age at onset, and lifetime tic disorders on the clinical presentation and comorbidity pattern. Methods: A total of 110 children and adolescents diagnosed with OCD were assessed using the Kiddle Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) for psychiatric comorbidity, and a clinical data form was filled out. The cutoff for differentiating prepubertal from adolescent onset was 11 years of age. Results: A total of 83.6% of the subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. Oppositional defiant disorder and contamination/somatic obsessions were significantly higher in males (p=0.036 and p=0.03, respectively) than in females. Depressive disorders and religious obsessions were significantly higher in the adolescent-onset group (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively) whereas disruptive behavior disorders were higher in the prepubertal-onset group (p=0.037). Disruptive behavior disorders were significantly more frequent in the tic (+) group than in tic (-) group (p=0.021). Conclusions: There were differences in the comorbidity pattern and clinical expression between genders and between prepubertal and adolescent-onset cases. Findings of this study supported the introduction of tic-related OCD as a specifier in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5), and the necessity of a detailed assessment of other psychiatric disorders in youth with OCD. PMID:26091196
Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa
Sex-typed behavior was assessed at age 3 using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, and at age 13 using the Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale, in 54 masculine boys, 57 masculine girls, 75 feminine boys, 65 feminine girls, 61 control boys, and 65 control girls. At age 13, girls who had been masculine at age 3 felt less similar to other girls, were less content being a girl, and had greater self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control girls, and girls who had been feminine at age 3 had greater self-efficacy for female-typed activities. Boys who had been feminine at age 3 felt less similar to other boys and had lower self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control boys at age 13, and boys who had been masculine at age 3 felt more competent in agentic roles. Thus, sex-typed behavior at age 3 predicted sex-typed behavior at age 13. It was concluded that the degree of sex-typed behavior shown by preschool children is a good indicator of their degree of sex-typed behavior following the transition to adolescence.
Twisk, Divera; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bos, Niels; Shope, Jean T; Kok, Gerjo
Based on existing literature, a system thinking approach was used to set up a conceptual model on the interrelationships among the components influencing adolescent road mortality, distinguishing between components at the individual level and at the system level. At the individual level the role of risk behaviour (sometimes deliberate and sometimes from inexperience or other non-deliberate causes) in adolescent road mortality is well documented. However, little is known about the extent to which the 'road system' itself may also have an impact on younger adolescents' road mortality. This, by providing a safe or unsafe road environment for all road users (System-induced exposure) and by allowing access to high-risk vehicles at a young or older age through the legal licensing age. This study seeks to explore these relationships by analysing the extent to which the road mortality of 10 to 17 year olds in various jurisdictions can be predicted from the System-induced Exposure (SiE) in a jurisdiction and from its legal licensing age to drive motor vehicles. SiE was operationalized as the number of road fatalities per 10(5) inhabitants/all ages together, but excluding the 10 to 17 year olds. Data on road fatalities during the years 2001 through 2008 were obtained from the OECD International Road Traffic Accident Database (IRTAD) and from the USA NHTSA's Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database for 29 early and 10 late licensing jurisdictions. Linear mixed models were fitted with annual 'Adolescent road mortality per capita' for 2001 through 2008 as the dependent variable, and time-dependent 'SiE' and time-independent 'Licensing system' as predictor variables. To control for different levels of motorisation, the time-dependent variable 'Annual per capita vehicle distance travelled' was used as a covariate. Licensing system of a jurisdiction was entered as a categorical predictor variable with late licensing countries as a baseline group. The study found support
Martin, Delphine; Lange, Karin; Sima, Alexandra; Kownatka, Dagmar; Skovlund, Søren; Danne, Thomas; Robert, Jean-Jacques
Education is the keystone of diabetes care, and structured self-management education is the key to a successful outcome. Existing guidelines provide comprehensive guidance on the various aspects of education and offer general and organizational principles of education, detailed curricula at different ages and stages of diabetes, and recommendations on models, methods, and tools to attain educative objectives. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines give the most elaborate and detailed descriptions and recommendations on the practice of education, which other national guidelines address on specific aspects of education and care. The aim of the work package on education developed by Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in the European Union: Working to Create Centers of Reference (SWEET) project was not to generate new guidelines but to evaluate how the existing guidelines were implemented in some pediatric diabetes reference centers. The SWEET members have completed a questionnaire that elaborates on the many aspects of delivery of education. This survey highlights a profound diversity of practices across centers in Europe, in terms of organization as well as the practices and the content of initial and continuing education. A toolbox is being developed within SWEET to facilitate exchanges on all aspects of education and to establish a process of validation of materials, tools, written structured age-adjusted programs, and evaluation procedures for the education of children and adolescents with diabetes.
In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014
Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion
Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Kempton, Matthew; Barker, Gareth; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo; Del Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Anés, Mauricio; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Amaro, Edson; Rohde, Luis Augusto; McGuire, Philip; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Sato, João Ricardo; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin
In the last decade, several studies have described the typical brain white matter maturation in children and adolescents. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the most frequent MRI technique used to investigate the structural changes across development. However, few previous studies have used the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which gives a closer measure of myelin content. Here, we employed both techniques for the same sample of 176 typically developing children from 7 to 14years of age. We investigated the associations between DTI parameters and MTR measure, to assess the myelination in the brain in development. Secondly, we investigated age-effects on DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and MTR. No significant correlations between MTR and DTI parameters were observed. In addition, a significant age-effect was detected for DTI data but was not visible for MTR data. Thereby, changes in white matter at this age might be primarily correlated with microstructural changes.
Atari, Dominic Odwa
Introduction Tobacco use is one of the leading and preventable causes of global morbidities and premature mortalities. The study explores gender differences in the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among school-aged adolescents (11-17years) in Sudan and South Sudan. Methods The study utilized the national Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data collected in 2005 for Sudan (4,277 unweighted; 131,631 weighted). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the dependent (tobacco use status) and independent variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the key factors which influence tobacco consumption among adolescents in the 2 Sudans for ever cigarette users, current cigarette users, and users of noncigarette tobacco products. Results There were significant gender differences in the prevalence of ever cigarette users (21.8%; male=13.1%, female=6.5%, p<0.05) and current cigarette users (6.9%; male=4.9%, female = 1.3%, p<0.05) but not among users of noncigarette tobacco products (14.7%; male=6.8%, female=6.1%). Adolescent tobacco use was significantly associated with availability of monthly income or allowance, exposure to tobacco industry promotions, and tobacco-use behavior of familial relations. Knowledge about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke was related with decreased likelihood of tobacco use. Conclusion School programs that focus on health messages alone may not work for the adolescent population. Legislations that ban all types of tobacco advertisements, promotions, and sponsorships among adolescents are needed in the 2 countries. PMID:25404978
... status. Weight status misperception is more common among boys (32.3%) than girls (28.0%). About one- ... and adolescents (27.7%). Approximately 81% of overweight boys and 71% of overweight girls believe they are ...
Zaki, Moushira Erfan; El-Bassyouni, Hala; Kamal, Sanaa; El-Gammal, Mona; Youness, Eman
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) concentration and oxidative stress markers and assess its relations with the biochemical parameters in obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty obese adolescents (range 16-18 years) and 150 healthy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled in the study. The data were extracted from a project entitled “Obesity among Youth: Lifestyle and Genetic Factors” funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund, Egypt. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1), nitric oxide (NO), and malonaldehyde were measured. Anthropometry, fasting glucose, insulin concentrations, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein–cholesterol, low density lipoprotein–cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) were measured. Insulin resistance was determined by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Diagnostic accuracy of oxidative markers to identify dyslipidemia was calculated with ROC analysis. Results: The study showed that PON1 activity was significantly lower in obese adolescents than controls. Obese adolescents had significant lower NO level and significant increased MA values as compared to controls. PON1 was negatively correlated with MAD and body mass index in obese subjects. Obese adolescents showed dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure and HOMA-IR values. PON1 had high area under the curve in ROC analysis for identifying dyslipidemia in obese subjects. Conclusions: Our results indicate that obese subjects have increased oxidative stress and decreased PON1 activity. The lower paraoxonase level might contribute to the greater risk of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, high blood pressure that are considered as important components in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents. PMID:24944928
The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs. PMID:27550480
George, Madeleine J.; Odgers, Candice L.
Close to 80% of U.S. adolescents now own a mobile phone and they are using them frequently. Adolescents send, on average, 60 text messages per day from their mobile phones and most adolescents (74%) access the Internet from a mobile device. Many adults are asking how this constant connectivity is influencing adolescents’ development. This paper examines seven commonly voiced fears about the influence of mobile technologies on adolescents’ safety (cyberbullying and online solicitation), social development (peer relationships, parent-child relationships, and identity development), cognitive performance, and sleep. Three sets of findings emerge. First, with some notable exceptions (e.g., sleep disruption and new tools for bullying), the majority of online behaviors and threats to well-being are mirrored in the offline word, such that offline factors predict negative online experiences and effects. Second, the effects of mobile technologies are not uniform in that benefits appear to be conferred for some adolescents (e.g., skill building among shy adolescents) and risk exacerbated among others (e.g., worsening existing mental health problems). Third, experimental and quasi-experimental studies that go beyond a reliance on self-reported information are required to understand how, for whom, and under what conditions mobile technologies influence adolescents still developing social relationships, brains, and bodies. PMID:26581738
Fung, Jingly; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Goldberg, James D.; Pedersen, Roger A.
Numerical aberrations involving parts of or entire chromosomes have detrimental effects on mammalian embryonic, and perinatal development. Only few fetuses with chromosomal imbalances survive to term, and their abnormalities lead to stillbirth or cause severely altered phenotypes in the offspring (such as trisomies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, and anomalies of X, and Y). Because aneuploidy of any of the 24 chromosomes will have significant consequences, an optimized preimplantation and prenatal genetic diagnosis (PGD) test will score all the chromosomes. Since most cells to be analyzed will be in interphase rather than metaphase, we developed a rapid procedure for the analysis of interphase cells such as lymphocytes, amniocytes, or early embryonic cells (blastomeres). Our approach was based on in situ hybridization of chromosome-specific non-isotopically labeled DNA probes and Spectral Imaging. The Spectral Imaging system uses an interferometer instead of standard emission filters in a fluorescence microscope to record high resolution spectra from fluorescently stained specimens. This bio-imaging system combines the techniques of fluorescence optical microscopy, charged coupled device imaging, Fourier spectroscopy, light microscopy, and powerful analysis software. The probe set used here allowed simultaneous detection of 10 chromosomes (9, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y) in interphase nuclei. Probes were obtained commercially or prepared in-house. Following 16 - 40 h hybridization to interphase cells and removal of unbound probes, image spectra (range 450 - 850 nm, resolution 10 nm) were recorded and analyzed using an SD200 Spectral Imaging system (ASI, Carlsbad, CA). Initially some amniocytes were unscoreable due to their thickness, and fixation protocols had to be modified to achieve satisfactory results. In summary, this study shows the simultaneous detection of at least 10 different chromosomes in interphase cells using a novel approach for multi
Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan
This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5-16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%(2002)-24.8%(2014)) and girls (8.3%(2002)-11.9%(2014)). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p < 0.001) in meeting MVPA recommendations were observed among boys (32.2%(2002)-25.6%(2014)) and girls (23.2%(2002)-19.2%(2014)). Moreover, in boys we observed significant increases (p < 0.001) in excessive ST on weekdays (75.1%(2002)-88.8%(2014)), as well as on weekends (78.3%(2002)-91.9%(2014)) between the years 2002 and 2014. Increases in overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents.
Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Badura, Petr; Kalman, Michal; Hamrik, Zdenek; Pavelka, Jan
This study examines trends in overweight and obesity, physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) among Czech adolescents over a recent 12-year study period. Nationally representative samples consisted of 19,940 adolescents (9760 boys and 10,180 girls) aged 10.5–16.5 years from the Czech Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire-based surveys conducted in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Trends in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (≥60 min per day of MVPA) and excessive ST (>2 h per day) were estimated using logistic regression. Significant increases (p < 0.001) in the prevalence of overweight/obesity between the years 2002 and 2014 were evident for both adolescent boys (18.3%2002–24.8%2014) and girls (8.3%2002–11.9%2014). Compared to 2002, in 2014 significant decreases (p < 0.001) in meeting MVPA recommendations were observed among boys (32.2%2002–25.6%2014) and girls (23.2%2002–19.2%2014). Moreover, in boys we observed significant increases (p < 0.001) in excessive ST on weekdays (75.1%2002–88.8%2014), as well as on weekends (78.3%2002–91.9%2014) between the years 2002 and 2014. Increases in overweight/obesity with concomitant decreases in PA provide evidence in support of the current and upcoming efforts of government and commercial organizations in implementing interventions aimed at reducing excessive body weight among Czech adolescents. PMID:26393638
Zalavras, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis G.; Deli, Chariklia K.; Draganidis, Dimitris; Theodorou, Anastasios A.; Soulas, Dimitrios; Koutsioras, Yiannis; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.
Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N = 13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N = 11), trained adults (TA, N = 12), and untrained adults (UA, N = 10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body. PMID:25945150
Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chang, Yu-Yu; Wu, Sheng-Ru; Wu, Jia-Ling
Physical inactivity is a global public health problem, and it has been linked to many of the most serious illnesses facing many industrialized nations. There is little evidence examining the physical activity profile and determinants for the vulnerable population such as people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The present paper aims to describe the regular physical activity prevalence and to examine its determinants among adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan. Participants were recruited from 3 special education schools in Taiwan, with the entire response participants composed of 351 primary caregivers of adolescents with ID (age 16-18 years). There were 29.9% ID individuals had regular physical activity habits, and the main physical activities were walking, sports, and jogging. There were only 8% individuals with ID met the national physical activity recommendation in Taiwan which suggests at least exercise 3 times per week and 30 min per time. In a stepwise logistic regression analysis of regular physical activity habit, we found that the factors of caregiver's educational level and preference toward physical activity were variables that can significantly predict ID individuals who had regular physical activity habit in their daily livings after controlling other factors. To maximize the positive effect of physical activity on people with ID, the present study suggests that it is needed to initiate appropriate techniques used for motivation to participate in physical activity for this population.
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lonka, Kirsti; Alho, Kimmo
Recent research shows an increased concern with well-being at school and potential problems associated with students' use of socio-digital technologies, i.e., the mobile devices, computers, social media, and the Internet. Simultaneously with supporting creative social activities, socio-digital participation may also lead to compulsive and addictive behavioral patterns affecting both general and school-related mental health problems. Using two longitudinal data waves gathered among 1702 (53 % female) early (age 12-14) and 1636 (64 % female) late (age 16-18) Finnish adolescents, we examined cross-lagged paths between excessive internet use, school engagement and burnout, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed reciprocal cross-lagged paths between excessive internet use and school burnout among both adolescent groups: school burnout predicted later excessive internet use and excessive internet use predicted later school burnout. Reciprocal paths between school burnout and depressive symptoms were also found. Girls typically suffered more than boys from depressive symptoms and, in late adolescence, school burnout. Boys, in turn, more typically suffered from excessive internet use. These results show that, among adolescents, excessive internet use can be a cause of school burnout that can later spill over to depressive symptoms.
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps < 0.05). Additionally, unequal gender norms were significantly related to male participants' perpetrating rape (p < 0.05). As hypothesized, female gang members who had been in age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps < 0.05). Age-disparate sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps < 0.05). Female participants who had been in age-disparate sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps < 0.05). It is essential for researchers and
Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Naud, Paulo; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia M; de Carvalho, Newton S; de Borba, Paola C; Teixeira, Julio C; Blatter, Mark; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Harper, Diane M; Romanowski, Barbara; Tyring, Stephen K; Ramjattan, Brian; Schuind, Anne; Dubin, Gary; Franco, Eduardo L
Objectives Persistence of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is necessary for cervical carcinogenesis. We evaluated incidence and duration of type-specific HPV infections and the influence of age and number of sexual partners. Methods Data were obtained from 553 women (15–25 years), who were seronegative and DNA-negative for high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types and were enrolled in the placebo arm of a randomised trial of the HPV-16/18 vaccine (NCT00689741/NCT00120848). They were followed for 6.3 years. Cervicovaginal samples were self-collected at 3-month intervals for up to 27 months, and cervical samples were collected by clinicians at 6-month intervals until study end. Samples were tested for HPV types using a broad-spectrum PCR assay. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were used to estimate the association among age, sexual habits and HPV acquisition. Results Incidence rates (95% CI) using cervical samples were 11.8 (10.4 to 13.4) and 5.6 (4.7 to 6.6) per 1000 women-months for HR-HPVs and low-risk HPVs (LR-HPVs), respectively. Equivalent rates in combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples were 17.2 (15.4 to 19.2) and 6.9 (5.9 to 8.0), respectively. 54 per cent of HR-HPV types from combined cervicovaginal and cervical samples persisted for 1 year compared with 32.3% for LR-HPV types. The risk of acquiring any HPV infection was higher among women aged <21 years (RR=1.33, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) and women having >1 sexual partner (RR=1.83, 95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) at baseline. Conclusions HR-HPV infections were more common and lasted longer on average than LR-HPV infections. HPV acquisition was more common in younger women with multiple sexual partners. Trial registration number NCT00689741, NCT00120848; Post-results. PMID:27566633
Park, Dong Choon
Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904
Miao, Yu-Liang; Ma, Hua-Song; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Wu, Ji-Gong; Liu, Yan; Shi, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Mi, Wei-Dong; Fang, Wei-Wu
Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents is associated with the potential for massive intraoperative blood loss, which requires significant allogeneic blood transfusion. Until now, the intraoperative use of the cell saver has been extensively adopted; however, its efficacy and cost-effectiveness have not been well established. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative cell saver use. This study was a single-center, retrospective study of 247 school-aged and adolescent patients who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery between August 2007 and June 2013. A cell saver was used intraoperatively in 67 patients and was not used in 180 patients. Matched case-control pairs were selected using a propensity score to balance potential confounders in baseline characteristics. Allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) and plasma transfusions as well as blood transfusion costs were analyzed. The propensity score matching produced 60 matched pairs. Compared to the control group, the cell saver group had significantly fewer intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusions (P = 0.012). However, when the combined postoperative and total perioperative periods were evaluated for the use of allogeneic RBC transfusion, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P = 0.813 and P = 0.101, respectively). With regard to the total cost of perioperative transfusion of all blood products (RBC and plasma), costs for the control group were slightly lower than those of the cell saver group, but this variance did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.095). The use of the cell saver in posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion surgery in school-aged children and adolescents was able to decrease the amount of intraoperative allogeneic RBC transfusion but failed to decrease total perioperative allogeneic RBC transfusion. Moreover, the use of the cell saver
Luttjeboer, Jos; Setiawan, Didik; Cao, Qi; Cahh Daemen, Toos; Postma, Maarten J
In this study, the potential price for a therapeutic vaccine against Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-16 & 18 (pre)-malignant cervical lesions is examined. A decision tree model was built in the context of the new Dutch cervical cancer-screening program and includes a primary test for the presence of HPV. Based on data of cervical cancer screening and HPV prevalence in the Netherlands, cohorts were created with HPV-16 or 18 positive women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3 or cervical cancer stage 1A (FIGO 1A). In the base case, the vaccine price was based on equal numbers of effective treatments in the vaccine branch and the current treatments branch of the model, and parity in cost, i.e. total cost in both branches are the same. The vaccine price is calculated by subtracting the cost of the vaccine branch from cost in the standard treatment branch and divided by the total number of women in the cohort, thereby equalizing costs in both strategies. Scenario analyses were performed taking quality adjusted life years (QALYs) into account with €20,000/QALY, €50,000/QALY and €80,000/QALY as corresponding thresholds. Sensitivity analyses were specifically targeted at the characteristics of the type-specific HPV test in the screening practice and vaccine efficacy. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was performed to quantify the level of uncertainty of the results found in the base case. In the base case, break-even vaccine prices of €381, €568 and €1697 were found for CIN 2, CIN 3 and FIGO 1A, respectively. The PSA showed vaccine pricing below €310, €490 and €1660 will be cost saving with a likelihood of 95% for CIN 2, CIN 3 and FIGO 1A, respectively. The vaccine price proved to be very sensitive for inclusion of QALY gains, including the HPV-type specific test into the Dutch screening practice and vaccine efficacy.
Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min
Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors. PMID:27472357
Wang, Meng; Zhong, Jie-Ming; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Ming; Gong, Wei-Wei; Pan, Jin; Fei, Fang-Rong; Wu, Hai-Bin; Yu, Min
Evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is associated with a cluster of health-related behaviors, yet studies in mainland China are scarce. This study is conducted to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among Chinese adolescents and examine its associations with other dietary, physical activity, sedentary, sleep, cigarette-smoking, and alcohol-drinking behaviors. Breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire in a cross-sectional study in Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 19,542 school-aged adolescents were recruited in this survey. The associations between breakfast consumption and other health-related behaviors were examined using logistic regression models. A significantly higher prevalence of daily breakfast consumption was found among students who were younger (p for trend <0.001), from urban schools (p < 0.001), and academic high schools (p < 0.001). More frequent vegetable and milk consumption, greater physical activity, and longer sleep duration were positively associated with daily breakfast consumption, while soft drinks and fast food consumption, computer use, cigarette-smoking and alcohol-drinking behaviors were inversely associated. The prevalence of irregular breakfast consumption was relatively high among Chinese adolescents in Zhejiang Province. Daily breakfast consumption was associated with a constellation of health-related behaviors.
Stoof, Susanne P.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; van Rooijen, Debbie M.; Knol, Mirjam J.; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.
Background Meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) specific antibody levels decline rapidly after a single primary MenC conjugate (MenCC) vaccination in preschool children. A second MenCC vaccination during (pre)adolescence might attain longer lasting individual and herd protection. We aimed to establish an appropriate age for a (pre)adolescent MenCC booster vaccination. Methods A phase-IV trial with healthy 10-year-olds (n = 91), 12-year-olds (n = 91) and 15-year-olds (n = 86) who were primed with a MenCC vaccine nine years earlier. All participants received a booster vaccination with the same vaccine. Serum bactericidal antibody assay titers (SBA, using baby rabbit complement), MenC-polysaccharide (MenC-PS) specific IgG, IgG subclass and avidity and tetanus-specific IgG levels were measured prior to (T0) and 1 month (T1) and 1 year (T2) after the booster. An SBA titer ≥8 was the correlate of protection. Results 258 (96.3%) participants completed all three study visits. At T0, 19% of the 10-year-olds still had an SBA titer ≥8, compared to 34% of the 12-year-olds (P = 0.057) and 45% of the 15-year-olds (P<0.001). All participants developed high SBA titers (GMTs>30,000 in all age groups) and MenC-PS specific IgG levels at T1. IgG levels mainly consisted of IgG1, but the contribution of IgG2 increased with age. At T2, 100% of participants still had an SBA titer ≥8, but the 15-year-olds showed the highest protective antibody levels and the lowest decay. Conclusion Nine years after primary MenCC vaccination adolescents develop high protective antibody levels in response to a booster and are still sufficiently protected one year later. Our results suggest that persistence of individual - and herd - protection increases with the age at which an adolescent booster is administered. Trial Registration EU Clinical Trials Database 2011-000375-13 Dutch Trial Register NTR3521 PMID:24963638
Normative Data on Anxiety Symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children in Taiwanese Children and Adolescents: Differences in Sex, Age, and Residence and Comparison with an American Sample
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yen, Ju-Yu; Hsu, Fan-Ching; Yang, Pinchen
The aims of this study were to examine the differences in the levels of anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) between Taiwanese children and adolescents and the original American standardization sample across gender and age, and to examine differences in sex, age, and residential…
Albar, Salwa A; Alwan, Nisreen A; Evans, Charlotte E L; Greenwood, Darren C; Cade, Janet E
myfood24 Is an online 24-h dietary assessment tool developed for use among British adolescents and adults. Limited information is available regarding the validity of using new technology in assessing nutritional intake among adolescents. Thus, a relative validation of myfood24 against a face-to-face interviewer-administered 24-h multiple-pass recall (MPR) was conducted among seventy-five British adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants were asked to complete myfood24 and an interviewer-administered MPR on the same day for 2 non-consecutive days at school. Total energy intake (EI) and nutrients recorded by the two methods were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (using between and within-individual information) and weighted κ to assess the agreement. Energy, macronutrients and other reported nutrients from myfood24 demonstrated strong agreement with the interview MPR data, and ICC ranged from 0·46 for Na to 0·88 for EI. There was no significant bias between the two methods for EI, macronutrients and most reported nutrients. The mean difference between myfood24 and the interviewer-administered MPR for EI was -230 kJ (-55 kcal) (95 % CI -490, 30 kJ (-117, 7 kcal); P=0·4) with limits of agreement ranging between 39 % (3336 kJ (-797 kcal)) lower and 34 % (2874 kJ (687 kcal)) higher than the interviewer-administered MPR. There was good agreement in terms of classifying adolescents into tertiles of EI (κ w =0·64). The agreement between day 1 and day 2 was as good for myfood24 as for the interviewer-administered MPR, reflecting the reliability of myfood24. myfood24 Has the potential to collect dietary data of comparable quality with that of an interviewer-administered MPR.
Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Joung, Hyojee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS We pooled data from five studies involving Korean children and adolescents conducted from 2002 to 2011. A total of 2,599 subjects aged 9-14 years were included in this study. Each subject completed more than 3 days of dietary records. RESULTS Mean daily total sugar intake was 46.6 g for boys and 54.3 g for girls. Compared with boys, girls showed higher sugar intakes from fruits (7.5 g for boys and 8.8 g for girls; P = 0.0081) and processed foods (27.9 g for boys and 34.9 g for girls; P < 0.0001). On average, 95.4% of boys and 98.8% of girls consumed snacks during the study period, and total sugar intake showed a significantly increasing trend with increasing energy intake from snacks (P < 0.0001 for both sexes). Two dietary patterns were identified by cluster analysis: Traditional and Westernized patterns. Total sugar intake was higher in the Westernized pattern (56.2 g for boys and 57.2 g for girls) than in the Traditional pattern (46.5 g for boys and 46.3 g for girls). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that multilateral and practical development of a nutrition education and intervention program that considers dietary behaviors as well as absolute sugar intake is required to prevent excessive sugar intake in Korean children and adolescents. PMID:27698962
Biassoni, Ester C; Serra, Mario R; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea
Young people expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds while leisure activities and noise induced hearing loss is diagnosed in increasing number of adolescents. Hearing and music exposure in a group of adolescents of a technical high school was assessed at the ages of: 14-15 (test) and 17-18 (retest). The aims of the current study were: (1) To compare the auditory function between test and retest; (2) to compare the musical exposure levels during recreational activities in test and retest; (3) to compare the auditory function with the musical exposure along time in a subgroup of adolescents. The participants in the test were 172 male; in the retest, this number was reduced to 59. At the test and retest the conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and recreational habits questionnaire were performed. In the test, hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: Normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3); the Musical General Exposure (MGE), categorized in: Low, moderate, high, and very high exposure. The results revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) between test and retest in the HTL and global amplitude of TEOAEs in Group 1, showing an increase of the HTL and a decrease TEOAEs amplitude. A subgroup of adolescents, with normal hearing and low exposure to music in the test, showed an increase of the HTL according with the categories of MGE in the retest. To implement educational programs for assessing hearing function, ear vulnerability and to promote hearing health, would be advisable.
McDougall, Sanders A.; Valentine, Joseph M.; Gonzalez, Ashley E.; Humphrey, Danielle E.; Widarma, Crystal B.; Crawford, Cynthia A.
Rationale Dopamine (DA) receptor inactivation produces opposing behavioral effects across ontogeny. For example, inactivating DA receptors in the dorsal striatum attenuates DA agonist-induced behaviors of adult rats, while potentiating the locomotor activity of preweanling rats. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if DA receptor inactivation potentiates the DA agonist-induced locomotor activity of adolescent rats, and whether alterations in D2High receptors are responsible for this effect. Methods In the behavioral experiment, the irreversible receptor antagonist N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) or its vehicle (100% dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO) were bilaterally infused into the dorsal striatum on postnatal day (PD) 39. On PD 40, adolescent rats were given intrastriatal infusions of the DA agonist R(−)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) or vehicle and locomotor activity was measured for 40 min. In the receptor binding experiment, rats received IP injections of EEDQ or DMSO (1:1 (v/v) in distilled water) on PD 17, PD 39, or PD 84. One day later, striatal samples were taken and subsequently assayed for D2 specific binding and D2High receptors using [3H]-domperidone. Results Unlike what is observed during the preweanling period, EEDQ attenuated the NPA-induced locomotor activity of adolescent rats. EEDQ reduced D2 receptor levels in the dorsal striatum of all age groups, while increasing the proportion of D2High receptors. Regardless of pretreatment condition (i.e., DMSO or EEDQ), preweanling rats had a greater percentage of D2High receptors than adolescent or adult rats. Conclusions DA receptor inactivation affects the behaviors of preweanling and older rats differently. The DA supersensitivity exhibited by EEDQ-treated preweanling rats may result from an excess of D2High receptors. PMID:24287603
Michelson, Daniel; Sclare, Irene; Stahl, Daniel; Morant, Nicola; Bonin, Eva-Maria; Brown, June S L
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of mental health problems. The DISCOVER intervention aims to provide accessible, acceptable and cost-effective psychological support for stressed adolescents in inner-city secondary schools. The intervention uses age-appropriate cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) methods and materials, delivered in an interactive 1-day workshop with additional telephone support. An open-access entry route allows students to self-refer. This protocol describes a feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing DISCOVER with a waitlist control condition. The study will run across 10 clusters (secondary schools) in the inner London Boroughs of Southwark and Lambeth. Participants are students aged over 16years who are seeking help with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Key feasibility parameters relate to the proportion of students willing to participate in the research following publicity events; the proportion of students who complete the intervention; and response rates for outcome measures. Outcome variance estimates and intra-cluster correlations will be obtained for future power calculations. Qualitative methods will be used to explore the acceptability of the intervention and research procedures for students and school staff. The feasibility of an economic evaluation will also be examined. The results will (i) determine the appropriateness of proceeding to a definitive full-scale trial; and (ii) inform the development of an optimised version of the DISCOVER intervention that can be tested within feasible parameters.
Allen, Keith D; Burke, Raymond V; Howard, Monica R; Wallace, Dustin P; Bowen, Scott L
We evaluated audio cuing to facilitate community employment of individuals with autism and intellectual disability. The job required promoting products in retail stores by wearing an air-inflated WalkAround® costume of a popular commercial character. Three adolescents, ages 16-18, were initially trained with video modeling. Audio cuing was then used by an attendant who delivered prompts regarding when to perform job skills. The two interventions were evaluated in an interrupted time series withdrawal design during training and then again in an actual job setting. Results show video modeling was not effective. However, the audio cuing produced job performances well above the designated criteria during training and when on the job. These changes were replicated with each participant, demonstrating clear experimental control. The changes proved statistically significant as well. Participants and parents reported high job satisfaction. The challenges of competitive employment for individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities are discussed.
Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Francis, Shelby L; Metcalf, Kristen M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M
This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and bone mineral content (BMC; gram) from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Participants from the Iowa bone development study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 years (n = 369, 449, 452, 410, and 307, respectively). MVPA and VPA (minutes per day) were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kilogram), height (centimeter), linear age (year), non-linear age (year(2)), and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity). The interaction effects of PA × maturity and PA × age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile) and most (90th percentile) active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA, did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age neither modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.
Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna
This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6-17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90-2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations.
Principi, Nicola; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Cappa, Marco; Maffeis, Claudio; Chiarelli, Franco; Bona, Gianni; Gambino, Monia; Ruggiero, Luca; Patianna, Viviana; Matteoli, Maria Cristina; Marigliano, Marco; Cipriano, Paola; Parlamento, Silvia; Esposito, Susanna
This study evaluated Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) to investigate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in these patients and the potential protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). An oropharyngeal swab was obtained from 299 patients aged 6–17 y with DM1 who were enrolled during routine clinical visits. DNA from swabs was analyzed for S. pneumoniae using real-time polymerase chain reaction. S. pneumoniae was identified in the swabs of 148 subjects (49.8%). Colonization was strictly age-related and declined significantly in the group aged ≥15 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–0.57). Carriage was also significantly influenced by sex (lower in females: OR 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35–0.91), ethnicity (less common among non-Caucasians: OR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13–0.89), parental smoking habit (more frequent among children with at least one smoker between parents: OR 1.76; 95% CI, 0.90–2.07), and the administration of antibiotic therapy in the previous 3 months (less frequent among patients who received antibiotics: OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07–0.62). Multivariate analyses of the entire study population showed no association between carriage and PCV7 vaccination status. Serotypes 19F, 9V, and 4 were the most frequently identified serotypes. In conclusion, school-age children and adolescents with DM1 are frequently colonized by S. pneumoniae, and protection against pneumococcal carriage following infant and toddler vaccination was not effective after several years. Together with the need to increase vaccine uptake in all the children aged <2 years, these results suggest that PCV booster doses are needed in DM1 patients to maintain the protection offered by these vaccinations. PMID:26575615
Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Goldbourt, Uri
Holocaust and Nazi concentration camp survivors were subjects to prolonged and multi-dimensional trauma and stress. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between exposure to such trauma during late adolescence and adulthood with dementia at old age. In 1963, approximately 10,000 male civil servants aged 40-71 participated in the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease (IIHD) study. Of them, 691 reported having survived Nazi concentration camps [concentration Camp Survivors (CCS)]. Additional 2316 participants were holocaust survivors but not concentration camp survivors (HSNCC) and 1688 were born in European countries but not exposed to the Holocaust (NH). Dementia was assessed in 1999-2000, over three decades later, in 1889 survivors of the original IIHD cohort; 139 of whom were CCS, 435 were HSNCC, and 236 were NH. Dementia prevalence was 11.5% in CCS, 12.6% in HSNCC, and 15.7% in NH. The odds ratio of dementia prevalence, estimated by age adjusted logistic regression, for CCS as compared to HSNCC was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.53-1.77), approximate Z = -0.10; p = 0.92. Further adjustment for socioeconomic status, diabetes mellitus, and other co-morbidity at midlife (coronary heart disease, lung, and kidney disease), and height did not change the results substantially. Thus, in subjects who survived until old age, late adolescence and adulthood exposure to extreme stress, as reflected by experiencing holocaust and Nazi concentration camps, was not associated with increased prevalence of dementia. Individuals who survived concentration camps and then lived into old age may carry survival advantages that are associated with protection from dementia and mortality.
The waist-to-height ratio is an anthropometric measure of central adiposity that has emerged as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. The simple waist-to-height ratio, however, retains residual correlation with height, which could cause the measure to o...
Jia, Gisela; Fuse, Akiko
Purpose: This 5-year longitudinal study investigated the acquisition of 6 English grammatical morphemes (i.e., regular and irregular past tense, 3rd person singular, progressive aspect-"ing", copula BE, and auxiliary DO) by 10 native Mandarin-speaking children and adolescents in the United States (arrived in the United States between 5…
Adegoke, Alfred A.
The psychological experience of ejaculation was examined for 188 Nigerian adolescent boys to determine emotional reactions, feelings of preparedness, sources of preexperience information, and the extent of peer discussion after the experience. The experience was not perceived negatively, and boys usually told their friends. Most suppliers of…
Martin, Andres; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Caminis, Argyro; Vermeiren, Robert; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary
Objective: To examine the association between sexual activity among urban adolescent girls and four global measures of psychosocial adaptation (academic motivation, school achievement, depressive symptoms, and expectations about the future). Method: Data derived from the Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey administered in 1998 to…
Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik; Niemela, Solja; Nuutila, Ari-Matti; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Frederik
Objective: To study childhood predictors for late adolescence criminality. Method: The follow-up sample included 2,713 Finnish boys born in 1981. Information about the 8-year-old boys' problem behavior was obtained from parents, teachers, and the children themselves. The follow-up information about criminal offenses was based on the national…
Murphy, Jeremy W.; Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie
The ability to attend to one among multiple sources of information is central to everyday functioning. Just as central is the ability to switch attention among competing inputs as the task at hand changes. Such processes develop surprisingly slowly, such that even into adolescence, we remain slower and more error prone at switching among tasks…
Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.
This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample…
Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M; Reingle, Jennifer M; Tobler, Amy L; Jennings, Wesley G; Komro, Kelli A
This study sought to identify trajectories of physical aggression among urban Hispanic youth, and to examine the effects of risk and protective factors at age 11 on trajectories of physical aggression over time (ages 12-18). Relying on data from 731 urban Hispanic adolescents from Project Northland Chicago (PNC), latent trajectory modeling was used to determine the number of trajectories, and multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the predictors associated with trajectory membership. The results suggested five trajectories of physical aggression (non-aggressive, low stable, escalators, early-rapid desistors, and high aggression/moderate desistors). After adjusting for several risk and protective factors, language preference (e.g. speaking Spanish at home) was identified as a protective factor, while indirect exposure to alcohol, sadness/depression, fewer negative alcohol-related attitudes, and threatening to fight were associated with increased risk for physical aggression. Study implications indicate that early, multilevel prevention efforts are necessary to deter the initiation and promote the desistance of physical aggression over time among urban Hispanic adolescents.
Foxe, John J; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A
Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5-12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13-15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children.
Fuchs, Michael; Meuret, Sylvia; Thiel, Susanne; Täschner, Roland; Dietz, Andreas; Gelbrich, Götz
The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which regular singing activity and voice training in children and adolescents enhance their voice performance parameters and their perception of their own voice and the extent to which their voice control is improved. At the same time, additional effects of age and sex were also taken into account. We investigated 183 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age (mean age: 13.5 years) and assigned them to groups with different levels of voice strain and training with voice specialists. This was done on the basis of a classification of singing activity which we developed ourselves. We measured the voice parameters, and all of the test subjects were asked to appraise their perception and conscious control of their voices based on a questionnaire comprising 21 items. The higher the degree of vocal strain (taking regularity and organization of singing into consideration) and voice training, the more the perception and conscious control of the voice. Furthermore, the more intense the voice training, the wider the voice range becomes; the stronger the vocal strain, the better the capacity for messa di voce. On the other hand, the maximum duration of sustained phonation unexpectedly decreased, which we attribute to methodological reasons. Older children evince more differentiated perception of the sound of their own voices and imitate other voices more frequently. Boys show better values than girls as far as maximum voice intensity, maximum duration of phonation, and capacity for messa di voce are concerned. Boys also control their voices more consciously than girls. The results underscore the positive effects of regular singing and individual voice training on voice performance, sound perception, and conscious control of the voice. These results should encourage parents and pedagogues to provide opportunities for regular (organized) singing and voice training for as many children as possible. Moreover, age
Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008.
Schneider, Eileen; Whitmore, Suzanne; Glynn, Kathleen M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitsch, Andrew; McKenna, Matthew T
For adults and adolescents (i.e., persons aged >/=13 years), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection classification system and the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been revised and combined into a single case definition for HIV infection. In addition, the HIV infection case definition for children aged <13 years and the AIDS case definition for children aged 18 months to <13 years have been revised. No changes have been made to the HIV infection classification system, the 24 AIDS-defining conditions for children aged <13 years, or the AIDS case definition for children aged <18 months. These case definitions are intended for public health surveillance only and not as a guide for clinical diagnosis. Public health surveillance data are used primarily for monitoring the HIV epidemic and for planning on a population level, not for making clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS using the 2008 surveillance case definitions, effective immediately.
Gaur, Rajan; Maurya, Madhuri; Kang, Payal Singh
Somatotypes of a cross-sectional sample of 544 rural adolescents ranging in age from 11 to 17 years are described. The sample included 269 Rajput (141 girls and 128 boys) and 275 Scheduled Caste (135 girls and 140 boys) subjects. Each subject was somatotyped using the Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype protocol (Carter & Heath 1990). In all, ten anthropometric measurements namely height, weight, bicondylar diameters of humerus and femur, flexed mid-upper-arm and calf circumferences, and triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and calf skinfolds were taken. The mean somatotypes of the Rajput boys and girls were 1.62- 3.30-3.85 (mesomorphic-ectomorph) and 2.42-2.90-3.99 (balanced ectomorph), respectively. The mean somatotypes of the Scheduled Caste subjects were 1.51-3.02-3.74 (mesomorphic-ectomorph) for boys and 2.38-2.64-3.70 (balanced ectomorph) for girls. A one-way ANOVA revealed that females of both the caste groups were significantly (p < or = 0.05) more endomorphic than the males. The sex differences in other two components were not significant (p +/- 0.05). Caste differences, as revealed by a one-way ANOVA analysis, were not significant (p +/- 0.05) in both sexes. With the exception of the Rajput girls, the differences in whole somatotypes between those in an early phase of adolescence and those in an advanced phase of adolescence were not significant (p = 0.05). The results indicate that populations exposed to same environmental situations for a long period of time tend to show similarity in physique. A one-way MANOVA analysis, which used Wilk's Lambda as test statistics, revealed that from 11-17 years there was no significant change (p < or = 0.05) in component dominance of mean somatotypes in the boys and girls of the present sample. Among males of a majority of the Indian populations, ectomorphy dominates over endomorphy and mesomorphy from 11 to 17 years.
Heathcote, Lauren C; Vervoort, Tine; Eccleston, Christopher; Fox, Elaine; Jacobs, Konrad; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Lau, Jennifer Y F
This study considered the attentional functioning of adolescents with varying levels of pain catastrophizing. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain facial expressions. Furthermore, drawing on dual process models in the context of pain, we investigated the moderating role of attention control on this relationship. Adolescents (N = 73; age, 16-18 years) performed a dot-probe task in which facial expressions of pain and neutral expressions were presented for 100 milliseconds and 1250 milliseconds. Participants also completed self-report pain catastrophizing and attention control measures. We found that although there was no main effect of pain catastrophizing on attention bias towards pain faces, attention control did significantly moderate this relationship. Further analysis revealed that lower levels of attention control were significantly associated with increasing attentional vigilance towards pain faces only within high catastrophizing adolescents. In addition, we found that poorer attention control was related to increased attention bias for pain faces (regardless of pain catastrophizing level) when these faces were presented for relatively longer durations (ie, 1250 milliseconds) but not for short durations (ie, 100 milliseconds). This study supports a dual process model of attentional processes in pain, thus replicating previous findings within the psychopathology literature but extending them to the study of pain. Theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
Boonpitaksathit, Teelana; Hunt, Nigel; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Lucas, Victoria S
censored data for the TDSs of the third molar may be used to estimate the age of adolescents and emerging adults assuming average growth and development and recent attainment of stage H.
Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...
Zhong, Hua; Schwartz, Jennifer
Underage drinking is among the most serious of public health problems facing adolescents in the United States. Recent concerns have centered on young women, reflected in media reports and arrest statistics on their increasing problematic alcohol use. This study rigorously examined whether girls' alcohol use rose by applying time series methods to both arrest data, Uniform Crime Reports, and self-report data from Monitoring the Future, a nationally representative long-term survey gathered independently of crime control agents. All self-reported drinking behaviors across all age groups show declining or unchanged female rates and no significant change in the gender gap, while the official source displays a steady narrowing gender gap and some increase of female arrest rates for liquor law violations. Results indicate that social control measures applied to underage drinking have shifted to target young women's drinking patterns, but their drinking has not become more widespread/problematic. Girls' increased alcohol use and abuse is a socially constructed problem, rather than the result of normalization of drinking or more strain in girls' lives. Future underage drinking policies and practices that apply legal intervention strategies to less chronic adolescent drinking behaviors will increase the visibility of girls' drinking.
Crocker-Buque, Tim; Edelstein, Michael; Mounier-Jack, Sandra
Background In high-income countries, substantial differences exist in vaccine uptake relating to socioeconomic status, gender, ethnic group, geographic location and religious belief. This paper updates a 2009 systematic review on effective interventions to decrease vaccine uptake inequalities in light of new technologies applied to vaccination and new vaccine programmes (eg, human papillomavirus in adolescents). Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, ASSIA, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Eppi Centre, Eric and PsychINFO for intervention, cohort or ecological studies conducted at primary/community care level in children and young people from birth to 19 years in OECD countries, with vaccine uptake or coverage as outcomes, published between 2008 and 2015. Results The 41 included studies evaluated complex multicomponent interventions (n=16), reminder/recall systems (n=18), outreach programmes (n=3) or computer-based interventions (n=2). Complex, locally designed interventions demonstrated the best evidence for effectiveness in reducing inequalities in deprived, urban, ethnically diverse communities. There is some evidence that postal and telephone reminders are effective, however, evidence remains mixed for text-message reminders, although these may be more effective in adolescents. Interventions that escalated in intensity appeared particularly effective. Computer-based interventions were not effective. Few studies targeted an inequality specifically, although several reported differential effects by the ethnic group. Conclusions Locally designed, multicomponent interventions should be used in urban, ethnically diverse, deprived populations. Some evidence is emerging for text-message reminders, particularly in adolescents. Further research should be conducted in the UK and Europe with a focus on reducing specific inequalities. PMID:27535769
Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania
This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…
Smith, Edward A.; Zabin, Laurie S.
Analyzes the responses of 1,344 African-American and 580 white female adolescents, and 852 African-American and 520 white male adolescents to questions regarding their perceived ideal ages for marriage and first birth. Findings reveal differences between white and African-American adolescents' responses. Comparisons suggest that the adolescents'…
Massat, Carol Rippey
Analyzed findings of previous studies of the adolescent parent population to determine the relationship between age of parent and maltreatment, and whether adolescent parents are overrepresented within the maltreating and foster care populations. Found that adolescents are not overrepresented, suggesting that programs for adolescents should focus…
James, Michael A.
Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)
McStay, Rebecca L; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Scheeren, Anke; Koot, Hans M; Begeer, Sander
While stress is a common experience for parents caring for a child with a developmental disability, current measures fail to distinguish between general stress in parents and the demands of parenting and perceptions of parenting skills (parenting stress). This study examined differences in 'parenting stress' reported by parents of children with autism and typically developing children. This study examined the role of child characteristics (age, autism severity, child quality of life and problem behaviour) on parenting stress in 150 parents of cognitively able children and adolescents with autism. The results revealed that child hyperactivity was the only factor significantly related to parenting stress in parents of children with autism, overruling measures of autism severity and child quality of life. This finding indicates the significant influence of problematic behaviours on parenting demands and perceptions of parenting skills in parents of children with autism, over other child characteristics conceived as within the parent's control. Study implications for future research are discussed.
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13–16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions. PMID:26580638
Background Early onset of menarche may negatively influence the future health of adolescent girls. Several factors affect the timing of menarche but it is not clear if soy foods consumption around pubertal years plays a role; thus, we examined its relation to age at onset of menarche (AOM) in a high soy-consuming population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 339 girls ages 12–18 years attending middle and high schools near two Seventh-day Adventist universities in California and Michigan using a web-based dietary questionnaire and physical development tool. Soy consumption (categorized as total soy, meat alternatives, tofu/traditional soy, and soy beverages) was estimated from the questionnaire, while AOM was self-reported. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cox proportional hazards ratios, Kaplan-Meier curves and Poisson regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results Mean (SD) intakes were: total soy,12.9 (14.4) servings/week; meat alternatives, 7.0 (8.9) servings/week; tofu/traditional soy foods, 2.1 (3.8) servings/week; soy beverages, 3.8 (6.3) servings/week. Mean AOM was 12.5 (1.4) y for those who reached menarche. Consumption of total soy and the 3 types of soy foods was not significantly associated with AOM and with the odds for early- or late-AOM. Adjustment for demographic and dietary factors did not change the results. Conclusion Soy intake is not associated with AOM in a population of adolescent girls who have a wide range of, and relatively higher, soy intake than the general US population. Our finding suggests that the increasing popularity of soy in the US may not be associated with AOM. PMID:24889551
Introduction: Youth living with HIV are highly under-represented in the evidence base for adherence interventions, despite their diverse and unique needs and barriers. Objective: This systematic review aimed to identify antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions specifically targeting adolescents and young adults (defined as ages 13–24) with the goal of characterizing the evidence base. Methods: Articles were identified using the PubMed database and cover work published through September 14, 2015. Inclusion criteria: (1) average age 13 to 24, (2) HIV positive, (3) on or beginning ART, (4) intervention targeted ART adherence in full or in part, (5) reported adherence, viral load, and/or CD4 count outcomes. Strength of evidence was defined as level 1 [randomized controlled trial (RCT) with significance testing on outcomes], 2 (within group studies with statistical testing on outcomes), 3 (RCTs with descriptive results), or 4 (within group studies with descriptive results). Results: Of 151 articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Published between 2003 and 2014, these studies evaluated diverse intervention approaches. Most were conducted in the US and were small pilots that have yet to be replicated despite promising results. Only 3 studies met criteria for highest level strength of evidence; 2 supported a phone-based counseling approach with adherence monitors and 1 for weekly individual and family counseling. Conclusions: Despite nearly 20 years passing since the wide-scale availability of ART, and clear recognition that adolescents and youth adults fair worse on the cascade of HIV care, the evidence base remains sparse and underdeveloped. Promising approaches need replication and more rigorous studies are desperately needed. PMID:26959190
Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…
Fiocchi, Serena; Longhi, Michela; Ravazzani, Paolo; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham; Parazzini, Marta
In the last few years, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders, which affect a broad category of people, from adolescents to aging people. To facilitate its clinical application, particular shapes of coils, including the so-called Hesed coils, were designed. Given their increasing demand and the lack of studies which accurately characterize their use, this paper aims to provide a picture of the distribution of the induced electric field in four realistic human models of different ages and gender. In detail, the electric field distributions were calculated by using numerical techniques in the brain structures potentially involved in the progression of the disease and were quantified in terms of both amplitude levels and focusing power of the distribution. The results highlight how the chosen Hesed coil (H7 coil) is able to induce the maxima levels of E mainly in the prefrontal cortex, particularly for the younger model. Moreover, growing levels of induced electric fields with age were found by going in deep in the brain, as well as a major capability to penetrate in the deepest brain structures with an electric field higher than 50%, 70%, and 90% of the peak found in the cortex.
Moze, Kevin; Roberts, Graham
The large number of extant Dental Panoramic Tomographs of Afro-Trinidadian subjects were collected and Tooth Development Stages (TDSs) were assessed for each of the 878 radiographs to provide a Reference Dataset (RDS) of Afro-Trinidadian children and adolescents. The values for each of the 256 TDSs present were statistically significantly different from the values for the same TDSs in the UK Caucasian RDS. A validation study of 50 radiographs of Afro-Trinidadian subjects from 24 boys and 26 girls were assessed to enable calculation of the Dental Age (DA). The DA calculated using the UK Caucasian RDS was statistically significantly different from the chronological age. The same radiographs were used to calculate the Age of Attainment of the individual Tooth Development Stages for females and males in both the UK Caucasian subjects, and the Afro-Trinidadians. The majority of these comparisons showed the TDSs in Afro-Trinidadian subjects to develop earlier than the UK Caucasian subjects by approximately 8 months.
Fiocchi, Serena; Longhi, Michela; Ravazzani, Paolo; Roth, Yiftach; Zangen, Abraham; Parazzini, Marta
In the last few years, deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has been used for the treatment of depressive disorders, which affect a broad category of people, from adolescents to aging people. To facilitate its clinical application, particular shapes of coils, including the so-called Hesed coils, were designed. Given their increasing demand and the lack of studies which accurately characterize their use, this paper aims to provide a picture of the distribution of the induced electric field in four realistic human models of different ages and gender. In detail, the electric field distributions were calculated by using numerical techniques in the brain structures potentially involved in the progression of the disease and were quantified in terms of both amplitude levels and focusing power of the distribution. The results highlight how the chosen Hesed coil (H7 coil) is able to induce the maxima levels of E mainly in the prefrontal cortex, particularly for the younger model. Moreover, growing levels of induced electric fields with age were found by going in deep in the brain, as well as a major capability to penetrate in the deepest brain structures with an electric field higher than 50%, 70%, and 90% of the peak found in the cortex. PMID:27069502
O'Dea, J A; Caputi, P
The aim of the study was to examine the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), age, weight and gender on the body image and weight control practices of children and adolescents, and to investigate whether health education about weight issues should target low socioeconomic groups. The study participants were a randomly selected group of school children who completed a questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. Participants (n = 1131) were aged 6-19 years from 12 schools in New South Wales. SES, age, gender, body weight, body image, skipping breakfast, physical self-esteem, attempts to lose or gain weight, and dietary and weight control advice received from others were examined. Log-linear, chi 2 and MANOVA analyses were used to determine interactions between variables. Low SES children were more likely to be overweight, to skip breakfast, to perceive themselves as 'too thin', to be trying to gain weight and less likely to receive dietary or weight control advice. Physical self-esteem was lowest among overweight girls of middle/upper SES and greatest among boys of low SES, despite the latter being more likely to be overweight. Being overweight does not appear to adversely affect the physical self-esteem of children of low SES, particularly boys. Health educators should examine these issues with young people to help make health education and nutrition education most relevant and appropriate.
Background Bullying is quite prevalent in the school setting and has been associated with the socioeconomic position and psychiatric morbidity of the pupils. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between bullying and socioeconomic status in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is confounded by the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold forms of illness. Methods 5,614 adolescents aged 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened and a stratified random sample of 2,427 were selected for a detailed interview. Psychiatric morbidity was assessed with a fully structured psychiatric interview, the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R), while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. The following socio-economic variables were assessed: parental educational level and employment status, financial difficulties of the family and adolescents' school performance. The associations were investigated using multinomial logit models. Results 26.4% of the pupils were involved in bullying-related behaviours at least once monthly either as victims, perpetrators or both, while more frequent involvement (at least once weekly) was reported by 4.1%. Psychiatric morbidity was associated with all types of bullying-related behaviours. No socioeconomic associations were reported for victimization. A lower school performance and unemployment of the father were significantly more likely among perpetrators, while economic inactivity of the mother was more likely in pupils who were both victims and perpetrators. These results were largely confirmed when we focused on high frequency behaviours only. In addition, being overweight increased the risk of frequent victimization. Conclusions The prevalence of bullying among Greek pupils is substantial. Perpetration was associated with some dimensions of adolescents' socioeconomic status, while victimization showed no socioeconomic
Chen, Mandy; Johnston, Charlotte; Sheeber, Lisa; Leve, Craig
This study examined whether negative parental attributions for adolescent behaviour mediate the association between parental and adolescent depressive symptoms, and whether this relationship is moderated by adolescent gender. Mothers and fathers and 124 adolescents (76 girls and 48 boys; ages 14 to 18) participated. Adolescents were primarily…
KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat
Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093
Sierra Leone was ravaged by a civil war between 1991 and 2002. Since the end of the war, it has witnessed an unprecedented increase in school enrollments. Although school enrollment has increased, the number of school age children who are out of school remains high. The focus of international agencies is on children of primary school age, yet a…
Hill, Trenesha L.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; Kamps, Jodi L.; Enrique Varela, R.
The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive…
Gucciardi, Daniel F
The aims of this study were to identify the mental toughness profiles of adolescent Australian footballers and to explore the relations between the mental toughness clusters and achievement goals and sport motivation. A total of 214 non-elite, male Australian footballers aged 16-18 years (mean = 16.8, s = 0.7) provided self-reports of mental toughness, achievement goals, and sport motivation. Cluster analysis supported the presence of two-groups in which players evidenced moderate and high levels of all four mental toughness subscales. Significant multivariate effects were observed for achievement goals and sport motivation with the high mental toughness group favouring both mastery- and performance-approach goals and self-determined as well as extrinsic motivational tendencies. The results suggest that adolescent Australian footballers' self-perceptions of mental toughness fall within two clusters involving high and moderate forms of all four components, and that these profiles show varying relations with achievement goals (particularly mastery-approach) and sport motivation.
The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and
Bar-Eli, Michael; Blumenstein, Boris
In this study, the relationship between mental training with biofeedback and performance was investigated. An adapted version of the Wingate five-step approach was used as a mental preparation technique for enhancing the short-running performance among 16-18-year-old adolescent physical education pupils. Participants (n = 79) were randomly…
[Prognostic and predictive value of koilocytosis, expression of e6 hpv types 16/18, p16ink4a, p53 in locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx, associated with human papillomavirus].
Riaboshapka, A N
To determine the predictive and prognostic value of koilocytosis, expression of E6 HPV types 16/18, p16INK4a, p53 in patients with locally advanced HPV-associated squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity and oropharynx. In biopsy specimens of squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity and oropharynx from 60 patients performed koylocytes count, immunohistochemical detection of HPV 16/18 types E6 protein, proteins p16INK4a and p53. Koilocytosis was detected in 50 patients (83.3%); in all 60 patients (100%) were simultaneous expression of p16INK4a and E6 HPV types 16/18; p53 expression was found in 37 patients (61.7%). After combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy) stable disease (SD) was detected in 11 patients (18.3%), partial response (PR) - in 25 patients (41.7%), complete response (CR) - in 24 patients (40.0%). There were no cases of disease progression. Treatment effect correlated with expression of p16INK4a (ρ = 0.3, p = 0.024) and expression of p53 (ρ = - 0.3, p = 0.019). Patients with a low expression of p16INK4a (2 points) and high expression of p53 (4 "+") had a high level of SD and had no CR. For all patients, the median of overall survival (OS) was 17 months, 1-year cumulative survival rate was 66.7%, 2-year cumulative survival rate - 35.0%. Median of overall survival was correlated with koilocytosis (ρ=0.5, p<0,001) and expression of E6 HPV types 16/18 (ρ=0.9, p<0.001), p16INK4a (ρ=0.9, p=0.037), p53 (ρ=-0.9; p<0.001). Patients with low expression of p53 (0 and 1 "+") had cumulative 1-year survival rates 87% and 90%, respectively (p<0.001), 2-year survival rates - 52% and 80%, respectively (p=0.015). In the Cox proportional hazards model the significant prognostic factors were prevalence of primary tumor (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.5, p=0.003) and p53 expression (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1=1.7, p=0.016). High expression of p16INK4a associated with a high effect of combined treatment, high expression of a p53 - with low effect of
Ufuk, Furkan; Agladioglu, Kadir; Karabulut, Nevzat
PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not. METHODS Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals. The ossification phase of the medial clavicular epiphyses was classified from stage I to stage V using a modified staging system. RESULTS Epiphyseal ossification center appeared from 11 to 21 years of age. Partial fusion occurred between 16 and 23 years of age. Complete fusion was first achieved at the ages of 18 and 19 years for male and female individuals, respectively. The probability of an individual being ≥18 years old was 70.8% in stage III A and 100% in stages III B, IV, and V in females and males. CONCLUSION CT evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis is helpful in forensic age determination and stage III B can be used as a criterion to make the prediction that an individual is older than 18 years. PMID:27015321
Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa
The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors.
Salimović-Bešić, Irma; Tomić-Čiča, Anja; Smailji, Admir; Hukić, Mirsada
This study compares the type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test with E6/E7 mRNA detection assay because of their importance in cervical cancer screening programs. A total of 105 women with positive high-risk Hybrid Capture 2 or Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV screening test and an abnormal cervical Pap smear were enrolled in the study. HPV typing was performed by multiplex real-time PCR (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM test). HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNAs were determined by type-specific real-time NASBA assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV v1.1). Infections caused by HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 types increased with severity of cervical cytology (p=0.008). Global positivity of five HPV E6/E7 mRNAs was lower than DNA positivity within women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (p=0.016; p=0.008). High agreement of the tests was found in the groups of women with low-grade (p=1.000; p=0.063) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (p=0.250; p=0.125). Type-specific agreement of both diagnostic approaches was high regardless of cytology. Based on the found differences between HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, and 45 E6/E7 mRNA and DNA positivity, further study is needed to test the role of mRNA testing in the triage of women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in Pap smear.
Tonkin, Roger S
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275
Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim
This two-wave multi-informant study examined the bidirectional associations of parental control and solicitation with adolescent disclosure and delinquency. Participants were 289 adolescents (150 females and 139 males, modal age 14) and both parents. Parental solicitation and control did not predict adolescent delinquency, but adolescents'…
Piotrowska, Ewa; Zechałko-Czajkowska, Alicja; Biernat, Jadwiga; Mikołajczak, Jolanta
The aim of the study was to analyze health attitude of 409 16-18 year old girls from Wrocław in three areas: physical activity, dieting, and smoking and alcohol use. Research indicated different levels of underweight among 17.4% of girls, overweight and obesity among 11.2% of girls, and inappropriate level of physical activity among 60% of girls. Negative self-evaluation of own appearance among 50% of girls contributed to dieting among 32% of girls. Studies indicated as well that 49% of girls smoke, and 89% of girls drink alcohol occasionally or every week.
Barriga-Paulino, Catarina Isabel; Rojas Benjumea, Ma Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena Isabel; Gómez González, Carlos M
The present report analyzes differences in cerebral sources among several age groups with respect to the encoding, maintenance and recognition of stimuli during a visual working memory task. Differential intensity of involvement of anterior and posterior areas during working memory processing is expected at different ages. For that, 168 subjects between 6 and 26 years old performed a visual delayed match-to-sample task. The sample was subdivided into 5 age groups, and the cerebral sources were analyzed with sLORETA, comparing the groups two-by-two. The results showed that at younger ages more posterior regions are involved in working memory processing, while in adulthood more anterior regions are involved. Maintaining the visual item in memory showed some common activated areas with stimulus matching, indicating similar neural mechanisms involved in holding and selecting the target stimulus.
Nguyen, Ha; Knowles, James
Many developing countries are trying to expand health insurance to achieve universal coverage, yet enrolling informal sector workers and the rural population remains a challenge. A good knowledge of factors driving demand for health insurance among these groups is therefore important. The current study contributes to this body of knowledge by analyzing demand for school-age children and adolescent student (aged 6-20) health insurance, a major voluntary health insurance scheme in Vietnam. Data were drawn form the Vietnam National Health Survey (2001-2002). We found that demand increases significantly with the expected benefits of insurance as measured by proximity to and quality of a tertiary hospital. There is a strong socio-economic gradient both at the household and commune levels, with wealthier, more educated households in better-off communes significantly more likely to purchase insurance for their children. No clear evidence of adverse selection is observed whether health status is assessed objectively or subjectively. Finally, while female heads of household are generally more prone to purchase health insurance for their children, households prioritize young children, male children, and those children with more schooling in their purchase decision. Findings emphasize the need to understand the effects of both health system factors and intra-household dynamics in resource allocation to explain the demand for health insurance in developing countries.
Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; García-Merita, Marisa
This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M age=16.31, S.D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson, Vilhjalmsson and Valgeirsson's (Social Science and Medicine 31 (1990) 551) model which introduces smoking, alcohol use, feelings of anxiety, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms as mediator variables; Model B is an extension of Model A with perceived physical fitness as an added mediator variable. Both models show a good fit to the data. Results showed that, in both models, sports participation affected perceived health directly and indirectly by decreasing smoking and alcohol consumption, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms. In Model B, sport also affected perceived health via increased perceived physical fitness explaining almost 10% more of the variance.
RUSSELL, STEFANIE L.; PSOTER, WALTER J.; JEAN-CHARLES, GERMAIN; PROPHTE, SAMUEL; GEBRIAN, BETTE
Objectives The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to examine whether exposure to early childhood protein-energy malnutrition (ECPEM) is related to worsened periodontal status in the permanent dentition during adolescence. Design A trained clinician/researcher examined the periodontal status of 96 persons aged 12–19 living in rural Haiti using WHO diagnostic criteria (Community Periodontal Index, WHO 1997). Malnutrition data of the study participants had been collected during the years 1988–1993 by a nongovernmental organization. We compared those who had been malnourished in early childhood, based on z-scores for anthropomorphic data collected during the first 5 years of life, with those who had not been malnourished, regarding mean Community Periodontal Index (CPI) score, controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and smoking. Results Overall, 57.3% of the participants demonstrated a CPI score of 3 or greater in at least one sextant. ECPEM was independently and positively related to mean CPI score, when controlling for sex and smoking. Conclusions More than half of these young Haitians demonstrated CPI scores of 3 or greater, and ECPEM was related to poorer periodontal status, as measured by CPI, in the permanent dentition. PMID:20409204
Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee; Saah, Alfred
The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.
Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee
The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. PMID:22518014
Liu, Tao; Liu, Qing; Liang, Meng; Zheng, Shutao; Li, Xiu Ling; Lu, Xiaomei; Sheyhidin, Ilyar
To investigate the viral load of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Using Gp5+/Gp6+ consensus primers, the prevalence of HPV DNA was examined in 253 paraffin-embedded ESCC samples. The presence and viral load of HPV 16 and HPV 18 were detected in Kazakhs, Uygurs and Hans using type-specific primers by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Among the 253 ESCC samples, 52 cases were positive for HPV DNA, all the 52 positive cases displayed HPV 16 infection, and six of the 52 cases were co-infected by HPV 16 and 18. HPV 16-positive rate and viral load were higher in lesions, and was inversely correlated with differentiation grades. However, there was no statistic significance among different differentiation grades. Also, there were no significant difference between detection rates of HPV types, viral load and age, gender, ethnic group, and lymph node metastasis. HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes could simultaneously be detected in ESCC specimens in three main ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The viral load of HPV 16 is higher in the ESCC lesions, and is inversely correlated with the differentiation grades. These observations reinforce the suggestion that HPV infection may involved in ESCC carcinogenesis; however, high prevalence or viral load of HPV infection does not seem to be related with high incidence of ESCC in Kazakhs, which may be the one element among the multiple risk factors contributing to ESCC.
Permanent, sex-selective effects of prenatal or adolescent nicotine exposure, separately or sequentially, in rat brain regions: indices of cholinergic and serotonergic synaptic function, cell signaling, and neural cell number and size at 6 months of age.
Slotkin, Theodore A; MacKillop, Emiko A; Rudder, Charles L; Ryde, Ian T; Tate, Charlotte A; Seidler, Frederic J
Nicotine is a neuroteratogen that disrupts neurodevelopment and synaptic function, with vulnerability extending into adolescence. We assessed the permanence of effects in rats on indices of neural cell number and size, and on acetylcholine and serotonin (5HT) systems, conducting assessments at 6 months of age, after prenatal nicotine exposure, adolescent exposure, or sequential exposure in both periods. For prenatal nicotine, indices of cell number and size showed few abnormalities by 6 months, but there were persistent deficits in cerebrocortical choline acetyltransferase activity and hemicholinium-3 binding to the presynaptic choline transporter, a pattern consistent with cholinergic hypoactivity; these effects were more prominent in males than females. The expression of 5HT receptors also showed permanent effects in males, with suppression of the 5HT(1A) subtype and upregulation of 5HT(2) receptors. In addition, cell signaling through adenylyl cyclase showed heterologous uncoupling of neurotransmitter responses. Nicotine exposure in adolescence produced lasting effects that were similar to those of prenatal nicotine. However, when animals were exposed to prenatal nicotine and received nicotine subsequently in adolescence, the adverse effects then extended to females, whereas the net effect in males was similar to that of prenatal nicotine by itself. Our results indicate that prenatal or adolescent nicotine exposure evoke permanent changes in synaptic function that transcend the recovery of less-sensitive indices of structural damage; further, prenatal exposure sensitizes females to the subsequent adverse effects of adolescent nicotine, thus creating a population that may be especially vulnerable to the lasting behavioral consequences of nicotine intake in adolescence.
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Barnes, J; Cotton, P; Rob