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  1. The use of routine outcome measures in two child and adolescent mental health services: a completed audit cycle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine outcome measurement (ROM) is important for assessing the clinical effectiveness of health services and for monitoring patient outcomes. Within Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in the UK the adoption of ROM in CAMHS has been supported by both national and local initiatives (such as government strategies, local commissioning policy, and research). Methods With the aim of assessing how these policies and initiatives may have influenced the uptake of ROM within two different CAMHS we report the findings of two case-note audits: a baseline audit conducted in January 2011 and a re-audit conducted two years later in December 2012-February 2013. Results The findings show an increase in both the single and repeated use of outcome measures from the time of the original audit, with repeated use (baseline and follow-up) of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) scale increasing from 10% to 50% of cases. Re-audited case-notes contained more combined use of different outcome measures, with greater consensus on which measures to use. Outcome measures that were applicable across a wide range of clinical conditions were more likely to be used than symptom-specific measures, and measures that were completed by the clinician were found more often than measures completed by the service user. Conclusions The findings show a substantial improvement in the use of outcome measures within CAMHS. These increases in use were found across different service organisations which were subject to different types of local service priorities and drivers. PMID:24139139

  2. Sleep Disturbance Preceding Completed Suicide in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Tina R.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Brent, David A.

    2008-01-01

    We examined sleep difficulties preceding death in a sample of adolescent suicide completers as compared with a matched sample of community control adolescents. Sleep disturbances were assessed in 140 adolescent suicide victims with a psychological autopsy protocol and in 131 controls with a similar semistructured psychiatric interview. Rates of…

  3. Tight informationally complete quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. J.

    2006-10-01

    We introduce a class of informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures which are, in analogy with a tight frame, 'as close as possible' to orthonormal bases for the space of quantum states. These measures are distinguished by an exceptionally simple state-reconstruction formula which allows 'painless' quantum state tomography. Complete sets of mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued measures are both members of this class, the latter being the unique minimal rank-one members. Recast as ensembles of pure quantum states, the rank-one members are in fact equivalent to weighted 2-designs in complex projective space. These measures are shown to be optimal for quantum cloning and linear quantum state tomography.

  4. The Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Volunteering on Secondary School Completion and Adult Volunteering.

    PubMed

    Moorfoot, Nicholas; Leung, Rachel K; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    This study explores the longitudinal effect of adolescent volunteering behaviour on young adult volunteering and the completion of secondary school. Utilising data from the Australian sample of the International Youth Development Study, frequency of volunteering in Grade 9 (mean age = 15 years) and in young adulthood (mean age = 21 years), and completion of secondary school were measured. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescent volunteering was associated with an increased likelihood of volunteering in young adulthood (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.29; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.20 - 1.39; N = 2,648) and of Grade 12 completion (OR 1.14; CI 1.03 - 1.28; N = 2,648), after controlling for family socioeconomic status and adolescent school adjustment. These findings suggest that adolescent volunteering may lead to further involvement in young adult volunteering and have a positive effect on school completion.

  5. [Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Rabe, Silke C; Fegert, Jörg M; Krüger, Ulrich; Kölch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Coercive Measures in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry To keep the use of coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry low or reduce them completely, there needs to be a specific knowledge of the starting point. The study provides an overview of the current situation using a systematic literature review of published studies from the European and the outer European regions between 2005 and 2015. In summary only twelve publications addressed the topic, differentiated in four studies from inner and eight studies from outer European countries. In the studies from Europe, girls in their late adolescence experienced coercive measures more often, whereas the outer European studies identified more boys in early school age. Regarding the diagnoses of the respective patients, no distinct trend could be identified, as coercive measures were applied with a range of different diagnoses. In the European studies, coercive measures were more often used with children and adolescents fitting in the ICD-10-category F9. Results point to a lack of empirical studies concerning coercive measures in the context of child and adolescent psychiatry. Besides, clinical practice between the countries varies tremendously, resulting in difficulties comparing the findings. One possibility to address these issues might be a central register for every kind of coercive measure, as it was introduced in Baden-Württemberg lately and is currently in development for North Rhine-Westphalia.

  6. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Healther E.; Strong, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia—the reduced capacity to experience pleasure—is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995)—a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences—in adolescents. Adolescents (N=585; M age=14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that: (1) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like “seeing smiling faces” or “smelling flowers”) provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (2) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs; weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations. PMID:25893676

  7. Measuring Anhedonia in Adolescents: A Psychometric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Sussman, Steve; Volk, Heather E; Strong, David R

    2015-01-01

    Anhedonia-the reduced capacity to experience pleasure-is a trait implicated in mental and physical health. Yet, psychometric data on anhedonia measures in adolescents are absent. We conducted an in-depth psychometric analysis of the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS; Snaith et al., 1995 )-a self-report measure of anticipated pleasure response to 14 pleasant experiences-in adolescents. Adolescents (N = 585, M age = 14.5) completed the SHAPS and other paper-and-pencil surveys. Item response theory models were used to evaluate the psychometric performance of each SHAPS item. Correlations of the SHAPS with other personality and psychopathology measures were calculated to evaluate construct validity. Results showed that (a) certain items (e.g., reported pleasure from basic experiences like "seeing smiling faces" or "smelling flowers") provided more information about latent anhedonia than others; and (b) SHAPS scales exhibited construct-consistent convergent and discriminant validity (i.e., stronger correlations with low positive affect constructs, weaker correlations with negative affect). Reporting diminished pleasure from basic pleasant experiences accurately indicates adolescent anhedonia, which is important for future scale development and understanding the phenomenology of anhedonia in teens. These data support using the SHAPS for assessing anhedonia in epidemiological research and school-based universal prevention programming in general adolescent populations.

  8. Prediction of adolescents doing physical activity after completing secondary education.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Huéscar, Elisa; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise.

  9. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  10. Hormonal management of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome from adolescence onward.

    PubMed

    Bertelloni, Silvano; Dati, Eleonora; Baroncelli, Giampiero I; Hiort, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) represents a main disorder of sex development. Women with CAIS may have their gonads removed before, during or after adolescence, thus requiring hormonal replacement therapy to induce puberty and/or maintain secondary sexual characteristics, to optimize bone mass accrual, and to promote physical and social well-being. Usually estrogens are used for this purpose, but formulations and doses should be better defined in multicentric prospective studies. Some women started testostosterone as hormonal replacement therapy, but this practice remains anecdotal. Bone health remains a crucial aspect in the management of persons with CAIS, but few sound data are available to guide clinical practice.

  11. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  12. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  13. Yoga for Children and Adolescents After Completing Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hooke, Mary C; Gilchrist, Laura; Foster, Laurie; Langevin, Mary; Lee, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer may experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, sleep disturbance, and balance impairment. Yoga is a complementary therapy that improves fatigue, sleep, and quality of life in adult cancer survivors. Using a one group, repeated measures design, we evaluated the feasibility of a yoga program and assessed if cancer survivor participants ages 10 to 17 years (n = 13) had significantly less fatigue and anxiety, and better balance and sleep, after a 6-week yoga intervention compared with a 6-week pre-intervention wait period. Study recruitment was challenging with a 32% enrollment rate; yoga attendance was 90%. None of the scores for anxiety, fatigue, sleep, and balance had significant changes during the wait period. After the 6-week yoga program, children (n = 7) had a significant decrease in anxiety score (P = .04) while adolescent scores (n = 7) showed a decreasing trend (P = .10). Scores for fatigue, sleep, and balance remained stable post-intervention. Fatigue and balance scores were below norms for health children/adolescents while sleep and anxiety scores were similar to healthy peers.

  14. Common issues encountered in adolescent sports medicine: guide to completing the preparticipation physical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Blair; Mullner, Justin

    2014-09-01

    Participation in athletic activities among children and adolescents is on the rise in the United States. Approximately 35 million children ages 5 to 18 play organized sports each year. High school athletes suffer approximately 2 million injuries per year, resulting in 500,000 doctor visits and 30,000 hospitalizations. In addition, early specialization in sports has led to increased incidence of overuse injury in adolescents. Head injuries among adolescents are also on the rise. Primary care providers are called on to complete preparticipation evaluations and to see adolescents with acute injuries. The goal of this article is to discuss these issues common to adolescent athletes.

  15. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-11-15

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg–Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg–Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  16. Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-11-01

    Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg-Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg-Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.

  17. Measuring Adolescent Attitudes toward Classroom Incivility: Exploring Differences Between Intentional and Unintentional Incivility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Ann H.; Provenzano, Daniel A.; Spadafora, Natalie; Marini, Zopito A.; Volk, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale that measures adolescents' attitudes toward classroom incivility and determine whether items would reveal subscales. A sample of 549 adolescents between ages 11 and 18 (53.1% boys; M[subscript age] = 13.90, SD = 1.41) completed items written to measure attitudes toward classroom incivility. An…

  18. Measuring Social Change Preferences in African American Adolescents: Development of the Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kelly M.; Lambert, Michael C.

    2006-01-01

    Studies addressing Black adolescents' social change strategies are nonexistent and might be associated with the absence of social change measures for Black adolescents. In an effort to begin addressing this concern, the 30-item Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A) was designed to measure Black adolescents' first- (i.e., within the…

  19. Perceptions of Parents: A Measure of Adolescents' Feelings about Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phares, Vicky; Renk, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Describes four studies leading to development of the Perceptions of Parents (POP) measure. POP can be completed by adolescents even if they do not have contact with a parent. Psychometric properties are described. Two factors, positive affect and negative affect, emerged; scores are related to adolescents' psychological adjustment. (Author/EMK)

  20. Approaches to measure sleep-wake disturbances in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Jeanne M

    2009-08-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances commonly occur in healthy adolescents. Although diminished sleep and sleepiness seem normal for healthy adolescents, adolescents with chronic illnesses face additional disruption in the quantity and quality of their sleep as a result of the disease process, ongoing treatment, and associated symptoms. Little is known about how sleep in adolescents is affected by cancer, cancer treatment, and concurrent symptoms or about the consequences of sleep disruption for these patients. Although there is limited evidence to guide sleep measurement in adolescents with cancer, researchers may learn effective strategies from sleep studies completed with adolescents with other conditions. This systematic review examines how researchers have measured sleep using actigraphy, diary, and/or self-report questionnaires in diverse samples of healthy and ill adolescents. Psychometric properties are reported for nine self-report sleep questionnaires that were used in studies with mostly healthy adolescent samples. Nineteen studies provide evidence that actigraphy can be successfully and reliably used as an effective objective method to measure sleep in adolescents, including those with chronic illness. Daily sleep diaries were used less frequently to collect data from adolescents. The suitability of these techniques for the study of cancer-related sleep-wake disturbances in adolescents as well as strategies to enhance the reliability, validity, and feasibility of these measures will be discussed. Future sleep research in adolescents affected by cancer can be strengthened by the consistent use of sleep terminology, measurement of key sleep parameters, and efforts to develop and use psychometrically sound instruments. Oncology clinicians should be ready to add emerging evidence from sleep research to their care of adolescents with cancer.

  1. Where Is It? How Deaf Adolescents Complete Fact-Based Internet Search Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Chad E.

    2007-01-01

    An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…

  2. Informationally complete joint measurements on finite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We show that there are informationally complete joint measurements of two conjugated observables on a finite quantum system, meaning that they enable the identification of all quantum states from their measurement outcome statistics. We further demonstrate that it is possible to implement a joint observable as a sequential measurement. If we require minimal noise in the joint measurement, then the joint observable is unique. If d is odd, then this observable is informationally complete. But if d is even, then the joint observable is not informationally complete, and one has to allow more noise in order to obtain informational completeness.

  3. Where is it? How deaf adolescents complete fact-based internet search tasks.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chad E

    An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based search tasks, the study was done in four regional day school programs for the deaf. As students conducted two search tasks, they completed task analyses of the selected Web sites and gave reasons for their selections. The research also identified the processes used by deaf students to compensate for limited English reading abilities while navigating search engines results that were typically written well above deaf students' average reading level. The results demonstrated that deaf adolescents were unable to initiate, conduct, analyze, or validate effective Internet searches in response to fact-based search tasks.

  4. Measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescents using the emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Price, Shelley A; Beech, Anthony R; Mitchell, Ian; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent sexual abusers are a heterogeneous group of offenders that often receive generic assessment and treatment services that are modeled on research findings from adult sex offender samples. The emotional Stroop task has been used to measure deviant sexual interest in adult samples. The purpose of the present study was to test whether the emotional Stroop task could also be used to assess deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples. Three groups of adolescents (a) sexual abusers (n = 24); (b) offending controls (n = 21); and (c) nonoffending controls (n = 21) completed two emotional Stroop tasks related to deviant sexual interest and tests of executive function. Adolescent sexual abusers were significantly slower to color-name some word stimuli than both adolescent offending controls and adolescent nonoffending controls. However, the task was unable to differentiate between the groups on most of the Stroop word categories. Very little research has been conducted with adolescent offender samples and the emotional Stroop task. Reaction time (RT) and Stroop bias outcome data for adolescent samples appear to be more unsystematic and weaker than has been observed in previous adult data. Based on potential difficulties with reading and development, the emotional Stroop task may not be a task suitable for measuring deviant sexual interest in adolescent samples.

  5. Adolescents define sexual orientation and suggest ways to measure it.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mark S; Silvestre, Anthony J; Gold, Melanie A; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L

    2004-06-01

    Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual orientations participated in focus groups and interviews. Two types of sexual attraction-one a physiologic reaction and the other a cognitive response-were central to adolescent sexual orientation. Participants did not perceive sexual behavior and self-identification as necessarily relevant. Preliminary items to measure sexual attraction were developed based on these adolescents' perceptions.

  6. Measurement invariance of the depressive symptoms scale during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined (1) the factor structure of a depressive symptoms scale (DSS), (2) the sex and longitudinal invariance of the DSS, and (3) the predictive validity of the DSS scale during adolescence in terms of predicting depression and anxiety symptoms in early adulthood. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 1,293 adolescents. Results The analytical sample included 527 participants who provided complete data or had minimal missing data over follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that an intercorrelated three-factor model with somatic, depressive, and anxiety factors provided the best fit. Further, this model was invariant across sex and time. Finally, DSS scores at Time 3 correlated significantly with depressive and anxiety symptoms measured at Time 4. Conclusions Results suggest that the DSS is multidimensional and that it is a suitable instrument to examine sex differences in somatic, depressive, and anxiety symptoms, as well as changes in these symptoms over time in adolescents. In addition, it could be used to identify individuals at-risk of psychopathology during early adulthood. PMID:24679136

  7. Development and Initial Validation of the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Melissa A.; Cole, David A.

    2012-01-01

    One community sample (N = 607) of youths generated self-reported responses to body dissatisfaction, from which the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction (ARBD) inventory was constructed. A 2nd, similar sample (N = 830) completed this measure as well as measures of coping, body dissatisfaction, body mass index, depressive symptoms, and…

  8. [Completeness of notifications of violence perpetrated against adolescents in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Santos, Taciana Mirella Batista Dos; Cardoso, Mirian Domingos; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Santos, Yasmim Gabriella Cardoso; Paiva, Saul Martins; Melo, João Paulo Ramos; Silva, Lygia Maria Pereira

    2016-12-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the trend of completeness of the data on violence perpetrated against adolescents registered in the State of Pernambuco between 2009 and 2012. This involved a cross-sectional survey of 5,259 adolescents, who were the victims of violence reported in SINAN-VIVA of the Pernambuco State Health Department. Simple linear regression was used to investigate the trend of completeness of the variables. The percentages of completeness were considered to be dependent variables (Y) and the number of years as independent variables (X). The results show a significant increase of 204% in the number of notifications. However, of the 34 variables analyzed, 27 (79.4%) showed a stationary trend, 6 (17.6%) a downward trend, and only one variable (2.9%) an upward trend. Completeness was considered 'Very Poor' for the variables: Education (47.3%), Full Address (21.3%), Occurrence Time (38%) and Use of Alcohol by the Attacker (47%). Therefore, despite the large increase in the number of notifications, data quality continued to be compromised, hampering a more realistic analysis of this group.

  9. Absolute measures of the completeness of the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, M.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the completeness of the fossil record is essential to understanding evolution over long timescales, particularly when comparing evolutionary patterns among biological groups with different preservational properties. Completeness measures have been presented for various groups based on gaps in the stratigraphic ranges of fossil taxa and on hypothetical lineages implied by estimated evolutionary trees. Here we present and compare quantitative, widely applicable absolute measures of completeness at two taxonomic levels for a broader sample of higher taxa of marine animals than has previously been available. We provide an estimate of the probability of genus preservation per stratigraphic interval, and determine the proportion of living families with some fossil record. The two completeness measures use very different data and calculations. The probability of genus preservation depends almost entirely on the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic records, whereas the proportion of living families with a fossil record is influenced largely by Cenozoic data. These measurements are nonetheless highly correlated, with outliers quite explicable, and we find that completeness is rather high for many animal groups.

  10. Explaining Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Completion in the United States: A Decomposition Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Saloner, Brendan; Carson, Nicholas; Lê Cook, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify contributors to racial/ethnic differences in completion of alcohol and marijuana treatment among adolescents at publicly-funded providers. Methods The 2007 Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) provided substance use history, treatment setting, and treatment outcomes for youth aged 12-17 from five racial/ethnic groups (N=67,060). Individual-level records were linked to variables measuring the social context and service system characteristics of the metropolitan area. We implemented non-linear regression decomposition to identify variables that explained minority-white differences. Results Black and Hispanic youth were significantly less likely than whites to complete treatment for both alcohol and marijuana. Completion rates were similar for whites, Native Americans, and Asian Americans, however. Differences in predictor variables explained 12.7% of the black-white alcohol treatment gap and 7.6% of the marijuana treatment gap. By contrast, predictors explained 57.4% of the Hispanic-white alcohol treatment gap and 19.8% of the marijuana treatment gap. While differences in the distribution of individual-level variables explained little of the completion gaps, metropolitan-level variables substantially contributed to Hispanic-white gaps. For example, racial/ethnic composition of the metropolitan area explained 41.0% of the Hispanic-white alcohol completion gap and 23.2% of the marijuana completion gap. Regional differences in addiction treatment financing (particularly use of Medicaid funding) explained 13.7% of the Hispanic-white alcohol completion gap and 9.8% of the Hispanic-white marijuana treatment completion gap. Conclusions Factors related to social context are likely to be important contributors to white-minority differences in addiction treatment completion, particularly for Hispanic youth. Increased Medicaid funding, coupled with culturally tailored services, could be particularly beneficial. PMID:24613095

  11. Development and initial validation of the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction measure.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Melissa A; Cole, David A

    2012-09-01

    One community sample (N = 607) of youths generated self-reported responses to body dissatisfaction, from which the Adolescent Responses to Body Dissatisfaction (ARBD) inventory was constructed. A 2nd, similar sample (N = 830) completed this measure as well as measures of coping, body dissatisfaction, body mass index, depressive symptoms, and disordered eating behaviors. Evidence of 6 ARBD factors emerged: Self-Acceptance, Compensatory Thinking, Diet/Exercise, Anxious Responding, Appearance Strategies, and Social Comparison. Subscales based on these factors provided evidence of convergent, discriminant, construct, and incremental validity. Sex and ethnic differences were also evident. Adolescents' use of Self-Acceptance and Compensatory Thinking strategies appeared to attenuate the relation between body dissatisfaction and psychopathology, whereas use of Diet/Exercise and Anxious Responding appeared to exacerbate this relation, especially in adolescents who were not overweight. The ARBD provides a window into potentially healthy and unhealthy ways in which adolescents cope with body dissatisfaction.

  12. Measures of Muscular Strength in U.S. Children and Adolescents, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... or upper body measures of strength for younger boys and girls. In contrast, adolescent boys had higher values than adolescent girls on all measures of strength. Adolescent boys and girls had higher scores than younger boys ...

  13. HPV vaccination series completion and co-vaccination: Pairing vaccines may matter for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; McKim Mitchell, Emma; Camacho, Fabian

    2015-10-26

    Very little is known about the effect of concurrent co-vaccination on HPV series completion. This study utilized a retrospective review of a Clinical Data Repository to assess whether concurrent vaccination had an impact on HPV vaccination series completion, and whether there were differences based on age. 3371 patients who received the HPV vaccine at a single academic medical center between the years 2009-2013 were included in this analysis. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for effect of concurrent vaccination on series completion for the age group 9-18 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.09, 1.60). Although not statistically significant, the aOR for effect of concurrent vaccination on completion changed direction for the 19-25 age group and was 0.44 (95% CI 0.17, 1.12). This study provides preliminary evidence that pairing the HPV vaccine with one or more co-vaccines may yield a higher HPV vaccination completion rate among adolescents age 9-18.

  14. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  15. Psychometrics of a Brief Measure of Emotional Self-Efficacy among Adolescents from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preliminary data were collected to evaluate the psychometric properties of an emotional self-efficacy (ESE) measure in a sample of 3836 public high school adolescents who completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Survey in South Carolina. Methods: Principal axis factor analysis was followed by a…

  16. Measuring social change preferences in African American adolescents: development of the Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A).

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kelly M; Lambert, Michael C

    2006-12-01

    Studies addressing Black adolescents' social change strategies are nonexistent and might be associated with the absence of social change measures for Black adolescents. In an effort to begin addressing this concern, the 30-item Measure of Social Change for Adolescents (MOSC-A) was designed to measure Black adolescents' first- (i.e., within the system) and second- (outside of the system) order social change strategies. Factor analysis of responses that 226 Black adolescents gave to the MOSC-A revealed first- and second-order social change factors. Item response theory analyses revealed that 65% of the items on the former factor adequately discriminate across different trait levels, but those of the latter were less promising. Scaffolded on this study, future research might refine the MOSC-A's psychometric properties and improve its utility.

  17. Self-Reported Peer Victimization: Concordance and Discordance between Measures of Bullying and Peer Aggression among Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…

  18. Equivalence of measurement space solution data fusion and complete fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, Simone

    2016-10-01

    Many observation systems are operating on space-borne and airborne platforms, as well as from ground-based stations, providing measurements of vertical profiles of atmospheric parameters. When independent measurements of the same profile are available data fusion methods can be used to combine them and exploit all the available information for a more comprehensive and accurate description of the atmospheric state. Several data fusion methods can be used. Among the others, both the measurement space solution data fusion method and the complete fusion method have the remarkable properties of using all the acquired information and of providing results that are independent from a priori information used in the individual retrievals. For this reason, though the two methods use two completely different procedures, it is reasonable to expect that they give the same results and in this paper the rigorous proof of the equivalence of the two methods is given. Therefore, the choice between them is only driven by the advantages of the different implementations.

  19. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements determine onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation was measured for cold worked Nickel 200 samples annealed at increasing temperatures. Localized dislocation density variations, crystalline order and volume percent of recrystallized phase were determined over the anneal temperature range using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and metallurgy. The exponent of the frequency dependence of the attenuation was found to be a key variable relating ultrasonic attenuation to the thermal kinetics of the recrystallization process. Identification of this key variable allows for the ultrasonic determination of onset, degree, and completion of recrystallization.

  20. Measure representation and multifractal analysis of complete genomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z G; Anh, V; Lau, K S

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces the notion of measure representation of DNA sequences. Spectral analysis and multifractal analysis are then performed on the measure representations of a large number of complete genomes. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the multifractal property of the measure representation and the classification of bacteria. From the measure representations and the values of the D(q) spectra and related C(q) curves, it is concluded that these complete genomes are not random sequences. In fact, spectral analyses performed indicate that these measure representations, considered as time series, exhibit strong long-range correlation. Here the long-range correlation is for the K-strings with dictionary ordering, and it is different from the base pair correlations introduced by other people. For substrings with length K=8, the D(q) spectra of all organisms studied are multifractal-like and sufficiently smooth for the C(q) curves to be meaningful. With the decreasing value of K, the multifractality lessens. The C(q) curves of all bacteria resemble a classical phase transition at a critical point. But the "analogous" phase transitions of chromosomes of nonbacteria organisms are different. Apart from chromosome 1 of C. elegans, they exhibit the shape of double-peaked specific heat function. A classification of genomes of bacteria by assigning to each sequence a point in two-dimensional space (D(-1),D1) and in three-dimensional space (D(-1),D1,D(-2)) was given. Bacteria that are close phylogenetically are almost close in the spaces (D(-1),D1) and (D(-1),D1,D(-2)).

  1. Measure representation and multifractal analysis of complete genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo; Lau, Ka-Sing

    2001-09-01

    This paper introduces the notion of measure representation of DNA sequences. Spectral analysis and multifractal analysis are then performed on the measure representations of a large number of complete genomes. The main aim of this paper is to discuss the multifractal property of the measure representation and the classification of bacteria. From the measure representations and the values of the Dq spectra and related Cq curves, it is concluded that these complete genomes are not random sequences. In fact, spectral analyses performed indicate that these measure representations, considered as time series, exhibit strong long-range correlation. Here the long-range correlation is for the K-strings with dictionary ordering, and it is different from the base pair correlations introduced by other people. For substrings with length K=8, the Dq spectra of all organisms studied are multifractal-like and sufficiently smooth for the Cq curves to be meaningful. With the decreasing value of K, the multifractality lessens. The Cq curves of all bacteria resemble a classical phase transition at a critical point. But the ``analogous'' phase transitions of chromosomes of nonbacteria organisms are different. Apart from chromosome 1 of C. elegans, they exhibit the shape of double-peaked specific heat function. A classification of genomes of bacteria by assigning to each sequence a point in two-dimensional space (D-1,D1) and in three-dimensional space (D-1,D1,D-2) was given. Bacteria that are close phylogenetically are almost close in the spaces (D-1,D1) and (D-1,D1,D-2).

  2. Measuring the complete force field of an optical trap.

    PubMed

    Jahnel, Marcus; Behrndt, Martin; Jannasch, Anita; Schäffer, Erik; Grill, Stephan W

    2011-04-01

    The use of optical traps to measure or apply forces on the molecular level requires a precise knowledge of the trapping force field. Close to the trap center, this field is typically approximated as linear in the displacement of the trapped microsphere. However, applications demanding high forces at low laser intensities can probe the light-microsphere interaction beyond the linear regime. Here, we measured the full nonlinear force and displacement response of an optical trap in two dimensions using a dual-beam optical trap setup with back-focal-plane photodetection. We observed a substantial stiffening of the trap beyond the linear regime that depends on microsphere size, in agreement with Mie theory calculations. Surprisingly, we found that the linear detection range for forces exceeds the one for displacement by far. Our approach allows for a complete calibration of an optical trap.

  3. Understanding Failure of Condom Use Intention among Adolescents: Completing an Intensive Preventive Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Laurie J.; Karasz, Alison; Hamilton, Adaoha

    2007-01-01

    Although interventions based on cognitive theories can reduce rates of unsafe sexual behavior in adolescents, effect sizes remain small. This study was a qualitative investigation of inner-city adolescents' intentions to use condoms following participation in an intensive safer sex program. In-depth interviews with 26 adolescents were analyzed…

  4. Access and Completion of a Web-Based Treatment in a Population-Based Sample of Tornado-Affected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Although web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult to reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a web-based treatment for post-disaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of PTSD, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a post-disaster context. PMID:25622071

  5. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J

    2015-08-01

    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context.

  6. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11-20 years). At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation.

  7. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11–20 years). At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation. PMID:26824348

  8. Treatment Process Predictors of Program Completion or Dropout among Minority Adolescents Enrolled in a Brief Motivational Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordaro, Millie; Tubman, Jonathan G.; Wagner, Eric F.; Morris, Staci Leon

    2012-01-01

    This study documents significant differences in alliance in a predominantly Latino sample of adolescents who either completed or dropped out of a Guided Self-Change treatment program. Therapeutic alliance, working alliance, and patient involvement were assessed via ratings of audio-recorded segments of participants' counseling sessions.…

  9. Complete strangeness measurements in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomášik, Boris; Kolomeitsev, Evgeni E.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions within and around the energy range of the planned NICA facility. We describe a minimal statistical model, in which the total strangeness yield is fixed by the observed or calculated K+ multiplicity. We show how the exact strangeness conservation can be taken into account on event-by-event basis in such a model. We argue that from strange particle yields one can reveal information about the collision dynamics and about possible modifications of particle properties in medium. This can be best achieved if the complete strangeness measurement is performed, i.e. kaons, antikaons, hyperons and multistrange hyperons are registered in the same experimental setup. In particular, production of hadrons containing two and more strange quarks, like Ξ and Ω baryons could be of interest.

  10. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  11. AD/HD Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire Completed by Children or Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Deborah; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Assessing health-related quality of life (HQOL) for children or adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) to corroborate a diagnosis and monitor treatment outcomes, is usually relegated to parent, teacher and physician observation of the child/adolescent. Allowing adults to act as proxy reporters for children/adolescents…

  12. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Addiction Test Among Hong Kong, Japanese, and Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cheng, Cecilia; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Bahar, Norharlina; Young, Kimberly S; Ko, Huei-Chen; Kim, Dongil; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations.

  13. Comparison of continuation or cessation of growth hormone (GH) therapy on body composition and metabolic status in adolescents with severe GH deficiency at completion of linear growth.

    PubMed

    Carroll, P V; Drake, W M; Maher, K T; Metcalfe, K; Shaw, N J; Dunger, D B; Cheetham, T D; Camacho-Hübner, C; Savage, M O; Monson, J P

    2004-08-01

    Although GH replacement improves the features of GH deficiency (GHD) in adults, it has yet to be established whether cessation of GH at completion of childhood growth results in adverse consequences for the adolescent with GHD. Effects of continuation or cessation of GH on body composition, insulin sensitivity, and lipid levels were studied in 24 adolescents (13 males, 11 females, aged 17.0 +/- 0.3, yr, mean +/- se, puberty stage 4 or 5) in whom height velocity was less than 2 cm/yr. Provocative testing confirmed severe GHD [peak GH < 9 mU/liter (3 microg/liter)] in all cases and was followed by a lead-in period of 3 months during which the pediatric dose of GH continued unchanged. Baseline investigations were then performed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (body composition), lipid measurements, and assessment of insulin sensitivity by both homeostasis model assessment and a short insulin tolerance test. Twelve patients remained on GH (0.35 U/kg.wk), and 12 patients ceased GH treatment. The groups were followed up in parallel with repeat observations made after 6 and 12 months. No endocrine differences were evident between the groups at baseline. GH cessation resulted in a reduction of serum IGF-I Z score [-1.62 +/- 0.29, baseline vs. -2.52 +/- 0.12, 6 months (P < 0.05) vs. -2.52 +/- 0.10, 12 months (P < 0.01)] but values remained unchanged in those continuing GH replacement. Lean body mass increased by 2.5 +/- 0.5 kg ( approximately 6%) over 12 months in those receiving GH but was unchanged after GH discontinuation. Cessation of GH resulted in increased insulin sensitivity [short insulin tolerance test, 153 +/- 22 micromol/liter.min, baseline vs. 187 +/- 20, 6 months (P < 0.05) vs. 204 +/- 14, 12 months (P = 0.05)], but no significant change was seen during 12 months of GH continuation. Lipid levels remained unaltered in both groups. Continuation of GH at completion of linear growth resulted in ongoing accrual of lean body mass (LBM), whereas skeletal

  14. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation.

  15. Measuring school-related subjective well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Long, Rachel F; Huebner, E Scott; Wedell, Douglas H; Hills, Kimberly J

    2012-01-01

    The tripartite model of subjective well-being (SWB) incorporates 3 components: frequent positive emotions, infrequent negative emotions, and an overall positive evaluation of life circumstances (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). In light of the large amount of time that youth spend in school, this study investigated a tripartite model of school-related SWB among adolescents, based on 3 measures of SWB appropriate for adolescents. The measures included a measure of school satisfaction (SS) and measures of positive and negative emotions experienced specifically during school hours. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to analyze the factorial validity of 3- and 4-factor models of school-related SWB in a sample of 921 adolescents. Results indicated that a 4-factor model comprised of positive emotions, negative emotions, fear-related negative emotions, and SS best described the structure of school-related SWB in the current sample. Results also revealed a comparable factor structure for male and female students. The study points to the possible benefits of a contextualized approach to SWB that takes into account the specific environments in which adolescents live.

  16. Measuring Impulsivity in Adolescents with Serious Substance and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Laetitia L.; Whitmore, Elizabeth A.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with substance use and conduct disorders have high rates of aggression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), all of which have been characterized in part by impulsivity. Developing measures that capture impulsivity behaviorally and correlate with self-reported impulsivity has been difficult. One promising behavioral…

  17. The Measure of Adolescent Heterosocial Competence: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grover, Rachel L.; Nangle, Douglas W.; Zeff, Karen R.

    2005-01-01

    We developed and began construct validation of the Measure of Adolescent Heterosocial Competence (MAHC), a self-report instrument assessing the ability to negotiate effectively a range of challenging other-sex social interactions. Development followed the Goldfried and D'Zurilla (1969) behavioral-analytic model for assessing competence.…

  18. Measuring Listening Comprehension in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Janet; Clayton, Ian

    1994-01-01

    Of three methods (free recall, verbally prompted recall, and visually prompted recall) for eliciting understanding of a folk tale by 35 adolescents with intellectual disability, none proved significantly better in eliciting story understanding. All measures correlated with short-term memory, suggesting that subjects' difficulty encoding stories…

  19. A Comparison of Acculturation Measures among Hispanic/Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Wagner, Karla; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2007-01-01

    Acculturation has been associated with numerous health and social outcomes among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Various self-report scales have been used to measure acculturation, making comparisons of results across studies difficult. This study administered several commonly-used acculturation scales to 221 Hispanic/Latino 9th grade students in Los…

  20. Measurement of Social Incompetency in Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJung, John E.; Edmonson, Barbara

    Project activities involved: (1) examination of exploratory measures of social incompetency of junior high school adolescents, (2) development and trial of educational units designed in response to problems in black urban schools, and (3) a compilation and review of cross-sectional Test of Social Inference (TSI) data. Extensive test data was…

  1. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA): Development and Psychometric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Shahla; Ramezankhani, Ali; Montazeri, Ali; Mehrabi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA). Methods This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012–2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15–18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13) and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16). In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and factor analysis were assessed. Results An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15–18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93). The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy. Conclusion The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA) is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15

  2. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): measuring social anxiety among Finnish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M; Niemi, Päivi M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the SAS-A. In a subsample (n = 563; Study 2) concurrent and discriminant validity of the SAS-A were examined relative to the Social Phobia Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory. Test-retest stability was examined over a 30-month period by repeated measures every 6 months in another subsample (n = 377; Study 3). Results mostly revealed no gender differences in social anxiety, except that boys reported more general social avoidance and distress than girls. Older adolescents (14-16-year-olds) reported higher social anxiety than younger adolescents (12-13-year-olds). Internal consistency for the SAS-A was acceptable for both genders and for all three SAS-A subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original 18-item three-factor structure of the SAS-A, accounting for 61% of the variance between items. Evidence for concurrent and discriminant validity was found. Test-retest stability over 6 months was satisfactory. Results support the reliability and validity of the Finnish adaptation of the SAS-A, and further indicate that gender differences in adolescents' social anxiety may vary across Western countries.

  3. The MAPI as a Treatment Outcome Measure for Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersma, Harry L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory at admission and discharge to 215 hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. Found significant mean score differences for both internalizing (affective disorder) and externalizing (disruptive behavior disorder) adolescents. Internalizing adolescents reported significantly greater distress at…

  4. The spatiotemporal properties of visual completion measured by response classification.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jason M; Shubel, Erin

    2006-03-03

    A constant problem faced by the visual system is the identification of partly occluded objects within the visual scene. Recent experiments have demonstrated that the visual system engages in a process of visual completion, where the hidden parts of objects are filled into the visual representation. Recent experiments have also suggested that there may be a time course to this completion process. Here, we examined the spatiotemporal properties of visual completion by having observers classify figures defined by either luminance-defined or illusory contours and then correlating their decisions with externally added spatiotemporal visual noise. This "response classification" technique allowed us to derive a spatiotemporal correlation map (a "classification movie") that revealed the locations used by observers at each point in space and time during the stimulus presentation. We found that observers gradually became more influenced by noise at locations corresponding to illusory contours across the first 175 ms of stimulus presentation. Our results are consistent with the idea that there is a time course to the completion process on the order of approximately 175 ms.

  5. Measuring Neighborhood Connection and the Association with Violence in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Widome, Rachel; Sieving, Renee E.; Harpin, Scott A.; Hearst, Mary O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to construct measures of adolescent neighborhood connection and test the association of these measures with violence-related behaviors. Methods This study uses data from the baseline Lead Peace-Plus evaluation survey completed by 6th grade students (n=118). The survey was conducted in Fall, 2006 in four urban community schools with similar ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged student bodies. The survey instrument, tailored for adolescents, included questions about violence involvement in the past year, as well as youth perceptions of and interactions with others in their neighborhood. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to construct neighborhood connectedness scales. Mixed-model logistic regression was used to examine relationships of these scales with students' violent behaviors, adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Results Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors. The first factor, Intention to Contribute, was composed of five items (α = 0.86) that indicated whether adolescents value and intend to work to improve their neighborhoods. The factor, Neighborhood Social Resources, was composed of eight items (α = 0.76) that reflected adolescents' familiarity with neighbors and perceptions that their neighbors could provide support. Students with lower levels of both neighborhood connection measures were more likely to report violent behaviors in the past year. However, the trends were statistically significant only for relationships between Intention to Contribute and violence indicators. Conclusions Neighborhood connection can be measured with reliability in middle school students. Cultivating young adolescents' intentions to contribute to their neighborhoods may be an effective strategy for reducing youth violence. PMID:18848677

  6. Caring for Your Adolescent: Ages 12 to 21. The Complete and Authoritative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greydanus, Donald E., Ed.

    The second in a three-volume series of childcare books developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics and Feeling Fine Programs, this reference book addresses medical and parenting concerns related to raising an adolescent. The book provides scientific information and advice on how to promote the physical, emotional, cognitive, and psychological…

  7. Two measured completely different electron affinities for atomic Eu?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Msezane, A. Z.; Felfli, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the electron affinity (EA) of atomic Eu was measured to be 0.116?eV. This value is in outstanding agreement with the theoretically calculated values using the Regge pole and MCDF-RCI methods. Previously, the EA of Eu was measured to be 1.053 eV. In an attempt to resolve the discrepancy between the two measured values, we have adopted the complex angular momentum (CAM) method and investigated in the electron energy range 0.11 eV measured EA of Eu correspond to the actual EA of Eu. We conclude that the EA in corresponds to the BE of an excited (metastable) state of the Euanion and that in to a shape resonance. We have also investigated the EA of atomic Nd and found the value of 1.88 eV, consistent with the measurement. These significant EA values of Eu and Nd could be important in the use of their negative ions in catalyzing the oxidation of water to peroxide and of methane to methanol without CO2 emission. These new results call for immediate experimental and theoretical verification.

  8. The Completion Arch: Measuring Community College Student Success--2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Laura; Radwin, David

    2012-01-01

    Essential to tracking student success at community colleges is the availability of solid data and commonly defined metrics that go beyond measuring the traditional (and limited) enrollment and graduation rates that these colleges report to the federal government. In particular, what is needed are metrics that illuminate what happens to students…

  9. Measurement of Emotion Dysregulation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Anna; Klonsky, E. David

    2009-01-01

    The construct of emotion dysregulation increasingly has been used to explain diverse psychopathologies across the lifespan. The Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; K. L. Gratz & L. Roemer, 2004) represents the most comprehensive measure of the construct to date and exhibits good reliability and validity in adults; however, the…

  10. Child and adolescent service experience (ChASE): measuring service quality and therapeutic process.

    PubMed

    Day, Crispin; Michelson, Daniel; Hassan, Imren

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. Dissatisfaction with services has been associated with poorer child mental health outcomes, early treatment termination as well as disagreements over the nature of mental health difficulties, reasons for referral and therapy goals. The development of straightforward, reliable, and accurate methods of eliciting service users' views is essential within child and adolescent mental health care. This paper describes the development of the child and adolescent service experience (ChASE), a tool to measure children and young people's service experience DESIGN. The study comprises a non-experimental, cross-sectional design. METHODS. Participants were 132 mental health service users aged 8-18 years. Participants and their main carer completed the ChASE, Parent Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) (Stallard, 1996) and Strengths and Difficulties (SDQ) Impact Supplement. Clinicians completed the SDQ Impact Supplement and provided clinical activity data. A sub-sample of participants completed the ChASE on a second occasion, 6 weeks after the completion of the first questionnaire. RESULTS. Scrutiny of ChASE data indicated high levels of completion. Principal axis factoring identified three factors within the ChASE: Relationship, Privacy, and Session Activity. The ChASE has good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Significant correlations were found between the ChASE and carer satisfaction, service use, and youth clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. The ChASE is a short, psychometrically robust tool for routine measurement of children, and young people's experience of mental health services, which users can complete easily. The results underline the importance of alliance factors to children and young people and their association with clinical improvement as well as the potential for the ChASE to be used a measure of children's therapeutic progress and alliance.

  11. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Scott C; Norman, Greg J; Merz, Erin L; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 - 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA.

  12. Susceptibility to peer influence: using a performance-based measure to identify adolescent males at heightened risk for deviant peer socialization.

    PubMed

    Prinstein, Mitchell J; Brechwald, Whitney A; Cohen, Geoffrey L

    2011-07-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents' susceptibility to peers. A total of 36 adolescent boys participated in a "chat room" experiment in which they ostensibly were exposed to deviant or risky social norms communicated either by high-peer-status (i.e., popular, well-liked) or low-peer-status (i.e., unpopular, disliked) grade mates who actually were electronic confederates. Changes in adolescents' responses before and after exposure to peer norms were used as a measure of peer influence susceptibility. These same adolescents completed a questionnaire assessment at the study outset and again 18 months later to assess their actual engagement in deviant behavior and their perceptions of their best friend's engagement in deviant behavior. Only among adolescents with high levels of susceptibility to high-status peers was a significant longitudinal association revealed between their best friend's baseline deviant behavior and adolescents' own deviant behavior 18 months later. Findings support the predictive validity of a performance-based susceptibility measure and suggest that adolescents' peer influence susceptibility may generalize across peer contexts.

  13. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  14. Two modulator generalized ellipsometer for complete mueller matrix measurement

    DOEpatents

    Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Modine, Frank A.

    1999-01-01

    A two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE) comprising two polarizer-photoelastic modulator (PEM) pairs, an optical light source, an optical detection system, and associated data processing and control electronics, where the PEMs are free-running. The input light passes through the first polarizer-PEM pair, reflects off the sample surface or passes through the sample, passes through the second PEM-polarizer pair, and is detected. Each PEM is free running and operates at a different resonant frequency, e.g., 50 and 60 kHz. The resulting time-dependent waveform of the light intensity is a complicated function of time, and depends upon the exact operating frequency and phase of each PEM, the sample, and the azimuthal angles of the polarizer-PEM pairs, but can be resolved into a dc component and eight periodic components. In one embodiment, the waveform is analyzed using a new spectral analysis technique that is similar to Fourier analysis to determine eight sample Mueller matrix elements (normalized to the m.sub.00 Mueller matrix element). The other seven normalized elements of the general 4.times.4 Mueller matrix can be determined by changing the azimuthal angles of the PEM-polarizer pairs with respect to the plane of incidence. Since this instrument can measure all elements of the sample Mueller matrix, it is much more powerful than standard ellipsometers.

  15. Profiling of subgingival plaque biofilm microbiota in adolescents after completion of orthodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Li, Shuxiang; Zhang, Yujie; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Chunling; Xiao, Shuiqing

    2017-01-01

    Background Fixed orthodontic treatment is the most common method for malocclusion but has the potential risk of periodontal complication with unclear outcomes of whether microbiologic and clinical changes could be reversible in adolescents after orthodontic therapy. Methods Twenty adolescents with orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study as the case group at end of the therapy, while 19 periodontally healthy adolescents were involved in the control group. At baseline (T0), clinical parameters including gingival index, probing depth and sulcus bleeding index were tested, and subgingival plaque samples were collected from the lower incisors. The counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, T. forsythia and total bacteria were determined by real-time PCR. All parameters were reassessed after 1 month (T1) and 3 months (T2) in the case group and compared with that of the controls. Results At baseline (T0), clinical parameters (including GI, PD, SBI) of the test sites in the case group were significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). At 3 months (T2), no differences were noticed in GI and SBI between two groups. The prevalence and counts of periodontopathogens tend to be normal (P>0.05), while PD and the amount of P.intermedia were still significantly higher compared with that of the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion After removal of appliances, the periodontal changes induced by orthodontic therapy are only partially reversible at 3 months after removal. PMID:28158292

  16. Near complete resolution of refractory, relapsed, metastatic Wilms' tumour in an adolescent with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shiyam; Burney, Ikram A; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S

    2014-03-01

    Wilms' tumour is common among children but rare in adults. Children with Wilms' tumour have better prognosis even when diagnosed at advanced stage. We report the case of an adolescent girl with chemo-resistant metastatic Wilms' tumour treated previously with two lines of chemotherapy. Upon progression on second line chemotherapy, there was a partial response to Bevacizumab based combination chemotherapy in the third line. Patient was referred for high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell therapy. The latter could not be achieved. The patient had a relapse 3 months later and succumbed to the disease.

  17. Adolescent daily and general maladjustment: is there reactivity to daily repeated measures methodologies?

    PubMed

    Nishina, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether repeated exposure to daily surveys about negative social experiences predicts changes in adolescents' daily and general maladjustment, and whether question content moderates these changes. Across a 2-week period, 6th-grade students (N = 215; mode age = 11) completed 5 daily reports tapping experienced or experienced and witnessed negative events, or they completed no daily reports. General maladjustment was measured in 2-week intervals before, at the end of, and 2 weeks after the daily report study. Daily maladjustment either decreased or did not change across the 5 daily report exposures. General maladjustment decreased across the three 2-week intervals. Combined, results indicate that short-term daily report studies do not place youth at risk for increased maladjustment.

  18. Adolescents Define Sexual Orientation and Suggest Ways to Measure It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, M. S. Mark S.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Gold, Melanie A.; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual…

  19. Measurement of Habitual Physical Activity Performance in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanchy, Kelly M.; Tweedy, Sean M.; Boyd, Roslyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review compares the validity, reliability, and clinical use of habitual physical activity (HPA) performance measures in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Measures of HPA across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-V for adolescents (10-18y) with CP were included if at least 60% of items…

  20. Validation of Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB). A Multimedia Measure of Adolescent Dating Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teten, Andra L.; Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Pacifici, Caesar

    2005-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Acceptance of Coercive Sexual Behavior (ACSB), a multimedia measure of adolescent dating attitudes, were examined. The ACSB is an interactive instrument that uses video vignettes to depict adolescent dating situations. Analyses of the measure's factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and…

  1. Being Bicultural: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Implicitly and Explicitly Measured Multiethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how ethnic identities develop in adolescence is currently limited by a reliance on self-report paper-and-pencil measures. This mixed-methods study presents a novel response time measure, the Multiethnic Identities Processing Task (MIPT), to quantify bicultural adolescents' implicit identifications with ethnic and racial identity…

  2. Measurement of religiosity/spirituality in adolescent health outcomes research: trends and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sian; McGrady, Meghan E; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures.

  3. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): evidence from exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ang, Rebecca P; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer Concerns (5 items), Personal Concerns (6 items), and School Concerns (4 items). Initial estimates of convergent validity for ACM scores were also reported. The four-factor structure of ACM scores derived from Study 1 was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 using a two-fold cross-validation procedure with a separate sample of 811 adolescents. Support was found for both the multidimensional and hierarchical models of adolescent concerns using the ACM. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability estimates were adequate for research purposes. ACM scores show promise as a reliable and potentially valid measure of Asian adolescents' concerns.

  4. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  5. Adolescent care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202

  6. Attachment, Parenting, and Separation-Individuation in Adolescence: A Comparison of Hospitalized Adolescents, Institutionalized Delinquents, and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delhaye, Marie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Burton, Julie; Linkowski, Paul; Stroobants, Rob; Goossens, Luc

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared parent-related perceptions by hospitalized adolescents (i.e., who were admitted to a specialized psychiatric unit; n = 50) and delinquent adolescents (i.e., who were placed at a juvenile treatment institution; n = 51) with adolescents from the general population (n = 51). All adolescents completed a broad set of measures of…

  7. Factorial Validity and Invariance of a Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the factorial validity and factorial invariance of the 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR) using confirmatory factor analysis. Adolescent girls from two cohorts (N=955, N=1,797) completed the 3DPAR in the eighth grade; participants in Cohort 2 (N=1,658) completed the 3DPAR again 1 year later in the ninth grade. The 3DPAR…

  8. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  9. Adolescent Student Burnout Inventory in Mainland China: Measurement Invariance across Gender and Educational Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Bi; Wu, Yan; Wen, Zhonglin; Wang, Mengcheng

    2014-01-01

    This article assessed the measurement in variance of the Adolescent Student Burnout Inventory (ASBI) across gender and educational track, and investigated the main and interaction effects of gender and educational track on the facets of student burnout with a sample consisting of 2,216 adolescent students from China. Multigroup confirmatory factor…

  10. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  11. Validity Evidence for the Security Scale as a Measure of Perceived Attachment Security in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the validity of a self-report measure of children's perceived attachment security (the Kerns Security Scale) was tested using adolescents. With regards to predictive validity, the Security Scale was significantly associated with (1) observed mother-adolescent interactions during conflict and (2) parent- and teacher-rated social…

  12. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A): Measuring Social Anxiety among Finnish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure…

  13. Development of a Measure of Behavioral Coping Skills for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Mary A.; And Others

    Development and initial validation are described for an instrument to assess the behavioral coping skills of adolescents. The Assessment of Behavioral Coping Skills (ABCS) was designed for use in the South Carolina Coping Skills Project, a school-based coping skills prevention program for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse. The ABCS…

  14. Declining Health Behavior of Adolescents: A Measure of Alienation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell

    1981-01-01

    Cites statistics on such adolescent problems as pregnancy, drugs, and obesity as evidence of the serious neglect and alienation of this age group in an era of family instability and declining social roles for youth. Urges educators to give concerted attention to the physical, mental, and health needs of adolescents. (SJL)

  15. Cognitive Measures of Adolescent Depression: Unique or Unitary Constructs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Silva, Susan G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Tonev, Simon; Hoyle, Rick H.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Reinecke, Mark A.; Curry, John F.; March, John S.

    2009-01-01

    The factor structure of several self-report questionnaires assessing depression-relevant cognitions frequently employed in clinical research was examined in a sample of 390 adolescents (M age = 14.54; 216 girls; 74% Caucasian) with current major depressive disorder enrolled in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study. A four-factor…

  16. Determination of smoking and drinking and preventive measures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Altay, Naime; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Citak, Ebru Akgun

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and alcohol drinking in adolescents cause significant problems in most countries. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to determine the prevalence, causes, risk factors, and preventive factors for cigarette and alcohol use in adolescents. The sample included 1,133 students enrolled in grades 9-12. Data were collected using a descriptive data form, the Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale, and the Family Environment Scale. Most adolescents stated that stress and psychological problems were the causes of smoking and alcohol use. Preventive factors were indicated as developing skills for saying "no," good coping skills, and peer groups not using cigarettes. The Psychological Resilience and Adolescent Development Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly higher than for nonuse. The Family Environment Scale mean score for cigarette and alcohol use was significantly lower than for nonuse.

  17. Psychometric Evidence of a Multidimensional Measure of Prosocial Behaviors for Spanish Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Maria V; Carlo, Gustavo; Samper, Paula; Tur-Porcar, Ana M; Mestre, Ana Llorca

    2015-01-01

    Prior theories and scholars rarely distinguished between distinct forms of prosocial behaviors (i.e., actions intended to benefit others) and most scholars operationalize prosocial behaviors as a global construct. Furthermore, stringent tests of psychometric properties of prosocial behavior measures are rare, especially in countries other than the United States. The present study was designed to examine the structure and functions of a multidimensional measure of prosocial behaviors in youth from Spain. Six hundred and 66 adolescents (46% girls; M age = 15.33 years, SD = 0.47 years) from Valencia, Spain, completed the Prosocial Tendencies Measure-Revised (PTM-R), measures of sympathy, perspective taking, and a global measure of prosocial behavior. Results showed that the hypothesized 6-factor structure of the PTM-R had good fit, the best fit model as compared to alternative models, and that there were several unique patterns of relations between specific forms of prosocial behaviors and sympathy, perspective taking, and the global measure of prosocial behavior. Furthermore, although there were significant gender differences in some forms of prosocial behaviors, the structure of the PTM-R was equivalent across gender. Discussion focuses on the implications for theories and measurement of prosocial behaviors.

  18. Measurement equivalence of the language-brokering scale for Chinese American adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Weaver, Scott R; Shen, Yishan; Wu-Seibold, Nina; Liu, Cindy H

    2014-04-01

    Language brokering occurs frequently in immigrant families. Using data from 279 Chinese American families with adolescents who function as language brokers for their parents, the current study developed a comprehensive scale to assess adolescents' and their parents' perceptions of language brokering. Both versions, parent and adolescent, showed stable factor structures. We also examined measurement equivalence, including factorial and construct-validity invariance, for each subscale across parent gender, adolescent gender, adolescent nativity, and translation frequency. In general, metric factorial invariance was observed for most subscales across the different groups; these subscales can thus be used in future studies examining the relations between language brokering and other variables. Further, two adolescent subscales (i.e., adolescent-focused burden, positive relations with parents) and three parent subscales (i.e., parent-focused burden, negative feelings, positive relations with child) demonstrated strong factorial invariance consistently across different groups, and can thus be used in future studies examining mean group differences in language-brokering experiences. In terms of construct-validity equivalence, most subscales were associated with parent-child conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms to a similar degree across parent gender, adolescent gender, and nativity. Implications of the current findings and recommendations for future use are discussed.

  19. The role of parental and adolescent attributions in adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Guion, Kimberly; Mrug, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Previous literature has demonstrated the separate contributions of parental attributions and adolescent attributions to psychosocial adjustment of adolescents with chronic illness. However, it is unknown whether parental attributions affect adolescents' mental health directly or indirectly by influencing the youths' attributional style. This study evaluated the direct and indirect (through adolescent attributions) effects of parental attributions on internalizing and externalizing problems of adolescents with chronic illness. Adolescents (N = 128; M = 14.7 years) diagnosed with cystic fibrosis or diabetes and their caregivers completed measures of attributional style and adolescent adjustment. Parents' optimistic attributions were associated with fewer adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. These effects were partly mediated by adolescent attributions. These results suggest that targeting both adolescent and parent attributions may be important for improving adolescents' adjustment to a chronic illness.

  20. Using Social Marketing Theory as a Framework for Understanding and Increasing HPV Vaccine Series Completion Among Hispanic Adolescents: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Carmack, Chakema C; Muñoz, Becky T; Cano, Miguel A; Cribbs, Felicity

    2017-02-01

    HPV vaccine series completion rates among adolescent Hispanic females and males (~39 and 21 %, respectively) are far below the Healthy People 80 % coverage goal. Completion of the 3-dose vaccine series is critical to reducing the incidence of HPV-associated cancers. This formative study applies social marketing theory to assess the needs and preferences of Hispanic mothers in order to guide the development of interventions to increase HPV vaccine completion. We conducted 51 in-depth interviews with Hispanic mothers of adolescents to identify the key concepts of social marketing theory (i.e., the four P's: product, price, place and promotion). Results suggest that a desire complete the vaccine series, vaccine reminders and preventing illnesses and protecting their children against illnesses and HPV all influence vaccination (product). The majority of Completed mothers did not experience barriers that prevented vaccine series completion and Initiated mothers perceived a lack of health insurance and the cost of the vaccine as potential barriers. Informational barriers were prevalent across both market segments (price). Clinics are important locations for deciding to complete the vaccine series (place). They are the preferred sources to obtain information about the HPV vaccine thus making them ideal locations to deliver intervention messages, followed by television, the child's school and brochures (promotion). Increasing HPV vaccine coverage among Hispanic adolescents will reduce the rates of HPV-associated cancers and the cervical cancer health disparity among Hispanic women. This research can inform the development of an intervention to increase HPV vaccine series completion in this population.

  1. An Attempt to Validate a Measure of Structure in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabassol, David J.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty male adolescents were given a structure inventory (CASI) devised by the author, and also the Locus Of Control (I-E) instrument, and the Adjective Check List (ACL), in an attempt to validate the first-named inventory. (Editor)

  2. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures. PMID:22116736

  3. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2011-12-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate conceptual and analytical model for researchers needing to evaluate measurement scales translated into multiple languages. Participants are 678 Mexican-origin early adolescents and their mothers. Measures of exploration and resolution achieve the highest levels of equivalence across language versions. The measure of affirmation achieves high levels of equivalence. Results highlight potential ways to correct for any problems of nonequivalence across language versions of the affirmation measure. Suggestions are made for how researchers working with linguistically diverse samples can use the highlighted techniques to evaluate their own translated measures.

  4. Conceptualization and Measurement of Coping During Adolescence: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review was to examine the conceptualization and measurement of coping in adolescent research. Design A review of the literature published and abstracted in four scientific databases was undertaken between July 2008 and June 2009 with the following key words: adolescent(s), cope/coping, stress(ors), and adaptation/psychological. Methods A total of 367 articles were initially identified, and review of published abstracts yielded 104 empirical articles to retrieve and examine more closely for inclusion. Criteria for inclusion in the review were that the study (a) measured coping, (b) presented original data, (c) primarily targeted adolescent participants, (d) was reported in English, and (e) was published between 1998 and June 2009. Fifty-nine subsequent articles were organized using a matrix approach that facilitated cross-study comparisons of purpose, sample, and dependent variables. Findings Fewer than half of the studies reviewed included a specific statement defining coping. Instead, many authors described coping in the context of stress response by identifying particular types or ways of coping or naming specific coping strategies used. The theoretical frameworks guiding examination of coping varied across studies. A range of measures, congruent with adolescent developmental processes, were used to assess adolescent coping. A wide range of stress-related risks or conditions were examined, including psychological stressors such as eating disorders, suicidal ideation, and depression; physical stressors such as chronic illness, HIV infection, sports participation, violence, or sexual abuse; familial stressors such as domestic violence or interparental conflict; social stressors such as romantic relationships or difficulties in settings such as school, prison, or a homeless shelter; and societal stressors such as discrimination. Conclusions Coping is an important construct in understanding how adolescents react to the extensive stressors

  5. Measuring genetic knowledge: a brief survey instrument for adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald-Butt, S M; Bodine, A; Fry, K M; Ash, J; Zaidi, A N; Garg, V; Gerhardt, C A; McBride, K L

    2016-02-01

    Basic knowledge of genetics is essential for understanding genetic testing and counseling. The lack of a written, English language, validated, published measure has limited our ability to evaluate genetic knowledge of patients and families. Here, we begin the psychometric analysis of a true/false genetic knowledge measure. The 18-item measure was completed by parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) (n = 465) and adolescents and young adults with CHD (age: 15-25, n = 196) with a mean total correct score of 12.6 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.5, range: 0-18]. Utilizing exploratory factor analysis, we determined that one to three correlated factors, or abilities, were captured by our measure. Through confirmatory factor analysis, we determined that the two factor model was the best fit. Although it was necessary to remove two items, the remaining items exhibited adequate psychometric properties in a multidimensional item response theory analysis. Scores for each factor were computed, and a sum-score conversion table was derived. We conclude that this genetic knowledge measure discriminates best at low knowledge levels and is therefore well suited to determine a minimum adequate amount of genetic knowledge. However, further reliability testing and validation in diverse research and clinical settings is needed.

  6. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations with Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (M[subscript age] = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems,…

  7. Parents' and Adolescents' Perspectives on Parenting: Evaluating Conceptual Structure, Measurement Invariance, and Criterion Validity.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Annelies; Goossens, Luc; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine; Van Leeuwen, Karla

    2015-08-01

    Uncertainty persists regarding adequate measurement of parenting behavior during early adolescence. The present study aimed to clarify the conceptual structure of parenting by evaluating three different models that include support, psychological control, and various types of behavioral control (i.e., proactive, punitive, and harsh punitive control). Furthermore, we examined measurement invariance of parenting ratings by 1,111 Flemish adolescents from Grade 7 till 9, their mother, and father. Finally, criterion validity of parenting ratings was estimated in relation to adolescent problem behavior. Results supported a five-factor parenting model indicating multiple aspects of behavioral control, with punitive and harsh punitive control as more intrusive forms and proactive control as a more supportive form. Similar constructs were measured for adolescents, mothers, and fathers (i.e., configural and metric invariance), however on a different scale (i.e., scalar noninvariance). Future research and clinical practices should acknowledge these findings in order to fully grasp the parenting process.

  8. The Reliability and Validity of Using Regression Residuals to Measure Institutional Effectiveness in Promoting Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Aaron S.; Lee, Giljae

    2016-01-01

    A relatively simple way of measuring institutional effectiveness in relation to degree completion is to estimate the difference between an actual and predicted graduation rate, but the reliability and validity of this method have not been thoroughly examined. Longitudinal data were obtained from IPEDS for both public and private not-for-profit…

  9. Operational link between mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneduci, Roberto; Bullock, Thomas J.; Busch, Paul; Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We exhibit an operational connection between mutually unbiased bases and symmetric informationally complete positive operator-valued measures. Assuming that the latter exists, we show that there is a strong link between these two structures in all prime power dimensions. We also demonstrate that a similar link cannot exist in dimension 6.

  10. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  11. Turbulent times: effects of turbulence and violence exposure in adolescence on high school completion, health risk behavior, and mental health in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Hair, Elizabeth; Zuckerman, Barry

    2013-10-01

    Turbulent social environments are associated with health and developmental risk, yet mechanisms have been understudied. Guided by a life course framework and stress theory, this study examined the association between turbulent life transitions (including frequent residential mobility, school transitions, family structure disruptions, and homelessness) and exposure to violence during adolescence and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors in young adulthood. Participants (n = 4834) from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 cohort were followed prospectively from age 12-14 years for 10 years. We used structural equation models to investigate pathways between turbulence and cumulative exposure to violence (CEV), and high school completion, mental health, and health risk behaviors, while accounting for early life socio-demographics, family processes, and individual characteristics. Results indicated that turbulence index was associated with cumulative exposure to violence in adolescence. Both turbulence index and cumulative exposure to violence were positively associated with higher health risk behavior, poorer mental health, and inversely associated with high school completion. These findings highlight the importance of considering the cumulative impact of turbulent and adverse social environments when developing interventions to optimize health and developmental trajectory for adolescents transitioning into adulthood.

  12. Single-shot measurement of the complete temporal intensity and phase of supercontinuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Tsz Chun; Rhodes, Michelle; Trebino, Rick

    2016-03-01

    We solve the problem of single-shot complete temporal measurement of continuum using cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating, achieving the necessary large spectral range using a polarization-gating geometry and the necessary large temporal range by significantly tilting the reference pulse. In addition, we simultaneously cancel the previously unavoidable longitudinal geometrical temporal smearing by using a carefully chosen combination of pulse tilt and beam-crossing angle, thus simultaneously achieving the required temporal resolution. The result is that we are able to make a complete measurement of an individual complex continuum pulse generated in photonic-crystal fiber. By enabling measurement of single optical rogue waves, this technique could provide insight and perhaps even lead to the prediction of when mathematically similar, destructive, oceanic rogue waves may occur.

  13. Investigation of complete and incomplete fusion in 20Ne + 51V system using recoil range measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sabir; Ahmad, Tauseeef; Kumar, Kamal; Rizvi, I. A.; Agarwal, Avinash; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Chaubey, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Recoil range distributions of evaporation residues, populated in 20Ne + 51V reaction at Elab ≈ 145 MeV, have been studied to determine the degree of momentum transferred through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions. Evaporation residues (ERs) populated through the complete and incomplete fusion reactions have been identified on the basis of their recoil range in the Al catcher medium. Measured recoil range of evaporation residues have been compared with the theoretical value calculated using the code SRIM. Range integrated cross section of observed ERs have been compared with the value predicted by statistical model code PACE4.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Acculturation in Hispanic Adolescents: Associations With Family Functioning and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Rosiers, Sabrina Des; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Knight, George P.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (mean age 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning. PMID:23848416

  15. Developmental trajectories of acculturation in Hispanic adolescents: associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Des Rosiers, Sabrina; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Unger, Jennifer B; Knight, George P; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage  = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.

  16. Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts future weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design 253 adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain. PMID:24930597

  17. The Level of Expressed Emotion Scale: A Useful Measure of Expressed Emotion in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelis, Sharon M.; Rae, Gordon; Liddell, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that self-report measures of expressed emotion (EE) may be employed as a proxy measure of environmental stress in the home. The appropriateness of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale as a measure of perceived expressed emotion was examined in a sample of adolescents. Participants were 239 male and 422 female adolescents…

  18. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G; Bavin, Edith L; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID.

  19. Comparison of Measures of Ability in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Crewther, Sheila G.; Bavin, Edith L.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Finding the most appropriate intelligence test for adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) is challenging given their limited language, attention, perceptual, and motor skills and ability to stay on task. The study compared performance of 23 adolescents with ID on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), one of the most widely used intelligence tests, and three non-verbal IQ tests, the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM), the Test of Non-verbal Intelligence-Fourth Edition and the Wechsler Non-verbal test of Ability. Results showed that the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ raw and scaled scores were highly correlated with total scores from the three non-verbal tests, although the correlations were higher for raw scores, suggesting they may lead to better understanding of within group differences and what individuals with ID can do at the time of assessment. All participants attempted more questions on the non-verbal tests than the verbal. A preliminary analysis showed that adolescents with ID without ASD (n = 15) achieved higher scores overall than those presenting with ID+ASD (n = 8). Our findings support the view that short non-verbal tests are more likely to give a similar IQ result as obtained from the WISC-IV. In terms of the time to administer and the stress for participants, they are more appropriate for assessing adolescents with ID. PMID:27242597

  20. Assessing Peer Victimization across Adolescence: Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Beron, Kurt J.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2013-01-01

    An upward extension of the Revised Social Experience Questionnaire (Paquette & Underwood, 1999) was tested in a sample of adolescents followed longitudinally from 7th through 10th grade. We hypothesized that a 2-factor model with overt and social victimization factors would fit the data better than would a unidimensional model (a single…

  1. Measuring Nutritional Intake of Adolescents in Ghana, West Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu, Andrew; Murdock, Peggy O'Hara; Weatherby, Norman L.

    2007-01-01

    With 85% of the world's adolescent populations residing in developing countries, it is important to monitor and track their nutrition status and habits. The purpose of this study, conducted in Ghana, was to provide results from a nutrition intake and eating habits questionnaire which was modified from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Questions were…

  2. Adolescent Sex Education: A Preventive Mental Health Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obstfeld, Lisa S.; Meyers, Andrew W.

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of adolescent sex education as a means of preventing sexuality-related disorders, including: sexual dysfunction; sexual deviance; physical health problems often contracted from sexual activity; and various psychological and sociological ill effects resulting from unplanned pregnancies. (Author/CJB)

  3. Character in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Models and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jun; Hilliard, Lacey J.; Hershberg, Rachel M.; Bowers, Edmond P.; Chase, Paul A.; Champine, Robey B.; Buckingham, Mary H.; Braun, Dylan A.; Gelgoot, Erin S.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the construct of character has received substantial attention among developmental scientists, but no consensus exists about the content and structure of character, especially among children and early adolescents. In a study of positive development among racially diverse Cub Scouts in the greater Philadelphia area, we assessed the…

  4. Measuring homework compliance in cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression: review, preliminary findings, and implications for theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Scott T; Lawrence, P Scott; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2006-09-01

    Despite the importance placed on completion of extra-session homework in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a review of the available literature suggests there is much about the nature of homework compliance that remains to be empirically evaluated. This is especially true among youth receiving CBT. The present study begins to address how best to measure homework compliance and offers a fine-grained, single-case analysis of homework compliance during acute treatment with depressed adolescents. The results demonstrate that 56% of homework assignments were completed. Also observed was substantial within-subject temporal variability in homework compliance and a tendency for compliance to decrease during the course of treatment. These data call into question the adequacy of any static aggregate measure of homework compliance and have implications for both researchers and clinicians.

  5. Results of the first complete static calibration of the RSRA rotor-load-measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The compound Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA) is designed to make high-accuracy, simultaneous measurements of all rotor forces and moments in flight. Physical calibration of the rotor force- and moment-measurement system when installed in the aircraft is required to account for known errors and to ensure that measurement-system accuracy is traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. The first static calibration and associated analysis have been completed with good results. Hysteresis was a potential cause of static calibration errors, but was found to be negligible in flight compared to full-scale loads, and analytical methods have been devised to eliminate hysteresis effects on calibration data. Flight tests confirmed that the calibrated rotor-load-measurement system performs as expected in flight and that it can dependably make direct measurements of fuselage vertical drag in hover.

  6. Measuring executive function in control subjects and TBI patients with question completion time (QCT)

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Yund, E. William; Wyma, John M.; Ruff, Ron; Herron, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Questionnaire completion is a complex task that places demands on cognitive functions subserving reading, introspective memory, decision-making, and motor control. Although computerized questionnaires and surveys are used with increasing frequency in clinical practice, few studies have examined question completion time (QCT), the time required to complete each question. Here, we analyzed QCTs in 172 control subjects and 31 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who completed two computerized questionnaires, the 17-question Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL) and the 25-question Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ). In control subjects, robust correlations were found between self-paced QCTs on the PCL and CFQ (r = 0.82). QCTs on individual questions correlated strongly with the number of words in the question, indicating the critical role of reading speed. QCTs increased significantly with age, and were reduced in females and in subjects with increased education and computer experience. QCT z-scores, corrected for age, education, computer use, and sex, correlated more strongly with each other than with the results of other cognitive tests. Patients with a history of severe TBI showed significantly delayed QCTs, but QCTs fell within the normal range in patients with a history of mild TBI. When questionnaires are used to gather relevant patient information, simultaneous QCT measures provide reliable and clinically sensitive measures of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26042021

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Measures of Self-Esteem and Psychological Adjustment among Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sara; Craig, Jaime; Slinger, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the relationships between self-esteem and psychological adjustment among 19 adolescents with Asperger syndrome and 19 typically developing adolescents using a model developed by Harter. The groups were matched for age (mean 13 years), sex (M:F 16:3) and ethnicity (white British). Participants completed four…

  8. Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, W. P.

    2011-10-15

    A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.

  9. [Proposal of an index for government measures to deal with domestic violence against children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Deslandes, Suely; Mendes, Corina Helena Figueira; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2015-08-01

    The article discusses the development of the Index for Dealing with Family Violence to assess municipal strategies related to this violation of children's and adolescents' rights. Development of the index involved a preliminary analysis of indicators from previous studies and a technical expert group. Four indicators were selected: the existence of a municipal plan for dealing with violence against children and adolescents; the existence of an inter-sector flow for treating and following up on children and adolescents in situations of family violence; number of guardianship councils in relation to the municipality's population; and the existence of standardized instruments in municipal school, social work, and health systems for reporting situations of violence against children and adolescents. The databank from a previous study was used in an exercise to apply the indicator in four Brazilian state capitals. The indicator can serve as a tool for monitoring and mobilizing efforts to implement measures for dealing with family violence.

  10. Mental health and social networks in early adolescence: a dynamic study of objectively-measured social interaction behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pachucki, Mark C; Ozer, Emily J; Barrat, Alain; Cattuto, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    How are social interaction dynamics associated with mental health during early stages of adolescence? The goal of this study is to objectively measure social interactions and evaluate the roles that multiple aspects of the social environment--such as physical activity and food choice--may jointly play in shaping the structure of children's relationships and their mental health. The data in this study are drawn from a longitudinal network-behavior study conducted in 2012 at a private K-8 school in an urban setting in California. We recruited a highly complete network sample of sixth-graders (n = 40, 91% of grade, mean age = 12.3), and examined how two measures of distressed mental health (self-esteem and depressive symptoms) are positionally distributed in an early adolescent interaction network. We ascertained how distressed mental health shapes the structure of relationships over a three-month period, adjusting for relevant dimensions of the social environment. Cross-sectional analyses of interaction networks revealed that self-esteem and depressive symptoms are differentially stratified by gender. Specifically, girls with more depressive symptoms have interactions consistent with social inhibition, while boys' interactions suggest robustness to depressive symptoms. Girls higher in self-esteem tended towards greater sociability. Longitudinal network behavior models indicate that gender similarity and perceived popularity are influential in the formation of social ties. Greater school connectedness predicts the development of self-esteem, though social ties contribute to more self-esteem improvement among students who identify as European-American. Cross-sectional evidence shows associations between distressed mental health and students' network peers. However, there is no evidence that connected students' mental health status becomes more similar in their over time because of their network interactions. These findings suggest that mental health during early

  11. Generalizability Theory as a Unifying Framework of Measurement Reliability in Adolescent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shaojing

    2014-01-01

    In adolescence research, the treatment of measurement reliability is often fragmented, and it is not always clear how different reliability coefficients are related. We show that generalizability theory (G-theory) is a comprehensive framework of measurement reliability, encompassing all other reliability methods (e.g., Pearson "r,"…

  12. Measures of Early Adolescent Development and School Contexts: Narrowing the Research to Practice Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamre, Bridget K.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    This special issue highlights recent research on measures of early adolescents' development and the school contexts in which they spend their time. We are particularly interested in measures with direct application--providing actionable data to teachers, principals, parents, school counselors, or the students themselves, in ways that promote…

  13. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale with Mexican American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American…

  14. Adolescent Future Expectations of Work, Education, Family, and Community: Development of a New Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2008-01-01

    The development and validation of a measure of adolescent future expectations associated with work, education, family, health, and church/community participation is presented. The 25-item measure was administered to a sample of 389 7th- to 12th-grade urban poor and working-class Chilean students. Results of an exploratory principal axis factor…

  15. Testing For Measurement Invariance of Attachment Across Chinese and American Adolescent Samples.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ling; Zhao, Jihong Solomon; He, Ni Phil; Marshall, Ineke Haen; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhao, Ruohui; Jin, Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent attachment to formal and informal institutions has emerged as a major focus of criminological theories since the publication of Hirschi's work in 1969. This study attempts to examine the psychometric equivalence of the factorial structure of attachment measures across nations reflecting Western and Eastern cultures. Twelve manifest variables are used tapping the concepts of adolescent attachment to parents, school, and neighborhood. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to conduct invariance test across approximately 3,000 Chinese and U.S. adolescents. Results provide strong support for a three-factor model; the multigroup invariance tests reveal mixed results. While the family attachment measure appears invariant between the two samples, significant differences in the coefficients of the factor loadings are detected in the school attachment and neighborhood attachment measures. The results of regression analyses lend support to the predictive validity of three types of attachment. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed.

  16. Negative Expiratory Pressure Technique: An Awake Test to Measure Upper Airway Collapsibility in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Helena Larramona; Marcus, Carole L.; McDonough, Joseph M.; Morera, Joan C. Oliva; Huang, Jingtao; Farre, Ramon; Montserrat, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway (UA) collapsibility is a major pathophysiologic feature of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In adolescents, it is measured by obtaining the slope of pressure-flow relationship (SPF) while applying negative nasal pressure during sleep. An easier technique to assess UA collapsibility, consisting of application of negative expiratory pressure (NEP) during wakefulness, has demonstrated differences between control and OSAS subjects. We hypothesized that the NEP technique would correlate with SPF as a measurement of UA collapsibility in adolescents. Design: During wakefulness, NEP of −5 cm H2O in the seated and supine position was applied during the first second of expiration. The area under the expiratory flow-volume curve during NEP was compared to tidal breathing (RatioNEP). In addition, adolescents underwent SPF measurements during sleep. Two SPF techniques were performed to measure the activated and relatively hypotonic UA. Setting: Pediatric sleep laboratory. Participants: Seven adolescents with OSAS and 20 controls. Results: In the seated position, there was a correlation between RatioNEP and both hypotonic SPF (r = −0.39, P = 0.04) and activated SPF (r = −0.62, P = 0.001). In the supine position, there was a correlation between RatioNEP and activated SPF (r = −0.43, P = 0.03) and a trend for hypotonic SPF (r = −0.38, P = 0.06). Conclusions: The negative expiratory pressure (NEP) technique correlates with the hypotonic and activated slope of pressure-flow relationship measurements. The seated position showed the strongest correlation. The NEP technique can be used as an alternative method to evaluate upper airway collapsibility in adolescents. Citation: Carrera HL, Marcus CL, McDonough JM, Morera JC, Huang J, Farre R, Montserrat JM. Negative expiratory pressure technique: an awake test to measure upper airway collapsibility in adolescents. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1783–1791. PMID:26158888

  17. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of the 6-item Version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure with East Asian Adolescents in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Yuko; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of scores on a 6-item version of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) among East Asian adolescents in Canada. A series of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for 4,190 East Asians who completed a provincial survey of students in grades 7 to 12. The MEIM measured highly correlated dimensions of ethnic identity (exploration and commitment). Further, multi-group CFA indicated that the scale measured the same constructs on the same metric across three age groups and across four groups with varying degrees of exposure to Canadian and East Asian cultures. The findings suggest the short version of the MEIM can be used to compare levels of ethnic identity across different age or acculturation groups. PMID:27833471

  19. Boundedness of completely additive measures with application to 2-local triple derivations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamhalter, Jan; Kudaybergenov, Karimbergen; Peralta, Antonio M.; Russo, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    We prove a Jordan version of Dorofeev's boundedness theorem for completely additive measures and use it to show that every (not necessarily linear nor continuous) 2-local triple derivation on a continuous JBW∗-triple is a triple derivation. 2-local triple derivations are well understood on von Neumann algebras. JBW*-triples, which are properly defined in Section I, are intimately related to infinite dimensional holomorphy and include von Neumann algebras as special cases. In particular, continuous JBW∗-triples can be realized as subspaces of continuous von Neumann algebras which are stable for the triple product xy∗z + zy∗x and closed in the weak operator topology.

  20. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-02-01

    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. Finally, we demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ± 0.018, and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  1. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-02-01

    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. We report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. We demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ±0.018 , and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  2. Measurement Properties of Psychosocial and Environmental Measures Associated with Fruit and Vegetable Intake among Middle School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the measurement properties of several scales modified or created to assess factors related to fruit and vegetable intake within a young adolescent population. Design: Cross-sectional with data collected via self-report. Setting: Data were collected in regularly scheduled classes in the school setting. Participants: African…

  3. The premonitory urge to tic: measurement, characteristics, and correlates in older adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Reese, Hannah E; Scahill, Lawrence; Peterson, Alan L; Crowe, Katherine; Woods, Douglas W; Piacentini, John; Walkup, John T; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    In addition to motor and/or vocal tics, many individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) report frequent, uncomfortable sensory phenomena that immediately precede the tics. To date, examination of these premonitory sensations or urges has been limited by inconsistent assessment tools. In this paper, we examine the psychometric properties of a nine-item self-report measure, the Premonitory Urge to Tic Scale (PUTS) and examine the characteristics and correlates of the premonitory urge to tic in a clinical sample of 122 older adolescents and adults with TS or CTD. The PUTS demonstrated adequate internal consistency, temporal stability, and concurrent validity. Premonitory urges were endorsed by the majority of individuals. Most individuals reported some relief from the urges after completing a tic and being able to stop their tics even if only temporarily. Degree of premonitory urges was not significantly correlated with age, and we did not observe any gender differences. Degree of premonitory urges was significantly correlated with estimated IQ and tic severity, but not severity of comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Also, it was not related to concomitant medication status. These findings represent another step forward in our understanding of the premonitory sensations associated with TS and CTD.

  4. Presaddle and postsaddle dissipative effects in fission using complete kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Benlliure, J.; Taïeb, J.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Audouin, L.; Ayyad, Y.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Casarejos, E.; Chatillon, A.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Gorbinet, T.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Paradela, C.; Pellereau, E.; Pietras, B.; Ramos, D.; Rodríguez-Tajes, C.; Rossi, D. M.; Simon, H.; Vargas, J.; Voss, B.

    2016-12-01

    A complete kinematics measurement of the two fission fragments was used for the first time to investigate fission dynamics at small and large deformations. Fissioning systems with high excitation energies, compact shapes, and low angular momenta were produced in inverse kinematics by using spallation reactions of lead projectiles. A new generation experimental setup allowed for the first full and unambiguous identification in mass and atomic number of both fission fragments. This measurement permitted us to accurately determine fission cross sections, the charge distribution, and the neutron excess of the fission fragments as a function of the atomic number of the fissioning system. These data are compared with different model calculations to extract information on the value of the dissipation parameter at small and large deformations. The present results do not show any sizable dependence of the nuclear dissipation parameter on temperature or deformation.

  5. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development.

  6. Media Health Literacy (MHL): development and measurement of the concept among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health information, while analyzing its role in promoting empowerment and health behavior (cigarette/water-pipe smoking, nutritional/dieting habits, physical/sedentary activity, safety/injury behaviors and sexual behavior). The school-based study included a representative sample of 1316 Israeli adolescents, grades 7, 9 and 11, using qualitative and quantitative instruments to develop the new measure. The results showed that the MHL measure is highly scalable (0.80) includes four sequenced categories: identification/recognition, critical evaluation of health content in media, perceived influence on adolescents and intended action/reaction. Multivariate analysis showed that MHL was significantly higher among girls (β = 1.25, P < 0.001), adolescents whose mothers had higher education (β = 0.16, P = 0.04), who report more adult/interpersonal sources of health information (β = 0.23, P < 0.01) and was positively associated with health empowerment (β = 0.36, P < 0.0005) and health behavior (β = 0.03, P = 0.05). The findings suggest that as a determinant of adolescent health behavior, MHL identifies groups at risk and may provide a basis for health promotion among youth.

  7. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    PubMed

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  8. Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Lindfors, Petra; Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa; Östberg, Viveca

    2017-02-01

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures.

  9. Linking measures of adolescent nicotine dependence to a common latent continuum.

    PubMed

    Strong, David R; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M; Griesler, Pamela C; Kandel, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Using the theoretical model of nicotine dependence (ND) operationalized within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, fourth Edition (DSM-IV: American Psychiatric [American Psychiatric Association, 1994. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC]) as a frame of reference, we used methods based in item response theory to link alternative instruments assessing adolescent nicotine dependence severity to a common latent continuum. A multi-ethnic cohort of 6th-10th graders selected from the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) completed five household interviews over 2 years. Youth who reported at least some cigarette use in the last 30 days prior to the interviews at waves W3-W5 completed measures of DSM-IV ND, the Modified Fagertrom Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ: Prokhorov et al., 1998) and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS: Shiffman et al., 2004), yielding samples of 253, 241, and 296 respondents at W3-W5, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a primary dimension of ND. Each instrument's items had complementary and stable relationships to ND across multiple waves of assessment. By aligning symptoms along a common latent ND continuum, we evaluated the consistency of symptoms from different instruments that target similar content. Further, these methods allowed for the examination of the DSM-IV as a continuous index of ND, evaluation of the degree of heterogeneity in levels of ND within groups above and below diagnostic thresholds, and the utility of using the pattern or particular DSM-IV symptoms that led to each score in further differentiating levels of ND. Finally, we examined concurrent validity of the ND continuum and levels of current of smoking at each wave of assessment.

  10. Complete kinematics measurement of the 11B(p,γ)3α reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diget, C. Aa; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Laursen, K. L.; Madsbøl, K. O.; Jørgensen, L.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Riisager, K.

    2012-09-01

    One of the first nuclear reactions measured after the invention of the accelerator by Cockroft and Walton was 11B+p, measured by Rutherford and Oliphant in 1933 [1, 2]. This reaction, however, is not yet fully understood at low incident proton energies [3], and the present paper therefore presents a new measurement with complete-kinematics data utilising modern large-area segmented silicon-strip detectors. The aim of the measurement is twofold: firstly, to fully characterise the triple-α decay of the T=1, 2+ state at 16.11 MeV in 12C; secondly, to search for γ decay of the 2+ state to lower lying states, in particular the newly suggested 2+ state around 9-10 MeV [4]. The isovector M1 population of lower lying 2+ states is strongly favoured over isovector E2 transitions to 0+ states, and the method is therefore a promising method to elucidating this timely question.

  11. Factor Structure of the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire and Measurement Invariance across Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride

    2003-01-01

    Applied confirmatory factor analysis in a test of alternative factor models and measurement invariance across gender groups, using data from the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire focusing on shyness, high-intensity pleasure, activity level, attention, irritability, and fear. Found that factor models based on composite indicators showed…

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  13. PROBLEMS IN THE MEASUREMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL MATURITY IN THE AMERICAN ADOLESCENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOINS, ALVIN E.

    SOCIAL MATURITY IN THE AMERICAN ADOLESCENT IS DEFINED AS THAT PERIOD SOMEWHERE BETWEEN CHILDHOOD AND ADULTHOOD WHEN THE INDIVIDUAL HAS ACHIEVED THE ABILITY TO TOLERATE AND ADJUST TO FRUSTRATION WITHOUT STRESS WHILE ACHIEVING ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE, A TOLERANT OUTLOOK, AND A SATISFACTORY LIFE PHILOSOPHY. THE MEASURES OF SOCIAL MATURITY OF THE…

  14. Measures of Anomie and Locus-of-Control for Adolescents: Evidence of Factorial Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Lynda Henley; Klein, Alice E.

    1981-01-01

    Two scales were submitted together for factor analyses in order to determine the extent to which the dimensions of locus of control and anomie were related from the perspective of adolescents. It was concluded that the instruments measure different constructs and are factorially valid when considered together. (Author/AL)

  15. Waist Circumference and Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior in Rural School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J.; Ribeiro, Luís P.; Fernandes, Romulo; Mota, Jorge; Malina, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research on relationships between lifestyle behaviors and adiposity in school youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk. This study evaluates the associations between waist circumference (WC) and objective measures of sedentary behavior (SB) in a sample of rural school adolescents. Methods: The sample included…

  16. The Sexual Communication Scale: A Measure of Frequency of Sexual Communication between Parents and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Cheryl L.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Study reports on the psychometric properties of a brief instrument, the Sexual Communication Scale, used to measure the frequency of communication about sexual matters between parents and adolescents. Instrument addresses sexual topics ranging from dating to sexual intercourse to homosexuality to HIV/AIDS. Analyses showed that the SCS demonstrated…

  17. Further Evidence of the Utility and Validity of a Measure of Outcome for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchik, Jessica A.; Karpenko, Veronika; Ogles, Benjamin M.

    2007-01-01

    The "Ohio Youth Problems, Functioning, and Satisfaction Scales" (Ohio Scales) are a recently developed set of measures designed to be a brief, practical assessment of changes in behavior over time in children and adolescents. The authors explored the convergent validity of the Ohio Scales by examining the relationship between the scales and…

  18. Measurement Uncertainty in Racial and Ethnic Identification among Adolescents of Mixed Ancestry: A Latent Variable Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Allison J.; Erkut, Sumru; Porche, Michelle V.; Kim, Jo; Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Ceder, Ineke; Garcia, Heidie Vazquez

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we operationalize identification of mixed racial and ethnic ancestry among adolescents as a latent variable to (a) account for measurement uncertainty, and (b) compare alternative wording formats for racial and ethnic self-categorization in surveys. Two latent variable models were fit to multiple mixed-ancestry indicator data from…

  19. A new measure of dietary social support among African American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate a measure of social support for fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents. Focus groups (N = 30) and pilot testing procedures (N = 17) were used to develop and pretest questionnaire item...

  20. Measuring Reciprocity in High Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ommeren, Tineke Backer; Begeer, Sander; Scheeren, Anke M.; Koot, Hans M.

    2012-01-01

    Few instruments have been developed that measure impairments in reciprocity, a defining feature of autism. We introduce a new test assessing the quality of reciprocal behaviour: the interactive drawing test (IDT). Children and adolescents (n = 49) with and without high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) were invited to collaborate with…

  1. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents' Response to a Media Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences' degree of engagement with the content of…

  2. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  3. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  4. Depression and Its Measurement in Verbal Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory--Second…

  5. The Early Identity Exploration Scale—a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, Mage = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance. PMID:25983707

  6. A Measure of Adolescent Potential for Suicide (MAPS): Development and Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggert, Leona L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes an instrument designed to assess the suicide potential of youth (ages 14-18) who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. Two samples were used to examine psychometric properties of the Measure of Adolescent Potential for Suicide (MAPS). Results revealed strong validity (content, criterion, construct) and reliability (internal consistency)…

  7. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  8. Use of the WAIS-III picture completion subtest as an embedded measure of response bias.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Ryan E; Boone, Kyle Brauer; Miora, Deborah; Skidmore, Sherry; Cottingham, Maria; Victor, Tara; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle

    2010-10-01

    In the present study a large sample of credible patients (n = 172) scored significantly higher than a large sample of noncredible participants (n = 195) on several WAIS-III Picture Completion variables: Age Adjusted Scaled Score, raw score, a "Rarely Missed" index (the nine items least often missed by credible participants), a "Rarely Correct" index (nine items correct <26% of the time in noncredible participants and with at least a 25 percentage-point lower endorsement rate as compared to credible participants), and a "Most Discrepant" index (the six items that were the most discrepant in correct endorsement between groups-at least a 40 percentage point difference). Comparison of the various scores showed that the "Most Discrepant" index outperformed all the others in identifying response bias (nearly 65% sensitivity at 92.8% specificity as compared to at most 59% sensitivity for the other scores). While no differences in Picture Completion scores were observed between less-educated (<12 years) and better-educated (≥12 years) credible participants, noncredible participants with <12 years of education scored significantly poorer than noncredible participants with 12 or more years of education. On the "Most Discrepant" index, 76.7% of less-educated noncredible participants were detected as compared to 58.3% of better-educated noncredible participants. Results of the current study suggest that the Picture Completion subtest of the WAIS-III is an effective measure of response bias, and that it may have a unique role in identifying suboptimal effort in less-educated test takers.

  9. [Application of the MASC, a new instrument for measuring adolescents' social-cognitive competence].

    PubMed

    Körner, Jürgen; Chuleva, Svetlana; Clausen, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The film-based MASC test, developed to identify patients with Asperger's, proved suitable for testing adolescents' and adults' social-cognitive competence. It differentiated young people with behavioural problems from those without (measured by SDQ) and showed significant differences between hyperactive adolescents and adolescents with behavioural problems; the hyperactive young people tended to select answers that indicated emotional overreaction to social information, while the young people with behavioural problems were more likely to give emotional content too little weight or ignore it altogether. The MASC shows satisfactory reliability, has a challenging character for young people, and is--in contrast to empathy questionnaires--not susceptible to subjects' tendency to provide socially desirable answers.

  10. The measurement of reflective function in adolescents with and without borderline traits.

    PubMed

    Ha, Carolyn; Sharp, Carla; Ensink, Karin; Fonagy, Peter; Cirino, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Reflective function refers to the capacity to reflect on the mind of self and others in the context of the attachment relationship. Reflective function (and its conceptual neighbor, mentalizing) has been shown to be an important correlate of a variety of disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD). The current study examined the construct validity of the Reflective Function Questionnaire for Youths (RFQY) in an inpatient sample of adolescents. Adequate internal consistency was established for the RFQY. Significant positive associations with an interview-based measure of reflective function and an experimental-based assessment of mentalization were found for the RFQY. Strong negative relations with BPD features were found and adolescent patients who scored above clinical cut-off for BPD symptoms demonstrated significantly poorer reflective function compared to patients without the disorder. These findings provide preliminary support for the notion that reflective function can be validly and reliably assessed in adolescent populations.

  11. Androgen-dependent measurements of female genitalia in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crouch, N S; Michala, Lina; Creighton, S M; Conway, G S

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of clitoral length and clitoral to urethral distance were made and analysed for a relationship in a group of 19 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)attending a specialist clinic for adult women with disorders of sexual development. These were compared with a control group of 50 women attending hospital for a gynaecological procedure.There was a positive correlation between clitoral length and clitoral to urethral distance for women with CAIS. In contrast, a negative correlation was seen between clitoral length and clitoral to urethral distance for women in the control group. Women with CAIS had a reduced mean clitoral length compared with controls(P = 0.001), but no difference was observed for the clitoral to urethral distance between the two groups (P = 0.116).

  12. Correlation of Insulin Resistance with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Polyana Resende Silva; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Jardim, Thiago de Souza Veiga; Nascente, Flávia Miquetichuc Nogueira; Mendonça, Karla Lorena; Povoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Carneiro, Carolina de Souza; Ferreira, Vanessa Roriz; de Souza, Weimar Kunz Sebba Barroso; Jardim, Paulo César Brandão Veiga

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood pressure is directly related to body mass index, and individuals with increased waist circumference have higher risk of developing hypertension, insulin resistance, and other metabolic changes, since adolescence. Objective to evaluate the correlation of blood pressure with insulin resistance, waist circumference and body mass index in adolescents. Methods Cross-section study on a representative sample of adolescent students. One group of adolescents with altered blood pressure detected by casual blood pressure and/or home blood pressure monitoring (blood pressure > 90th percentile) and one group of normotensive adolescents were studied. Body mass index, waist circumference were measured, and fasting glucose and plasma insulin levels were determined, using the HOMA-IR index to identify insulin resistance. Results A total of 162 adolescents (35 with normal blood pressure and 127 with altered blood pressure) were studied; 61% (n = 99) of them were boys and the mean age was 14.9 ± 1.62 years. Thirty-eight (23.5%) adolescents had altered HOMA-IR. The group with altered blood pressure had higher values of waist circumference, body mass index and HOMA-IR (p<0.05). Waist circumference was higher among boys in both groups (p<0.05) and girls with altered blood pressure had higher HOMA-IR than boys (p<0.05). There was a significant moderate correlation between body mass index and HOMA-IR in the group with altered blood pressure (ρ = 0.394; p < 0.001), and such correlation was stronger than in the normotensive group. There was also a significant moderate correlation between waist circumference and HOMA-IR in both groups (ρ = 0.345; p < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that HOMA-IR was as predictor of altered blood pressure (odds ratio - OR = 2.0; p = 0.001). Conclusion There was a significant association of insulin resistance with blood pressure and the impact of insulin resistance on blood pressure since childhood. The correlation and association between

  13. The Washington Circle continuity of care performance measure: Predictive validity with adolescents discharged from residential treatment

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Mark D.; Funk, Rodney R.; Lee, Margaret T.; Garnick, Deborah W.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive validity of the Washington Circle (WC) continuity of care after long-term residential treatment performance measure, as well as the impact of assertive continuing care interventions on achieving continuity of care. This measure is a process measure that focuses on timely delivery of a minimal floor of services that are necessary to provide sufficient quality of treatment but should not be construed to be the optimal continuity of care after residential treatment for any specific adolescent. Participants included 342 adolescents who were admitted to long-term residential treatment and randomly assigned to either standard continuing care or an assertive continuing care condition. Overall, results provide initial support for the WC continuity of care after residential treatment performance measure as a useful predictor of 3-month recovery status. Additionally, assignment to an assertive continuing care condition was found to significantly increase the likelihood of achieving continuity of care. PMID:19553067

  14. Poroelastic measurement schemes resulting in complete data sets for granular and other anisotropic porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J.G.

    2009-11-20

    Poroelastic analysis usually progresses from assumed knowledge of dry or drained porous media to the predicted behavior of fluid-saturated and undrained porous media. Unfortunately, the experimental situation is often incompatible with these assumptions, especially when field data (from hydrological or oil/gas reservoirs) are involved. The present work considers several different experimental scenarios typified by one in which a set of undrained poroelastic (stiffness) constants has been measured using either ultrasound or seismic wave analysis, while some or all of the dry or drained constants are normally unknown. Drained constants for such a poroelastic system can be deduced for isotropic systems from available data if a complete set of undrained compliance data for the principal stresses are available - together with a few other commonly measured quantities such as porosity, fluid bulk modulus, and grain bulk modulus. Similar results are also developed here for anisotropic systems having up to orthotropic symmetry if the system is granular (i.e., composed of solid grains assembled into a solid matrix, either by a cementation process or by applied stress) and the grains are known to be elastically homogeneous. Finally, the analysis is also fully developed for anisotropic systems with nonhomogeneous (more than one mineral type), but still isotropic, grains - as well as for uniform collections of anisotropic grains as long as their axes of symmetry are either perfectly aligned or perfectly random.

  15. A Network Method of Measuring Affiliation-Based Peer Influence: Assessing the Influences of Teammates' Smoking on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujimoto, Kayo; Unger, Jennifer B.; Valente, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a network analytic framework, this study introduces a new method to measure peer influence based on adolescents' affiliations or 2-mode social network data. Exposure based on affiliations is referred to as the "affiliation exposure model." This study demonstrates the methodology using data on young adolescent smoking being influenced by…

  16. Psychometric Properties of Three Measures of Protective Factors for Depression and Suicidal Behaviour Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Labelle, Réal; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Berthiaume, Claude; Royer, Chantal; Raymond, Sylvie; Cournoyer, Marilou; Balan, Bogdan; Zaloum, Terry; Bibaud, Antoine; Gauvin, Geoffrey; Janelle, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the reliability of French versions of the Adolescent Coping Scale (ACS), the Reasons for Living Inventory for Adolescents (RFL-A), and the Spirituality Scale (SS); to examine the construct validity of these psychometric instruments; and to determine their convergent validity with French versions of the Life Events Questionnaire for Adolescents (LEQ-A), the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II), and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) among French-Canadian adolescents. Methods: Participants were 429 adolescents from high schools (n = 283) and the Mood Disorder Clinic (n = 146) in Montreal. The instruments were translated into French following the back-translation method. The internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach alpha coefficients. Exploratory analyses were conducted to document the content of their dimensions. Convergent validity was examined by correlating the ACS, the RFL-A, and the SS with the French versions of the LEQ-A, the BDI-II, and the BHS. Results: The findings confirm that the ACS, RFL-A, and SS are psychometric instruments well suited to assess protective factors for depression and suicidal behaviour among French-speaking adolescents in community and clinical settings. However, results must be interpreted with some circumspection as 2 SS subscales obtained reliability coefficients in the moderate range only and the instructions for the RFL-A were reframed in response to ethical considerations. Conclusions: Our results add to those already available on the original English versions of the ACS, RFL-A, and SS and advance the knowledge of the psychometric properties of protective measures. PMID:25886667

  17. Attachment Representations and Time Perspective in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria; Pallini, Susanna; Baiocco, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between attachment to parents and peers, time perspective and psychological adjustment in adolescence. 2,665 adolescents (M age = 17.03 years, SD = 1.48) completed self-report measures about parent and peer attachment, time perspective, sympathy and self-determination. Subjects were divided into four groups…

  18. Effects of Differential Reinforcement of Short Latencies on Response Latency, Task Completion, and Accuracy of an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Melanie M.; Casey, Laura Baylot; Bicard, David F.; Bicard, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are faced with many challenging behaviors that could impede their learning. One commonly reported problem behavior is noncompliance, which is often defined as a delay in response (latency), decrease in rate of responding (fluency), or failure to complete a task. This failure to comply in an appropriate…

  19. Retention of complete maxillary dentures measured as resistance against unilateral occlusal loading.

    PubMed

    Fløystrand, F; Orstavik, J S

    1984-02-01

    Complete maxillary dentures were tested for their ability to remain in place when subjected to unilateral occlusal loads. The test material comprised five persons, each supplied with three identical dentures. The denture design was based on the principles of 1) functionally determined filling-in of the vestibular sulcus, 2) palatal coverage to the vibration line without post dam, 3) aesthetically governed positioning of the front teeth, and 4) positioning of the lateral teeth in the plane connecting the top of the residual ridge with the central part of the occlusal surface of the antagonizing natural teeth. Resistance to unilateral occlusal loads was measured by means of a miniature bite force sensor. In the pooled material, an average load of 70 N was tolerated before the dentures were dislodged. For a given participant/denture combination, the resistance against dislodgment varied considerably when tested on different days. Marked differences were also found among three identical dentures in one person. The tolerance against unilateral occlusal loads could feasibly be quantified. However, the influence of specific clinical and/or technological factors on denture retention during function should be studied only if strict definitions as to the test conditions are given. These conditions must include the time, person, and denture tested.

  20. Phase-space representations of symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measure fiducial states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraceno, Marcos; Ermann, Leonardo; Cormick, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    The problem of finding symmetric informationally complete positive-operator-valued-measures (SIC-POVMs) has been solved numerically for all dimensions d up to 67 [A. J. Scott and M. Grassl, J. Math. Phys. 51, 042203 (2010), 10.1063/1.3374022], but a general proof of existence is still lacking. For each dimension, it was shown that it is possible to find a SIC-POVM that is generated from a fiducial state upon application of the operators of the Heisenberg-Weyl group. We draw on the numerically determined fiducial states to study their phase-space features, as displayed by the characteristic function and the Wigner, Bargmann, and Husimi representations, adapted to a Hilbert space of finite dimension. We analyze the phase-space localization of fiducial states, and observe that the SIC-POVM condition is equivalent to a maximal delocalization property. Finally, we explore the consequences in phase space of the conjectured Zauner symmetry. In particular, we construct a Hermitian operator commuting with this symmetry that leads to a representation of fiducial states in terms of eigenfunctions with definite semiclassical features.

  1. Validation of a Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed with Cancer.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Fiona E J; Patterson, Pandora; Costa, Daniel S J; Shepherd, Heather L

    2016-03-01

    Health literacy can influence long-term health outcomes. This study aimed to validate an adapted version of the Functional, Communicative and Critical Health Literacy measure for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients and survivors (N = 105; age 12-24 years). Exploratory factor analysis was used to validate the measure, and indicated that a slightly modified item structure better fit the results. Furthermore, item response theory analysis highlighted location and discrimination parameter differences among items. Acceptability of the measure was high. This is the first validation of a health literacy measure among AYAs with an illness such as cancer.

  2. Measuring food availability and accessibility among adolescents: Moving beyond the neighbourhood boundary.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Cindy; Rainham, Daniel; Blanchard, Chris; Dummer, Trevor; Lyons, Renee; Kirk, Sara

    2015-05-01

    Geographic methods have provided insight about food location availability and accessibility in understanding neighbourhood variations in health. However, quantifying exposure to food locations within a pre-defined range of an individual's residence ignores locations outside of the residential neighbourhood encountered in daily life. Global positioning system (GPS) data enables exploration of multiple contextual influences on health. This study defines place in relation to behaviour, employing GPS data to 1) describe adolescent food environments within and outside of the residential buffer, 2) quantify actual food location visits, and 3) explore associations between availability and accessibility of food locations and dietary intake. Adolescents (N = 380; ages 12-16), wore GPS loggers for up to seven days. Availability and accessibility of food locations were defined by counts and distances to food locations within a 15-min walk (1 km) of home, as well as within 50 m of an adolescent's GPS track. We compared the proportion of food locations within the residential buffer to the proportion outside but within the GPS buffer. These proportions were compared to counts and distances to food locations actually visited. We explored associations between food location availability and accessibility with dietary intake variables. Food location availability and accessibility was greater and visits occurred more commonly outside of the residential buffer than within it. Food location availability and accessibility was greater for urban than suburban and rural adolescents. There were no associations between home-based measures of availability and accessibility and dietary intake and only one for GPS-based measures, with greater distance to convenience stores associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption. This study provides important descriptive information about adolescent exposure to food locations. Findings confirm that traditional home-based approaches

  3. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars B

    2011-06-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recently published data on the relationship between daily physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, and VO(2PEAK) in children and adolescents. A PubMed search was performed on 29 October 2010 to identify relevant articles. Studies were considered relevant if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a VO(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most studies reported a low-to-moderate relationship (r = 0.10-0.45) between objectively measured daily physical activity and VO(2PEAK). No conclusive evidence exists that physical activity of higher intensities are more closely related to VO(2PEAK), than lower intensities.

  4. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood.

  5. Comparative data on child and adolescent cognitive measures associated with depression.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Rick E; Nelson, Tyler; Steidtmann, Dana K; Bistricky, Steven L

    2007-06-01

    As a way to better understand the effects of treatment for depression, comparative data on measures of cognition have been compiled previously for adults. Such data should be able to aid the evaluation of cognition and cognitive change, and may provide valuable information for clinicians and researchers alike. In this article, analogous comparative data on cognitive measures associated with depression in children and adolescents are presented. The reviewed instruments assess cognitive errors, attributional style, dysfunctional attitudes, hopelessness, negative self-statements, and Beck's negative cognitive triad. As with adults, these data may have implications for enhancing understanding of empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents, may be useful in vulnerability research, and may be useful to clinicians seeking to develop treatment strategies and to gauge treatment effectiveness.

  6. Measuring Success by Degrees: The Status of College Completion in SREB States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Crystal

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) convened an advisory panel of state leaders to study college completion, answer key questions and make policy recommendations to guide states toward improvement. The commitment of these leaders and philanthropic groups to address the problems of college completion--both nationwide and in SREB…

  7. The comprehensive assessment of defense style: measuring defense mechanisms in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laor, N; Wolmer, L; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study introduces the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS), a new method to assess descriptively the defensive behavior of children and adolescents. Parents of 124 children and adolescents referred to a mental health clinic, of 104 nontreated children, and of 15 children whose fathers were treated for posttraumatic stress disorder completed the CADS. Factor analysis of 28 defenses yielded one mature factor, one immature factor of defenses expressed in relations with the environment (other-oriented), and one of defenses expressed in relations with the self (self-oriented). The CADS significantly discriminated between patients and nonpatients. Psychiatric patients used more immature and fewer mature defenses than control subjects, and adolescents used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than children. Girls used more mature and fewer other-oriented defenses than boys. The reliability and validity data of the CADS are encouraging. The three defense factors may be implemented for diagnostic and clinical purposes as well as for screening for psychopathology risk in untreated populations.

  8. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required.

  9. A Multivariate Model of Parent-Adolescent Relationship Variables in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of predicting outcomes for early adolescents, this study examines a multivariate model of parent-adolescent relationship variables, including parenting, family environment, and conflict. Participants, who completed measures assessing these variables, included 710 culturally diverse 11-14-year-olds who were attending a middle…

  10. An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores.

    PubMed

    Feighery, Ellen C; Henriksen, Lisa; Wang, Yun; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

  11. Socialization and Adolescent Self-Esteem: Symbolic Interaction and Social Learning Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, D. Kim; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of social learning and symbolic interaction on adolescent self-esteem. Adolescents (N=368) and their parents completed measures of self-esteem, parental behavior and parental power. Results suggested adolescent self-esteem is more a function of social interaction and the reflected appraisals of others than a modeling of…

  12. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  13. An Evaluation of the Applicability of the Tripartite Constructs to Social Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Emily R.; Veed, Glen J.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Hansen, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and…

  14. Validity of Four Commercial Bioelectrical Impedance Scales in Measuring Body Fat among Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the validity in predicting body fat percentage (%BF) of different bioelectrical impedance (BIA) devices among Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 255 Chinese children and adolescents aged 9-19 years old participated in the study. %BF was assessed by BIA scales, namely, Biodynamics-310 (Model A), Tanita TBF-543 (Model B), Tanita BC-545 (Model C), and InBody 520 (Model D). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used as the criterion measurement. Lin's concordance correlation coefficients of estimated %BF between Model A, Model B, Model C, and DXA showed poor agreements for both genders. Moderate agreements for %BF were found between DXA and Model D measurements. In boys, differences in %BF were found between DXA and Model B and Model C. No significant %BF differences were found between Model A, Model D, and DXA. However, the two BIA analyzers showed a significant positive correlation between the bias and average %BF between BIA and DXA. In girls, differences in %BF were observed between Model B, Model C, Model D, and DXA. Model A and DXA showed no significant differences of %BF; however, the bias and the average %BF between the BIA and DXA had a significant positive correlation. Using embedded equations in BIA devices should be validated in assessing the %BF of Chinese children and adolescents.

  15. A multicultural assessment of adolescent connectedness: testing measurement invariance across gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Karcher, Michael J; Sass, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    Counselors, psychologists, and evaluators of intervention programs for youth increasingly view the promotion of connectedness as an important intervention outcome. When evaluating these programs, researchers frequently test whether the treatment effects differ across gender and ethnic or racial groups. Doing so necessitates the availability of culturally and gender-invariant measures. We used the Hemingway: Measure of Adolescent Connectedness to estimate the factor structure invariance and equality of means across gender and 3 racial/ethnic groups with a large sample of middle school adolescents. From a practical perspective, the 10-scale model suggested factor structure invariance across gender and racial or ethnic (i.e., African American, Caucasian, and Latina/o) groups of adolescents. However, tests for partial invariance revealed some group difference on the factor loadings and intercepts between gender and ethnic/racial groups. When testing for mean equivalence, girls reported higher connectedness to friends, siblings, school, peers, teachers, and reading but lower connectedness to their neighborhoods. Caucasians reported higher connectedness to their neighborhoods and friends but lower connectedness to siblings than African Americans and Latinos. African Americans reported the highest connectedness to self (present and future) but lowest connectedness to teachers. Latinos reported the lowest connectedness to reading, self-in-the-present, and self-in-the-future. Overall, this study reveals racial/ethnic and gender mean differences on several connectedness subscales and suggests the Hemingway subscales are, from a practical perspective, invariant across gender and ethnicity and therefore appropriate for most assessment and evaluation purposes.

  16. [Adolescents under socio-educational measures: everyday ways of being and possibilities for nursing].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Dilce Rejane Peres; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; de Paula, Cristiane Cardoso; Terra, Marlene Gomes; Souza, Ivis Emília de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to understand the routine of the adolescent-being, who is under semi-liberty socio-educational measures. A phenomenological research was developed in unit of the Socio-Educational Treatment Foundation (Fundação de Atendimento Socioeducativo), in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Interviews were held with nine adolescents, from February to May, 2009. The Heideggerian analysis un-veiled that this socio-educational measure means a prison for them, something bad. They know they are not in the prison system due to their age and re-cognize they have thrown away their adolescence. In the institution, these youngsters go to school to learn something, to get some job. They express themselves through gossip, ambiguity and occupation. The conclusion is that the teenager is-thrown in that which is determined and remain in impersonality. For social reintegration they need the help of the socio-educational system, mediated by interdisciplinary work, and a support network for which the family, community and State are co-responsible.

  17. The Role of Language, Parents, and Peers in Ethnic Identity among Adolescents in Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Romero, Irma; Nava, Monica; Huang, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents and parents from 81 Armenian, 47 Vietnamese, and 88 Mexican families. Adolescents completed measures of ethnic language proficiency, peer social interaction, and ethnic identity, while parents completed a measure of support for cultural maintenance. Across all groups, ethnic language proficiency and in-group peer interaction…

  18. Longitudinal Relationships between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Mason, Craig A.; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, Jose

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family…

  19. THE ADOLESCENT MEASURE OF CONFIDENCE AND MUSCULOSKELETAL PERFORMANCE (AMCAMP): DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL VALIDATION

    PubMed Central

    May, Keith H.; Edwards, Michael C.; Goldstein, Marc S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the relationship of self-efficacy to sports performance is well established, little attention has been paid to self-efficacy in the movements or actions that are required to perform daily activities and prepare the individual to resume sports participation following an injury and associated period of rehabilitation. There are no instruments to measure self-confidence in movement validated in an adolescent population. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of the AMCaMP, a self-report measure of confidence in movement and provide some initial evidence to support its use as a measure of confidence in movement. Methods The AMCaMP was adapted from OPTIMAL, a self-report instrument that measures confidence in movement, which had been previously designed and validated in an adult population. Data were collected from 1,115 adolescent athletes from 12 outpatient physical therapy clinics in a single healthcare system. Results Exploratory factor analysis of the 22 items of the AMCaMP using a test sample revealed a three factor structure (trunk, lower body, upper body). Confirmatory factor analysis using a validation sample demonstrated a similar model fit with the data. Reliability of scores on each of three clusters of items identified by factor analysis was assessed with coefficient alpha (range = 0.82 to 0.94), Standard Error of Measurement (1.38 to 2.74), and Minimum Detectable Change (3.83 to 7.6). Conclusions AMCaMP has acceptable psychometric properties for use in adolescents (ages 11 to 18) as a patient-centric outcome measure of confidence in movement abilities after rehabilitation. Level of Evidence IV PMID:27757282

  20. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  1. Development and Validation of a Racial Discrimination Measure for Cambodian American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sangalang, Cindy C.; Chen, Angela C. C.; Kulis, Stephen S.; Yabiku, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the majority of studies examining experiences of racial discrimination among youth use measures initially developed for African American and Latino adults or college students. Few studies have attended to the ways in which discrimination experiences may be unique for Asian American youth, particularly subgroups such as Southeast Asians. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to describe the development of a racial discrimination measure using community-based participatory research with Cambodian American adolescents and (b) to psychometrically test the measure with respect to validity and reliability. This research used mixed-methods and comprised 3 phases. Phase 1 consisted of qualitative focus group research to assess community-identified needs. Phase 2 included quantitative survey development with community members and resulted in an 18-item measure assessing the frequency of ethnicity-based discrimination. Phase 3 involved psychometric testing of the measure’s validity and reliability (n = 423). Exploratory factor analysis procedures yielded a 3-factor structure describing peer, school, and police discrimination from all items, capturing 96% of the combined variance. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the data demonstrated good fit with the 3-factor structure (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .054), with factor loadings ranging from .59 to .96 and all estimates statistically significant at the p < .05 level. Correlational analyses of racial discrimination subfactors and depression supported concurrent validity. In sum, this measure can be used to examine the degree and sources of racial discrimination reported by Cambodian American adolescents and potentially other adolescents of Southeast Asian descent living in diverse urban communities. PMID:26388972

  2. Performance Measurement and Accountability in Higher Education: The Puzzle of Qualification Completions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alach, Zhivan

    2016-01-01

    This study explores difficulties in the conceptual positioning of the higher education performance indicator of qualification completion within a standard logic model taken from the public sector performance literature, involving inputs, processes, impacts and outcomes. Organisations are held to be more accountable for the delivery of outputs than…

  3. Completion Rates--A False Trail to Measuring Course Quality? Let's Call in the HEROEs Instead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creelman, Alastair; Reneland-Forsman, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Statistics are often used to reveal significant differences between online and campus-based education. The existence of online courses with low completion rates is often used to justify the inherent inferiority of online education compared to traditional classroom teaching. Our study revealed that this type of conclusion has little substance. We…

  4. Can Community Colleges Afford to Improve Completion? Measuring the Cost and Efficiency Consequences of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Crosta, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to improve completion rates and efficiency despite limited economic evidence on how to do so and the consequences of different reform strategies. Here, we set out an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate…

  5. Characteristic features of reproductive hormone profiles in late adolescent and adult females with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doehnert, Ulla; Bertelloni, Silvano; Werner, Ralf; Dati, Eleonora; Hiort, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about gonadotropins and sex steroid levels in postpubertal women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). In order to define reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS and intact gonads, 42 postpubertal females with proven CAIS (age range 14-50 years) with testes in situ were examined. Reproductive hormone values [testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)] were assessed by commercially available immunoassays. In women with CAIS, LH levels (median 18.5 IU/l, range 5.5-51.1 IU/l) were elevated above the usual adult reference ranges, whereas FSH values (3.5 IU/l, 0.4-16.3 IU/l) were not. Basal T (20 nmol/l, 6-52 nmol/l) and E2 values (113 pmol/l; 18-257 pmol/l) were found in the usual adult male reference ranges; SHBG levels (53 nmol/l, 15-180 nmol/l) were in the adult female reference range. Calculated free androgen indices (Tx10³/SHBG: 380, 114-863) and aromatization indices (E2/T: 0.052, 0.020-0.196) did not differ from the reference ranges for adult men given in the literature (Tx10³/SHBG: 315-936; E2/T: 0.03-0.07). Reproductive hormone profiles in women with CAIS do not follow the usual male/female pattern, suggesting a specific postpubertal hormone milieu. Albeit calculation of CAIS-specific reference ranges requires larger series and standardization of laboratory methods, these results may be a prerequisite for the identification of pathologic hormone patterns in women with CAIS and gonads in situ. The present data will also be useful to monitor hormone replacement therapy in individuals with removed gonads.

  6. Parental alcohol involvement and adolescent alcohol expectancies predict alcohol involvement in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Zucker, Robert A; Jester, Jennifer M; Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E

    2010-09-01

    Current models of adolescent drinking behavior hypothesize that alcohol expectancies mediate the effects of other proximal and distal risk factors. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that the effects of parental alcohol involvement on their children's drinking behavior in mid-adolescence are mediated by the children's alcohol expectancies in early adolescence. A sample of 148 initially 9-11 year old boys and their parents from a high-risk population and a contrast group of community families completed measures of drinking behavior and alcohol expectancies over a 6-year interval. We analyzed data from middle childhood (M age = 10.4 years), early adolescence (M age = 13.5 years), and mid-adolescence (M age = 16.5 years). The sample was restricted only to adolescents who had begun to drink by mid-adolescence. Results from zero-inflated Poisson regression analyses showed that 1) maternal drinking during their children's middle childhood predicted number of drinking days in middle adolescence; 2) negative and positive alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted odds of any intoxication in middle adolescence; and 3) paternal alcoholism during their children's middle childhood and adolescents' alcohol expectancies in early adolescence predicted frequency of intoxication in middle adolescence. Contrary to predictions, child alcohol expectancies did not mediate the effects of parental alcohol involvement in this high-risk sample. Different aspects of parental alcohol involvement, along with early adolescent alcohol expectancies, independently predicted adolescent drinking behavior in middle adolescence. Alternative pathways for the influence of maternal and paternal alcohol involvement and implications for expectancy models of adolescent drinking behavior were discussed.

  7. Complete Parameter Identification of Gough-Stewart Platform with Partial Pose Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Abdul; Ryu, Jeha

    Kinematic calibration of Gough-Stewart platform using a new measurement device is presented in this paper. The device simultaneously measures components of position and orientation using commercially available gadgets. Additional kinematic parameters are defined to model the sources of inaccuracies for the proposed measurement device. Computer simulations reveal that all kinematic parameters of the Gough-Stewart platform and the additional kinematic parameters of the measurement device can be identified with the partial pose measurements from the proposed device. Results also show that identification is robust for the initial errors in the parameters and the noise in measurements. The device is general and can be used for other parallel manipulators. The measurement procedure can easily be automated with the proposed measurement device.

  8. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  9. Complete equation for the measurement of organic molecules using stable isotope labeled internal standards, exact matching, and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Burke, Daniel G; Mackay, Lindsey G

    2008-07-01

    Highly accurate measurements of the amount of substance of organic molecules in a test material can be obtained using exactly matched calibration solutions and internal standards that are labeled with stable isotope atoms by measuring the amount ratio of analyte to internal standard using mass spectrometry. Estimating the uncertainty of quantitative measurements of organic molecules is a means of evaluating accuracy and of establishing traceability to the International System of Units (SI) and requires a measurement function that fully describes the measuring system. This paper presents the derivation of the equation (measurement function) that describes this complete measurement after the internal standard has equilibrated with the test material matrix. It is similar to the equation for inorganic measurements using isotope dilution techniques, but potential biases during chemical processing arising from whole organic molecule analysis compared to inorganic atomic analysis required greater investigation of the yield factors that occur during organic molecule measurements. In the new equation, a series of ratios of proportionality factors are used to relate the amount of substance in a test material to chromatographic peak area ratios corresponding to mass spectrometer ion current ratios. All the proportionality factors are grouped together to define a measuring system factor F(X), the value of which is determined by the fundamental chemical processes affecting the yields of analyte, internal standard, and reference standard of the analyte in the measurement process. Any factors in the measurement process that affect the mole ratio of analyte to internal standard in the calibration solution differently from the test solution will result in a nonunity value for F(X) and a proportional bias to the measurement, and in this way F(X) represents the concept of recovery of the amount ratio of analyte to internal standard. Thus highly accurate measurements require F(X) or

  10. Executive functions: performance-based measures and the behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) in adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Toplak, Maggie E; Bucciarelli, Stefania M; Jain, Umesh; Tannock, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Performance-based measures and ratings of executive functions were examined in a sample of adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comparison controls. Performance-based measures of executive function included inhibition, working memory, set shifting, and planning, and ratings of these same executive functions were completed by parents and teachers. Adolescents with ADHD demonstrated lower executive function performance than controls and displayed elevated ratings on the executive function ratings by parents and teachers. Significant associations were obtained between the performance-based measures and the parent and teacher ratings, but each measure was not uniquely associated with its respective scale on the rating scales. When performance-based measures and ratings were examined as predictors of ADHD status, the parent and teacher ratings entered as significant predictors of ADHD status. Further commonality analyses indicated that performance-based measures accounted for little unique variance in predicting ADHD status and also displayed little overlap with the behavioral ratings. These findings highlight the diagnostic utility of behavioral ratings of executive function in predicting ADHD status; however, behavioral ratings should not be assumed to be a proxy for performance on measures of executive function in clinical practice.

  11. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: participant experiences and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority.

  12. Performance of different adiposity measures for predicting cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Bovet, Pascal; Ma, Chuanwei; Xi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors in US adolescents. A total of 3621 adolescents (boys: 49.9%) aged 12–17 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012) were included in this study. Measured CV risk factors included systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose. The AUC of BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score to predict at least three CV risk factors were similar (~0.85), irrespective of criteria used to define abnormal levels of CV risk factors. A 1-SD increase in any of three indices to predict CV risk was also similar for the three adiposity scores. For instance, a 1-SD increase risk in BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score was 3.32 (95%CI 2.53–4.36), 3.43 (95%CI 2.64–4.46), and 3.45 (95%CI 2.64–4.52), respectively, in the total population using the International Diabetes Federation definition. In addition, the most efficient WHtR cut-off for screening CV risk was ~0.50 in US adolescents. In summary, BMI, WC and WHtR performed similarly well to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors among US adolescents. PMID:28262726

  13. Measuring Health Utilities in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thorrington, Dominic; Eames, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this review was to evaluate the use of all direct and indirect methods used to estimate health utilities in both children and adolescents. Utilities measured pre- and post-intervention are combined with the time over which health states are experienced to calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost-utility analyses (CUAs) estimate the cost-effectiveness of health technologies based on their costs and benefits using QALYs as a measure of benefit. The accurate measurement of QALYs is dependent on using appropriate methods to elicit health utilities. Objective We sought studies that measured health utilities directly from patients or their proxies. We did not exclude those studies that also included adults in the analysis, but excluded those studies focused only on adults. Methods and Findings We evaluated 90 studies from a total of 1,780 selected from the databases. 47 (52%) studies were CUAs incorporated into randomised clinical trials; 23 (26%) were health-state utility assessments; 8 (9%) validated methods and 12 (13%) compared existing or new methods. 22 unique direct or indirect calculation methods were used a total of 137 times. Direct calculation through standard gamble, time trade-off and visual analogue scale was used 32 times. The EuroQol EQ-5D was the most frequently-used single method, selected for 41 studies. 15 of the methods used were generic methods and the remaining 7 were disease-specific. 48 of the 90 studies (53%) used some form of proxy, with 26 (29%) using proxies exclusively to estimate health utilities. Conclusions Several child- and adolescent-specific methods are still being developed and validated, leaving many studies using methods that have not been designed or validated for use in children or adolescents. Several studies failed to justify using proxy respondents rather than administering the methods directly to the patients. Only two studies examined missing responses to the methods administered with

  14. Reliability and concurrent validity of postural asymmetry measurement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Prowse, Ashleigh; Aslaksen, Berit; Kierkegaard, Marie; Furness, James; Gerdhem, Paul; Abbott, Allan

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of the Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis postural assessment in three anatomical planes. METHODS This is an observational reliability and concurrent validity study of adolescent referrals to the Orthopaedic department for scoliosis screening at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden between March-May 2012. A total of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (13.6 ± 0.6 years old) of mild-moderate curvatures (25° ± 12°) were consecutively recruited. Measurement of cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures, pelvic and shoulder tilt, and axial thoracic rotation (ATR) were performed by two trained physiotherapists in one day. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-examiner reliability (ICC2,1) and the intra-rater reliability (ICC3,3) of the Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter. Spearman’s correlation analyses were used to estimate concurrent validity between the Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter and Gold Standard Cobb angles from radiographs and the Orthopaedic Systems Inc. Scoliometer. RESULTS There was excellent reliability between examiners for thoracic kyphosis (ICC2,1 = 0.94), ATR (ICC2,1 = 0.92) and lumbar lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.79). There was adequate reliability between examiners for cervical lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.51), however poor reliability for pelvic and shoulder tilt. Both devices were reproducible in the measurement of ATR when repeated by one examiner (ICC3,3 0.98-1.00). The device had a good correlation with the Scoliometer (rho = 0.78). When compared with Cobb angle from radiographs, there was a moderate correlation for ATR (rho = 0.627). CONCLUSION The Baseline® Body Level/Scoliosis meter provides reliable transverse and sagittal cervical, thoracic and lumbar measurements and valid transverse plan measurements of mild-moderate scoliosis deformity. PMID:28144582

  15. Measuring Peer Pressure, Popularity, and Conformity in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Predicting School Performance, Sexual Attitudes, and Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santor, Darcy A.; Messervey, Deanna; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2000-01-01

    Developed and validated short measures of peer pressure, peer conformity, and popularity with 148 adolescent Canadian boys and girls in grades 11 to 13. Results show all constructed measures to be internally consistent. Peer pressure and peer conformity were stronger predictors of risk behavior than measures assessing popularity, general…

  16. Incorporating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis measures into preventive interventions for adolescent depression: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Sutton, Jonathan M; Doane, Leah D; Mineka, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a robust correlate of major depression in adults, and to a lesser extent, in adolescents. Premorbid differences in HPA axis function have been found to prospectively predict the onset of adolescent depression. To what extent might our knowledge of HPA axis function in adolescents with, or at risk for, depression, help guide efforts to prevent depression in this age group? We review evidence regarding the role of the HPA axis in the development of adolescent depression, and examine whether and which HPA axis measures might be useful in guiding prevention efforts as (a) as a criterion by which to select youth at risk for depression, (b) as a predictor of which youth will be most responsive to prevention efforts, and (c) as an indicator of whether prevention/intervention efforts are working. We conclude that our current understanding of the HPA axis, and its measurement, in adolescent depression are not sufficiently precise to be of immediate practical use in improving prevention efforts. Incorporating HPA axis measures into prevention studies, however, would be immensely useful in clarifying the role of the HPA axis in adolescent depression, such that future prevention efforts might more confidently rely on HPA axis information.

  17. Adolescent Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Sheila

    Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…

  18. Complete velocity distribution in river cross-sections measured by acoustic instruments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; ,

    2003-01-01

    To fully understand the hydraulic properties of natural rivers, velocity distribution in the river cross-section should be studied in detail. The measurement task is not straightforward because there is not an instrument that can measure the velocity distribution covering the entire cross-section. Particularly, the velocities in regions near the free surface and in the bottom boundary layer are difficult to measure, and yet the velocity properties in these regions play the most significant role in characterizing the hydraulic properties. To further characterize river hydraulics, two acoustic instruments, namely, an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), and a "BoogieDopp" (BD) were used on fixed platforms to measure the detailed velocity profiles across the river. Typically, 20 to 25 stations were used to represent a river cross-section. At each station, water velocity profiles were measured independently and/or concurrently by an ADCP and a BD. The measured velocity properties were compared and used in computation of river discharge. In a tow-tank evaluation of a BD, it has been confirmed that BD is capable of measuring water velocity at about 11 cm below the free-surface. Therefore, the surface velocity distribution across the river was extracted from the BD velocity measurements and used to compute the river discharge. These detailed velocity profiles and the composite velocity distribution were used to assess the validity of the classic theories of velocity distributions, conventional river discharge measurement methods, and for estimates of channel bottom roughness.

  19. Assessment of identity during adolescence using daily diary methods: Measurement invariance across time and sex.

    PubMed

    Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Kinship Center Attachment Questionnaire: Development of a Caregiver-Completed Attachment Measure for Children Younger than 6 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kappenberg, Erin Setsuko; Halpern, Diane F.

    2006-01-01

    The Kinship Center Attachment Questionnaire (KCAQ) is a newly developed screening instrument completed by the caregiver and appropriate for use with children younger than 6 years. The KCAQ is different from other attachment instruments because it is a time-efficient, quantitative measure of child attachment that is capable of tracking change in…

  1. Measuring Behaviors of Individual Adolescents during Group-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Soenksen, Shayna; Lebeau, Rebecca; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hurlbut, Warren; Monti, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Group treatment is delivered in youth correctional facilities, yet groups may be iatrogenic. Few measures with demonstrated psychometric properties exist to track behaviors of individuals during groups. We assessed psychometrics for the Group Process-Individual Level measure (GP-IL) of group treatment. Methods: N=152 teens were randomized to 1 of 2 groups (10 sessions each). Adolescents, counselors, and observers rated teen behaviors at sessions 3 and 10. GP-IL assesses reinforcement for deviancy and positive behaviors, member rejection, and counselor connection and praise. Results: Internal consistency and 1-month stability were demonstrated. Concurrent validity is supported by correlations with measures expected to be associated with group behavior (e.g., coping skills). Counselors and observers rated more deviancy during interactive skills-building groups versus didactic psycho-educational groups (p≤ .005). Scales evidenced incremental validity. Conclusions: GP-IL offers a sound method of tracking adolescent behaviors for professionals working with groups. Counselors ratings were most reliable and valid overall. PMID:25127289

  2. Development and validation of brief scales to measure emotional and behavioural problems among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minxue; Hu, Ming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate brief scales to measure common emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents in the examination-oriented education system and collectivistic culture of China. Setting Middle schools in Hunan province. Participants 5442 middle school students aged 11–19 years were sampled. 4727 valid questionnaires were collected and used for validation of the scales. The final sample included 2408 boys and 2319 girls. Primary and secondary outcome measures The tools were assessed by the item response theory, classical test theory (reliability and construct validity) and differential item functioning. Results Four scales to measure anxiety, depression, study problem and sociality problem were established. Exploratory factor analysis showed that each scale had two solutions. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable to good model fit for each scale. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability of all scales were above 0.7. Item response theory showed that all items had acceptable discrimination parameters and most items had appropriate difficulty parameters. 10 items demonstrated differential item functioning with respect to gender. Conclusions Four brief scales were developed and validated among adolescents in middle schools of China. The scales have good psychometric properties with minor differential item functioning. They can be used in middle school settings, and will help school officials to assess the students’ emotional/behavioural problems. PMID:28062469

  3. Latino Adolescents' Adjustment, Maternal Depressive Symptoms, and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corona, Rosalie; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Sigman, Marian; Romo, Laura F.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined associations between adolescent behaviors, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-adolescent relationships. Latina mothers and adolescents (111 dyads) completed questionnaires and participated in videotaped discussions. Mothers' depressive symptoms related to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors and family…

  4. The use of dysprosium to measure endogenous zinc excretion in feces eliminates the necessity of complete fecal collections.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leland V; Sheng, Xiao-Yang; Hambidge, K Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Sian, Lei; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-08-01

    The secretion of endogenous zinc (Zn) into the gut and subsequent excretion in the feces is understood to play a major role in maintaining Zn homeostasis in humans. Therefore, the measurement of endogenous Zn losses in the feces (EFZ) can be an important aspect of the study of Zn metabolism and homeostasis. The methods currently used to measure EFZ have the disadvantage of requiring complete fecal collections over multiple days. We have investigated the use of dysprosium (Dy), a nonabsorbable rare earth metal, in a method of determining EFZ that does not require complete fecal collections and permits the measurement of EFZ from several fecal samples. The method was evaluated using data from a study of free-living adult females in which Dy was administered 3-4 times/d over a period of 5 or 6 d to monitor completeness of fecal collections. The results did not differ from those obtained using an established isotope dilution method. We found that the measurement of the sample Dy:Zn ratio was useful for selecting samples for measurement. We conclude that the Dy method of determining EFZ is a valid and less burdensome alternative to current techniques.

  5. Quantum teleportation of a polarization state with a complete bell state measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Kulik, S P; Shih, Y

    2001-02-12

    We report a quantum teleportation experiment in which nonlinear interactions are used for the Bell state measurements. The experimental results demonstrate the working principle of irreversibly teleporting an unknown arbitrary polarization state from one system to another distant system by disassembling into and then later reconstructing from purely classical information and nonclassical EPR correlations. The distinct feature of this experiment is that all four Bell states can be distinguished in the Bell state measurement. Teleportation of a polarization state can thus occur with certainty in principle.

  6. Long distance, unconditional teleportation of atomic states via complete Bell state measurements.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, S; Shahriar, M S; Shapiro, J H; Hemmer, P R

    2001-10-15

    We propose a scheme for creating and storing quantum entanglement over long distances. Optical cavities that store this long-distance entanglement in atoms could then function as nodes of a quantum network, in which quantum information is teleported from cavity to cavity. The teleportation is conducted unconditionally via measurements of all four Bell states, using a novel method of sequential elimination.

  7. Comparing Parent-Child and Teacher-Child Relationships in Early Adolescence: Measurement Invariance of Perceived Attachment-Related Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Laet, Steven; Colpin, Hilde; Goossens, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Verschueren, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Through an examination of measurement invariance, this study investigated whether attachment-related dimensions (i.e., secure base, safe haven, and negative interactions as measured with the Network of Relationships Inventory-Behavioral Systems Version) have the same psychological meaning for early adolescents in their relationships with parents…

  8. Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student's Life Satisfaction Scale among Adolescents and Emerging Adults across 23 Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abubakar, Amina; van de Vijver, Fons; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; He, Jia; Adams, Byron; Aldhafri, Said; Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Arasa, Josephine; Boer, Diana; Celenk, Ozgur; Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Mbebeb, Fomba Emmanuel; Frías, María Teresa; Fresno, Andrés; Gillath, Omri; Harb, Charles; Handani, Penny; Hapunda, Given; Kamble, Shanmukh; Kosic, Marianna; Looh, Joseph Lah; Mazrui, Lubna; Mendia, Rafael Emilio; Murugami, Margaret; Mason-Li, Mei; Pandia, Weny Savitry; Perdomo, Cristina; Schachner, Maja; Sim, Samantha; Spencer, Rosario; Suryani, Angela; Tair, Ergyul

    2016-01-01

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group…

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Donepezil in Children and Adolescents with Autism: Neuropsychological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; McAuliffe-Bellin, Sarah; Murray, Patricia Jo; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been recent interest in the use of cognitive enhancing drugs, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, as a possible treatment for executive functioning (EF) deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The goal of this study was to assess the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of donepezil on EF in a sample of children and adolescents with ASD. Method Thirty-four children and adolescents with ASD (age range 8–17 years; IQ >75) were enrolled in a 10-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil (doses of 5 and 10 mg), followed by a 10-week open label trial for placebo nonresponders. Results The effect of donepezil treatment on EF was examined. Despite improvement on a number of EF measures, no statistically significant between-group differences were found (with gains observed for both the placebo and donepezil groups). Conclusions The results suggest that short-term treatment with donepezil may have limited impact on cognitive functioning in ASD. Future controlled trials may need to consider a longer treatment period to detect significant gains on EF measures. PMID:21309696

  10. Complete Measurement of S(1D2) Photofragment Alignment from Abel-Invertible Ion Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitzis, T. Peter; Samartzis, Peter C.; Kitsopoulos, Theofanis N.

    2001-09-01

    A novel method to measure directly the photofragment alignment from Abel-invertible two-dimensional ion images, as a function of photofragment recoil velocity, is demonstrated for S(1D2) atoms from the photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide at 223 nm. The results are analyzed in terms of coherent and incoherent contributions from two dissociative states, showing that the phase differences of the asymptotic wave functions of the fast and slow recoil-velocity channel are approximately π/2 and 0, respectively.

  11. The viability of the Parenting Representations Interview for assessing and measuring change in parents of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2015-01-01

    Parents' representations include parents' views of their adolescent, of their own parenting and of the parent-adolescent relationship. Two longitudinal studies of parents and their adolescent sons and daughters support the validity of scales coding mothers in the Parenting Representations Interview-Adolescence (PRI-A). The studies, conducted in Israel during the transition from home to military service, demonstrated that three dimensions derived from the PRI-A: positive representations of adolescents, negative emotionality and inadequate boundaries were associated with adolescents' AAI variables, relatedness-autonomy behaviors with mothers, and with other indicators, such as adolescents' wellbeing, romantic intimacy and individuation. Examining parenting representations could help practitioners pinpoint targets for intervention and evaluate the changes that families go through during psychotherapy, as well as the therapeutic process and its outcomes. The findings support the viability of the PRI for use in attachment based interventions for adolescents.

  12. Friendship Group Identification, Multidimensional Self-Concept, and Experience of Developmental Tasks in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Mark; MacKenzie, Liam; Hewitt, Lisa A.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied a social identity perspective to the study of adolescent self-concept and social development. British adolescents aged 14-15 years (N=114) completed a questionnaire which asked them to: (i) rate their degree of identification with a school-based friendship group; (ii) complete a measure of multi-dimensional self-concept; and…

  13. Ecological Momentary Assessment with smartphones for measuring mental health problems in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; Kirchner-Nebot, Teresa; Forns-Santacana, Maria; Calderón, Caterina; Planellas, Irina

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the viability of Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) for measuring the mental states associated with psychopathological problems in adolescents. METHODS In a sample of 110 adolescents, a sociodemographic data survey and an EMA Smartphone application over a one-week period (five times each day), was developed to explore symptom profiles, everyday problems, coping strategies, and the contexts in which the events take place. RESULTS The positive response was 68.6%. Over 2250 prompts about mental states were recorded. In 53% of situations the smartphone was answered at home, 25.5% of cases they were with their parents or with peers (20.3%). Associations were found with attention, affective and anxiety problems (P < 0.001) in the participants who took longer to respond to the EMA app. Anxious and depressive states were highly interrelated (rho = 0.51, P < 0.001), as well as oppositional defiant problems and conduct problems (rho = 0.56, P < 0.001). Only in 6.2% of the situations the subjects perceived they had problems, mainly associated with inter-relational aspects with family, peers, boyfriends or girlfriends (31.2%). We also found moderate-high reliability on scales of satisfaction level on the context, on positive emotionality, and on the discomfort index associated with mental health problems. CONCLUSION EMA methodology using smartphones is a useful tool for understanding adolescents’ daily dynamics. It achieved moderate-high reliability and accurately identified psychopathological manifestations experienced by community adolescents in their natural context. PMID:27679769

  14. Relationship Between Cognitive Assessment and Balance Measures in Adolescents Referred for Vestibular Physical Therapy After Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Alsalaheen, Bara A.; Whitney, Susan L.; Marchetti, Gregory F.; Furman, Joseph M.; Kontos, Anthony P.; Collins, Michael W.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between cognitive and balance performance in adolescents with concussion. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary. Patients Sixty patients. Interventions Correlation analyses were performed to describe the relationship between symptoms, cognitive measure, and balance measure at the time of initiation of vestibular physical therapy. Main Outcome Measures Cognitive performance was assessed using the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The dizziness and balance function measures included dizziness severity rating, Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC), Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Functional Gait Assessment, gait speed, Timed “UP and GO,” Five Times Sit to Stand, and Sensory Organization Test (SOT). To account for multiple comparisons, the False Discovery Rate method was used. Results Performance measures of balance were significantly correlated with cognitive measures. Greater total symptom scores were related to greater impairment in the ABC and DHI (r = 0.35-0.39, P ≤ 0.008) and worse performance in condition 2 of the SOT (r = −0.48, P = 0.004). Among the ImPACT composite scores, lower memory scores were correlated with impaired balance performance measures (r = 0.37-0.59, P ≤ 0.012). Lower visual memory was also correlated with worse ABC scores. Conclusions The significant relationships reported between the cognitive performance scores and balance measures may reflect that similar levels of functioning exist across domains in individuals with protracted recovery who receive vestibular physical therapy. PMID:25706663

  15. Personal Stories of Empathy in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soucie, Kendall M.; Lawford, Heather; Pratt, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Age-related and individual differences in adolescents' and emerging adults' stories of real-life empathic and nonempathic experiences were examined. A total of 29 adolescents (M = 15.28, SD = 0.99) and 31 emerging adults (M = 18.23, SD = 0.56) told stories of empathic and nonempathic life events and completed measures of authoritative parenting…

  16. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  17. Preliminary Validation of a New Instrument to Measure Life Satisfaction in Adolescents with Neuromuscular Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Denise T.; Renwick, Rebecca M.

    1994-01-01

    A new questionnaire instrument, the Life Satisfaction Index for Adolescents (LSIA), has been developed for adolescents with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This article reviews the conceptual basis of the LSIA, its development, and its reliability and validity (established with 15 male adolescents with DMD). (DB)

  18. "Everyone has a right to, like, check their box:" findings on a measure of gender identity from a cognitive testing study with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith Jane; Scout; Austin, S Bryn

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to monitor the health of transgender youth, a small but high-risk population, are hindered by a lack of knowledge about how to accurately measure gender identity. Adolescents (n = 30) participated in semistructured qualitative interviews after completing a close-ended transgender-inclusive measure of gender. Interviews explored item comprehension and respondent burden. Participants, who were diverse in age (range = 15-21), gender identity, sexual orientation, and race-ethnicity, were accurately classified as male, female, or transgender. All youth understood transgender as a difference between the physical body and a person's internal sense of self. Nontransgender youth frequently used an example (a woman in a man's body) in their explanations and were largely supportive of the transgender options. Most transgender youth found a response option that they felt was appropriate. Transgender response options were added to a gender measure without impacting the accuracy of nontransgender responses or burdening the nontransgender adolescents in our sample. A modified measure (Gender: male; female; transgender, male-to-female; transgender, female-to-male; transgender, do not identify as exclusively male or female) is recommended for testing in samples that vary by age, race-ethnicity, socioeconomic status, language, and geography. Additional suggestions for research in this area are provided.

  19. Koppitz scoring system as a measure of Bender-Gestalt performance in behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, S K; Simpson, R G

    1995-01-01

    Data are presented to assess the use of the Koppitz scoring system for the Bender-Gestalt Test in a sample (N = 87) of behaviorally and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Results suggested that age was modestly related to Koppitz Developmental scores, an indication that visual-motor skills continue to develop beyond age 11. Scores were related to spatial perception skills as measured on the WISC-R. Gender, primary psychiatric diagnosis, educational tests, and MMPI scores were not related to Bender performance. Findings are discussed in terms of a need for additional research into the utility of the Bender as a measure of visual-motor skills in adolescents.

  20. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents' Response to a Media Literacy Intervention.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L; Elek, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences' degree of engagement with the content of media literacy programs based on the recognition that engagement (and not participation per se) can better explain and predict individual variations in the effects of these programs. We tested the validity and reliability of a measure of engagement with two different samples of 10(th) grade high school students who participated in a pilot and actual test of a brief media literacy curriculum. Four message evaluation factors (involvement, perceived novelty, critical thinking, personal reflection) emerged and demonstrate acceptable reliability.

  1. Completing the Picture: Importance of Considering Participatory Mapping for REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV)

    PubMed Central

    Rafanoharana, Serge; Boissière, Manuel; Wijaya, Arief; Wardhana, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping land cover and is considered key to monitoring changes in forest areas in the REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system. But Remote Sensing as a desk study cannot capture the whole picture; it also requires ground checking. Therefore, complementing remote sensing analysis using participatory mapping can help provide information for an initial forest cover assessment, gain better understanding of how local land use might affect changes, and provide a way to engage local communities in REDD+. Our study looked at the potential of participatory mapping in providing complementary information for remotely sensed maps. The research sites were located in different ecological and socio-economic contexts in the provinces of Papua, West Kalimantan and Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty-one maps of land cover and land use were drawn with local community participation during focus group discussions in seven villages. These maps, covering a total of 270,000ha, were used to add information to maps developed using remote sensing, adding 39 land covers to the eight from our initial desk assessment. They also provided additional information on drivers of land use and land cover change, resource areas, territory claims and land status, which we were able to correlate to understand changes in forest cover. Incorporating participatory mapping in the REDD+ MRV protocol would help with initial remotely sensed land classifications, stratify an area for ground checks and measurement plots, and add other valuable social data not visible at the RS scale. Ultimately, it would provide a forum for local communities to discuss REDD+ activities and develop a better understanding of REDD+. PMID:27977685

  2. Completing the Picture: Importance of Considering Participatory Mapping for REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV).

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Guillaume; Rafanoharana, Serge; Boissière, Manuel; Wijaya, Arief; Wardhana, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    Remote sensing has been widely used for mapping land cover and is considered key to monitoring changes in forest areas in the REDD+ Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) system. But Remote Sensing as a desk study cannot capture the whole picture; it also requires ground checking. Therefore, complementing remote sensing analysis using participatory mapping can help provide information for an initial forest cover assessment, gain better understanding of how local land use might affect changes, and provide a way to engage local communities in REDD+. Our study looked at the potential of participatory mapping in providing complementary information for remotely sensed maps. The research sites were located in different ecological and socio-economic contexts in the provinces of Papua, West Kalimantan and Central Java, Indonesia. Twenty-one maps of land cover and land use were drawn with local community participation during focus group discussions in seven villages. These maps, covering a total of 270,000ha, were used to add information to maps developed using remote sensing, adding 39 land covers to the eight from our initial desk assessment. They also provided additional information on drivers of land use and land cover change, resource areas, territory claims and land status, which we were able to correlate to understand changes in forest cover. Incorporating participatory mapping in the REDD+ MRV protocol would help with initial remotely sensed land classifications, stratify an area for ground checks and measurement plots, and add other valuable social data not visible at the RS scale. Ultimately, it would provide a forum for local communities to discuss REDD+ activities and develop a better understanding of REDD+.

  3. Interpretation of standard distortion product otoacoustic emission measurements in light of the complete parametric response.

    PubMed

    Mills, David M

    2002-10-01

    Emission characteristics (at 2f1-f2) are measured in Mongolian gerbil as a function of the independent variation of all four stimulus parameters, the frequencies (f1 and f2) and the intensities (L1 and L2) of the two stimulus tones. The main five-dimensional display chosen is a logarithmic grid of frequencies, where for each frequency pair there is a contour map of the emission amplitude as a function of the two stimulus levels. The feature which leads to the greatest complexity in the proper interpretation of emission responses is the widespread presence of "notches" in these contour maps. Notches are lines of relative minima in the emission amplitude, and are found at either: (1) constant L1, but only in regions where L1 > L2; or (2) at constant L2, only where L2 > or = L1. Notches are not found at any other orientations, and are associated with emission phase shifts of about 180 degrees as the notch line is traversed. These notch characteristics are explained by phase cancellation in a simple cochlear amplifier model in which there is a change, as a function of the stimulus level alone, of relevant characteristics of the cochlear response to a single tone. Only one mechanism of emission generation is required to explain the observed patterns, i.e., there is no need to invoke different "active" and "passive" mechanisms. Unless properly accounted for, the presence of notches adversely affects all of the standard emission measurements, i.e., all methods which cover a restricted parameter set such as DPgrams, input-output or "growth" functions, and frequency ratio functions. Conversely, because the notch location appears approximately invariant in the cochlea, notches potentially make it possible to use certain emission growth functions to estimate forward and reverse middle-ear transfer functions.

  4. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Scores across Spanish and Swiss Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Badoud, Deborah; Knecht, Francesca; Paino, Mercedes; Eliez, Stephan; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Debbané, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. Methods The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years) and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years). Results The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance) of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. Discussion The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures. PMID:24349180

  5. A novel evaluation index for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis progression measurement and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X; Tang, Y J; Ong, S K; Nee, A Y C

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a trunk deformity of the spine with lateral deviation and rotation in the transverse plane. The most traditional measurement index and parameter for scoliosis diagnosis is the Cobb's angle, which evaluates the curves of the scoliotic spine on the radiographic projection of the trunk. Although this method is widely accepted as the benchmark in scoliosis assessment, it has some limitations and restrictions in practical applications because it is measured on a PA (posterior-anterior or back to front) X-ray image, such as potential harmfulness from radiation exposure and high cost.In this paper, a novel evaluation index for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis measurement and diagnosis is introduced to complement the existing assessment index, such as the Cobb's angle, the differences of shoulder height, etc. The new evaluation index is based on the phenomenon of the tilt and deviation of the vertebras in a scoliotic spine, which forms the tilt angles between each pair of adjacent vertebras.A data sample of 30 X-ray images of scoliotic spines was used in this research to evaluate and examine the usability and validity of the new index. The Cobb's angle and the new index were calculated and compared using the same data sample. The correlation between the Cobb's angle and the index was also determined, and a high correlation is found which demonstrated the usefulness of this proposed index. In this paper, it has been shown that the newly-proposed index has the potential to be used as a tool to support the traditional scoliosis measurement methods.This method can also be generalized on the sagittal plane to define other evaluation indices for assessing the severity of kyphosis and lordosis. The idea of using angular separation to evaluate spinal deformity in multiple planes or in three-dimensional spaces will be discussed in future research.

  6. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly

    2017-02-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.

  7. Adolescent fertility: worldwide concerns.

    PubMed

    Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M

    1985-04-01

    There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex

  8. Measuring the complete cross-cell carrier mobility distributions in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifter, Jason; Sun, Yanming; Choi, Hyosung; Lee, Byoung Hoon; Heeger, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube-enabled, vertical, organic field effect transistors (CN-VFETs) based on the small molecule dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT) have demonstrated high current, low-power operation suitable for driving active matix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. This performance is achieved without the need for costly high-resolution patterning, despite the low mobility of the organic semiconductor, by employing sub-micron channel widths, defined in the vertical devices by the thickness of the semiconducting layer. Replacing the thermally evaporated small molecule semiconductor with a solution-processed polymer would possibly further simplify the fabrication process and reduce manufacturing cost. Here we investigate several polymer systems as wide bandgap semiconducting channel layers for potentially air stable and transparent CN-VFETs. The field effect mobility and optical transparency of the polymer layers are determined, and the performance and air stability of CN-VFET devices are measured. A. S. gratefully acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation under DMR-1156737.

  9. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.

  10. Ego Development and Adolescent Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bursik, Krisanne; Martin, Timothy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated ego developmental differences in adolescent academic orientations and academic achievement. A sample of 142 male and female high school students completed the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and self-report measures assessing academic locus of control, learning orientation (LO), and grade orientation (GO).…

  11. Anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2-18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended.

  12. Associations among Parent-Adolescent Relationships, Pubertal Growth, Dieting, and Body Image in Young Adolescent Girls: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, Andrea Bastiani; Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1999-01-01

    Early adolescent girls, predominantly of normal weight, were seen for 2 consecutive years and completed measures assessing their dieting, body image, and relationships with parents; weights and heights were also measured. Mothers rated daughters' pubertal growth. Findings indicated that negative parent-adolescent relationships are linked to higher…

  13. Defining adolescent common mental disorders using electronic primary care data: a comparison with outcomes measured using the CIS-R

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Rosie P; John, Ann; Boyd, Andy; Tilling, Kate; Macleod, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) derived from data held in primary care records with that measured using the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) in order to assess the potential robustness of findings based only on routinely collected data. Design and setting Comparison study using linkage between the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and electronic primary care records. Participants We studied 1562 adolescents who had completed the CIS-R in ALSPAC at age 17–18 years and had linkage established to their primary care records. Outcome measures Outcome measures from ALSPAC were whether or not an individual met International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for a diagnosis of (1) a CMD or, specifically, (2) depression. Lists of Read codes corresponding to diagnoses, symptoms and treatments were used to create 12 definitions of CMD and depression alone using the primary care data. We calculated sensitivities and specificities of these, using CIS-R definitions as the reference standard. Results Sensitivities ranged from 5.2% to 24.3% for depression and from 3.8% to 19.2% for CMD. The specificities of all definitions were above 98% for depression and above 96% for CMD. For both outcomes, the definition that included current diagnosis, treatment or symptoms identified the highest proportion of CIS-R cases. Conclusions Most individuals meeting case definitions for CMD based on primary care data also met CIS-R case definitions. Conversely many individuals identified as cases using the CIS-R had no evidence of CMD in their clinical records. This suggests that clinical databases are likely to yield underestimates of the burden of CMD in the population. However, clinical records appear to yield valid diagnoses which may be useful for studying risk factors and consequences of CMD. The greatest epidemiological value may be obtained when information is available from survey and clinical records. PMID

  14. Myocardial Integrated Backscatter in Obese Adolescents: Associations with Measures of Adiposity and Left Ventricular Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Pik-to; Cheung, Yiu-fai

    2015-01-01

    Background Myocardial fibrosis has been proposed to play an important pathogenetic role in left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that calibrated integrated backscatter (cIB) as a marker of myocardial fibrosis is altered in obese adolescents and explored its associations with adiposity, LV myocardial deformation, and metabolic parameters. Methods/Principal Findings Fifty-two obese adolescents and 38 non-obese controls were studied with conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography. The average cIB of ventricular septum and LV posterior wall was measured. In obese subjects, insulin resistance as estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and glucose tolerance were determined. Compared with controls, obese subjects had significantly greater cIB of ventricular septum (-16.8±7.8 dB vs -23.2±7.8 dB, p<0.001), LV posterior wall (-20.5±5.6 dBvs -25.0±5.1 dB, p<0.001) and their average (-18.7±5.7 dB vs -24.1±5.0 dB, p<0.001). For myocardial deformation, obese subjects had significantly reduced LV longitudinal systolic strain rate (SR) (p = 0.045) and early diastolic SR (p = 0.015), and LV circumferential systolic strain (p = 0.008), but greater LV longitudinal late diastolic SR (p<0.001), and radial early (p = 0.037) and late (p = 0.002) diastolic SR than controls. For the entire cohort, myocardial cIB correlated positively with body mass index (r = 0.45, p<0.001) and waist circumference (r = 0.45, p<0.001), but negatively with LV circumferential systolic strain (r = -0.23, p = 0.03) and systolic SR (r = -0.25, p = 0.016). Among obese subjects, cIB tended to correlate with HOMA-IR (r = 0.26, p = 0.07). Conclusion Obese adolescents already exhibit evidence of increased myocardial fibrosis, which is associated with measures of adiposity and impaired LV circumferential myocardial deformation. PMID:26492195

  15. Adolescents' aggressive and prosocial behaviors: links with social information processing, negative emotionality, moral affect, and moral cognition.

    PubMed

    Laible, Deborah J; Murphy, Tia Panfile; Augustine, Mairin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine whether moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases independently predicted adolescents' prosocial and aggressive behavior in adolescence. A total of 148 adolescents completed self-report measures of prosocial and aggressive behavior, moral affect, moral cognition, negative emotionality, and attribution biases. Although in general all 3 factors (emotional, moral, and social cognitive) were correlated with adolescent social behavior, the most consistent independent predictors of adolescent social behavior were moral affect and cognition. These findings have important implications for intervention and suggest that programs that promote adolescent perspective taking, moral reasoning, and moral affect are needed to reduce aggressive behavior and promote prosocial behavior.

  16. Double-Pionic Fusion of Nuclear Systems and the 'ABC' Effect: Approaching a Puzzle by Exclusive and Kinematically Complete Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkanov, M.; Clement, H.; Doroshkevich, E.; Khakimova, O.; Kren, F.; Meier, R.; Pricking, A.; Skorodko, T.; Wagner, G. J.; Bargholtz, C.; Geren, L.; Lindberg, K.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Berlowski, M.; Stepaniak, J.; Bogoslawsky, D.; Ivanov, G.; Jiganov, E.; Morosov, B.

    2009-02-06

    The ABC effect--a puzzling low-mass enhancement in the {pi}{pi} invariant mass spectrum, first observed by Abashian, Booth, and Crowe--is well known from inclusive measurements of two-pion production in nuclear fusion reactions. Here we report on the first exclusive and kinematically complete measurements of the most basic double-pionic fusion reaction pn{yields}d{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} at beam energies of 1.03 and 1.35 GeV. The measurements, which have been carried out at CELSIUS-WASA, reveal the ABC effect to be a ({pi}{pi}){sub I=L=0} channel phenomenon associated with both a resonancelike energy dependence in the integral cross section and the formation of a {delta}{delta} system in the intermediate state. A corresponding simple s-channel resonance ansatz provides a surprisingly good description of the data.

  17. Whole grain consumption and body weight measures in children and adolescents: Results from NHANES 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of whole grain (WG) consumption and anthropometric measures in children and adolescents using a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 in children and 6-12 y (n=3,868) ...

  18. Comparison of the General Ability Measure for Adults and the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassiter, Kerry S.; Matthews, T. Darin; Bell, Nancy L.; Maher, Carrie M.

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-four college students were administered the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) and Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test (KAIT). GAMA IQs were significantly and moderately correlated with KAIT Fluid, Crystallized and Composite IQs, supporting the convergent validity of this instrument. Although significant correlations…

  19. The LAOM Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Measuring Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: Addressing the Psychometric Properties of the Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozina, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The article introduces a new anxiety scale, called the LAOM (Lestvica anksioznosti za otroke in mladostnike [The anxiety scale for children and adolescents]) for measuring self-reported multidimensional anxiety. The scale has been developed with a special focus on the school setting, using one sample from an elementary school which is…

  20. Measuring Friendship Quality during Pre- and Early Adolescence: The Development and Psychometric Properties of the Friendship Qualities Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS), which assesses the quality of children's and early adolescents' relationships with their best friends along five aspects of the friendship relation: companionship, conflict, help/aid, security, and closeness. Discusses the dimensions according to the issues related to the measurement of…

  1. Developing and Testing a Measure of Social Support with Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents and Their Mother Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Herzog, Melissa J.; Pflieger, Jacqueline C.; Madden-Derdich, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric testing of the Global Support From Mother Figure During Pregnancy Scale (GSMF-P). The measure is developed in both Spanish and English to assess social support provided to adolescents during their pregnancies. The current study examines the reliability, cross-language equivalence, and…

  2. Psychometric Support of the School Climate Measure in a Large, Diverse Sample of Adolescents: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Collins, Rani; Ghani, Nadia; Patton, Jon M.; Huebner, E. Scott; Ajamie, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: The School Climate Measure (SCM) was developed and validated in 2010 in response to a dearth of psychometrically sound school climate instruments. This study sought to further validate the SCM on a large, diverse sample of Arizona public school adolescents (N = 20,953). Methods: Four SCM domains (positive student-teacher relationships,…

  3. Complete angular distribution measurements of two-body deuteron photodisintegration between 0.5 and 3 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    M. Mirazita; F. Ronchetti; P. Rossi; E. De Sanctis; CLAS Collaboration

    2004-07-12

    Nearly complete angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section have been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer detector and the tagged photon beam at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data cover photon energies between 0.5 and 3.0 GeV and center-of-mass proton scattering angles 10{sup o}-160{sup o}. The data show a persistent forward-backward angle asymmetry over the explored energy range, and are well described by the nonperturbative quark gluon string model.

  4. The Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA): Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Scores of a New Multidimensional Measure of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    A new multidimensional measure of test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Measure for Adolescents (TAMA), specifically designed for U.S. adolescents in Grades 6 to 12 was developed and its psychometric properties were examined. The TAMA consists of five scales (Cognitive Interference, Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns, Task Irrelevant Behavior,…

  5. Observation of two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 by complete-kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. X.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yang, F.; Jia, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. T.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Wang, M.; Chen, R. F.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, C.; Lei, X. G.; Xu, Z. G.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 was studied by complete-kinematics measurements. The Ne18 beam at the energy of 51.8 MeV/u was bombarding a Au197 target to populate the excited states via Coulomb excitation. Products of two-α emission, C10-α-α, were measured by an array of silicon strip detectors and a CsI + PIN telescope. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the experimental results show the characteristics of sequential two-α emission via O14 excited states. Sequential two-α and two-proton emissions from Ne18 via one-particle daughter states are compared and the distinction of the opening angles of these two modes originates from the difference of the mass ratio of emitted particles to daughter nuclei.

  6. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  7. Health Risk Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Adolescents: Examining Acculturation Discrepancies and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514

  8. Measure for Measure: A Critical Consumers' Guide to Reading Comprehension Assessments for Adolescents. Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York's Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsy, Leila; Kieffer, Michael; Snow, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Although millions of dollars and weeks of instructional time are spent nationally on testing students, educators often have little information on how to choose appropriate assessments of adolescent reading for informing instruction. This guide is designed to meet that need, by drawing together evidence about nine of the most commonly-used,…

  9. Appetitive traits from infancy to adolescence: using behavioral and neural measures to investigate obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Pryor, Katherine; Driggin, Elissa

    2013-09-10

    We come into the world with enduring predispositions towards food, which interact with environmental factors to influence our eating behaviors and weight trajectories. But our fates are not sealed - by learning more about this process we can identify ways to intervene. To advance this goal this we need to be able to assess appetitive traits such as food cue responsiveness and satiety sensitivity at different developmental stages. Assessment methods might include behavioral measures (e.g. eating behavior tests, psychometric questionnaires), but also biomarkers such as brain responses to food cues measured using fMRI. Evidence from infants, children and adolescents suggests that these indices of appetite differ not only with body weight, but also with familial obesity risk as assessed by parent weight, which reflects both genetic and environmental influences, and may provide a useful predictor of obesity development. Behavioral and neural approaches have great potential to inform each other: examining eating behavior can help us identify meaningful appetitive endophenotypes whose neural bases can be probed, while increasing knowledge of the shared neurobiology underlying appetite, obesity, and related behaviors and disorders may ultimately lead to innovative generalized interventions. Another challenge will be to combine comprehensive behavioral and neural assessments of appetitive traits with measures of relevant genetic and environmental factors within long-term prospective studies. This approach may help to identify the biobehavioral precursors of obesity, and lay the foundations for targeted neurobehavioral interventions that can interrupt the pathway to excess weight.

  10. Depression and its measurement in verbal adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Katherine; Unruh, Kathryn; Lord, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    In a sample of 50 verbally fluent adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorders (age: 16-31 years; verbal IQ: 72-140), we examined the pattern of response and associations between scores on common measures of depressive symptoms, participant characteristics, and clinical diagnosis of depressive disorders. Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition item descriptives in this autism spectrum disorder sample were compared to previously published data from a large typically developing sample, with results suggesting that cognitive-attributional symptoms of depression may be particularly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder. Scores on a variety of self- and parent-report depression measures were not associated with chronological age or verbal IQ, and were relatively highly correlated with each other and with clinical diagnosis of a mood disorder. The Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition and the Adult Self-Report "Depressive" scale best identified both depressed and non-depressed participants in this sample, though neither was particularly strong. Validation studies of depression measures in the autism spectrum disorder population are necessary to advance research into this prevalent and impairing comorbidity.

  11. Validity Study of Vertebral Rotation Measurement Using 3-D Ultrasound in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Li, Meng; Lou, Edmond H M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Cheng, Jack C Y; Wong, Man-Sang

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity of 3-D ultrasound measurements on the vertebral rotation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) under clinical settings. Thirty curves (mean Cobb angle: 21.7° ± 15.9°) from 16 patients with AIS were recruited. 3-D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed at the supine position. Each of the two raters measured the apical vertebral rotation using the center of laminae (COL) method in the 3-D ultrasound images and the Aaro-Dahlborn method in the magnetic resonance images. The intra- and inter-reliability of the COL method was demonstrated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) (both [2, K] >0.9, p < 0.05). The COL method showed no significant difference (p < 0.05) compared with the Aaro-Dahlborn method. Furthermore, the agreement between these two methods was demonstrated by the Bland-Altman method, and high correlation was found (r > 0.9, p < 0.05). These results validated the proposed 3-D ultrasound method in the measurements of vertebral rotation in the patients with AIS.

  12. Quality of life of methylphenidate treatment-responsive adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin-Chen; Lung, For-Wey; Chiou, Shyh-Shin; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Fuh, Jong-Ling

    2012-05-01

    Quality of life (QOL) in methylphenidate treatment-responsive adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was assessed. Patients were 12- to 18-year-old adolescents with ADHD (total n = 45) who had been on methylphenidate treatment for at least 3 months and were clinically judged to be improved. The self-completed Taiwanese Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents (TQOLQA) was used, and the resulting measures were compared between adolescents with ADHD and: (1) community adolescents (n = 2316); (2) treatment-responsive adolescents with a chronic medical condition (i.e., adolescents with leukemia in its first and complete continuous remission for at least 3 years after chemotherapy) (n = 39). Patients' cognitive profile and their daily executive functioning were also obtained for analysis. The QOL of the treated adolescents with ADHD was reported to be worse than that of both the community healthy adolescents and the adolescent leukemia survivors in the self-reported TQOLQA domain of "psychological well-being". Treated adolescents with ADHD still had impaired executive skills in natural, everyday environments, and the scores for daily executive abilities could predict the QOL measures. Factors besides pharmacotherapy should be explored to further improve the QOL of medication-treated adolescents with ADHD.

  13. A Comparison of the Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Three Measures of Readiness to Change Alcohol Use in a Clinical Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Stephen A.; Krenek, Marketa; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Clark, Duncan; Cornelius, Jack

    2011-01-01

    The authors compared 3 measures of readiness to change alcohol use commonly used in clinical research and practice with adolescents: the Readiness Ruler, the SOCRATES (subscales of Recognition and Taking Steps), and a Staging Algorithm. The analysis sample consisted of 161 male and female adolescents presenting for intensive outpatient…

  14. The Revised DCDQ: Is It a Suitable Screening Measure for Motor Difficulties in Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pannekoek, Linda; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Barrett, Nicholas C.; Schoemaker, Marina

    2012-01-01

    The parent-rated Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) has been revised to incorporate a wider age range, including adolescence. In this exploratory study, internal consistency and validity of the DCDQ-2007 was assessed using a community-based sample of 87 adolescents. Psychometric properties of the DCDQ-2007 were investigated…

  15. Racial Differences in Adolescent Self-Report: A Comparative Validity Study Using Homogeneous MMPI Content Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobel, Nancy Howells; Lachar, David

    1995-01-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPIs) were administered to an urban mixed-race sample of 218 adolescent psychiatric patients. Wiggins scale elevations for African Americans and whites were compared, and the validity of the scales was assessed through comparison with parent observations. Implications for the MMPI-Adolescent content…

  16. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed.

  17. Personal values as a mediator between parent and peer expectations and adolescent behaviors.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-09-01

    The current study examined the mediating role of adolescents' personal values on the relation between maternal and peer expectations for prosocial behaviors and adolescents' self-reported prosocial and antisocial behaviors. One hundred thirty-four adolescents (mean age = 16.22 years, 54% girls) completed measures of their own values and behaviors, as well as their perceptions of the positive expectations that their mother and their best friend(s) had for their (the adolescents') prosocial behaviors. Stepwise regression analyses suggested that adolescents' personal prosocial values mediated the relation between adolescents' perceptions of both maternal and peer expectations and adolescents' prosocial behaviors. In addition, for boys, perceptions of positive peer expectations were directly and negatively related to antisocial behaviors. The current study has important implications for parents, educators, and practitioners who are concerned about promoting adolescents' positive behaviors and discouraging negative behaviors.

  18. [Legal and practical issues on coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Kathleen; Schepker, Renate; Fegert, Jorg M

    2006-01-01

    Although insight, positive attitude towards therapy and compliance are key to a successful treatment, in certain situations the use of coercive measures on mentally ill or disordered minors is the only way to prevent serious harm to the patient or others. The decision to use coercive measures, such as involuntary admission or detention, seclusion, mechanical or chemical restraint or involuntary treatment, is challenging for clinicians as they have to deal, not only with the patient and his or her parents who are in a disturbed emotional state, but also with some complex legal regulations. To protect the rights of patient and parents in these difficult situations and to prevent legal consequences for clinical personnel for unlawful acts, it is essential that staff be familiar with all concerned legal rules and procedures. Interdisciplinary co-operation between the involved professionals should be encouraged to ensure a standardised procedure according to legal specifications. A growing number of mental hospitals for children and adolescents have no special locked door units but open wards that can be locked when required. A placement of voluntarily and involuntarily committed patients in the same unit can cause problems if the freedom of voluntary patients is restraint due to the placement of an interned patient. Unlawful restraint must be avoided by a sufficient number of staff and clear proceeding guidelines.

  19. The Timing of Calcium Measurements in Helping to Predict Temporary and Permanent Hypocalcaemia in Patients Having Completion and Total Thyroidectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, AG; Ahmad, N; Draper, MR; Vrotsou, K; Smith, WK

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postoperative hypocalaemia commonly occurs after extensive thyroid surgery and may require calcium and/or vitamin D supplements to alleviate or prevent the symptoms. In this study, we determined the risk factors for developing hypocalcaemia and whether early serum calcium levels can predict the development of or differentiate between temporary or permanent hypocalcaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 162 patients who either had a completion or total thyroidectomy formed the basis of this prospective study. Serial serum calcium measurements were recorded as well as details of the operation, pathology, indications for surgery, number of parathyroids identified at operation and any complications. RESULTS Eighty-four (52%) patients did not develop hypocalcaemia but 69 (43%) were found to have temporary hypocalcaemia and 9 (5%) had permanent hypocalcaemia. Hypocalcaemia was more common after total than completion thyroidectomies and the identification of parathyroids at operation appears to have a significant adverse effect on outcome. The calcium levels measured on day 1 postoperatively and the slope (serum calcium levels of day 1 postoperative minus day of operation) were statistically significant in predicting the development of hypocalcaemia and possibly to differentiate between temporary or permanent hypocalcaemia. DISCUSSION Although almost half the patients having extensive thyroid surgery developed hypocalcaemia (as defined by any postoperative corrected serum calcium level of < 2.12 mmol/l) only 24% had a serum calcium of < 2.12 mmol/l associated with clinical symptoms of hypocalcaemia or a calcium level of < 2.0 mmol/l. Only 5% had persistent hypocalcaemia defined as requiring exogenous supplements at 6 months' postoperatively. Patients having a completion thyroidectomy appear to be less likely to develop hypocalcaemia perhaps as a result of any iatrogenic effects on the parathyroids at the first operation being reversed before the second

  20. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  1. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Helmut; Ribas, Lourdes; Koebnick, Corinna; Funtikova, Anna; Gomez, Santiago F.; Fíto, Montserat; Perez-Rodrigo, Carmen; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. Objective This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among normal and overweight individuals was analyzed. Design Data were obtained from a study conducted from 1998 to 2000 in a representative national sample of 1521 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years (50.0% female) in Spain. WC and WHtR measurements were obtained in addition to BMI. AO was defined as WHtR ≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex and age specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex and age specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). Results IOTF- based overweight and obsity prevalence was 21.5% and 6.6% in children and 17.4% and 5.2% in adolescents, respectively. Abdominal obesity (AO) was defined as WHtR≥0.50 (WHtR-AO), sex- and age-specific WC≥90th percentile (WC-AO1), and sex- and age-specific WC cut-off values associated with high trunk fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (WC-AO2). The respective prevalence of WHtR-AO, WC-AO1, and WC-AO2 was 21.3% (24.6% boys; 17.9% girls), 9.4% (9.1% boys; 9.7% girls), and 26.8% (30.6% boys;22.9% girls) in children and 14.3% (20.0% boys; 8.7% girls), 9.6% (9.8% boys; 9.5% girls), and 21.1% (28.8% boys; 13.7% girls) in adolescents. Conclusion The prevalence of AO in Spanish children and adolescents is of concern. The high proportion of AO observed in young patients who are normal weight or overweight indicates a need to include waist circumference measurements in routine clinical practice. PMID:24475305

  2. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Mathyssek, Christina M; Olino, Thomas M; Hartman, Catharina A; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Van Oort, Floor V A

    2013-03-01

    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10-17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], separation anxiety [SA], social phobia [SP]). We examined longitudinal measurement invariance of the RCADS, using longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, by examining the factor structure (configural invariance), factor loadings (metric invariance) and thresholds (strong invariance). We found that all anxiety subtypes were configural invariant. Metric invariance held for items on the GAD, OCD, PD and SA subscales; yet, for the SP subscale three items showed modest longitudinal variation at age 10-12. Model fit decreased modestly when enforcing additional constraints across time; however, model fit for these models was still adequate to excellent. We conclude that the RCADS measures anxiety symptoms similarly across time in a general population sample of adolescents; hence, measured changes in anxiety symptoms very likely reflect true changes in anxiety levels. We consider the instrument suitable to assess anxiety levels across adolescence.

  3. The measurement of menstrual symptoms: factor structure of the menstrual symptom questionnaire in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Dorn, Lorah D; Hillman, Jennifer B; Huang, Bin

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the Menstrual Symptom Questionnaire (MSQ) in a sample of 210 adolescent girls (11-17 years). Such an examination has not been carried out with an adolescent sample. In addition, the definitions of menstrual disorders have evolved since the creation of the MSQ. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three factor structure indicating abdominal pain, negative affect/somatic complaints, and back pain. Partial correlations indicated all three MSQ factors were correlated with depressive symptoms, but only the negative affect factor was correlated with trait anxiety. Future research should explore potential associations in multiple areas of functioning as menstrual symptoms may alter healthy developmental processes during adolescence.

  4. Daily Marijuana Use Is Not Associated with Brain Morphometric Measures in Adolescents or Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thayer, Rachel E.; Depue, Brendan E.; Sabbineni, Amithrupa; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that marijuana use is associated with volumetric and shape differences in subcortical structures, including the nucleus accumbens and amygdala, in a dose-dependent fashion. Replication of such results in well controlled studies is essential to clarify the effects of marijuana. To that end, this retrospective study examined brain morphology in a sample of adult daily marijuana users (n = 29) versus nonusers (n = 29) and a sample of adolescent daily users (n = 50) versus nonusers (n = 50). Groups were matched on a critical confounding variable, alcohol use, to a far greater degree than in previously published studies. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans, and investigated group differences in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry, surface-based morphometry, and shape analysis in structures suggested to be associated with marijuana use, as follows: the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. No statistically significant differences were found between daily users and nonusers on volume or shape in the regions of interest. Effect sizes suggest that the failure to find differences was not due to a lack of statistical power, but rather was due to the lack of even a modest effect. In sum, the results indicate that, when carefully controlling for alcohol use, gender, age, and other variables, there is no association between marijuana use and standard volumetric or shape measurements of subcortical structures. PMID:25632127

  5. A comparison of adolescent smoking initiation measures on predicting future smoking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Baskerville, Neill Bruce; Minaker, Leia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence suggests that age at smoking initiation has implications for tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and resulting long-term health and chronic disease outcomes. The objective of the current study was to examine two different measures of smoking onset and to compare their validity in predicting future adolescent smoking survey. Methods Data from grades 9–12 students who participated in the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally-generalizable Canadian survey, and who had ever tried a cigarette, even a few puffs (n = 8126) were used in a multivariable logistic regression analysis to examine the association between age at smoking onset and current smoking behavior. Results Both “age at first puff” and “age at first whole cigarette” were significantly associated with current smoking status. Specifically, a delay of one year in the age at first puff was associated with lower odds of being a current smoker by 24% (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.73–0.79). Similarly, high school students who smoked their first whole cigarette at old age were less likely to report being a current smoker (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.62–0.71). Conclusion Efforts to prevent smoking uptake among youth, especially younger youth, are especially important in tobacco control efforts. PMID:26844068

  6. Complete positive ion, electron, and ram negative ion measurements near Comet Halley (COPERNIC) plasma experiment for the European Giotto Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Robert P.

    1988-01-01

    Participation of U.S. scientists on the COPERNIC (COmplete Positive ions, Electrons and Ram Negative Ion measurements near Comet Halley) plasma experiment on the Giotto mission is described. The experiment consisted of two detectors: the EESA (electron electrostatic analyzer) which provided three-dimensional measurements of the distribution of electrons from 10 eV to 30 keV, and the PICCA (positive ion cluster composition analyzer) which provided mass analysis of positively charged cold cometary ions from mass 10 to 210 amu. In addition, a small 3 deg wide sector of the EESA looking in the ram direction was devoted to the detection of negatively charged cold cometary ions. Both detectors operated perfectly up to near closest approach (approx. 600 km) to Halley, but impacts of dust particles and neutral gas on the spacecraft contaminated parts of the data during the last few minutes. Although no flight hardware was fabricated in the U.S., The U.S. made very significant contributions to the hardware design, ground support equipment (GSE) design and fabrication, and flight and data reduction software required for the experiment, and also participated fully in the data reduction and analysis, and theoretical modeling and interpretation. Cometary data analysis is presented.

  7. Longitudinal Relationships Between Family Functioning and Identity Development in Hispanic Adolescents: Continuity and Change.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Mason, Craig A; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2009-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate trajectories of identity development and their relationship to family functioning in a sample of Hispanic adolescents and their primary caregivers. Two hundred fifty adolescents completed measures of identity coherence and confusion and of family functioning, and parents completed measures of family functioning. Significant variability over time and across individuals emerged in identity confusion, but not in identity coherence. As a result, the present analyses focused on identity confusion. Changes in adolescent-reported, but not parent-reported, family functioning were significantly related to changes in identity confusion. Follow-up analyses suggested that family functioning primarily influences identity confusion in early adolescence, but that identity confusion begins to exert a reciprocal effect in middle adolescence. Exploratory latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) analyses produced three classes of adolescents based on their baseline values and change trajectories in identity confusion. The potential for family-strengthening interventions to affect identity development is discussed.

  8. Validation of the FEEL-KJ: An Instrument to Measure Emotion Regulation Strategies in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Cracco, Emiel; Van Durme, Kim; Braet, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Although the field of emotion regulation in children and adolescents is growing, there is need for age-adjusted measures that assess a large variety of strategies. An interesting instrument in this respect is the FEEL-KJ because it measures 7 adaptive and 5 maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in response to three different emotions. However, the FEEL-KJ has not yet been validated extensively. Therefore, the current study aims to test the internal structure and validity of the FEEL-KJ in a large sample of Dutch-speaking Belgian children and adolescents (N = 1102, 8–18 years old). The investigation of the internal structure confirms earlier reports of a two-factor structure with Adaptive and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation as overarching categories. However, it also suggests that the two-factor model is more complex than what was previously assumed. The evaluation of the FEEL-KJ validity furthermore provides evidence for its construct and external validity. In sum, the current study confirms that the FEEL-KJ is a valuable and reliable measure of emotion regulation strategies in children and adolescents. PMID:26331845

  9. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures of neuropathy in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Lillian; Stark, Daniel; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosenberg, Abby R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral neuropathy is an important, yet poorly studied, side effect of pediatric cancer treatment. There are many measures of patient-reported peripheral neuropathy in adults but very few in children. We aimed to systematically review and summarize reliable and valid patient-reported peripheral neuropathy scales used in pediatrics. Methods Four major electronic databases (Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO) were reviewed for studies that measured peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients. Studies eligible for inclusion were those that described use of any patient-reported scale of peripheral neuropathy among children, adolescents, and young adults with any underlying diagnosis (not limited to cancer). Results From a total of 765 articles retrieved, 5 met eligibility criteria and were included. One was a neuropathy symptom score used in patients with diabetes, and the remaining four were in oncology patients and all were based on the total neuropathy score. All involved objective assessments conducted by trained professionals; none relied purely on patient report. Conclusions There are no validated instruments that consist solely of a patient-reported outcome measure of neuropathy in pediatrics and adolescents. Because the clinical evaluation of neuropathy requires specialized training, it is not generalizable in large studies conducted in many diverse institutions. Future studies should validate adult patient-reported neuropathy scales in pediatric and adolescent populations, or develop novel instruments designed for this population. PMID:27037813

  10. A meta-analysis of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults: Variability in effects across alcohol measures

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Risser, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief alcohol interventions are one approach for reducing drinking among youth, but may vary in effectiveness depending on the type of alcohol assessments used to measure effects. Objectives To conduct a meta-analysis that examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on exploring variability in effects across outcome measurement characteristics. Method Eligible studies were those using an experimental or quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention on a post-intervention alcohol use measure for youth ages 11–30. A comprehensive literature review identified 190 unique samples that were included in the meta-analysis. Taking a Bayesian approach, we used random-effects multilevel models to estimate the average effect and model variability across outcome measurement types. Results Brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in self-reported alcohol use among adolescents ( g¯ = 0.25, 95% CrI [0.13, 0.37]) and young adults ( g¯ = 0.15, 95% CrI [0.12, 0.18]). These results were consistent across outcomes with varying reference periods, but varied across outcome construct type and assessment instruments. Among adolescents, effects were larger when measured using the Timeline Followback; among young adults, effects were smaller when measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Conclusion The strength of the beneficial effects of brief alcohol interventions on youth’s alcohol use may vary depending upon the outcome measure utilized. Nevertheless, significant effects were observed across measures. Although effects were modest in size, they were clinically significant and show promise for interrupting problematic alcohol use trajectories among youth. PMID:26905387

  11. The promise of wearable sensors and ecological momentary assessment measures for dynamical systems modeling in adolescents: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Erin E; Cushing, Christopher C; Crick, Christopher J; Mitchell, Tarrah B

    2016-12-01

    Intervention development can be accelerated by using wearable sensors and ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to study how behaviors change within a person. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a novel, intensive EMA method for assessing physiology, behavior, and psychosocial variables utilizing two objective sensors and a mobile application (app). Adolescents (n = 20) enrolled in a 20-day EMA protocol. Participants wore a physiological monitor and an accelerometer that measured sleep and physical activity and completed four surveys per day on an app. Participants provided approximately 81 % of the expected survey data. Participants were compliant to the wrist-worn accelerometer (75.3 %), which is a feasible measurement of physical activity/sleep (74.1 % complete data). The data capture (47.8 %) and compliance (70.28 %) with the physiological monitor were lower than other study variables. The findings support the use of an intensive assessment protocol to study real-time relationships between biopsychosocial variables and health behaviors.

  12. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  13. Individual and Contextual Parameters Associated with Adolescents' Domain Specific Self-Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Hatzinikolaou, Stamatia

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of adolescents' self-esteem and perceptions of family and classroom contexts on their domain specific self-perceptions. 345 Greek junior high school adolescents aged 14-16 completed measures of domain specific self-perceptions, self-esteem, parenting styles and classroom climate. Hierarchical regression analyses…

  14. Adolescents' Anxiety in Dating Situations: The Potential Role of Friends and Romantic Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Greca, Annette M.; Mackey, Eleanor Race

    2007-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' interpersonal functioning, including the qualities of their closest friendships and romantic relationships, as predictors of dating/heterosocial anxiety. An ethnically diverse sample of 781 adolescents (57% girls; ages 15-19 years) completed measures that assessed the number and type of close friends, the presence…

  15. Parenting Style as a Context for the Development of Adolescents' Thinking about Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, David M.; Peterson-Badali, Michele; Shea, Barb

    This study examined the role of parenting style on adolescents' attitudes toward nurturance and self-determination rights. Subjects were 121 adolescents (48 males and 72 females, 1 not identified), ranging in age from 11 to 16 years, and their parents. Subjects completed measures for parenting style, attitudes toward nurturance and…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument in Chinese Adolescents in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports evidence on the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Chinese Family Assessment Instrument (C-FAI), an instrument developed to assess family functioning in Chinese populations. A convenience sample of 1,462 adolescents from junior secondary schools completed the C-FAI and measures of parent-adolescent conflict.…

  17. Self-Perceived Gender Typicality and the Peer Context during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tara E.; Leaper, Campbell

    2006-01-01

    This research examined adolescents' gender identity in relation to the peer context and their self-concept. Participants were 229 adolescents who completed questionnaire measures of self-concept and multidimensional gender identity. Regression analysis indicated peer acceptance partially mediated the relation between self-perceived gender…

  18. Coping with Daily Stressors: Modeling Intraethnic Variation in Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Using daily diary methodology, 67 Mexican American adolescents completed measures assessing daily stressors experienced, specific coping strategies employed with reference to these stressors, and indices of psychological health over 5 consecutive days. With respect to coping usage, adolescents reported they most often used planning and least often…

  19. Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Factors Associated with Autonomous Motivation in Adolescents' After-School Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beiswenger, Krista L.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with the level of autonomous motivation adolescents experience for their after-school activities. A total of 142 seventh-grade adolescents completed measures of peer relatedness, autonomy within friendships, mother and father autonomy support, perceived activity competence,…

  20. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training on Behavioral Problems and Attentional Functioning in Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Formsma, Anne R.; de Bruin, Esther I.; Bogels, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness training for adolescents aged 11-15 years with ADHD and parallel Mindful Parenting training for their parents was evaluated, using questionnaires as well as computerized attention tests. Adolescents (N = 10), their parents (N = 19) and tutors (N = 7) completed measurements before, immediately after, 8…

  1. Longitudinal Prediction of Adolescent Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: Examination of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerry, John D.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2010-01-01

    Virtually no longitudinal research has examined psychological characteristics or events that may lead to adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study tested a cognitive vulnerability-stress model as a predictor of NSSI trajectories. Clinically-referred adolescents (n = 143; 72% girls) completed measures of NSSI, depression, attributional…

  2. Parenting Styles or Practices? Parenting, Sympathy, and Prosocial Behaviors among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel; Batenhorst, Candice; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, the authors examined the relations among parenting styles, parental practices, sympathy, and prosocial behaviors in adolescents. The participants were 233 adolescents (M age = 16.7 years; 69% girls; mostly White) from public high schools in the Midwestern region of the United States who completed measures of prosocial…

  3. Relations of Friendships and Peer Acceptance to Adolescents' Self-Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    This document reports findings of two studies on relations between: (1) adolescents' peer relationships and their self-esteem; and (2) adolescents' social status and friendships. Participating in the first study were nearly 300 seventh- and eighth-graders who completed Harter's (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children. This measure includes…

  4. Red blood cell velocity measurements of complete capillary in finger nail-fold using optical flow estimation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chieh; Zhang, Geoffrey; Huang, Tzung-Chi; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2009-12-01

    A new approach for the measurement of the red blood cell (RBC) velocity from capillary video by using optical flow estimation has been developed. An image registration function based on mutual information was used for stabilizing images in order to cope with slight finger movement during video acquisition. After image alignment, a skeleton extraction algorithm implemented by thinning was followed which enabled tracking blood flow entirely in arteriolar and venular limbs, and the curved segment as well. Optical flow and cross-correlation approaches were applied individually for velocity estimation of twelve microcirculation videos acquired independently from three healthy volunteers. The RBC velocity of 12 vessels at three given measurement sites (arteriolar, curve and venular sites) in a 45-second period of occlusion-release condition of vessel were examined. There were four stages of flow conditions: resting (T(1)), pre-occlusion (T(2)), post-occlusion (T(3)) and release (T(4)). The results from both approaches revealed that the velocity difference among the three sites were not significant. The pattern of distribution of RBC velocity was also reported. The correlation coefficient (r) of the velocity calculated using optical flow and cross-correlation in four stages of blood flow conditions and the overall correlation were: 1-window: r(T1)=0.68, r(T2)=0.67, r(T3)=0.92, r(T4)=0.88 and r(All)=0.79; 2-window: r(T1)=0.84, r(T2)=0.88, r(T3)=0.87, r(T4)=0.93 and r(All)=0.88. The averaged velocity results showed no significant differences between optical flow and 2-window cross-correlation in all flow conditions. Optical flow estimation is not only independent to the direction of flow, but also able to calculate the intensity displacement of all pixels. The proposed velocity measurement system has been shown to provide complete velocity information for the whole vessel limb which demonstrates the advantage of measuring blood flow at the level of microcirculation more

  5. A one-week 5-choice serial reaction time task to measure impulsivity and attention in adult and adolescent mice

    PubMed Central

    Remmelink, Esther; Chau, Uyen; Smit, August B.; Verhage, Matthijs; Loos, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence. The study of executive functions in animal models of these disorders critically requires short-duration tasks measuring these functions before the animal ages. Here, a novel 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) protocol is presented, to measure attention and impulsivity within one week, without scheduled food deprivation and with little animal handling. Mice were allowed 24-h/day task access from their home-cage, during which they could self-pace task progression and earn unlimited food rewards depending on task performance. Manipulation of task parameters in this self-paced 5-CSRTT protocol (SP-5C) affected attentional performance and impulsivity to a similar extent as previously observed in the 5-CSRTT. Task activity followed intrinsic circadian rhythm, distinctive for the SP-5C protocol, with task performance stable over the day. The sensitivity of the SP-5C protocol to detect strain differences between C57BL/6J, DBA/2 J, BXD16 and BXD62 mice was demonstrated as well as its suitability for testing adolescent mice. Acute administration of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine impaired attentional performance, providing initial pharmacological validation of the task. The SP-5C substantially shortens the assessment of impulsivity and attention, increases test efficiency and enables the assessment of adolescent mouse models of psychiatric disorders. PMID:28198416

  6. A one-week 5-choice serial reaction time task to measure impulsivity and attention in adult and adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Remmelink, Esther; Chau, Uyen; Smit, August B; Verhage, Matthijs; Loos, Maarten

    2017-02-15

    Many psychiatric disorders emerge during adolescence. The study of executive functions in animal models of these disorders critically requires short-duration tasks measuring these functions before the animal ages. Here, a novel 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) protocol is presented, to measure attention and impulsivity within one week, without scheduled food deprivation and with little animal handling. Mice were allowed 24-h/day task access from their home-cage, during which they could self-pace task progression and earn unlimited food rewards depending on task performance. Manipulation of task parameters in this self-paced 5-CSRTT protocol (SP-5C) affected attentional performance and impulsivity to a similar extent as previously observed in the 5-CSRTT. Task activity followed intrinsic circadian rhythm, distinctive for the SP-5C protocol, with task performance stable over the day. The sensitivity of the SP-5C protocol to detect strain differences between C57BL/6J, DBA/2 J, BXD16 and BXD62 mice was demonstrated as well as its suitability for testing adolescent mice. Acute administration of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine impaired attentional performance, providing initial pharmacological validation of the task. The SP-5C substantially shortens the assessment of impulsivity and attention, increases test efficiency and enables the assessment of adolescent mouse models of psychiatric disorders.

  7. Measuring Complete 3D Vegetation Structure With Airborne Waveform Lidar: A Calibration and Validation With Terrestrial Lidar Derived Voxels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, S.; Anderson, K.; Disney, M.; Gaston, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurements of vegetation are vital to understand habitats and their provision of ecosystem services as well as having applications in satellite calibration, weather modelling and forestry. The majority of humans now live in urban areas and so understanding vegetation structure in these very heterogeneous areas is of importance. A number of previous studies have used airborne lidar (ALS) to characterise canopy height and canopy cover, but very few have fully characterised 3D vegetation, including understorey. Those that have either relied on leaf-off scans to allow unattenuated measurement of understorey or else did not validate. A method for creating a detailed voxel map of urban vegetation, in which the surface area of vegetation within a grid of cuboids (1.5m by 1.5m by 25 cm) is defined, from full-waveform ALS is presented. The ALS was processed with deconvolution and attenuation correction methods. The signal processing was calibrated and validated against synthetic waveforms generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data, taken as "truth". The TLS data was corrected for partial hits and attenuation using a voxel approach and these steps were validated and found to be accurate. The ALS results were benchmarked against the more common discrete return ALS products (produced automatically by the lidar manufacturer's algorithms) and Gaussian decomposition of full-waveform ALS. The true vegetation profile was accurately recreated by deconvolution. Far more detail was captured by the deconvolved waveform than either the discrete return or Gaussian decomposed ALS, particularly detail within the canopy; vital information for understanding habitats. In the paper, we will present the results with a focus on the methodological steps towards generating the voxel model, and the subsequent quantitative calibration and validation of the modelling approach using TLS. We will discuss the implications of the work for complete vegetation canopy descriptions in

  8. Anxiety Disorders in Adolescents and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30

    PubMed Central

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Objective The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Method Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Results Childhood anxiety only predicted less years of completed education at age 30, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted income, unemployment, maladjustment, poor coping skills, more chronic stress and life events. Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) was the only disorder predicted by childhood anxiety, whereas adolescent anxiety predicted MDD, substance (SUD) and alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD) in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult MDD, SUD and AUD partially or completely mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. Limitations The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Conclusion Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through MDD, SUD and AUD. PMID:24456837

  9. Radionuclide measurement of right ventricular function in atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and complete transposition of the great arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.J.; Shubao, C.; Clarke, S.E.; Fogelman, I.; Maisey, M.N.; Tynan, M.

    1986-05-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed in 80 patients with congenital heart disease by first-pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography. In 30 patients with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) the mean RV ejection fraction (+/- standard deviation) was 64 +/- 7%. In 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect it was 61 +/- 9% and in 20 patients with surgically corrected complete transposition of the great arteries it was 49 +/- 13%. These values are in close agreement with values established with cineangiography for similar groups of patients. The mean ejection fraction in the group with transposition of the great arteries was significantly less than in the group with VSD (p less than 0.001). Phase analysis of the equilibrium studies showed that there was delayed RV contraction in many patients in the absence of conduction abnormalities. This delay was significantly greater in patients with atrial septal defect than in those with VSD (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between size of left-to-right shunt and phase delay in patients with VSD (r = -0.72). Thus, first-pass gated radionuclide angiography provides a valid measurement of RV ejection fraction, and delayed RV contraction on phase analysis may be a sensitive index of early RV dysfunction.

  10. Chandra measurements of a complete sample of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters: the luminosity-mass relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, P. A.; Maughan, B. J.; Dahle, H.; Bonamente, M.; Landry, D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Murray, S. S.; van der Pyl, N.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of work involving a statistically complete sample of 34 galaxy clusters, in the redshift range 0.15 ≤ z ≤ 0.3 observed with Chandra. We investigate the luminosity-mass (LM) relation for the cluster sample, with the masses obtained via a full hydrostatic mass analysis. We utilize a method to fully account for selection biases when modelling the LM relation, and find that the LM relation is significantly different from the relation modelled when not account for selection effects. We find that the luminosity of our clusters is 2.2 ± 0.4 times higher (when accounting for selection effects) than the average for a given mass and its mass is 30 per cent lower than the population average for a given luminosity. Equivalently, using the LM relation measured from this sample without correcting for selection biases would lead to the underestimation by 40 per cent of the average mass of a cluster with a given luminosity. Comparing the hydrostatic masses to mass estimates determined from the YX parameter, we find that they are entirely consistent, irrespective of the dynamical state of the cluster.

  11. Triarchic dimensions of psychopathy in young adulthood: Associations with clinical and physiological measures after accounting for adolescent psychopathic traits.

    PubMed

    Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Fanti, Kostas A; Sikki, Maria; Patrick, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    This study examined associations of psychopathy facets of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition with clinically relevant variables and physiological reactivity to affective stimuli. These associations were examined after accounting for developmental associations with adolescent psychopathic traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed during adolescence using the Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Inventory of Callous Unemotional traits and during young adulthood via the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Clinical variables (N = 99, Mage = 15.91, 53% female), as well as affective and physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance, startle modulation) to violent and erotic videos (N = 88, Mage = 19.92, 50% female) were also assessed during adulthood. After accounting for adolescent psychopathic traits, boldness was associated with high cognitive reappraisal and low anxiety, fear, and hostility, and meanness was related to callous-unemotional traits, hostility, less sympathy to victims, and less use of cognitive reappraisal. Disinhibition, by contrast, was associated with impulsivity, increased anxiety, and hostile and aggressive tendencies, as well as conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder symptoms, and cognitive suppression. In addition, evidence was found for different physiological measures operating as biological indicators of these distinctive dimensions, with reduced resting heart rate and cardiac reactivity to violent stimuli indicative of boldness, above and beyond adolescent psychopathic traits, and low startle potentiation for violent stimuli indicative of callous-unemotional traits and meanness. These findings provide evidence for the value of a multidomain approach for clarifying neurobiological mechanisms of psychopathic tendencies that can inform prevention and treatment efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. [Adolescents with mental disorders while serving time and being subjected to socio-educative measures].

    PubMed

    Vilarins, Natália Pereira Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    This article examines how adolescent offenders with mental disorders are treated by socio-educative internment treatment. These adolescents come under the aegis of medicine and justice in a contradictory relationship between full protection, vulnerability of a developing person with a mental disorder and a juvenile delinquency offense. In this respect, the legal punishment prevails to the detriment of health care. After approval of the research project by an Ethics Research Committee, field research was conducted in the Youth Detention Unit of the Pilot Plan of the Brazilian Federal District. Data were collected through research of documents involving 35 medical records of adolescent users of psychotropic drugs in 2010, as well as participant observation and semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Youth Detention Unit and adolescent judiciary. In the review of the care provided to adolescent offenders with mental disorders under the childhood and youth policy and the mental health policy, it was revealed that the mental health care provided in the Youth Detention Unit or in the external mental health care services involved the prescription of medication.

  13. Objectively measured versus self-reported physical activity in children and adolescents with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Miriam; Seidel, Corinna Caroline; Kesting, Sabine Verena; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Boos, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Existing research recognizes low levels of physical activity in pediatric patients with cancer, but much uncertainty exists about their capability to self-reflect physical activity levels. The objective of this study was to compare results of subjective self-reports and objective accelerometers regarding levels of daily walking as well as moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Methods Results of the objective assessment tool StepWatchTM Activity Monitor and self-reporting with a standardized questionnaire were compared in 28 children and adolescents during cancer treatment. Results The patients were 13.8±2.8 years of age and 3.4±2.0 months after cancer diagnosis. The Bland-Altman plots indicated a fairly symmetrical under- and over-estimation for daily minutes of walking with the limits of agreement ranging from -100.8 to 87.3 min (d = -6.7 min). Mean difference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was almost zero but limits of agreement are ranging from -126.8 to 126.9 min. The comparison for the days with at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed a marked difference with 3.0±2.6 self-reported days versus only 0.1±0.4 measured days. Conclusions These findings suggest that physical activity in pediatric cancer patients should preferably be assessed with objective methods. Greater efforts are needed to implement supervised exercise interventions during treatment incorporating methods to improve self-reflection of physical activity. PMID:28207820

  14. Breath acidification in adolescent runners exposed to atmospheric pollution: A prospective, repeated measures observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinands, Jill M; Crawford, Carol A Gotway; Greenwald, Roby; Van Sickle, David; Hunter, Eric; Teague, W Gerald

    2008-01-01

    Background Vigorous outdoors exercise during an episode of air pollution might cause airway inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of vigorous outdoor exercise during peak smog season on breath pH, a biomarker of airway inflammation, in adolescent athletes. Methods We measured breath pH both pre- and post-exercise on ten days during peak smog season in 16 high school athletes engaged in daily long-distance running in a downwind suburb of Atlanta. The association of post-exercise breath pH with ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations was tested with linear regression. Results We collected 144 pre-exercise and 146 post-exercise breath samples from 16 runners (mean age 14.9 years, 56% male). Median pre-exercise breath pH was 7.58 (interquartile range: 6.90 to 7.86) and did not change significantly after exercise. We observed no significant association between ambient ozone or particulate matter and post-exercise breath pH. However both pre- and post-exercise breath pH were strikingly low in these athletes when compared to a control sample of 14 relatively sedentary healthy adults and to published values of breath pH in healthy subjects. Conclusion Although we did not observe an acute effect of air pollution exposure during exercise on breath pH, breath pH was surprisingly low in this sample of otherwise healthy long-distance runners. We speculate that repetitive vigorous exercise may induce airway acidification. PMID:18328105

  15. Analysis of social inequalities in health through an integrated measure of perceived and experienced health in Spanish and Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Pilar; Moreno, Carmen; Rivera, Francisco; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Morgan, Antony

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the self reported health of a sample of 9854 Spanish and Portuguese adolescents aged 11-15 years using an integrated measure of health, which takes account of positive and negative factors that affect overall feelings of health and wellbeing. This improved measure supports the emergence of health agendas that aim to make wellbeing improvements in populations through a combination of both the promotion of positive protective factors and the need to deal with those risk factors that inhibit individuals, communities and populations to attain good health.

  16. Prosocial Reward Learning in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngbin; Huettel, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of increased sensitivity to social contexts. To evaluate how social context sensitivity changes over development—and influences reward learning—we investigated how children and adolescents perceive and integrate rewards for oneself and others during a dynamic risky decision-making task. Children and adolescents (N = 75, 8–16 years) performed the Social Gambling Task (SGT, Kwak et al., 2014) and completed a set of questionnaires measuring other-regarding behavior. In the SGT, participants choose amongst four card decks that have different payout structures for oneself and for a charity. We examined patterns of choices, overall decision strategies, and how reward outcomes led to trial-by-trial adjustments in behavior, as estimated using a reinforcement-learning model. Performance of children and adolescents was compared to data from a previously collected sample of adults (N = 102) performing the identical task. We found that that children/adolescents were not only more sensitive to rewards directed to the charity than self but also showed greater prosocial tendencies on independent measures of other-regarding behavior. Children and adolescents also showed less use of a strategy that prioritizes rewards for self at the expense of rewards for others. These results support the conclusion that, compared to adults, children and adolescents show greater sensitivity to outcomes for others when making decisions and learning about potential rewards. PMID:27761125

  17. The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality for Youth (SNAP-Y): A New Measure for Assessing Adolescent Personality and Personality Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Stringer, Deborah; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-01-01

    The Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-Youth Version (SNAP-Y) is a new, reliable self-report questionnaire that assesses 15 personality traits relevant to both normal-range personality and the alternative "DSM"-5 model for personality disorder. Community adolescents, 12 to 18 years old (N = 364), completed the SNAP-Y; 347…

  18. Binge Toluene Exposure Alters Glutamate, Glutamine and GABA in the Adolescent Rat Brain as Measured by Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, Shane A.; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Galloway, Matthew P.; Hannigan, John H.; Bowen, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of toluene abuse in adolescents, little is known regarding the effect of binge exposure on neurochemical profiles during this developmental stage. In the current study, the effects of binge toluene exposure during adolescence on neurotransmitter levels were determined using high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ex vivo at 11.7 T. Adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to toluene (0, 8,000 , or 12,000 ppm) for 15 min twice daily from postnatal day 28 (P28) through P34 and then euthanized either one or seven days later (on P35 or P42) to assess glutamate, glutamine, and GABA levels in intact tissue punches from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior striatum and hippocampus. In the mPFC, toluene reduced glutamate one day after exposure, with no effect on GABA, while after seven days, glutamate was no longer affected but there was an increase in GABA levels. In the hippocampus, neither GABA nor glutamate was altered one day after exposure, whereas seven days after exposure, increases were observed in GABA and glutamate. Striatal glutamate and GABA levels measured after either one or seven days were not altered after toluene exposure. These findings show that one week of binge toluene inhalation selectively alters these neurotransmitters in the mPFC and hippocampus in adolescent rats, and that some of these effects endure at least one week after the exposure. The results suggest that age-dependent, differential neurochemical responses to toluene may contribute to the unique behavioral patterns associated with drug abuse among older children and young teens. PMID:21126832

  19. Measurements of body fat distribution: assessment of collinearity with body mass, adiposity and height in female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%) and height, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. METHODS : A controlled cross-sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 with normal weight, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 with normal weight and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures were assessed: weight, height, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central (CS) and peripheral skinfolds (PS). The BF% was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. RESULTS : The increase in central fat, represented by WC, UC, WHtR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase in peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh circumference were proportional to the increase in BMI and BF%. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The height showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being fair or weak with waist measurements. CONCLUSIONS : The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, as it showed the highest capacity to predict adiposity in each group, and also showed fair or weak correlation with height. PMID:25623729

  20. Disclosure and Self-Report of Emotional, Social, and Physical Health in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Pain—A Qualitative Study of PROMIS Pediatric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Jennifer E.; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Seid, Michael; Verkamp, Emily; DeWitt, Esi Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric measures, including the pain interference scale, among children and adolescents (aged 8–18 years) who experience chronic pain. To describe children’s understandings of the health domain constructs and elucidate verbal and conceptual aspects of self-reported pain-related functioning, which shape disclosure and reporting. Methods 34 children and youth with diagnoses of juvenile idiopathic arthritis or noninflammatory chronic pain completed semistructured and cognitive interviews exploring the meaning, experience, and expression of up to 4 of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System pediatric domains: anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, fatigue, pain interference, and peer relationships. Team-based thematic and content analyses were conducted. Results Clear verbal and social-cognitive differences were observed in representations and accounts of the domain-experiences across age-groups, but we noted little, if any, evidence of problems with content validity. Conclusions Findings suggest the importance of a rigorous developmental approach for understanding the verbal and cognitive dimensions of pediatric self-reports and patient-reported outcomes. PMID:23027719

  1. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  2. Developing a Measure of Stigma by Association with African American Adolescents Whose Mothers Have HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally; Berger, Barbara; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Sultzman, Vickey; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: African American urban adolescents are one of the fastest growing groups of children affected by their mother's HIV status. These children experience HIV stigma by association with their HIV-positive mothers. Stigma may contribute to adverse outcomes for these teens. Methods: The authors describe a multistage process of scale…

  3. Validating the Measurement and Structure of the Beck Depression Inventory across English and French Nonclinical Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Baron, Pierre

    The aims of the present study were threefold: (1) to test for the equivalency of an hierarchical three-factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) across English and French versions for non-clinical adolescents; (2) given evidence of poor model fit, to validate the factorial structure of the BDI French version across three independent…

  4. Media Health Literacy (MHL): Development and Measurement of the Concept among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Zamir, Diane; Lemish, Dafna; Gofin, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Increasing media use among adolescents and its significant influence on health behavior warrants in-depth understanding of their response to media content. This study developed the concept and tested a model of Media Health Literacy (MHL), examined its association with personal/socio-demographic determinants and reported sources of health…

  5. Integrating Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying: Challenges of Definition and Measurement in Adolescents -- A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hannah J.; Connor, Jason P.; Scott, James G.

    2015-01-01

    The need for an integrated approach to studying bullying behaviors, both traditional and cyber, in adolescents is increasingly evident. The definitional criteria of bullying are well established in the traditional bullying literature and include (i) intention, (ii) repetition, and (iii) power imbalance. There is emerging evidence that these same…

  6. An Examination of Archival Reading Measures and Intervention Duration as Predictors of Adolescent Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Suzette

    2013-01-01

    Struggling readers in Grades 7-8 at a large, suburban middle school in Georgia have consistently failed to make adequate yearly progress in reading. In recent years, interest in improving the literacy of adolescents has increased due to the growing number of students experiencing reading difficulties on state and national standardized tests. The…

  7. Development and Validation of a Scale for the Measurement of Adolescents' Developmental Assets in the Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Antolin, Lucia; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess features of a neighborhood that are relevant to the development and adjustment of adolescents. First, a scale was created from a literature review. Second, the content validity of this scale was validated through expert opinion. Finally, the scale was administered to a…

  8. Using pedometers for measuring and increasing physical activity in children and adolescents: The next step

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The science and practice of step counting in children (typically aged 6-11 years) and adolescents (typically aged 12-19 years) has evolved rapidly over a relatively brief period with the commercial availability of research-grade pedometers and accelerometers. Recent reviews have summarized considera...

  9. Genetic Overlap between Measures of Hyperactivity/Inattention and Mood in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, James; Ball, Harriet A.; Martin, Neilson C.; Scourfield, Jane; McGuffin, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Evidence suggests that there is substantial comorbidity between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and major depressive disorder in childhood and adolescence. This study aims to investigate the degree to which etiological factors are shared between the symptoms of these significantly heritable disorders. Method: A twin…

  10. Measures of sleep and cardiac functioning during sleep using a multi-sensory commercially-available wristband in adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Baker, Fiona C; Willoughby, Adrian R; Godino, Job G; Wing, David; Patrick, Kevin; Colrain, Ian M

    2016-05-01

    To validate measures of sleep and heart rate (HR) during sleep generated by a commercially-available activity tracker against those derived from polysomnography (PSG) in healthy adolescents. Sleep data were concurrently recorded using FitbitChargeHR™ and PSG, including electrocardiography (ECG), during an overnight laboratory sleep recording in 32 healthy adolescents (15 females; age, mean±SD: 17.3±2.5years). Sleep and HR measures were compared between FitbitChargeHR™ and PSG using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman plots. Epoch-by-epoch analysis showed that FitbitChargeHR™ had high overall accuracy (91%), high sensitivity (97%) in detecting sleep, and poor specificity (42%) in detecting wake on a min-to-min basis. On average, FitbitChargeHR™ significantly but negligibly overestimated total sleep time by 8min and sleep efficiency by 1.8%, and underestimated wake after sleep onset by 5.6min (p<0.05). Within FitbitChargeHR™ epochs of sleep, the average HR was 59.3±7.5bpm, which was significantly but negligibly lower than that calculated from ECG (60.2±7.6bpm, p<0.001), with no change in mean discrepancies throughout the night. FitbitChargeHR™ showed good agreement with PSG and ECG in measuring sleep and HR during sleep, supporting its use in assessing sleep and cardiac function in healthy adolescents. Further validation is needed to assess its reliability over prolonged periods of time in ecological settings and in clinical populations.

  11. Feasibility and validity of ecological momentary assessment in adolescents with high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Khor, Angela S; Gray, Kylie M; Reid, Sophie C; Melvin, Glenn A

    2014-01-01

    Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) may increase accuracy of data compared with retrospective questionnaires by assessing behaviours as they occur, hence decreasing recall biases and increasing ecological validity. This study examined the feasibility and concurrent validity of an EMA tool for adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Thirty-one adolescents with HFASD completed a mobile phone EMA application that assessed stressors and coping for two weeks. Parents and adolescents also completed retrospective measures of the adolescent's coping/stressors. Moderate compliance with the EMA tool was achieved and some concurrent validity was established with the retrospective measure of coping. Concordance was found between the types of stressors reported by parents and adolescents but not the quantity. The results suggest adolescents with HFASD are capable of reporting on their stressors and coping via EMA. EMA has the potential to be a valuable research tool in this population.

  12. Measuring mental health and wellbeing outcomes for children and adolescents to inform practice and policy: a review of child self-report measures.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Jessica; Croudace, Tim; Fonagy, Peter; Brown, Jeb; Patalay, Praveetha; Wolpert, Miranda

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing appetite for mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that can inform clinical practice at individual and service levels, including use for local and national benchmarking. Despite a varied literature on child mental health and wellbeing outcome measures that focus on psychometric properties alone, no reviews exist that appraise the availability of psychometric evidence and suitability for use in routine practice in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) including key implementation issues. This paper aimed to present the findings of the first review that evaluates existing broadband measures of mental health and wellbeing outcomes in terms of these criteria. The following steps were implemented in order to select measures suitable for use in routine practice: literature database searches, consultation with stakeholders, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, secondary searches and filtering. Subsequently, detailed reviews of the retained measures' psychometric properties and implementation features were carried out. 11 measures were identified as having potential for use in routine practice and meeting most of the key criteria: 1) Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, 2) Beck Youth Inventories, 3) Behavior Assessment System for Children, 4) Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, 5) Child Health Questionnaire, 6) Child Symptom Inventories, 7) Health of the National Outcome Scale for Children and Adolescents, 8) Kidscreen, 9) Pediatric Symptom Checklist, 10) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, 11) Youth Outcome Questionnaire. However, all existing measures identified had limitations as well as strengths. Furthermore, none had sufficient psychometric evidence available to demonstrate that they could reliably measure both severity and change over time in key groups. The review suggests a way of rigorously evaluating the growing number of broadband self-report mental health outcome measures against

  13. Urinary Dialkyl Phosphate Concentrations and Lung Function Parameters in Adolescents and Adults: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between lung function parameters and organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposures in agricultural occupations, but to our knowledge associations have not been evaluated in general populations. Objectives: We examined associations between OP metabolite dialkyl phosphates (DAPs) and lung function using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Cycle 1. Methods: Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25%–75%) were measured for 4,446 CHMS participants. Urinary concentrations of six DAP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP), smoking status, and other predictors of lung function were also measured in the CHMS-Cycle 1. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between total DAP concentrations (ΣDAPs) and lung function in adolescents (12–19 years) and adults (20–79 years). Results: In adults, estimates from multiple regression analyses suggested that a 1-unit increase on natural logarithmic scale (171% increase on the original scale) in the creatinine-corrected urinary concentration (nanomoles per gram creatinine) of ΣDAP was associated with a 32.6-mL (95% CI: –57.2, –8.1) reduction in FVC, 32.6-mL (95% CI: –59.0, –6.3) reduction in FEV1, 0.2% (95% CI: –0.6, 0.2) reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio, and 53.1-mL/sec (95% CI: –113.9, 7.7) reduction in FEF25%–75%. In adolescents, associations between ΣDAP and FEV1 were closer to the null and positive for FVC, whereas associations with FEV1/FVC and FEF25%–75% were negative, as in adults. However, none of the associations were significant in adolescents. Conclusions: The negative association between ΣDAP and lung function in adult participants suggests a detrimental effect of OP pesticides on lung function in the adult general population. Further studies using prospective designs are

  14. Parental divorce, adolescents' feelings toward parents and drunkenness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families.

  15. Multiple maltreatment experiences and adolescent behavior problems: adolescents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    McGee, R A; Wolfe, D A; Wilson, S K

    1997-01-01

    By adolescence, appraisal of one's past life experience becomes critical to the stage-salient issue of identity formation. This study examined adolescents' perceptions of their maltreatment experiences. It scrutinized the combined and unique contribution of five maltreatment types (i.e., physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, neglect, and exposure to family violence) to variance in adolescent adjustment. It was predicted that these maltreatment types would account for significant variance in adjustment when controlling for the context variables of age, sex, socioeconomic status, IQ, and stressful life events. Adolescents (N = 160, aged 11-17) were randomly selected from the open caseload of a child protection agency. Participants completed global severity ratings regarding their experiences of the five types of maltreatment, as well as a battery of measures assessing self- and caretaker-reported externalizing and internalizing symptomatology. The youths' maltreatment ratings significantly predicted self-reported adjustment, even when controlling for all context variables. Psychological maltreatment was the most predictively potent maltreatment type, and enhanced the predictive utility of other maltreatment types. Significant sex differences in the sequelae of perceived maltreatment were evident. Also, interactions between youths' ratings and those obtained from CPS files were detected. The findings were consistent with recent research in child maltreatment, and contribute to our understanding of developmental psychopathology among adolescents.

  16. Measuring Peer Socialization for Adolescent Substance Use: A Comparison of Perceived and Actual Friends’ Substance Use Effects

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Arielle R.; Chernyavskiy, Pavel; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been an increase in the use of social network analysis in studies of peer socialization effects on adolescent substance use. Some researchers argue that social network analyses provide more accurate measures of peer substance use, that the alternate strategy of assessing perceptions of friends’ drug use is biased, and that perceptions of peer use and actual peer use represent different constructs. However, there has been little research directly comparing the two effects, and little is known about the extent to which the measures differ in the magnitude of their influence on adolescent substance use, as well as how these two effects may be redundant or separate constructs. Method: Using Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) saturated subsample, we directly compared effects of perception of friends’ use (PFU) and actual friends’ use (AFU) on alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana initiation and persistence of use 1 year later. We also examined potential moderating effects of friendship quality and individual use on the relationship between perceived and actual friends’ substance use and outcomes. Results: Results indicated that, overall, PFU effects were larger than AFU effects; however, these effects did not significantly differ in magnitude for most models. In addition, interaction effects differed for different substances and usage outcomes, indicating the meaning of PFU and AFU constructs (and thus, different types of peer socialization) may change based on substance and type of use. Conclusions: These results highlight the multifaceted nature of peer influence on substance use and the importance of assessing multiple aspects of peer socialization while accounting for distinct contexts related to specific substances and use outcomes. PMID:25785802

  17. Depression and Anxiety among Transitioning Adolescents and College Students with ADHD, Dyslexia, or Comorbid ADHD/Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Gregg, Noel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate depressive and anxious symptomatology among transitioning adolescents and college students with ADHD, dyslexia, or comorbid ADHD/dyslexia. Method: Transitioning adolescents and college students with these disorders along with a non-ADHD/dyslexia college sample completed self-report measures of depression and anxiety.…

  18. The Differential Relations of Maternal and Paternal Support and Control to Adolescent Social Competence, Self-Worth, and Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laible, Deborah J.; Carlo, Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how the parenting dimensions of both mothers and fathers independently and together predict adolescent outcomes in three domains: sympathy, self-worth, and social competence. One-hundred eight adolescents completed self-report measures on their perceived relationship with parents, sympathy, social competence,…

  19. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  20. Examination of Measurement Invariance across Culture and Gender on the RCMAS-2 Short Form among Singapore and U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Ang, Rebecca P.

    2016-01-01

    Tests of measurement invariance were conducted across culture and gender on the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Second Edition (RCMAS-2) Short Form in a sample of 1,003 Singapore and U.S. adolescents. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analyses across culture and gender supported at least partial measurement invariance. ANOVA…

  1. Measuring Evaluation Fears in Adolescence: Psychometric Validation of the Portuguese Versions of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale and the Specific Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagos, Paula; Salvador, Maria do Céu; Rijo, Daniel; Santos, Isabel M.; Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Modified measures of Fear of Negative Evaluation and Fear of Positive Evaluation were examined among Portuguese adolescents. These measures demonstrated replicable factor structure, internal consistency, and positive relationships with social anxiety and avoidance. Gender differences were found. Implications for evaluation and intervention are…

  2. The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA): Examination of the Psychometric Properties of a New Multidimensional Measure of Test Anxiety among Elementary and Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Patricia A.; Lee, Steven W.; Witteborg, Kristin M.; Prichard, Keri W.; Luhr, Megan E.; Cullinan, Christopher M.; Mildren, Bethany A.; Raad, Jennifer M.; Cornelius, Rebecca A.; Janik, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The Test Anxiety Inventory for Children and Adolescents (TAICA) is a new multidimensional measure used to assess test anxiety in elementary and secondary school students. The TAICA is a 45-item self-report measure consisting of a Total Test Anxiety scale, four debilitating test anxiety subscales (Cognitive Obstruction/Inattention, Physiological…

  3. Two protocols to measure mitochondrial capacity in women and adolescent girls: a 31P-MRS preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Willcocks, Rebecca Jane; Fulford, Jon; Barker, Alan Robert; Armstrong, Neil; Williams, Craig Anthony

    2014-05-01

    The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time constant (τ) following exercise provides a measure of mitochondrial oxidative capacity. The purpose of this investigation was to use 2 different protocols to determine τ in adolescent females. 31P-MR spectra were collected during 2 exercise tests in 6 adolescent girls (13.8 ± 0.3 y) and 7 women (23.2 ± 3.4 y). The first test consisted of 23 repeated 4 seconds maximal isometric calf contractions separated by 12-second recovery; PCr recovery between the final 18 contractions was used to calculate τ. The second test was a sustained 20-second maximal contraction; recovery was fitted with an exponential function to measure τ. PCr τ did not significantly differ between groups: (gated exercise: 4 girls: 16 ± 5 s, 7 women: 17 ± 5 s, p; sustained exercise: 6 girls: 19 ± 6 s, 7 women: 19 ± 4 s). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a close agreement between sustained and gated exercise. Both gated and sustained exercise appear feasible in a pediatric population, and offer a noninvasive evaluation of mitochondrial oxidative capacity.

  4. Predictive validity of callous-unemotional traits measured in early adolescence with respect to multiple antisocial outcomes.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Robert J; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kotler, Julie S

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the predictive validity of youth callous-unemotional (CU) traits, as measured in early adolescence (Grade 7) by the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001), in a longitudinal sample (N = 754). Antisocial outcomes, assessed in adolescence and early adulthood, included self-reported general delinquency from 7th grade through 2 years post-high school, self-reported serious crimes through 2 years post-high school, juvenile and adult arrest records through 1 year post-high school, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms and diagnosis at 2 years post-high school. CU traits measured in 7th grade were highly predictive of 5 of the 6 antisocial outcomes-general delinquency, juvenile and adult arrests, and early adult antisocial personality disorder criterion count and diagnosis-over and above prior and concurrent conduct problem behavior (i.e., criterion counts of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (criterion count). Incorporating a CU traits specifier for those with a diagnosis of conduct disorder improved the positive prediction of antisocial outcomes, with a very low false-positive rate. There was minimal evidence of moderation by sex, race, or urban/rural status. Urban/rural status moderated one finding, with being from an urban area associated with stronger relations between CU traits and adult arrests. Findings clearly support the inclusion of CU traits as a specifier for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, at least with respect to predictive validity.

  5. A new instrument to measure sexual competence and interaction competence in youth: psychometric properties in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; Peters, Madelon L; Evers, Silvia M A A; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M

    2015-01-01

    The Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth is a self-report questionnaire that aims to measure sexual competence and interaction competence in adolescents. The study sample consisted of 276 female undergraduate students (M = 20.95 years, SD = 2.00 years). The factor structure of the questionnaire was calculated on full sample data. A subsample was used to calculate the validity and internal consistency (N = 236; M = 20.88 years, SD = 1.96). The test-retest reliability was also calculated in a subsample (N = 82; M = 21.45 years, SD = 1.74 years). On the basis of an exploratory factor analysis, 8 factors were extracted: (a) communication about sex, (b) refusing sex, (c) positive sexual attitudes, (d) male role in sexual interaction, (e) contraceptive use, (f) not suppressing problems and desires regarding sex, (g) sexual assertiveness, and (h) sexual hedonism. The subscales possess adequate internal consistency and moderate to excellent test-retest reliability. A higher order principal component analysis revealed a 2-factor structure that appears to adequately represent the sexual competence and interaction competence constructs. Furthermore, convergent and discriminant validity were considered to be good. The results indicate that the Sexual Competence and Interaction Competence in Youth may be a useful instrument to measure sexual and interaction competence among adolescents.

  6. Development of a disease specific health related quality of life measure for adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Gee, L; Abbott, J; Conway, S; Etherington, C; Webb, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Health related quality of life (HRQoL) measurement is important in determining the impact of disease on daily functioning and subsequently informing interventions. In cystic fibrosis (CF) generic HRQoL measures have been employed but these may not be sufficiently specific. The aim of the current work was to develop and validate a disease specific HRQoL measure for adults and adolescents with cystic fibrosis.
METHODS—Areas of concern to adults and adolescents with CF were identified by unstructured interviews, self-administered questionnaires, consultation with multidisciplinary specialist staff, a review of the relevant literature, and examination of other HRQoL measures. Items for the questionnaire were generated on the basis of this process. Continued evaluation and development of the Cystic Fibrosis Quality of Life (CFQoL) questionnaire was undertaken by a process of statistical analysis and continued feedback from patients. The full testing and validation of the CFQoL questionnaire took place over four phases: (1) initial item generation and testing of a preliminary questionnaire, (2) testing and validation of the second version of the questionnaire, (3) test-retest reliability of a third and final version of the questionnaire, and (4) sensitivity testing of the final version of the questionnaire.
RESULTS—Nine domains of functioning were identified using principal components analysis with varimax rotation. Internal reliability of the identified domains was demonstrated using Cronbach alpha coefficients (range 0.72-0.92) and item to total domain score correlations. Concurrent validity (range r = 0.64-0.74), discriminatory ability between different levels of disease severity, sensitivity across transient changes in health (effect size range, moderate d = 0.56 to large d = 1.95), and test-retest reliability (r =0.74-0.96) were also found to be robust.
CONCLUSIONS—The CFQoL questionnaire is a fully validated disease specific measure

  7. Subjective and objective assessment of sleep in adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tham, See Wan; Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-06-01

    There is increased recognition that sleep problems may develop in children and adolescents after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, few studies have utilized both subjective and objective measures to comprehensively assess sleep problems in the pediatric population following the acute post-TBI period. The aims of this study were to compare sleep in adolescents with mTBI to healthy adolescents using subjective and objective measures, and to identify the clinical correlates associated with sleep problems. One hundred adolescents (50 adolescents with mTBI recruited from three to twelve months post-injury and 50 healthy adolescents) completed questionnaires assessing sleep quality, depression, and pain symptoms, and underwent 10 day actigraphic assessment of sleep patterns. Adolescents with mTBI reported poorer sleep quality and demonstrated significantly shorter actigraphic-measured sleep duration, poorer sleep efficiency, and more wake time after onset of sleep, compared with healthy adolescents (all, p<0.05). For both groups of adolescents, poorer self-reported sleep quality was predicted by greater depressive symptoms. Poorer actigraphic sleep efficiency was predicted by membership in the mTBI group after controlling for age, sex, depressive symptoms, and presence of pain. Our findings suggest that adolescents may experience subjective and objective sleep disturbances up to one year following mTBI. These findings require further replication in larger samples. Additionally, research is needed to identify possible mechanisms for poor sleep in youth with mTBI.

  8. Peer Influence on Risk Taking, Risk Preference, and Risky Decision Making in Adolescence and Adulthood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Margo; Steinberg, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2…

  9. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270

  10. Development and Validation of a Scale to Measure Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Stigma: Results From Young Women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kelli Stidham; Manu, Abubakar; Morhe, Emmanuel; Harris, Lisa H; Loll, Dana; Ela, Elizabeth; Kolenic, Giselle; Dozier, Jessica L; Challa, Sneha; Zochowski, Melissa K; Boakye, Andrew; Adanu, Richard; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2017-03-07

    Young women's experiences with sexual and reproductive health (SRH) stigma may contribute to unintended pregnancy. Thus, stigma interventions and rigorous measures to assess their impact are needed. Based on formative work, we generated a pool of 51 items on perceived stigma around different dimensions of adolescent SRH and family planning (sex, contraception, pregnancy, childbearing, abortion). We tested items in a survey study of 1,080 women ages 15 to 24 recruited from schools, health facilities, and universities in Ghana. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) identified the most conceptually and statistically relevant scale, and multivariable regression established construct validity via associations between stigma and contraceptive use. CFA provided strong support for our hypothesized Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale (chi-square p value < 0.001; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.07; standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.06). The final 20-item scale included three subscales: internalized stigma (six items), enacted stigma (seven items), and stigmatizing lay attitudes (seven items). The scale demonstrated good internal consistency (α = 0.74) and strong subscale correlations (α = 0.82 to 0.93). Higher SRH stigma scores were inversely associated with ever having used modern contraception (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.96, confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 0.99, p value = 0.006). A valid, reliable instrument for assessing SRH stigma and its impact on family planning, the Adolescent SRH Stigma Scale can inform and evaluate interventions to reduce/manage stigma and foster resilience among young women in Africa and beyond.

  11. Classifying Adolescent Perfectionists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2011-01-01

    A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…

  12. Depressive Symptoms and Subclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between depressive symptoms and subclinical markers of cardiovascular disease (CVD), specifically arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid artery intima thickening (IMT), in a sample of healthy adolescents, and to explore adolescent hostility as a potential moderator of depression on subclinical markers of CVD. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven (n = 157) black and white adolescents between the ages of 16-21 completed a follow-up study of psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk factors that included measures of PWV and carotid IMT. Psychosocial measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; divided into tertiles), and the Cook-Medley Hostility Inventory subscales. Linear regression models controlled for sociodemographic variables, health behaviors, blood pressure, body mass index, and heart rate. Results Results show that more severe depressive symptoms were associated with higher levels of PWV (B = 0.17, R2 = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.03, CI = 2.2 – 47.0, p = .03) but not with higher IMT. Adolescent depression remained a significant predictor of PWV when controlling for adolescent hostility; hostility did not moderate the relationship between adolescent depression and PWV. Conclusions Depression may be important in the development of arterial stiffness in adolescence. Further research is needed to delineate the relationship in adolescence and young adulthood between depressive symptoms and the pathogenesis of CVD. PMID:21575817

  13. Mastery motivation in adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Lach, Lucy; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Schmitz, Norbert

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to describe motivation in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and factors associated with motivation level. The Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ) measures motivation in mastering challenging tasks and expressive elements. It was completed by 153 parents and 112 adolescents with CP. Adolescents (GMFCS in n=146 - I:50, II:43, III:13, IV:15, V:25) were assessed using the Leiter IQ and Gross Motor Function Measure. Parents completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Motivation scores were highest for mastery pleasure and social persistence with adults and lowest for gross motor and object-oriented persistence. Socio-demographic factors were not strongly correlated with DMQ. Higher gross motor ability (r=0.24-0.52) and fewer activity limitations (r=0.30-0.64, p<.001) were associated with persistence in cognitive, motor and social tasks, but not mastery pleasure. Higher IQ was associated with persistence in object-oriented tasks (r=0.42, p<.001). Prosocial behaviors correlated with high motivation (r=0.39-0.53, p<.001). Adolescents' motivation scores were higher than parents' scores. Adolescents with CP express high mastery pleasure, not related to abilities. High motivation was associated with fewer activity limitations and prosocial behaviors and aspects of family environment. Findings elucidate those at-risk for low motivation, which can influence treatment adherence and participation in challenging but meaningful activities.

  14. Substance Use and Sexual Behavior among Recent Hispanic Immigrant Adolescents: Effects of Parent-Adolescent Differential Acculturation and Communication*

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps, perceived discrimination, and perceived negative context of reception on adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual activity, and sexual risk taking. We used an expanded, multidimensional model of acculturation. Method A sample of 302 recently immigrated parent-adolescent dyads (152 from Miami and 150 from Los Angeles) completed measures of acculturation (Hispanic and American practices and identifications, and individualist and collectivist values) and parent-adolescent communication. Adolescents completed measures of recent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, sexual behavior, and sexual risk taking. Results Parent-adolescent gaps in American practices and ethnic identity, and perceptions of a negative context of reception, predicted compromised parent-adolescent communication. In Miami only, adolescent-reported communication negatively predicted odds of cigarette smoking, occasions of drunkenness, and number of sexual partners. Also in Miami only, parent-reported communication positively predicted these outcomes, as well as occasions of adolescent binge drinking, drunkenness, number of sexual partners, and odds of unprotected sex. The only significant findings in Los Angeles were protective effects of parent-reported communication on frequency of alcohol use and of binge drinking. Mediational effects emerged only in the Miami sample. Conclusions Effects of parent-adolescent acculturation gaps vary across Hispanic groups and receiving contexts. The especially strong parental control in many Mexican families may account for these differences. However, other important differences between Hispanic subgroups and communities of reception could also account for these differences. Prevention efforts might encourage Hispanic youth both to retain their culture of origin and to acquire American culture. PMID:22699094

  15. The measurement of mathematics anxiety: the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents--MARS-A.

    PubMed

    Suinn, R M; Edwards, R

    1982-07-01

    Describes the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale for Adolescents (MARS-A). Normative data on over 1,200 junior high and senior high students are reported. In addition, psychometric data that relate to reliability and construct validity for the MARS-A scale are discussed. Two factors were identified in the scale, a factor of numerical anxiety that appeared in 91% of the items and a factor of mathematics test anxiety that appeared in the remaining items. Results that show the association between high mathematics anxiety scale scores and low grade average in mathematics courses are reported on two samples of students.

  16. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Adolescents’ Competence and the Balance of Adolescent Autonomy and Adolescent and Parent Well-Being in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Jonathan; Berg, Cynthia A.; Osborn, Peter; Butler, Jorie M.; Godri, Carine; Fortenberry, Katie T.; Barach, Ilana; Le, Hai; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether intra-family discrepancies in perceptions of the adolescent’s competence and independence were associated with autonomy and also well-being for adolescents and parents. The latent discrepancy model was used to examine the ways that mothers and fathers consistently differed from their adolescent across measures of independence and competence regarding type 1 diabetes, a stressful context for families. One-hundred and eighty-five mothers, fathers, and adolescents (M age= 12.5 SD= 1.3) completed measures of the adolescent’s independence in completing diabetes tasks, problems with diabetes management, adherence to the medical regimen, measures of well-being, and metabolic control. The latent discrepancy model was conducted via structural equation modeling that generated latent discrepancies from the adolescent for mothers and fathers. Both mothers and fathers viewed the adolescent’s competence more negatively than did the adolescent. These discrepancies related to more parental encouragement of independence and adolescent autonomy, but also poorer metabolic control, and poorer parental psychosocial well-being. The results are interpreted within a developmental perspective that views discrepancies as reflecting normative developmental processes of autonomy, but associated with disruptions in well-being in the short term. PMID:19413435

  17. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  18. A qualitative exploration of attitudes towards the use of outcome measures in child and adolescent mental health services.

    PubMed

    Sharples, Evelyn; Qin, Chuan; Goveas, Vinita; Gondek, Dawid; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda; Edbrooke-Childs, Julian

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present research was to explore clinician attitudes to outcome measures and, in particular, the facilitators and barriers to implementing outcome measures. An up-to-date exploration of clinician attitudes is especially needed in the context of recent policies on the implementation of outcome measures in child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS), and because evidence suggests that there is a disparity between policy recommendations and the use of outcome measures in clinical practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine CAMHS clinicians from a Mental Health Trust in South London. Two levels of implementation emerged from the analysis: (1) the service level, regarding the implementation of outcome measures across a service to inform service improvement and (2) the session level, regarding the implementation of outcome measures within individual clinical sessions. The present research described training and ongoing support as a crucial facilitator of use at both service and session levels. This included help overcoming local contextual barriers, such as resources, information systems and administrative processes. The research showed that a balance is needed between a mandatory and uniform approach across a service and providing clinicians with support to use outcome measures with all service users for whom they are appropriate.

  19. Kung Fu Training Improves Physical Fitness Measures in Overweight/Obese Adolescents: The “Martial Fitness” Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Tracey W.; Kohn, Michael R.; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 ± 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37–2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness. PMID:20798764

  20. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade.

  1. Emotion dysregulation and dyadic conflict in depressed and typical adolescents: evaluating concordance across psychophysiological and observational measures.

    PubMed

    Crowell, Sheila E; Baucom, Brian R; Yaptangco, Mona; Bride, Daniel; Hsiao, Ray; McCauley, Elizabeth; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2014-04-01

    Many depressed adolescents experience difficulty in regulating their emotions. These emotion regulation difficulties appear to emerge in part from socialization processes within families and then generalize to other contexts. However, emotion dysregulation is typically assessed within the individual, rather than in the social relationships that shape and maintain dysregulation. In this study, we evaluated concordance of physiological and observational measures of emotion dysregulation during interpersonal conflict, using a multilevel actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Participants were 75 mother-daughter dyads, including 50 depressed adolescents with or without a history of self-injury, and 25 typically developing controls. Behavior dysregulation was operationalized as observed aversiveness during a conflict discussion, and physiological dysregulation was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Results revealed different patterns of concordance for control versus depressed participants. Controls evidenced a concordant partner (between-person) effect, and showed increased physiological regulation during minutes when their partner was more aversive. In contrast, clinical dyad members displayed a concordant actor (within-person) effect, becoming simultaneously physiologically and behaviorally dysregulated. Results inform current understanding of emotion dysregulation across multiple levels of analysis.

  2. Sex, puberty, and the timing of sleep EEG measured adolescent brain maturation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ian G; Grimm, Kevin J; de Bie, Evan; Feinberg, Irwin

    2012-04-10

    The steep adolescent decline in the slow wave (delta, 1-4 Hz) electroencephalogram (EEG) of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is a dramatic maturational change in brain electrophysiology thought to be driven by cortical synaptic pruning. A perennial question is whether this change in brain electrophysiology is related to sexual maturation. Applying Gompertz growth models to longitudinal data spanning ages 9-18 y, we found that the timing of the delta decline was significantly (P < 0.0001) linked to timing of pubertal maturation. This timing relation remained significant when sex differences in the timing of the delta decline were statistically controlled. Sex differences and the relation to the timing of puberty jointly explained 67% of the between-subject variance in the timing of the delta decline. These data provide a demonstration of a temporal relation between puberty and an electrophysiological marker of adolescent brain development. They can guide research into whether the neuroendocrine events of puberty are mechanistically linked to cortical maturation or whether, instead, the two maturational processes are parallel but independent programs of human ontogenesis.

  3. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pastouret, Alan; Gooijer, Frans; Overton, Bob; Jonker, Jan; Curley, Jim; Constantine, Walter; Waterman, Kendall Miller

    2015-11-13

    High Temperature insulated wire and optical fiber cable is a key enabling technology for the Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP). Without insulated electrical wires and optical fiber, downhole temperature and pressure sensors, flow meters and gauges cannot communicate with the surface. Unfortunately, there are currently no insulated electrical wire or fiber cable constructions capable of surviving for extended periods of deployment in a geothermal well (240-325°C) or supercritical (374°C) reservoir. This has severely hindered engineered reservoir creation, management and utilization, as hot zones and cool water intrusions cannot be understood over time. The lack of a insulated electrical wire and fiber cable solution is a fundamental limitation to the viability of this energy source. The High Temperature Downhole Tools target specification is development of tools and sensors for logging and monitoring wellbore conditions at depths of up to 10,000 meters and temperatures up to 374oC. It well recognized in the industry that no current electronic or fiber cable can be successfully deployed in a well and function successfully for more a few days at temperatures over 240oC. The goal of this project was to raise this performance level significantly. Prysmian Group’s objective in this project was to develop a complete, multi-purpose cable solution for long-term deployment in geothermal wells/reservoirs that can be used with the widest variety of sensors. In particular, the overall project objective was to produce a manufacturable cable design that can perform without serious degradation: • At temperatures up to 374°C; • At pressures up to 220 bar; • In a hydrogen-rich environment; and • For the life of the well (> 5 years). This cable incorporates: • Specialty optical fibers, with specific glass chemistry and high temperature and pressure protective coatings for data communication and distributed temperature and pressure sensing, and • High

  4. Computerized measurement of anticipated anxiety from eating increasing portions of food in adolescents with and without anorexia nervosa: Pilot studies.

    PubMed

    Kissileff, H R; Brunstrom, J M; Tesser, R; Bellace, D; Berthod, S; Thornton, J C; Halmi, K

    2016-02-01

    Dieting and excessive fear of eating coexist in vulnerable individuals, which may progress to anorexia nervosa [AN], but there is no objective measure of this fear. Therefore, we adapted a computer program that was previously developed to measure the satiating effects of foods in order to explore the potential of food to induce anxiety and fear of eating in adolescent girls. Twenty four adolescents (AN) and ten healthy controls without eating disorders rated pictures of different types of foods in varying sized portions as too large or too small and rated the expected anxiety of five different portions (20-320 kcal). Two low energy dense (potatoes and rice) and two high energy dense (pizza and M&Ms) foods were used. The regression coefficient of line lengths (0-100 mm) marked from "No anxiety" to "this would give me a panic attack", regressed from portions shown, was the measure of "expected anxiety" for a given food. The maximum tolerated portion size [kcal] (MTPS), computed by method of constant stimulus from portions shown, was significantly smaller for high energy dense foods, whereas the expected anxiety response was greater, for all foods, for patients compared to controls. For both groups, expected anxiety responses were steeper, and maximum tolerated portion sizes were larger, for low, than high, energy dense foods. Both maximum tolerated portion size and expected anxiety response were significantly predicted by severity of illness for the patients. Those who had larger maximum tolerated portion sizes had smaller anticipated anxiety to increasing portion sizes. Visual size had a greater influence than energy content for these responses. This method could be used to quantify the anxiety inducing potential of foods and for studies with neuro-imaging and phenotypic clarifications.

  5. Anthropometric Measurements and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Sun, Ling; Wen, Yi Feng; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal status in children and adolescents. We searched PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library, and 7 additional databases, following the guidance of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, up to December 2014. Observational studies reporting data on the association between anthropometric measurements and periodontal diseases in 2–18-y-old participants were included. An initial search identified 4191 papers; 278 potentially effective studies (k = 0.82) and 16 effective studies (k = 0.83) were included after screening. The mean quality of evidence among the studies was 20.3, according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology checklist (k = 0.79). Meta-analyses showed that obesity (measured by body mass index) was significantly associated with visible plaque index (OR: 4.75; 95% CI: 2.42, 9.34), bleeding on probing (OR: 5.41; 95% CI: 2.75, 10.63), subgingival calculus (OR: 3.07; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.62), probing depth (OR: 14.15; 95% CI: 5.10, 39.25) and flow rate of salivary secretion (standardized mean difference: −0.89; 95% CI: −1.18, −0.61). However, various results were reported in the effective studies that were not included in meta-analyses. In conclusion, obesity is associated with some signs of periodontal disease in children and adolescents. Further studies with a comprehensive prospective cohort design and more potential variables are recommended. PMID:26567204

  6. Technical progress report: Completion of spectral rotating shadowband radiometers and analysis of atmospheric radiation measurement spectral shortwave data

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.; Harrison, L.

    1996-04-01

    Our goal in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the improvement of radiation models used in general circulation models (GCMs), especially in the shortwave, (1) by providing improved shortwave radiometric measurements for the testing of models and (2) by developing methods for retrieving climatologically sensitive parameters that serve as input to shortwave and longwave models. At the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center (ASRC) in Albany, New York, we are acquiring downwelling direct and diffuse spectral irradiance, at six wavelengths, plus downwelling broadband longwave, and upwelling and downwelling broadband shortwave irradiances that we combine with National Weather Service surface and upper air data from the Albany airport as a test data set for ARM modelers. We have also developed algorithms to improve shortwave measurements made at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) ARM site by standard thermopile instruments and by the multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) based on these Albany data sets. Much time has been spent developing techniques to retrieve column aerosol, water vapor, and ozone from the direct beam spectral measurements of the MFRSR. Additionally, we have had success in calculating shortwave surface albedo and aerosol optical depth from the ratio of direct to diffuse spectral reflectance.

  7. Tilted Magnetic Levitation Enables Measurement of the Complete Range of Densities of Materials with Low Magnetic Permeability.

    PubMed

    Nemiroski, Alex; Soh, Siowling; Kwok, Sen Wai; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-02-03

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) of diamagnetic or weakly paramagnetic materials suspended in a paramagnetic solution in a magnetic field gradient provides a simple method to measure the density of small samples of solids or liquids. One major limitation of this method, thus far, has been an inability to measure or manipulate materials outside of a narrow range of densities (0.8 g/cm(3) < ρ < 2.3 g/cm(3)) that are close in density to the suspending, aqueous medium. This paper explores a simple method-"tilted MagLev"-to increase the range of densities that can be levitated magnetically. Tilting the MagLev device relative to the gravitational vector enables the magnetic force to be decreased (relative to the magnetic force) along the axis of measurement. This approach enables many practical measurements over the entire range of densities observed in matter at ambient conditions-from air bubbles (ρ ≈ 0) to osmium and iridium (ρ ≈ 23 g/cm(3)). The ability to levitate, simultaneously, objects with a broad range of different densities provides an operationally simple method that may find application to forensic science (e.g., for identifying the composition of miscellaneous objects or powders), industrial manufacturing (e.g., for quality control of parts), or resource-limited settings (e.g., for identifying and separating small particles of metals and alloys).

  8. Adolescent Images of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falchikov, Nancy

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…

  9. A Kinematically Complete Measurement of the Proton Structure Function F2 in the Resonance Region and Evaluation of Its Moments

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhail Osipenko; Et. Al.

    2003-05-01

    We measured the inclusive electron-proton cross section in the nucleon resonance region (W<2.5 GeV) at momentum transfers Q2 below 4.5 (GeV/c)2 with the CLAS detector. The large acceptance of CLAS allowed the measurement of the cross section in a large, contiguous two-dimensional range of Q2 and x, making it possible to perform an integration of the data at fixed Q2 over the significant x interval. >From these data we extracted the structure function F2 and, by including other world data, we studied the Q2 evolution of its moments, Mn(Q2), in order to estimate higher twist contributions. The small statistical and systematic uncertainties of the CLAS data allow a precise extraction of the higher twists and will require significant improvements in theoretical predictions if a meaningful comparison with these new experimental results is to be made.

  10. Evaluation of locally induced osteoarthritis by the complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant in mice. The application of DEXA measurements.

    PubMed

    Włodarski, K H; Dickson, G R

    2002-01-01

    The inflammatory reactions elicited in mice by subcutaneous injections of IFA and CFA had opposite effects when tested on local metacarpal shank bones and the distal epiphysis of shank bones. Although the intensity of the immune reactions was similar, IFA induced bone loss, while CFA induced bone formation, which was mostly periosteal in nature. BMC and BMD measurements were assessed by means of high resolution DEXA, using a hologic 4500A bone scanner with software dedicated for the analysis of small animal bones. DEXA scans were evaluated and related to histological and bone ash content analyses. The morphological and quantitative ash weight analyses of bones exposed to the adjuvants were consistent with DEXA bone density scan measurements.

  11. The Relationship between Stroop and Stop-Signal Measures of Inhibition in Adolescents: Influences from Variations in Context and Measure Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Khng, Kiat Hui; Lee, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    The Stroop and stop-signal tasks are commonly used to index prepotent response inhibition in studies of cognitive development and individual differences. Inhibitory measures from the two tasks have been derived using a variety of methods. Findings of low inter-correlations amongst these measures have been interpreted as evidence for different kinds of inhibitory functions. Our previous study found Stroop and stop-signal accuracy measures to be uncorrelated and they loaded on different inhibitory components in a principal component analysis. The present study examined whether this finding is replicated across different task contexts, derived measures, and methods of derivation. Adolescents (N = 247) were administered a number-quantity Stroop and word and number stop-signal tasks. For each stop-signal task, inhibitory efficiency was estimated using a stop-signal reaction time measure estimated with the central versus the integration methods. For the Stroop interference task, inhibitory efficiency was indexed by reaction time measures (including inverse efficiency scores) generated from difference scores and regression residuals, and delta-plot slopes. The reaction time measures from the two tasks were generally not correlated. The only exception was that Stroop inhibitory ability, indexed by Stroop errors, was related to stop-signal inhibitory efficiency, indexed by stop-signal reaction time. These findings are consistent with previous findings suggesting that measures from the Stroop and stop-signal tasks are influenced by different underlying processes. The impact of variations in dependent measure derivation on the resulting reliabilities of Stroop and stop-signal measures and on observed correlations between them were examined. Variables that may have contributed to the null findings are discussed. PMID:24992683

  12. Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms and their Challenges with Learning in School

    PubMed Central

    Humensky, Jennifer; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Fogel, Joshua; Wells, Corrie; Goodwin, Brady; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W.

    2013-01-01

    We examine school performance among 83 adolescents at-risk for major depression. Negative mood interfered with subjective measures of school performance, including ability to do well in school, homework completion, concentrate in class, interact with peers, and going to class. No significant relationships were found for mood and objective measures of school performance (school attendance, English and math grades). Students with a college-educated parent had stronger performance in objective measures (school attendance and math grades), while males had lower English grades. In qualitative interviews, adolescents reported that negative thinking led to procrastination, which led to poor school performance, which led to more negative thinking. Adolescents with depressive symptoms that do not meet the threshold for referral report struggles in school. Understanding the specific challenges faced by adolescents with even low levels of depressive symptoms can help school nurses, teachers, and parents identify appropriate interventions to help adolescents succeed in school. PMID:20606058

  13. Complete and Partial Lesions of the Pyramidal Tract in the Rat Affect Qualitative Measures of Skilled Movements: Impairment in Fixations as a Model for Clumsy Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Whishaw, Ian Q.; Piecharka, Dionne M.; Drever, Felicia R.

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about prenatal and perinatal brain injury resulting in subsequent clumsy behavior in children. One candidate motor system is the pyramidal tract. The tract traverses the entire central nervous system and, through direct and indirect connections to the brainstem and spinal cord sensory and motor nuclei, is involved in the learning and execution of skilled movements. Here, rats, either naive or pretrained on a number of motor tasks, were assessed for acute and chronic impairments following complete or incomplete pyramidal tract lesions. Postsurgery rats with complete lesions were impaired on the qualitative measures of limb aiming, supination, and posture. Impaired movements require fixations, complementary movements in different body segments. The impairment in fixations was manifest acutely and underwent no improvement with subsequent training/testing. The finding that complete and partial pyramidal tract lesions produce chronic impairment in fixations provides insight for understanding clumsy behavior in humans and its potential remediation via specific training in making fixations. PMID:14640310

  14. Adolescents demonstrate improvement in obesity risk behaviors following completion of Choice, Control, and Change, a curriculum addressing personal agency and autonomous motivation

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Pamela A.; Lee, Heewon; Calabrese-Barton, A

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid increase of obesity and diabetes risk beginning in youth, particularly those from disadvantaged communities, calls for prevention efforts. Objective To examine the impact of a curriculum intervention, Choice, Control, and Change (C3), on the adoption of the energy balance related behaviors of decreasing sweetened drinks, packaged snacks, fast food, and leisure screen time, and increasing water, fruits and vegetables, and physical activity, and on potential psychosocial mediators of the behaviors. Design Ten middle schools in low-income New York City neighborhoods were randomly assigned within matched pairs to either intervention or comparison/ delayed control conditions during the 2007–2008 school year. Participants 562 inner city seventh grade students in the intervention condition, and 574 in the comparison condition. Intervention Students received the 24 C3 lessons that used science inquiry-based investigations to enhance motivation for action, and social cognitive and self-determination theories to increase personal agency and autonomous motivation to take action. Main outcome measures Self-report instruments to measure energy balance related behaviors targeted by the curriculum, and potential psychosocial mediators of the behaviors. Analyses ANCOVA with group (intervention/control) as a fixed factor and pre-test as covariate. Results Students in intervention schools compared to the delayed intervention controls reported consumption of significantly fewer sweetened drinks and packaged snacks, smaller sizes of fast food, increased intentional walking for exercise, and decreased leisure screen-time, but showed no increases in their intakes of water, fruits, and vegetables. They showed significant increases in positive outcome expectations about the behaviors, self-efficacy, goal intentions, competence, and autonomy. Conclusions The C3 curriculum was effective in improving many of the specifically targeted behaviors related to reducing

  15. Measurement of perceived functions of non-suicidal self-injury for Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Leong, Choi Hong; Wu, Anise M S; Poon, Mary Man-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of validated assessment tools for motives of non-suicidal self-injury behaviors in the Chinese contexts, this study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (C-FASM). A total of 345 secondary school students (mean age = 11.41 years), who reported non-suicidal self-injury in the past year, voluntarily participated in the questionnaire survey. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a second-order model of 4 motivational factors. The overall scale scores had significant correlations with depression, anxiety, impulsiveness, self-esteem, social support, and suicidal ideation. The internal consistency of the scale was also satisfactory. The C-FASM is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing non-suicidal self-injury among nonclinical Chinese adolescents.

  16. Measures of resilience and adaptation of adolescents in single parent families in Taiwan: psychometric properties and related profiles.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Mei O; Shek, Daniel T L

    2007-01-01

    The dimensionality of measures of resilience (74 items) and adaptation (35 items) were examined in 291 adolescents living in single parent families in Taiwan. Factor analyses showed that internally consistent factors with high loadings could be derived from: (a) resilience items with reference to different ecological systems, including personal domain (six factors), family domain (eight domains), school domain (three domains), and community domain (three domains); and (b) adaptation problem items (eight factors). An examination of the profile of responses of the respondents showed that several concerns in the areas of resilience (effective coping, parental protection from being hurt by parental divorce, home-school cooperation, and connection with outside resources) and adaptation (problems in academic aspirations, low self-regard, and low self-control) were identified.

  17. A Behavioral Measure of Costly Helping: Replicating and Extending the Association with Callous Unemotional Traits in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Dalwani, Manish S.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Raymond, Kristen M.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Some conduct-disordered youths have high levels of callous unemotional traits and meet the DSM-5’s “with limited prosocial emotions” (LPE) specifier. These youths often do aggressive, self-benefitting acts that cost others. We previously developed a task, the AlAn’s game, which asks participants to repeatedly decide whether to accept or reject offers in which they will receive money but a planned charity donation will be reduced. In our prior work, more "costly helping" (i.e., rejecting the offered money and protecting the donation) was associated with lower callous unemotional traits. Here we extend that prior work in a larger sample of adolescent male patients with serious conduct problems and controls, and test whether this association is mediated specifically by a Moral Elevation response (i.e., a positive emotional response to another’s act of virtue). Methods The adolescent male participants were: 45 patients (23 with LPE) and 26 controls, who underwent an extensive phenotypic assessment including a measure of Moral Elevation. About 1 week later participants played the AlAn’s game. Results All AlAn’s game outcomes demonstrated significant group effects: (1) money taken for self (p = 0.02); (2) money left in the charitable donation (p = 0.03); and, (3) costly helping (p = 0.047). Controls took the least money and did the most costly helping, while patients with LPE took the most money and did the least costly helping. Groups also significantly differed in post-stimulus Moral Elevation scores (p = 0.005). Exploratory analyses supported that the relationship between callous unemotional traits and costly helping on the AlAn’s game may be mediated in part by differences in Moral Elevation. Conclusions The AlAn's game provides a standardized behavioral measure associated with callous unemotional traits. Adolescents with high levels of callous unemotional traits engage in fewer costly helping behaviors, and those differences may be related

  18. Assessing the Job-Related Social Skills of Adolescents and Young Adults with Behavioral Disorders: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Characteristics of Two Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullis, Michael; And Others

    This report describes the development and testing of two measures of job-related social behavior of adolescents and young adults, ages 14-21, with behavior disorders (BD). Following an introduction of the concept of job-related social behavior, detailed descriptive information and data are provided on development and field testing of the…

  19. Adolescents with myelomeningocele: activities, beliefs, expectations, and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Buran, Constance F; Sawin, Kathleen J; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S

    2004-04-01

    The Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, USA has identified activities, beliefs, and perceptions critical for healthy development. The aim of this study was to measure the activities, beliefs and expectations, and perceived outcomes of adolescents with myelomeningocele. In this descriptive study, 66 adolescents with myelomeningocele, aged 12 to 21 years and functioning at grade level, completed a structured interview. Thirty-eight (58%) of the participants were female. The level of lesion was distributed as follows: 30% had thoracic level lesions, 32% had lumbar level lesions, 15% had lumbosacral level lesions, and 23% of the sample had sacral level lesions. Instruments used had both established reliability and validity (WeeFIM, Harter's Self-Perception Profile, Austin's Child Attitude Toward Illness Scale, and Snyder's Hope Scale, Adolescent Decision-Making Inventory, Adolescent Coping Scale) or were scales developed for this study (Adolescent Activities Inventory, Future Expectations Scale, Communication Efficacy, and Adolescent Self-Management and Independence Scale). Scale reliabilities ranged from 0.70 to 0.88. These participants, though hopeful and positive in their attitudes toward myelomeningocele and generally able to perform activities of daily living independently, are not engaging in the full range of adolescent activities (decision making, friendship activities, and household responsibilities) and achieving positive outcomes (self-management and job) necessary to make a successful transition to adulthood. This might explain why so many individuals with myelomeningocele are underemployed and are not living independently as young adults.

  20. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (P<0·0001). In total, 12-year-old girls compared with boys had reduced odds of takeaway foods once per week or more at the age of 17 years (P=0·01), multivariable-adjusted OR 0·63 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·90). In total, 12-year-old children who ate takeaway foods once per week or more had significantly lower mean fruit (220·3 v. 253·0 g/d; P=0·03) and vegetable consumption (213·2 v. 247·7 g/d; P=0·004), 5 years later (at 17 years of age). Frequent takeaway food consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables.

  1. Differentiating Adolescent Self-Injury from Adolescent Depression: Possible Implications for Borderline Personality Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Sheila E.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Hsiao, Ray C.; Vasilev, Christina A.; Yaptangco, Mona; Linehan, Marsha M.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Self-inflicted injury (SII) in adolescence marks heightened risk for suicide attempts, completed suicide, and adult psychopathology. Although several studies have revealed elevated rates of depression among adolescents who self injure, no one has compared adolescent self injury with adolescent depression on biological, self-, and informant-report…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Communication and Its Relationship to Adolescent Depression and Suicide Proneness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Cathie

    1988-01-01

    Adolescents (N=53) and both parents completed Parent-Adolescent Communication Inventory (PACI) and Suicide-Depression Inventory (SDI). Found significant relationships between mother's and adolescent's scores, not between father's and adolescent's scores. When other independent variables were controlled, neither parents' scores were significantly…

  3. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  4. The Family Affluence Scale as a Measure of National Wealth: Validation of an Adolescent Self-Report Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, William; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Currie, Candace; Zambon, Alessio

    2006-01-01

    One explanation for a lack of consistency in SES-health associations in youth is that parent-based income and occupation measures are inadequate. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS), a four-item measure of family wealth, has been developed in the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study as an alternative measure. The aim of this paper is to…

  5. Associations among Overt and Relational Victimization and Adolescents' Satisfaction with Friends: The Moderating Role of the Need for Affective Relationships with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gini, Gianluca

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the relationships among overt and relational victimization and adolescents' satisfaction with friends. We also tested the influence of the need for affective relationships with friends. A total of 409 Italian adolescent boys and girls (age range = 14-16, M = 15.02 years, SD = 2.58) completed a self-report measure of…

  6. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  7. Is News Media Related to Civic Engagement? The Effects of Interest in and Discussions about the News Media on Current and Future Civic Engagement of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erentaite, Rasa; Zukauskiene, Rita; Beyers, Wim; Pilkauskaite-Valickiene, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether discussions about the media, when positively linked to interest in the news media, were related to adolescents' current and future civic engagement. A sample of 2638 adolescents (age M = 17, SD = 1.2), who participated in a school-based study on positive socialization, completed self-report measures on interest in the…

  8. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  9. A Canonical Correlation Analysis of the Influence of Social Comparison, Gender, and Grade Level on the Multidimensional Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Jamieson, Kelly M.; Gross, Candace M.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of social comparison, gender, and grade level on gifted adolescents' multidimensional self-concept. Participants include 248 gifted adolescents who had completed the sixth through tenth grade during the previous academic year. Multidimensional self-concept was measured using the Self Description Questionnaire II…

  10. Correspondence between theoretical models and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of femoral cross-sectional growth during adolescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meulen, M. C.; Marcus, R.; Bachrach, L. K.; Carter, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed an analytical model of long bone cross-sectional ontogeny in which appositional growth of the diaphysis is primarily driven by mechanical stimuli associated with increasing body mass during growth and development. In this study, our goal was to compare theoretical predictions of femoral diaphyseal structure from this model with measurements of femoral bone mineral and geometry by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Measurements of mid-diaphyseal femoral geometry and structure were made previously in 101 Caucasian adolescents and young adults 9-26 years of age. The data on measured bone mineral content and calculated section modulus were compared with the results of our analytical model of cross-sectional development of the human femur over the same age range. Both bone mineral content and section modulus showed good correspondence with experimental measurements when the relationships with age and body mass were examined. Strong linear relationships were evident for both parameters when examined as a function of body mass.

  11. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

  12. How to measure a complete set of polarization-dependent differential cross sections in a scattering experiment with aligned reagents?

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyan; Lin, Jui-San; Liu, Kopin

    2014-02-28

    Polarization-dependent differential cross section (PDDCS) is one of the three-vector correlations (k, k('), j) in molecular collisions, which provides the most detailed insights into the steric requirements of chemical reactions, i.e., how the reactivity depends on the polarization of reagents. Only quite recently has such quantity been fully realized experimentally in the study of the reaction of the aligned CHD3(v1 = 1, |jK⟩ = |10⟩) molecules with Cl((2)P3/2) atoms. Theoretically, PDDCS is a relatively new concept; experimental realization of the theoretical construct requires some careful considerations that are not readily available in the literature. Here, we present the "know-how" behind the full PDDCS measurements to fill the gaps and to provide a clear roadmap for future applications. To make the connection apparent between the methodology presented here and the stereodynamics revealed in previous reports, the same Cl + aligned CHD3 reaction is used for illustration.

  13. A Test of the Integration of the Hopelessness and Response Styles Theories of Depression in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abela, John R. Z.; Parkinson, Carolyn; Stolow, Darren; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined several theories of depression in a sample of middle adolescents. At Time 1, 367 ninth graders completed measures assessing depressogenic inferential styles, the tendency to ruminate in response to depressed mood, and depressive symptoms. Six weeks later, participants completed measures assessing negative events and…

  14. Physical activity as a preventive measure against overweight, obesity, infections, allergies and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: AFINOS Study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies addressing the impacts of regular physical activity or sedentary habits on the immune system have been conducted in adults and laboratory settings. Thus, it is practically unknown how a healthy active lifestyle could affect low-grade inflammation processes, infections or allergies in young persons. The AFINOS Study was designed to determine the relationship between the regular physical activity levels of adolescents and overweight, infection, and allergies along with the presence of metabolic and immunological biomarkers of a deteriorated health status. A further objective of the AFINOS Study is to assess the health status and lifestyle habits of an adolescent population in an effort to identify any protective factors that could be used as preventive measures, since many chronic diseases and their associated co-morbidities often persist from adolescence into adulthood. Methods/Design This study was conducted as three separate sub-studies in three different populations as follows: (a) Study 1 was performed on a population sample of adolescents; (b) Study 2 on the adolescents' parents; and (c) Study 3 on a subset of the adolescents from Study 1. Study 1 assessed health and lifestyle indicators through a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of adolescents from the Madrid Region (n = 2400) aged 13 to 16 years. In Study 2, the parents of the teenagers participating in Study 1 were required to fill out a questionnaire. Finally in Study 3, body composition, physical activity, health-related physical fitness, and blood measurements were determined in a subset (n = 200) of the individuals included in Study 1. Discussion This paper describes the rationale, design, and methodologies used in the AFINOS Study. This multidisciplinary, multicenter study seeks to evaluate several aspects of existing relationships between routine physical activity/sedentary behaviour and several health status markers, specifically those related to the

  15. The Multidimensionality of Prosocial Behaviors and Evidence of Measurement Equivalence in Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to examine distinct forms of prosocial behaviors and to conduct research on prosocial behaviors among ethnic minorities. Middle school students (mean age = 12.67 years; 54% girls; European American, n = 290; Mexican American, n = 152) completed a multidimensional measure of prosocial behavior and measures…

  16. Adolescents' Conflict Management Styles with Mothers: Longitudinal Associations with Parenting and Reactance.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Van Petegem, Stijn

    2017-01-18

    Adolescents' conflict management styles with parents are assumed to have an important impact on the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship and on adolescents' psychosocial development. Longitudinal research investigating possible determinants of these conflict management skills is scarce. The parenting context and adolescents' tendency to reject maternal authority are expected to shape adolescents' conflict management styles. Therefore, the present three-wave longitudinal study focuses on how parenting and adolescents' reactance relates to adolescents' conflict management styles and conflict frequency with mothers over time, and whether reactance may also explain the associations between parenting and certain conflict variables. We addressed these research questions by using a hybrid cross-lagged panel model with parenting as a latent variable (i.e., supportive parenting) and the other variables as manifest variables. Supportive parenting was measured by four well-known parenting dimensions: autonomy support, responsiveness, psychological control, and harsh control. Four conflict styles were investigated: positive problem solving, withdrawal, conflict engagement, and compliance. Questionnaires were completed by 812 adolescents at three annual waves (52% girls at Time 1). Supportive parenting was associated with fewer conflicts, more positive problem solving, and less compliance and reactance over time. Reactance was associated with more conflicts, conflict engagement and withdrawal, and less compliance. We did not find evidence for the mediating role of reactance in the over-time associations between parenting and adolescents' conflict management and frequency. Both parenting and reactance appeared important and unique determinants for adolescents' conflict management styles and frequency.

  17. Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Kamiyango, William; Slone, Jeremy S.; Villiera, Jimmy; Kovarik, Carrie L.; Cox, Carrie M.; Dittmer, Dirk P.; Ahmed, Saeed; Schutze, Gordon E.; Scheurer, Michael E.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Mehta, Parth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Median age was 8.6 years (range 1.7–17.9); there were 35 females (50%). Most common sites of presentation were: lymph node (74%), skin (59%), subcutaneous nodules (33%), oral (27%), woody edema (24%), and visceral (16%). Eighteen (26%) presented with lymphadenopathy only. Severe CD4 suppression occurred in 28%. At time of KS diagnosis, 49% were already on HAART. Overall, 28% presented with a platelet count < 100 x 109/L and 37% with hemoglobin < 8 g/dL. The 2-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% and 58% respectively (median follow-up 29 months, range 15–50). Multivariable analysis of risk of death and failure to achieve EFS demonstrated that visceral disease (odds ratios [OR] 19.08 and 11.61, 95% CI 2.22–163.90 and 1.60–83.95 respectively) and presenting with more than 20 skin/oral lesions (OR 9.57 and 22.90, 95% CI 1.01–90.99 and 1.00–524.13 respectively) were independent risk factors for both. Woody edema was associated with failure to achieve EFS (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.84–33.08) but not death. Univariable analysis revealed that lymph node involvement was favorable for EFS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08–0.99), while T1 TIS staging criteria, presence of cytopenias, and severe immune suppression were not associated with increased mortality. Long-term complete remission is achievable in pediatric KS, however outcomes vary according to clinical presentation. Based on clinical heterogeneity, treatment according

  18. Clinical Factors Associated with Long-Term Complete Remission versus Poor Response to Chemotherapy in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents with Kaposi Sarcoma Receiving Bleomycin and Vincristine: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    El-Mallawany, Nader Kim; Kamiyango, William; Slone, Jeremy S; Villiera, Jimmy; Kovarik, Carrie L; Cox, Carrie M; Dittmer, Dirk P; Ahmed, Saeed; Schutze, Gordon E; Scheurer, Michael E; Kazembe, Peter N; Mehta, Parth S

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common HIV-associated malignancy in children and adolescents in Africa. Pediatric KS is distinct from adult disease. We evaluated the clinical characteristics associated with long-term outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of 70 HIV-infected children and adolescents with KS less than 18 years of age diagnosed between 8/2010 and 6/2013 in Lilongwe, Malawi. Local first-line treatment included bleomycin and vincristine plus nevirapine-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Median age was 8.6 years (range 1.7-17.9); there were 35 females (50%). Most common sites of presentation were: lymph node (74%), skin (59%), subcutaneous nodules (33%), oral (27%), woody edema (24%), and visceral (16%). Eighteen (26%) presented with lymphadenopathy only. Severe CD4 suppression occurred in 28%. At time of KS diagnosis, 49% were already on HAART. Overall, 28% presented with a platelet count < 100 x 109/L and 37% with hemoglobin < 8 g/dL. The 2-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% and 58% respectively (median follow-up 29 months, range 15-50). Multivariable analysis of risk of death and failure to achieve EFS demonstrated that visceral disease (odds ratios [OR] 19.08 and 11.61, 95% CI 2.22-163.90 and 1.60-83.95 respectively) and presenting with more than 20 skin/oral lesions (OR 9.57 and 22.90, 95% CI 1.01-90.99 and 1.00-524.13 respectively) were independent risk factors for both. Woody edema was associated with failure to achieve EFS (OR 7.80, 95% CI 1.84-33.08) but not death. Univariable analysis revealed that lymph node involvement was favorable for EFS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08-0.99), while T1 TIS staging criteria, presence of cytopenias, and severe immune suppression were not associated with increased mortality. Long-term complete remission is achievable in pediatric KS, however outcomes vary according to clinical presentation. Based on clinical heterogeneity, treatment according to risk

  19. How to measure a complete set of polarization-dependent differential cross sections in a scattering experiment with aligned reagents?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fengyan E-mail: kliu@po.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lin, Jui-San; Liu, Kopin E-mail: kliu@po.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-02-28

    Polarization-dependent differential cross section (PDDCS) is one of the three-vector correlations (k, k{sup ′}, j) in molecular collisions, which provides the most detailed insights into the steric requirements of chemical reactions, i.e., how the reactivity depends on the polarization of reagents. Only quite recently has such quantity been fully realized experimentally in the study of the reaction of the aligned CHD{sub 3}(v{sub 1} = 1, |jK〉 = |10〉) molecules with Cl({sup 2}P{sub 3/2}) atoms. Theoretically, PDDCS is a relatively new concept; experimental realization of the theoretical construct requires some careful considerations that are not readily available in the literature. Here, we present the “know-how” behind the full PDDCS measurements to fill the gaps and to provide a clear roadmap for future applications. To make the connection apparent between the methodology presented here and the stereodynamics revealed in previous reports, the same Cl + aligned CHD{sub 3} reaction is used for illustration.

  20. Measuring Adolescent Life Satisfaction: Psychometric Properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in a Sample of Italian Adolescents and Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure and the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) in a sample of 1,515 Italian (females = 60.26%, males = 39.74%) adolescents and young adults (M[subscript age] = 17.6 years, SD = 1.21). Results confirmed the unidimensionality, good reliability, and concurrent validity of the…

  1. A New Measure to Assess Linguistic Self-Esteem in Adolescent Latino Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak

    2011-01-01

    Present conceptualizations and measures of self-esteem do not account for linguistic self-esteem, an aspect of the self specifically relevant for bilingual students. This study examines the utility of a newly developed measure of linguistic self-esteem. This novel measure is compared with a commonly used self-esteem measure, two standardized…

  2. A Longitudinal Test of the Parent-Adolescent Family Functioning Discrepancy Hypothesis: A Trend toward Increased HIV Risk Behaviors Among Immigrant Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Córdova, David; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Meca, Alan; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Oshri, Assaf; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Romero, Andrea J

    2016-10-01

    Parent-adolescent discrepancies in family functioning play an important role in HIV risk behaviors among adolescents, yet longitudinal research with recent immigrant Hispanic families remains limited. This study tested the effects of trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies on HIV risk behaviors among recent-immigrant Hispanic adolescents. Additionally, we examined whether and to what extent trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning discrepancies vary as a function of gender. We assessed family functioning of 302 Hispanic adolescents (47 % female) and their parent (70 % female) at six time points over a three-year period and computed latent discrepancy scores between parent and adolescent reports at each timepoint. Additionally, adolescents completed measures of sexual risk behaviors and alcohol use. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis to determine the feasibility of collapsing parent and adolescent reported family functioning indicators onto a single latent discrepancy variable, tested model invariance over time, and conducted growth mixture modeling (GMM). GMM yielded a three-class solution for discrepancies: High-Increasing, High-Stable, and Low-Stable. Relative to the Low-Stable class, parent-adolescent dyads in the High-Increasing and High-Stable classes were at greater risk for adolescents reporting sexual debut at time 6. Additionally, the High-Stable class was at greater risk, relative to the Low-Stable class, in terms of adolescent lifetime alcohol use at 30 months post-baseline. Multiple group GMM indicated that trajectories of parent-adolescent family functioning trajectories did not vary by gender. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.

  3. SATURN’S G AND D RINGS PROVIDE NEARLY COMPLETE MEASURED SCATTERING PHASE FUNCTIONS OF NEARBY DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, Matthew M.; Stark, Christopher C. E-mail: cstark@stsci.edu

    2015-09-20

    The appearance of debris disks around distant stars depends upon the scattering/phase function (SPF) of the material in the disk. However, characterizing the SPFs of these extrasolar debris disks is challenging because only a limited range of scattering angles are visible to Earth-based observers. By contrast, Saturn’s tenuous rings can be observed over a much broader range of geometries, so their SPFs can be much better constrained. Since these rings are composed of small particles released from the surfaces of larger bodies, they are reasonable analogs to debris disks and so their SPFs can provide insights into the plausible scattering properties of debris disks. This work examines two of Saturn’s dusty rings: the G ring (at 167,500 km from Saturn’s center) and the D68 ringlet (at 67,600 km). Using data from the cameras on board the Cassini spacecraft, we are able to estimate the rings’ brightnesses at scattering angles ranging from 170° to 0.°5. We find that both of the rings exhibit extremely strong forward-scattering peaks, but for scattering angles above 60° their brightnesses are nearly constant. These SPFs can be well approximated by a linear combination of three Henyey–Greenstein functions, and are roughly consistent with the SPFs of irregular particles from laboratory measurements. Comparing these data to Fraunhofer and Mie models highlights several challenges involved in extracting information about particle compositions and size distributions from SPFs alone. The SPFs of these rings also indicate that the degree of forward scattering in debris disks may be greatly underestimated.

  4. The cutoff values of indirect indices for measuring insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Sang Hoo; Kim, Yoojin; Im, Minji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR) among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups. Methods Data from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10–18 years) were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007–2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used. Indirect measures of IR were homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index. The cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were obtained from the receiver operation characteristic curves. Results According to the MetS criteria of de Ferranti el al., Cook et al., and the International Diabetes Federation, the prevalence rates in males and females were 13.9% and 12.3%, 4.6% and 3.6%, and 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. Uses these 3 criteria, the cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were 2.94 and 8.41, 3.29 and 8.38, and 3.54 and 8.66, respectively. The cutoff values using each of the 3 criteria approximately corresponds to the 50th–75th, 75th, and 75th–90th percentiles of normal HOMA-IR and TyG index levels. Conclusion This study describes the prevalence rates of MetS in Korean children and adolescents, an index of IR, and the cutoff values for MetS with the aim of detecting high-risk groups. The usefulness of these criteria needs to be verified by further evaluation. PMID:27777906

  5. Expressive Writing Intervention for Adolescents' Somatic Symptoms and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliday, Elizabeth; Garofalo, John P.; Rogers, Debra

    2004-01-01

    The effects of a widely used expressive writing intervention on adolescents' somatic symptoms, distress, and positive psychological functioning were evaluated. Eighth-grade (n = 106) students were randomly assigned to write about either an emotional or a neutral topic for 3 consecutive days. Students completed measures of somatic symptoms, medical…

  6. Romantic Experience and Psychosocial Adjustment in Middle Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Wyndol; Low, Sabina; Ho, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent and longitudinal relations between the amount of romantic experience and psychosocial adjustment were examined in a 1-year study of a community based sample of 200 tenth graders. Adolescents, parents, and friends completed measures of psychosocial adjustment. The amount of romantic experience was associated with higher reports of social…

  7. Close Relationships and Attributions for Peer Victimization among Late Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xiaochen; Graham, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of close relationships (best friendship and romantic relationship) on late adolescents' casual attributions for peer victimization. A total of 1106 twelfth grade students completed self-report measures of perceived peer victimization, self-blame attribution, psychological maladjustment (loneliness and social…

  8. Personality and Temperament Correlates of Pain Catastrophizing in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; van den Hout, Anja; Wessels, Sylvia; Franken, Ingmar; Rassin, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Pain catastrophizing is generally viewed as an important cognitive factor underlying chronic pain. The present study examined personality and temperament correlates of pain catastrophizing in a sample of young adolescents (N = 132). Participants completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children, as well as scales for measuring sensitivity of…

  9. Social Anxiety and Onset of Drinking in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Cummins, Kevin M.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines several types of social anxiety that may be associated with the onset of alcohol use in middle school students, and whether the relationship differs by sex and grade. Students in the seventh and eighth grades (N = 2,621) completed the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a measure of lifetime drinking via schoolwide…

  10. Fractals, Vigilance, and Adolescent Diabetes Management: A Case for When Regulation May Be Difficult to Measure With the Current Medical Standards.

    PubMed

    Butner, Jonathan; Story, T Nathan; Berg, Cynthia A; Wiebe, Deborah J

    2011-02-07

    Temporal patterning in blood glucose (BG) consistent with fractals-how BG follows a repetitive pattern through resolutions of time-was used to examine 2 different samples of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (10-14 years). Sample 1 contained 10 adolescents with longtime series for accurate estimations of long-term dependencies associated with fractals. The second contained 94 adolescents measured multiple times daily over a 2-week period corresponding to psychosocial measures. In both samples, temporal dependencies in BG showed patterns consistent with fractals. In the second sample, temporal dependencies were associated with indicators of vigilant regulation including adolescents' higher anxiety, mothers' higher monitoring, and intrusive support. The existence of temporal dependencies in BG moderated the relationship between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and indicators of low BG risk but not the relationship between HbA1c and high BG risk. These results show how a biomedical indicator may be susceptible to metric issues associated with fractals.

  11. Validity of the Draw-A-Person and Bender Gestalt Tests as Measures of Impulsivity with Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oas, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Designated 100 psychiatrically hospitalized and 114 nonhospitalized adolescents as impulsive or nonimpulsive and compared them to determine the validity of signs of impulsivity on the Draw-A-Person and Bender Gestalt tests. Signs of impulsivity and nonimpulsivity on these tests discriminated between impulsive and nonimpulsive adolescents with…

  12. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  13. Comparison of Health-Related Measures of Two Groups of Adolescents in a Rural Southeastern County in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Charles D.; Hensarling, Robert W.; Angel, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline values on physiological parameters for 7-11 graders (n = 146) in a rural area of Alabama and to examine whether differences existed among the adolescents in the county. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Many adolescents in the southern portion of the United States suffer disproportionately…

  14. Measuring Social Support from Mother Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of…

  15. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  16. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid-fluid and fluid-substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  17. Nicotine dependence measures among adolescents with psychiatric disorders: evaluating symptom expression as a function of dependence severity.

    PubMed

    Strong, David R; Brown, Richard A; Ramsey, Susan E; Myers, Mark G

    2003-10-01

    Using methods based in item response theory, we examined a structured interview assessment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) nicotine dependence and the Modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ) symptoms to explore the expression of particular symptoms as a function of level of nicotine involvement in a sample of 191 adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Despite our attempts to capture a broad range of smokers, 64% of teens were daily smokers and 68% met DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence. This paper describes the relative severity of DSM-IV and mFTQ items, as well as each item's ability to discriminate among individuals at various levels of nicotine involvement. Comparisons across measures revealed that the mFTQ was not particularly sensitive to individual variation in DSM-IV symptom counts, suggesting the physiological components were not strongly related to the predominantly cognitive and behavioral components of the DSM-IV nicotine dependence syndrome. However, the mFTQ relative to the DSM-IV consistently showed stronger relationships to the immediate consequences of nicotine deprivation (urge, craving), supporting the conceptualization of the mFTQ as measuring nicotine exposure. These analyses provide us with some preliminary understanding of the severity of particular symptoms and the order in which symptoms are likely to be expressed across levels of nicotine dependence.

  18. The roles of sex, gender, and coping in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory, as well as a measure of coping with general stressors was completed by 246 adolescents. Results showed that adolescent girls were more depressed than boys, and that girls used more emotion-focused and ruminative coping than did boys. Greater degrees of ruminative coping were related to high levels of depressive symptoms. Problem-focused and distractive coping were positively correlated with masculinity and negatively associated with depression. Surprisingly, girls were more likely to use problem-focused coping. Problem-focused and distractive coping were found to mediate the negative relationship between masculinity and depression.

  19. [Adolescent brain maturation].

    PubMed

    Holzer, L; Halfon, O; Thoua, V

    2011-05-01

    Recent progress in neuroscience has yielded major findings regarding brain maturation during adolescence. Unlike the body, which reaches adult size and morphology during this period, the adolescent brain is still maturing. The prefrontal cortex appears to be an important locus of maturational change subserving executive functions that may regulate emotional and motivational issues. The recent expansion of the adolescent period has increased the lag between the onset of emotional and motivational changes activated by puberty and the completion of cognitive development-the maturation of self-regulatory capacities and skills that are continuing to develop long after puberty has occurred. This "disconnect" predicts risk for a broad set of behavioral and emotional problems. Adolescence is a critical period for high-level cognitive functions such as socialization that rely on maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Intervention during the period of adolescent brain development provides opportunities and requires an interdisciplinary approach.

  20. The Relational Self-Concept Scale: A Context-Specific Self-Report Measure for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, Gareth R.; Bellin, Wynford

    2001-01-01

    Describes an alternative approach to measuring the self that directly accounts for the way individuals ruminate on their external actions in order to inform and maintain their self-image. Analysis of responses to this measure confirmed that the scale is multidimensional, possesses appropriate properties, and contains a high degree of ecological…

  1. Assessment of Parental and Adolescent Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Rhydonia H.; And Others

    Verbal interactions between adolescents and their parents may affect adolescents' self-esteem and self-concept. The current development of an instrument, the Verbal Interaction Questionnaire (VIQ), was designed to measure adolescents' perceptions of their parents verbal interactions with them. Noting that the relationship between adolescents'…

  2. Self-reporting and measurement of body mass index in adolescents: refusals and validity, and the possible role of socioeconomic and health-related factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index assessment using self-reported height and weight (BMIsr) can encounter refusals and under/over-reporting while for assessment with measured data (BMIm) refusals can be more frequent. This could relate to socioeconomic and health-related factors. We explored these issues by investigating numerous potential factors: gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, income, physical/sports activity, subjective weight perception, school performance, unhealthy behaviours, physical/psychological health, social relationships, living environment, having sustained violence, sexual abuse, and involvement in violence. Methods The sample included 1559 adolescents from middle schools in north-eastern France. They completed a questionnaire including socioeconomic and health-related data, self-reported height/weight, measured height/weight, and weight perception (participation rate 94%). Data were analysed using logistic regression models. Results BMIsr encountered under-reporting (with change in BMI category, 11.8%), over-reporting (6.0%), and reporting refusals (3.6%). BMIm encountered more numerous refusals (7.9%). Reporting refusal was related to living with a single parent, low school performance, lack of physical/sports activity, sustained violence, poor psychological health, and poor social relationships (gender/age-adjusted odds ratios 1.95 to 2.91). Further to these factors, measurement refusal was related to older age, having divorced/separated parents, a father being a manual worker/inactive, insufficient family income, tobacco/cannabis use, involvement in violence, poor physical health, and poor living environment (1.30 to 3.68). Under-reporting was related to male gender, involvement in violence, poor psychological health, and overweight/obesity (as assessed with BMIm) (1.52 to 11). Over-reporting was related to male gender, younger age, alcohol consumption, and underweight (1.30 to 5.35). Weight perception was linked to reporting

  3. Associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content and bone mineral density in female adolescent weightlifters and swimmers.

    PubMed

    Koşar, Şükran Nazan

    2016-01-01

    Body composition and sport participation have been associated with bone mass. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of lean and fat mass measures with whole body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in female adolescent weightlifters, swimmers and non-athletic counterparts. This study included a total of 25 female adolescents (mean age: 15.3±1.1 years). Body composition and bone mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In most of the studied variables weight lifters had higher values compared to swimmers and non-athletes (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed between swimmers and non-athletes (p > 0.05). Lean and fat mass measures were positively associated with BMC and BMD for the total participants (p < 0.05) while the associations differed when the study groups were analysed separately. In conclusion, both lean and fat mass measures were strongly related to BMC and BMD in female adolescents while these associations differed in swimmers, weightlifters and non-athletes.

  4. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  5. Relation between aggression exposure in adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress symptoms: Moderating role of the parasympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Barry, Samantha A; Rabkin, Ari N; Olezeski, Christy L; Rivers, Alison J; Gordis, Elana B

    2015-03-15

    The present study examines the impact of the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), as measured by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), on the link between family aggression experienced during adolescence and posttraumatic stress symptoms during young adulthood. Participants completed retrospective self-report measures of interparental aggression and harsh parenting exposure during adolescence and measures of current posttraumatic stress symptoms. RSA indexed PNS activity. Among females, the three-way interaction between harsh parenting, interparental aggression, and resting RSA was significant in accounting for young adulthood PTSD symptoms. At higher values of resting RSA and higher levels of interparental aggression exposure, harsh parenting experienced during adolescence was positively associated with adulthood PTSD symptoms. Among males, adolescent aggression exposure and resting RSA did not significantly account for variation in adulthood PTSD symptoms. Thus, this study suggests that resting PNS activity may play an important role in the relationship between stressors during adolescence and later PTSD in females.

  6. The principles of the complete measurement of an off-centred elementary magnet on a spinner magnetometer with a coil sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márton, Péter

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present treatise is to show that, albeit a precise measurement of a magnetically inhomogeneous sample may not be obtained on a traditional spinner magnetometer, it is still possible to get one on a modified spinner provided that magnetic inhomogeneity can be correctly modelled by an elementary magnet of moment m which is offset (l) relative to the geometrical centre of the sample. Following the deduction of the equations of the response of the pick-up coils to such a magnet rotated within the coils (forward problem), a proposal is presented as to how to modify the pick-up unit in order to make the magnetometer adaptable to the complete measurement of both magnetic moment (m) and eccentricity (l) (inverse problem). The proposed modification, pick-up coils that can be set both vertically as well as about the vertical axis, makes it theoretically possible first to measure |l|, then to eliminate the effect of it from the response of the pick-up coils leaving a record from which m can be extracted unequivocally. In practical realisation, the measurements will have to be carried out with the pick-up unit tuned in resonance with the frequency of the sample rotation, and optionally with the treble of it if it is deemed necessary for checking or improving upon the precision of measurement.

  7. Line parameters measurements and modeling for the ν6 band of CH3F: Generation of a complete line list for atmospheric databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemart, D.; Guinet, M.

    2016-12-01

    The 8.5 μm-spectral region of methyl fluoride was studied in terms of line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients at room temperature. A multispectrum fitting was used to retrieve from 7 high-resolution Fourier transform spectra line parameters for 787 transitions belonging to the ν6 band between 1078 and 1240 cm-1. The accuracy of line intensities and widths measurements were estimated to be around 5% and 5-10% respectively. J- and K-rotational dependences of the transition dipole moment squared and the self-broadening coefficients were observed and modeled from the measurements. A complete line list of almost 1500 transitions was generated for atmospheric or industrial detection of CH3F. Comparisons with previous studies from the literature were also performed.

  8. Representations of Self and Parents, and Relationship Themes, in Adolescents with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

    PubMed

    Shafran, Naama; Shahar, Golan; Berant, Ety; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva

    2016-07-01

    Negative perceptions of self and others have lately become one of the criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults and adolescents. Drawing from theories of mental representations in psychopathology, this study examined self-reported negative cognitions, self and parental representations, and relationship themes among adolescents with and without PTSD. Thirty one adolescents with PTSD (11 boys, mean age = 14.06, SD = 2.24) were matched with 29 adolescents who had no psychiatric diagnosis (11 boys, mean age = 14.96, SD = 1.78). Adolescents completed self-report measures, wrote a description of self, mother and father, and were interviewed about positive and negative relationship episodes with mother, father, and peers. Adolescents with PTSD reported more self-criticism and performance evaluation than did controls. Their self-representation exhibited a lower sense of agency, which was related to structural variables (i.e., less integrative description). Although parental representations of adolescents with PTSD were not generally less benevolent or more punitive than those of controls, their relationship themes revealed a higher proportion of the wish to be distant from others. Adolescents with PTSD exhibited more passive responses and perceived more dominant or controlling responses from their parents. Findings point out to a serious impairment in representations of self and relationship patterns in adolescent PTSD.

  9. Dutch adolescents from lesbian-parent families: how do they compare to peers with heterosexual parents and what is the impact of homophobic stigmatization?

    PubMed

    van Rijn-van Gelderen, Loes; Bos, Henny M W; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we compared internalizing and externalizing problem behavior of 67 Dutch adolescents (M(age) = 16.04) in planned lesbian families who were matched with 67 adolescents in heterosexual-parent families. We also examined whether homophobic stigmatization was associated with problem behavior in adolescents with lesbian mothers after taking into account demographic characteristics, mothers' scores on emotional involvement, and adolescents' earlier problem behavior (measured at age 4-8 years old). Standardized instruments measuring problem behavior were completed by parents and adolescent offspring, and questions about stigmatization were answered by adolescents with lesbian mothers. The results revealed no differences in internalizing and externalizing problem behavior associated with family type. Offspring in lesbian families who reported more experiences of homophobic stigmatization also demonstrated more internalizing and externalizing problem behavior.

  10. An evaluation of the applicability of the tripartite constructs to social anxiety in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily R; Veed, Glen J; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M; Hansen, David J

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the tripartite model of anxiety and depression in relation to social phobia in a nonclinical sample of adolescents (ages 13-17). Adolescent/parent dyads participated in a semistructured interview and completed self-report measures of the tripartite constructs and social anxiety. Adolescents gave an impromptu speech, and heart rate was monitored. Low positive affect, high negative affect, and high physiological hyperarousal were characteristic of adolescents diagnosed with social phobia; adolescents with elevated social anxiety symptoms who did not meet criteria for social phobia did not evidence low positive affect. Heart rate reactivity during the speech was not significantly correlated with social anxiety symptomatology or with self-reported physiological hyperarousal.

  11. Cyber victimization by peers: Prospective associations with adolescent social anxiety and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M

    2015-07-01

    Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression.

  12. Improvement in Functioning and Psychological Distress in Adolescents With Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Following Interdisciplinary Treatment.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Barbara K; Harrison, Tracy E; Bee, Susan M; Luedtke, Connie A; Porter, Co-Burn J; Fischer, Philip R; Hayes, Sarah E; Allman, Daniel A; Ale, Chelsea M; Weiss, Karen E

    2016-03-15

    Significant functional impairment and psychological distress have been observed in adolescent patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). Interdisciplinary rehabilitation programs have been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of chronic pain in adults and adolescents. Only preliminary data have examined interdisciplinary rehabilitation efforts in patients with POTS. This study evaluated the impact of an interdisciplinary rehabilitation program on the functional impairment and psychological distress in 33 adolescents diagnosed with POTS. Patients included in the study were adolescents ages 11 to 18 diagnosed with POTS. Measures completed at admission and discharge from the program included the Functional Disability Index, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression-Child scale, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale for Children. After participation in the 3-week program, adolescents with POTS demonstrated a significant increase in overall functional ability and significant reductions in depression and catastrophizing.

  13. Measuring Perceived Teacher Support and Its Influence on Adolescent Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metheny, Jennifer; McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; O'Neil, Maya Elin

    2008-01-01

    This article examines available measures of perceived teacher support and presents findings from two studies exploring the psychometric properties of the Teacher Support Scale (TSS). In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis suggested a hierarchical structure with four first-order factors (Invested, Positive Regard, Expectations, and Accessible…

  14. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  15. Comparative Data on Child and Adolescent Cognitive Measures Associated with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Rick E.; Nelson, Tyler; Steidtmann, Dana K.; Bistricky, Steven L.

    2007-01-01

    As a way to better understand the effects of treatment for depression, comparative data on measures of cognition have been compiled previously for adults. Such data should be able to aid the evaluation of cognition and cognitive change, and may provide valuable information for clinicians and researchers alike. In this article, analogous…

  16. Measuring Physical Status and Timing in Early Adolescence: A Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, J.; Warren, Michelle P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the maturational events that are applicable in studying psychological effects of pubertal status and timing. Nine changes are reviewed (bone, height, weight, body fat, breast, body hair, penile, testicular, and menarcheal changes) in terms of measurement techniques, psychometric properties, and intercorrelations with…

  17. Validation of Goal Orientation Measure in PALS among Latino Adolescents Participating in a College Outreach Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinthapol, Nida; Duran, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The study will incorporate psychometric methods to examine the validity and reliability of the GO (goal orientation) measure which called PALS (pattern of adaptive learning survey) among immigrant youth. Previous research has not focused on the reliability and validity of the PALS for using with Latino students. Internal consistency reliability…

  18. Delineating Personality Traits in Childhood and Adolescence: Associations across Measures, Temperament, and Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Kushner, Shauna C.; De Fruyt, Filip; Mervielde, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The current investigation addressed several questions in the burgeoning area of child personality assessment. Specifically, the present study examined overlapping and nonoverlapping variance in two prominent measures of child personality assessment, followed by tests of convergent and divergent validity with child temperament and psychopathology.…

  19. Measuring Gratitude in Youth: Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Adult Gratitude Scales in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J.; Fan, Jinyan; Emmons, Robert A.; Bono, Giacomo; Huebner, E. Scott; Watkins, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Before the developmental trajectory, outcomes, and related interventions of gratitude can be accurately and confidently studied among the youth, researchers must ensure that they have psychometrically sound measures of gratitude that are suitable for this population. Thus, considering that no known scales were specifically designed to measure…

  20. The Frequency and Quality of Measures Utilized in Federally-Sponsored Research on Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Mintz, Pamela Cope

    Every test intended for use in federally-funded research on children or youth during fiscal year 1975 was placed on a list. The list enentually comprised the titles of 1,570 instruments. The question pursued was whether there would be any realtionship between an instrument's quality and the frequenc with which it was used. For measures of quality…

  1. Text-Bullying among Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2007-01-01

    Increased availability of cell-phones has provided new avenues through which adolescents can bully their peers. Text-bullying is an emerging form of bullying which may threaten the emotional well-being of early adolescents. In this study 565 early adolescents (10-13 years old) completed questionnaires regarding their experiences with bullying…

  2. Adolescent Parent Relationships and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Joan M.; Repinski, Daniel J.

    This study examined associations between parent-child relationships and adolescents' academic performance. Adolescents in 7th and 10th grade completed self-report questionnaires assessing 6 features of parent-adolescent relationships: time spent together, number of activities, degree of influence, frequency of experiencing positive emotions,…

  3. Complete Makeover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 23, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    We finish our look at Mars's dynamic atmosphere with an image of the surface that has been completely modified by the wind. Even the small ridges that remain have been ground down to a cliff-face with a 'tail' of eroded material. The crosshatching shows that the wind regime has remained mainly E/W to ENE/WSW.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.9, Longitude 221 East (139 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  4. Effect of a Trampoline Exercise on the Anthropometric Measures and Motor Performance of Adolescent Students

    PubMed Central

    Aalizadeh, Bahman; Mohammadzadeh, Hassan; Khazani, Ali; Dadras, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical exercises can influence some anthropometric and fitness components differently. The aim of present study was to evaluate how a relatively long-term training program in 11-14-year-old male Iranian students affects their anthropometric and motor performance measures. Methods: Measurements were conducted on the anthropometric and fitness components of participants (n = 28) prior to and following the program. They trained 20 weeks, 1.5 h/session with 10 min rest, in 4 times trampoline training programs per week. Motor performance of all participants was assessed using standing long jump and vertical jump based on Eurofit Test Battery. Results: The analysis of variance (ANOVA) repeated measurement test showed a statistically significant main effect of time in calf girth P = 0.001, fat% P = 0.01, vertical jump P = 0.001, and long jump P = 0.001. The ANOVA repeated measurement test revealed a statistically significant main effect of group in fat% P = 0.001. Post hoc paired t-tests indicated statistical significant differences in trampoline group between the two measurements about calf girth (t = −4.35, P = 0.001), fat% (t = 5.87, P = 0.001), vertical jump (t = −5.53, P = 0.001), and long jump (t = −10.00, P = 0.001). Conclusions: We can conclude that 20-week trampoline training with four physical activity sessions/week in 11–14-year-old students seems to have a significant effect on body fat% reduction and effective results in terms of anaerobic physical fitness. Therefore, it is suggested that different training model approach such as trampoline exercises can help students to promote the level of health and motor performance. PMID:27512557

  5. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act quality measures initiatives: moving forward to improve measurement, care, and child and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Denise; Schiff, Jeffrey; Mangione-Smith, Rita

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, a publicly transparent evidence-informed process responded to the requirement of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) legislation to identify an initial core set of recommended children's health care quality measures for voluntary use by Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program, which together cover almost 40 million of America's children and adolescents. Future efforts under CHIPRA will be used to improve and strengthen the initial core set, develop new measures as needed, and post improved core measure sets annually beginning in January 2013. This supplement aims to make available useful information about issues surrounding the initial core set and key concepts for moving forward toward improvement of children's health care quality measures, children's health care quality, and children's health outcomes. The set of articles in this supplement includes a detailed description of how the identification of a balanced, grounded, and parsimonious core set of children's health care quality measures was accomplished by means of an open, public process combined with an evidence-informed evaluation methodology. Additional articles note that Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) officials put a high priority on children's health care quality and desire better measures; that publicly insured children are more likely than privately insured children to experience severe, complex chronic conditions and experience poorer quality in some respects; and that some key CHIPRA topics did not yet have valid, feasible measures (eg, availability of services, duration of enrollment and coverage, most integrated health care settings, and some aspects of family experiences of care). Key stakeholders and observers provide commentary noting the unprecedented scope and nature of the CHIPRA legislation as well as noting areas in which the nation still needs to move to improve health care quality, including its measurement

  6. Cultural Identity and Peer Influence as Predictors of Substance Use among Culturally Diverse Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazis, Nicki; Connor, Jason P.; Ho, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cultural identity and peer influence on tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use in a culturally diverse sample of Northern Australian adolescents. Middle school students (n = 274) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and measures of their own and perceived friends' substance use. Higher scores on the full…

  7. Self-Efficacy in Adolescents Who Have Siblings with or without Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Maureen O'Kane; Borkowski, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-four adolescents, either with or without a sibling with a disability, completed questionnaires measuring self-efficacy, peer competence, and maternal attitudes toward and modeling of prosocial and empathic behavior. None of the measures differed significantly between those whose siblings did or did not have disabilities. Process-oriented…

  8. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Drug-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Norms and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…

  9. Relationships between Family Connectedness and Body Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Carla; Kielpikowski, Magdalena; Jose, Paul; Pryor, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal links between perceptions of family connectedness and body satisfaction in 1,774 (52% female) adolescents. Participants (10-15 years of age at Time 1) completed self-report measures at three measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Mean group difference results showed that both body satisfaction…

  10. Anger expression in Swiss adolescents: establishing measurement invariance across gender in the AX scales.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, Daniel; Mascherek, Anna

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined measurement invariance in the three anger expression subscales of the STAXI (Spielberger, 1988) with respect to gender. In a sample of 576 male and 531 female students, strict measurement invariance was found. For all three anger expression factors, no differences in variances or factor correlations were found. A large negative relation between Anger-Out and Anger-Control emerged. Girls reported significantly lower levels in Anger-Out and Anger-Control than boys. Results suggest that the questionnaire functions the same way across gender. Also, boys and girls exhibited the same range of interindividual differences in anger expression. The negative relation between Anger-Out and Anger-Control suggests that high levels of Anger-Out might be an obstacle in controlling anger. Lower levels of Anger-Out and -Control in girls suggest that girls might need less control because they express anger less outwardly.

  11. Reward Dysregulation and Mood Symptoms in an Adolescent Outpatient Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, June; Gilbert, Kirsten E.; Youngstrom, Eric; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Research on bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) in adolescence has burgeoned in the last decade, but continued work is needed to identify endophenotypic markers associated with illness onset and course. The present study examined reward dysregulation – measured via the behavioral activation system (BAS) – as one putative marker of BPSD in adolescence. A diverse group of 425 outpatient adolescents between 11–17 years of age (52% male) completed the Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Scale (BIS-BAS) scale to measure reward dysregulation. Semi-structured interviews determined diagnoses and severity of mood symptoms. Parent-reported BAS was associated with increased symptoms of mania, and parent and adolescent-reported BAS were associated with symptoms of depression. Parent-reported BIS scores were associated with increased symptoms of mania. Results held independent of diagnostic status. Furthermore, parent BIS/BAS reports were stronger predictors for manic symptoms compared to adolescent-reports. Results extend work in adults with BPSD, suggesting a transdiagnostic association between reward dysregulation and mood symptom severity in adolescence. PMID:23783771

  12. Origins of Adolescents' Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Elaine; Jack, Fiona; White, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents (N = 46; M = 12.46 years) who had previously participated in a longitudinal study of autobiographical memory development narrated their early childhood memories, interpreted life events, and completed a family history questionnaire and language assessment. Three distinct components of adolescent memory emerged: (1) age of earliest…

  13. Insula tuning towards external eating versus interoceptive input in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    This study was aimed to examine if adolescent obesity is associated with alterations of insula function as indexed by differential correlations between insula activation and perception of interoceptive feedback versus external food cues. We hypothesized that, in healthy weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with interoceptive sensitivity, whereas in excess weight adolescents, insula activation will positively correlate with sensitivity towards external cues. Fifty-four adolescents (age range 12-18), classified in two groups as a function of BMI, excess weight (n = 22) and healthy weight (n = 32), performed the Risky-Gains task (sensitive to insula function) inside an fMRI scanner, and completed the heartbeat perception task (measuring interoceptive sensitivity) and the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (measuring external eating as well as emotional eating and restraint) outside the scanner. We found that insula activation during the Risky-Gains task positively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity and negatively correlated with external eating in healthy weight adolescents. Conversely, in excess weight adolescents, insula activation positively correlated with external eating and negatively correlated with interoceptive sensitivity, arguably reflecting obesity related neurocognitive adaptations. In excess weight adolescents, external eating was also positively associated with caudate nucleus activation, and restrained eating was negatively associated with insula activation. Our findings suggest that adolescent obesity is associated with disrupted tuning of the insula system towards interoceptive input.

  14. Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: Initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Cristofaro, Sarah L.; Cleary, Sean D.; Wan, Claire Ramsay; Broussard, Beth; Chapman, Colby; Haggard, Patrick J.; Jananeh, Sara; Myers, Neely L.; Compton, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbach’s =0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42–0.57, all p<0.001) and Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001). On the other hand, violence, death, and legal involvement scores were most highly correlated with Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001), and not with most CTQ-SF subscales. The TEC is a potentially useful tool in assessing diverse traumatic life events across various social contexts during childhood and adolescence. PMID:23850437

  15. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  16. Has Adolescent Suicidality Decreased in the United States? Data from Two National Samples of Adolescents Interviewed in 1995 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; McCart, Michael R.; Smith, Daniel W.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; de Arellano, Michael A.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared the prevalence and correlates of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts in two nationally representative probability samples of adolescents interviewed in 1995 (National Survey of Adolescents; N = 4,023) and 2005 (National Survey of Adolescents-Replication; N = 3,614). Participants in both samples completed a telephone survey that…

  17. Complete elastic characterization of viscoelastic materials by dynamic measurements of the complex bulk and Young's moduli as a function of temperature and hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, François M.; Trivett, D. H.

    2011-07-01

    Two independent systems to measure the dynamic complex Young's and bulk moduli of viscoelastic materials as a function of temperature and hydrostatic pressure are described. In the Young's modulus system, a bar-shaped sample is adhered to a piezoelectric shaker and mounted vertically inside an air-filled pressure vessel. Data are obtained using both the traditional resonant approach and a wave-speed technique. In the bulk modulus system, the compressibility of a sample of arbitrary shape immersed in Castor oil and placed inside a pressure chamber is measured. Data can be obtained at frequencies typically ranging from 50 Hz to 5 kHz, at temperatures comprised between -2 and 50 °C and under hydrostatic pressures ranging from 0 to 2 MPa (Young's), or 6.5 MPa (bulk). Typical data obtained with both systems are presented, and it is shown how these data can be combined to completely characterize the elasticity of the material under investigation. In particular, they can be used to obtain experimental values of the complex Poisson's ratio, whose accurate measurement is otherwise quite challenging to perform directly. As an example, the magnitude and loss tangent of Poisson's ratio are presented for a nearly incompressible rubber.

  18. Correlates of Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) to adolescents' drug use intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Wong, Ho Ting; Chou, Lai Yan; To, Bobby Pak Wai; Lee, Wai Lok; Loke, Alice Yuen

    2014-01-03

    Early onset and increasing proliferation of illicit adolescent drug-use poses a global health concern. This study aimed to examine the correlation between Protective Motivation Theory (PMT) measures and the intention to use drugs among adolescents. An exploratory quantitative correlation design and convenience sampling were adopted. A total of 318 students completed a self-reported questionnaire that solicited information related to their demographics and activities, measures of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and the intention to use drugs. Logistic regression analysis showed that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards were significant predictors of intention. The odds ratios were equal to 2.90 (p < 0.05) and 8.04 (p < 0.001), respectively. The logistic regression model analysis resulted in a high Nagelkerke R2 of 0.49, which suggests that PMT related measures could be used in predicting drug use intention among adolescents. Further research should be conducted with non-school adolescents to confirm the application.

  19. European adolescents' level of perceived stress is inversely related to their diet quality: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Moreno, Luis A; Patterson, Emma; Molnár, Dénes; Mesana, María I; Beghin, Laurent; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-07-01

    As stress is hypothesised to influence dietary behaviour, the relationship between perceived stress and diet quality in European adolescents was investigated. Within the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, adolescents (n 704, aged 12-17 years) from schools in five European cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Zaragoza, Athens and Vienna) completed a 2 d 24 h dietary recall assessment and an Adolescent Stress Questionnaire. Measurements and information were taken on height, weight, pubertal stage, parental education level, the level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep duration. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) was calculated from the dietary data, which comprised three components reflecting dietary diversity, quality and equilibrium. Hierarchical linear models were performed to investigate the relationship between the adolescents' level of perceived stress and the DQI-A and its components, adjusting for relevant covariates (age, BMI z-score, pubertal stage and parental education). These models were additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. In both boys and girls, perceived stress was a significant independent negative predictor for their overall DQI-A. This inverse relationship was observed for all dietary components, except for dietary diversity in boys, and it was unaltered when additionally adjusted for MVPA or sleep duration. The observed inverse relationship between stress and diet quality within these European adolescents supports the hypothesis that stress influences dietary behaviour, thus emphasising the need for preventive stress-coping strategies for adolescents.

  20. Office, ambulatory and home blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karpettas, Nikos; Kollias, Anastasios; Vazeou, Andriani; Stergiou, George S

    2010-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in pediatric hypertension, the prevalence of which is rising in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Traditionally the assessment of hypertension in children has relied on office blood pressure (BP) measurements by the physician. However, as in adults, office BP might be misleading in children mainly due to the white coat and masked hypertension phenomena. Thus, out-of-office BP assessment, using ambulatory or home monitoring, has gained ground for the accurate diagnosis of hypertension and decision-making. Ambulatory monitoring is regarded as indispensable for the evaluation of pediatric hypertension. Preliminary data support the usefulness of home monitoring, yet more evidence is needed. Office, ambulatory and home BP normalcy tables providing thresholds for diagnosis have been published and should be used for the assessment of elevated BP in children.

  1. Design of an instrument to measure alcohol-related psychosocial influences in the development of norms among 13-year-old to 17-year-old adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Allsop, Steve; Howat, Peter; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Harmful drinking among young people is common in Australia and many other countries. Social norms and their influence on adolescents’ alcohol consumption behaviours have received much research attention in recent years. However, there is limited understanding of how social norms related to alcohol are developed and transmitted across social networks and a specific tool that measures these constructs has yet to be developed. This paper outlines the rationale and protocol for the design and validation of a multidimensional survey instrument which measures the development and transmission pathways of alcohol-related norms among adolescents. A longer term aim is to apply the instrument in a respondent-driven sampling study with a large adolescent cohort. Methods and analysis Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and relevant literature will guide the design of the online survey instrument. Feedback from a practitioner-based stakeholder committee, academic expert panel reviews, focus groups and interviews with adolescents aged 13–17 years in Perth, Western Australia (WA) will serve to ascertain content and face validity. A test–retest will be conducted using a purposive sample of students (n=400) at secondary schools in Perth. The instrument's psychometric properties will be analysed, including exploratory factor analyses, discriminant validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Ethics and dissemination The results of this research will provide public health researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive standardised instrument to explore the characteristics of individual-level and community-level social influences and norms associated with use of alcohol by adolescents and the routes through which these norms are transmitted. The data collected by the instrument is anticipated to inform the design of youth specific interventions with the potential to reduce alcohol-related harms. The Study findings will be disseminated widely through

  2. Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication and Adolescent Safer Sex Behavior: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p < .001, I2 = 65.60). Moderation analyses revealed larger effects for communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified

  3. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence: Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures.

    PubMed

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings.

  4. Psychological Symptoms and Insulin Sensitivity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Han, Joan C.; Yanoff, Lisa B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms of psychological distress have been linked to low insulin sensitivity in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in pediatric samples. We therefore examined symptoms of depression and anxiety in relation to insulin sensitivity in adolescents. Methods Participants were 136 non-treatment seeking, healthy adolescents (53.2% female) of all weight strata (BMI-z = 1.08±1.08) between the ages of 12 and 18 years (M = 15.16, SD = 1.55). Adolescents completed questionnaire measures assessing depression and anxiety symptoms. Fasting blood samples for serum insulin and plasma glucose were obtained to estimate insulin sensitivity with the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured with air displacement plethysmography or dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with higher fasting insulin and decreased insulin sensitivity even after controlling for fat mass, fat-free mass, height, age, pubertal status, race, and sex (ps < 0.01). Conclusions As has been described for adults, depressive symptoms are associated with low insulin sensitivity among healthy adolescents. Further experimental and prospective studies are required to determine the directionality of this link. PMID:19912553

  5. Adolescents' reasons for tanning and appearance motives: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Prior, Suzanne M; Fenwick, Kimberley D; Peterson, Jasmine C

    2014-01-01

    We examined adolescents' reasons for tanning and how these relate to appearance evaluation and orientation. Two hundred and sixty-four Canadian adolescents (age range 15-19 years) in grades 10, 11, and 12 completed a survey that included scales measuring their reasons for tanning, appearance evaluation, and appearance orientation. It was found that girls and boys differed on four of nine subscales measuring reasons for tanning. Girls believed more strongly than boys that tanning improved their general appearance and that friends influenced their decision to tan. Girls also expressed less concern than boys that tanning caused immediate skin damage or premature aging. The pattern of correlations between the reasons for tanning and appearance orientation was similar for girls and boys. For both, appearance reasons for tanning and sociocultural influences on tanning were positively associated with appearance orientation. Suggestions for future research with adolescents and a proposal for a guiding model are provided.

  6. Discrepancies between Parent and Adolescent Beliefs about Daily Life Topics and Performance on an Emotion Recognition Task

    PubMed Central

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions—particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment—predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents’ and children and adolescents’ abilities to decode and identify others’ emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents’ and adolescents’ emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54% African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals). PMID:23504303

  7. Bender Gestalt Recall as a measure of short-term visual memory in children and adolescents with psychotic and other severe disorders.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James; Rabinowitz, Dena; Habib, Mandy; Goldman, Heather; Miley, Diana; Stefanyshyn, Hanna Yim; Freeman, Shuamis; Murray, Tracey; Clauselle, Renee

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the short-term visual memory ability of children and adolescents with severe psychiatric disorders, 82 child and adolescent inpatients and day hospital patients in a state psychiatric hospital were administered the Bender Gestalt Test as part of a psychological assessment and then asked to reproduce the designs from memory. No significant differences were found between groups on either the Bender Gestalt Recall, or the WISC-III IQs and the Digit Span and Symbol Search subtests for Psychotic Disorders (Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder, Psychosis Not Otherwise Specified), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Mood Disorders or Mood Disorders with co-morbid Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The Coding subtest scores of the Psychotic Disorders group were significantly lower than the ADHD group. Analyses showed that the Bender Gestalt Recall was significantly related to age. Performance IQ, and sex. The results were discussed in terms of both the poor cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with persistent, severe mental illness, and the importance of developmental level when using the Bender Gestalt Recall as a rough measure of short-term visual memory.

  8. The relationship between non-acute adolescent cannabis use and cognition.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Megan A; Sellman, John D; Porter, Richard J; Frampton, Christopher M

    2007-05-01

    Research indicates that cannabis continues to be a popular illegal drug internationally. Furthermore, adolescent rates of use appear to be significant. Whilst the non-acute effect of cannabis use on adult cognition has been extensively researched, there has been less examination of adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the non-acute relationship between cannabis and cognitive function in a sample of adolescents with a continuum of cannabis use, taking into account additional predictor variables (psychiatric functioning, general functioning, demographics and other drug use). Seventy adolescents were recruited from clinical and community sources as well as through newspaper advertisements. After 12 hours abstinence from cannabis, adolescents completed a two-hour interview covering: demographics; alcohol and drug use history; drug use in the past 28 days; depression; further psychiatric functioning (including ADHD and Conduct Disorder); and cognitive functioning as measured by computerised tasks (CANTAB) and traditional pen and paper tests. Adolescents who were regular cannabis users (more than once a week) had a significantly poorer performance on four measures of cognitive function reflecting attention, spatial working memory and learning. Cannabis use remained an independent predictor of performance on the working memory and strategy measures after additional predictor variables were included in a multivariate regression analysis. The results suggest that aspects of adolescent cognitive function are independently related to the frequency of cannabis use beyond acute intoxication.

  9. Measurement and Analysis of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Generalized Problematic Internet Use among Mexican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I.; Calvete, Esther

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct…

  10. Development and Validation of a Parental Monitoring Instrument: Measuring How Parents Monitor Adolescents' Activities and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Scott A.; Branstetter, Steven; Cottrell, Lesley; Harris, Carole V.; Rishel, Carrie; Stanton, Bonita F.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the development and validation of the Parental Monitoring Instrument (PMI). The PMI was administered to a sample of 518 parent-adolescent (aged 12 to 17 years) dyads. Initial findings provide evidence of instrument reliability and validity. The exploratory factor analysis results suggested a seven-factor…

  11. Reliability and Validity of the Interactive Drawing Test: A Measure of Reciprocity for Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Poor reciprocity is a defining feature of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the current study, we examined the reliability and validity of the Interactive Drawing Test (IDT), a new instrument to assess reciprocal behavior. The IDT was administered to children and adolescents with ASD (n = 131) and to a typically developing group (n = 62). The…

  12. Measurement Invariance of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents with Respect to Sex and Age Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra; Courville, Troy

    2008-01-01

    This article examines invariance of the three-factor structure of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents across age band and gender within normative samples. Confirmatory factor analysis reveals that the three-factor model fits for all groups. In addition, invariance analysis shows no statistical differences in factor structure between…

  13. Development and Validation of a Parent Report Measure for Assessing Social-Emotional Competencies of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Felver-Gant, Josh C.; Tom, Karalyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the premises that strength-based assessment of children and adolescents is an important emerging area, and that additional tools for this purpose are needed, this study details development and validation efforts on a new strength-based assessment: the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale, parent form (SEARS-P). Following careful…

  14. Value Similarities among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be explained by the use of different measurement…

  15. Psychometric properties of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Italian translation of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). A sample of 1,806 high-school students between the ages of 13 and 18 years, recruited in 6 Italian cities, completed the A-DES. The A-DES showed high internal consistency, excellent item-to-scale homogeneity, good split-half reliability, and a single-factor structure. The scores of the Italian adolescents were comparable to those found in previous research with the measure. No gender differences were found in mean A-DES scores, but boys and girls showed different patterns of responses on A-DES items. Age differences were also found, with 13- and 18-year-old students scoring higher on the measure than the other participants. A cluster analysis showed that participants could be consistently grouped into 2 clusters of low- and high-dissociative adolescents. This study supports the A-DES as a reliable and valid screening measure for dissociative symptoms in adolescents.

  16. A qualitative exploration of adolescent perceptions of healthy sleep in Tucson, Arizona, USA.

    PubMed

    Orzech, Kathryn M

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents in the United States are known to be sleep deprived; early school start times, a biological propensity to stay up late, and a variety of wake-inducing activities lead to teens who often do not sleep enough. This chronic lack of sleep has measurable negative effects on health and well-being for adolescents. Though research has documented adolescent sleep behavior, few studies have addressed perceptions of sleep. The purpose of this study was to identify common sources of sleep information for a sample of Southwestern adolescents and examine general message content delivered to adolescents by each source. A convenience sample of 51 adolescents (mean age 14.5) completed a semi-structured, in-person interview between October 2006 and November 2007 in a Tucson, Arizona high school. Participant observation and a brief questionnaire regarding parent behavior were used to triangulate results. Parents, teachers, and in some cases the media stressed the importance of sleep for teens, while friends typically complained of tiredness. Individual experiences of sleep were reported to shape future sleep behavior. Rationales for adequate sleep included value placed on alertness, health, and achievement. Improving sleep in adolescents will not only require further education of the "sleep messengers" about the negative health consequences of inadequate sleep, but a larger cultural shift in how healthy sleep for teenagers is conceived and prioritized by schools, families and adolescents themselves.

  17. Emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Riley, Tennisha; Zaharakis, Nikola; Borre, Alicia; Drazdowski, Tess K; Jäggi, Lena

    2016-09-01

    Anticipatory cortisol is associated with risk for substance use in adolescents. The present study extended prior literature by testing a model linking family emotional climate, emotion dysregulation, anticipatory cortisol, and substance use. Participants were 229 adolescents (M = 11.94 years, SD = 1.55; 41% male; 92% African American) enrolled in a 4-wave study of stressors, physiological stress responses, and substance use. Caregivers completed measures of family emotional climate at baseline and adolescents' emotion dysregulation one and two years later; adolescents reported on their substance use at baseline and three years later at Wave 4. Adolescents completed a stress task at Wave 4; saliva samples taken immediately prior to the task were analyzed for cortisol. Longitudinal path models revealed that a negative emotional climate at home was associated with elevated emotion dysregulation at subsequent waves for all youth. Emotional dysregulation was prospectively associated with blunted anticipatory cortisol, which in turn was associated with elevated substance use, controlling for baseline substance use and age. However, these associations only were observed for females. This study suggests that helping girls in particular manage their emotional responses to stress more effectively may impact their physiological responses and reduce risk for substance use.

  18. The Effects of High Adventure Activities on Adolescent Self-Concept: A Comparison of Situationally Specific Self-Concept Measurements and Global Self-Concept Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Alan N.

    Changes in adolescents' self concept as a result of participation in a camping program were studied. Subjects were 57 males and females, aged 14-18, who spent 9 weeks with the Man and His Land program, travelling on eight camping expeditions. Three hypotheses were tested through pre-, mid-, and posttests: (1) Differences would be shown in pre- and…

  19. Adolescent nicotine exposure produces less affective measures of withdrawal relative to adult nicotine exposure in male rats

    PubMed Central

    O’Dell, Laura E.; Torres, Oscar V.; Natividad, Luis A.; Tejeda, Hugo A.

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability to nicotine addiction is significantly increased in individuals who begin smoking during adolescence; however, the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon remain unclear. This study examined the motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal in adolescent (PND 27–42) and adult (PND 60–75) rats using the conditioned place aversion paradigm. Male Wistar rats were tested for their initial preference for either of two distinct compartments of our conditioning apparatus. Rats were then implanted with subcutaneous (sc) pumps that produce equivalent blood plasma levels of nicotine for 14 days. Conditioning was conducted over the last 8 days of nicotine exposure. Rats received the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 or 3.0 mg/kg, sc) to precipitate withdrawal in their initially preferred compartment, and on alternate days they received saline in their non-preferred compartment. Following conditioning, rats were re-tested for their preference for each compartment. A subsequent study was conducted to examine potential developmental differences in learning place aversion produced by another aversive stimulus, lithium chloride (LiCl). Rats received LiCl (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg, sc) in their initially preferred side using similar conditioning procedures. Adults displayed robust place aversion produced by nicotine withdrawal. This effect was lower in adolescent rats even in a group of young rats that received 7 additional days of nicotine exposure prior to conditioning. This developmental difference was specific to nicotine withdrawal since there were no differences between adolescents and adults in learning place aversion with LiCl. Our findings demonstrating reduced effects of nicotine withdrawal constitute a powerful basis for the increased vulnerability to nicotine dependence during adolescence. PMID:17184972

  20. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Chaby, Lauren E; Cavigelli, Sonia A; Hirrlinger, Amy M; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans.

  1. Chronic Stress During Adolescence Impairs and Improves Learning and Memory in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Warg, Kendall M.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS This study tested the effects of adolescent-stress on adult learning and memory.Adolescent-stressed rats had enhanced reversal learning compared to unstressed rats.Adolescent-stress exposure made working memory more vulnerable to disturbance.Adolescent-stress did not affect adult associative learning or reference memory. Exposure to acute stress can cause a myriad of cognitive impairments, but whether negative experiences continue to hinder individual as they age is not as well understood. We determined how chronic unpredictable stress during adolescence affects multiple learning and memory processes in adulthood. Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we measured learning (both associative and reversal) and memory (both reference and working) starting 110 days after completion of an adolescent-stress treatment. We found that adolescent-stress affected adult cognitive abilities in a context-dependent way. Compared to rats reared without stress, adolescent-stressed rats exhibited enhanced reversal learning, an indicator of behavioral flexibility, but showed no change in associative learning and reference memory abilities. Working memory, which in humans is thought to underpin reasoning, mathematical skills, and reading comprehension, may be enhanced by exposure to adolescent-stress. However, when adolescent-stressed animals were tested after a novel disturbance, they exhibited a 5-fold decrease in working memory performance while unstressed rats continued to exhibit a linear learning curve. These results emphasize the capacity for stress during adolescence to transform the cognitive abilities of adult animals, even after stress exposure has ceased and animals have resided in safe environments for the majority of their lifespans. PMID:26696849

  2. Geographic location, sex and nutritional status play an important role in body image concerns among Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Braga Costa, Telma Maria; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2013-03-01

    This study compared body image concerns among adolescents from different geographic locations in Brazil, and the influence of sex and nutritional status. Seven hundred eighty-eight adolescents completed the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and had their weight and height measured. There were significant cross-regional differences in BSQ scores. Also, body image concerns were more prevalent among girls and among overweight adolescents. It is suggested that sex and nutritional status may play an important role in body image concerns, which is more common between adolescents from urban areas. Furthermore, our findings contribute to the literature by examining patterns of body image concerns within subgroups of adolescents who have received little research attention on these issues.

  3. Evaluating Adolescent Catechesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaster, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Systematic program evaluations of adolescent catechesis curricula are seldom completed and rarely published. This makes it very challenging to understand what is working and what is not. This case study describes the findings of a program evaluation of the Youth in Theology and Ministry curriculum of Saint John's School of Theology and Seminary in…

  4. Simulation and measurement of complete dye sensitised solar cells: including the influence of trapping, electrolyte, oxidised dyes and light intensity on steady state and transient device behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Piers R F; Anderson, Assaf Y; Durrant, James R; O'Regan, Brian C

    2011-04-07

    A numerical model of the dye sensitised solar cell (DSSC) is used to assess the importance of different loss pathways under various operational conditions. Based on our current understanding, the simulation describes the processes of injection, regeneration, recombination and transport of electrons, oxidised dye molecules and electrolyte within complete devices to give both time dependent and independent descriptions of performance. The results indicate that the flux of electrons lost from the nanocrystalline TiO(2) film is typically at least twice as large under conditions equivalent to 1 sun relative to dark conditions at matched TiO(2) charge concentration. This is in agreement with experimental observations (Barnes et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. [DOI: 10.1039/c0cp01855d]). The simulated difference in recombination flux is shown to be due to variation in the concentration profile of electron accepting species in the TiO(2) pores between light and dark conditions and to recombination to oxidised dyes in the light. The model is able to easily incorporate non-ideal behaviour of a cell such as the variation of open circuit potential with light intensity and non-first order recombination of conduction band electrons. The time dependent simulations, described by the multiple trapping model of electron transport and recombination, show good agreement with both small and large transient photocurrent and photovoltage measurements at open circuit, including photovoltage rise measurements. The simulation of photovoltage rise also suggests the possibility of assessing the interfacial resistance between the TiO(2) and substrate. When cells with a short diffusion length relative to film thickness were modelled, the simulated small perturbation photocurrent transients at short circuit (but not open circuit) yielded significantly higher effective diffusion coefficients than expected from the mean concentration of electrons and the electrolyte in the cell. This implies that

  5. The Effectiveness of Policy and Health Education Strategies for Reducing Adolescent Smoking: A Review of the Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Marc C.; de Zwart, Wil M.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews international literature to identify the most effective measures to prevent smoking among adolescents. Concludes that isolated measures produce little effect. Most effect may be expected from a combination of a complete ban on tobacco advertising, increasing prices, restricting tobacco product sales to tobacconists, mass media education…

  6. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents.

  7. Anger in Adolescent Communities: How Angry Are They?

    PubMed

    Pullen, Lisa; Modrcin, Mary Anne; McGuire, Sandra L; Lane, Karen; Kearnely, Melissa; Engle, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Anger is a common factor in two causes of death in adolescence: homicide and suicide. This study looked at the level of anger in non-clinical convenience sample of adolescents (N = 139) between the ages of 12 and 19 years (early: 12 to 14 years, mid: 15 to 16 years, late: 17 to 19 years) from a large Southeastern Baptist church. Participants completed the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Beck and Children's Depression Inventories, and Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). The level of self-reported anger was low. The difference in anger between the three age groups was not statistically significant. Differences in gender were generally not significant statistically. A strong correlation exists between stress and anger. A minor relationship between parental drinking behaviors, as measured by the CAST, and anger was found. A significant relationship between anger and depression, and frequency of participation in religious activity and decreased anger was established. By increasing the current knowledge of anger in adolescents, it may be possible to gain insight into risk factors or triggers that cause anger. Interventions must be implemented early to prevent juvenile detention and to help adolescents remain in the community. Public policies addressing anger in adolescents are essential. Health care providers must work together to identify adolescents with disorders or feelings of isolation or disconnect and provide treatment based in communities so adolescents can still function and not be isolated. It is relevant that a mentor or someone that can be trusted is provided to build a safe and secure environment. This greater knowledge may aid in assessment and treatment of adolescents with dysfunctional anger.

  8. Rumination and Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory in Adolescents: An Integration of Cognitive Vulnerabilities to Depression

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Samantha L.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    During adolescence, rates of depression dramatically increase and girls become twice as likely as boys to develop depression. Research suggests that overgeneral autobiographical memory and rumination are vulnerability factors for depressive symptoms in adolescence that may be triggered by stressful life events. The current longitudinal study included 160 early adolescents (Mage = 12.44 years, 60.0 % African American, 40.0 % Caucasian, and 56.2 % female). At baseline, adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms, rumination, and specificity of autobiographical memories. Approximately 9 months later, the adolescents completed measures of current depressive symptoms and stressful life events that had occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that girls with more overgeneral autobiographical memories in combination with higher levels of rumination were most vulnerable to experiencing increases in depressive symptoms following stressful life events. Additionally, retrieving more specific autobiographical memories appeared to buffer against the impact of negative life events on depressive symptoms among both boys and girls. Memory specificity may play a protective role in depression risk, suggesting that memory specificity training interventions may prove beneficial for adolescents. PMID:24449170

  9. Reference data and percentile curves of body composition measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Yi; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Xu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have evident value in evaluating skeletal and muscular status in growing children and adolescents. This study aimed to generate age-related trends for body composition in Chinese children and adolescents, and to establish gender-specific reference percentile curves for the assessment of muscle-bone status. A total of 1541 Chinese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured for total body and total body less head (TBLH). After 14 years, total body LM was significantly higher in boys than girls (p < 0.001). However, total body FM was significantly higher in girls than boys in age groups 13-19 years (p < 0.01). Both LM and FM were consistent independent predictors of total body and subcranial bone mass in both sexes, even after adjustment for the well-known predictors of BMC. The results of multiple linear regression identified LM as the stronger predictor of total body and subcranial skeleton BMC while the fat mass contributed less. For all the subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between total body LM, height, total body BMC and subcranial BMC (p < 0.01). Subcranial BMC had a better correlation with LM than total body BMC. We have also presented gender-specific percentile curves for LM-for-height and BMC-for-LM which could be used to evaluate and follow various pediatric disorders with skeletal manifestations in this population.

  10. Sociocultural Experiences of Bulimic and Non-Bulimic Adolescents in a School-Based Chinese Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2010-01-01

    From a large school-based sample (N = 3,084), 49 Mainland Chinese adolescents (31 girls, 18 boys) who endorsed all DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa (BN) or sub-threshold BN and 49 matched controls (31 girls, 18 boys) completed measures of demographics and sociocultural experiences related to body image. Compared to less symptomatic peers, those…

  11. Sexual Abuse and Suicidality: Gender Differences in a Large Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Graham; Bergen, Helen A.; Richardson, Angela S.; Roeger, Leigh; Allison, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A cross-sectional study of gender specific relationships between self-reported child sexual abuse and suicidality in a community sample of adolescents. Method: Students aged 14 years on average (N=2,485) from 27 schools in South Australia completed a questionnaire including items on sexual abuse and suicidality, and measures of…

  12. Trumping Shame by Blasts of Noise: Narcissism, Self-Esteem, Shame, and Aggression in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomaes, Sander; Bushman, Brad J.; Stegge, Hedy; Olthof, Tjeert

    2008-01-01

    This experiment tested how self-views influence shame-induced aggression. One hundred and sixty-three young adolescents (M = 12.2 years) completed measures of narcissism and self-esteem. They lost to an ostensible opponent on a competitive task. In the shame condition, they were told that their opponent was bad, and they saw their own name at the…

  13. Self-Motivation and Physical Activity among Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Felton, Gwen; Pate, Russell R.

    2003-01-01

    Established the psychometric properties of the Self-Motivation Inventory for Children (SMI-C) using tests of factorial validity, factorial invariance, latent mean structure, and predictive validity. Two cohorts of black and white adolescent girls completed the SMI-C and various physical activity measures. The single-factor, positively worded,…

  14. Substance Use Attitudes among Urban Black Adolescents: The Role of Parent, Peer, and Cultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Scyatta A.; Fisher, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of perceived parental, peer, and cultural factors on Black American adolescent attitudes toward substance use. One-hundred-eight Black American youth (grades 9-12) from economically disadvantaged urban neighborhoods of New York, completed self-report measures on: (a) parent-child involvement, parental supervision,…

  15. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  16. The Role of Emotional Stability and Competence in Young Adolescents' Career Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubic, Andreja; Ivaniševic, Karmen

    2016-01-01

    A transition from elementary to high school represents a very profound change and a potential source of stress, as it often requires young adolescents to make significant professional decisions. This topic was the focus of the present study in which 303 Croatian students attending their final year of elementary school completed measures of career…

  17. Ego Strength Development of Adolescents Involved in Adult-Sponsored Structured Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Li, Xaioming; Blackshire, Shana L.; Wilfong, Juanita J.

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial conception of ego strengths is presented in relation to adolescent involvement in adult-sponsored structured youth activities. Five-hundred and seventeen high school students completed measures on their involvement in structured activities and on 8 ego strengths. Gender, age, and SES were controlled in a MANCOVA procedure and it was…

  18. Perceived Social Support and the Self-Concepts of Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Anne N.; Reynolds, Marilyn J.; McQueen, Kand S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived social support and the multidimensional self-concepts of gifted adolescents. Participants included 217 gifted students who had completed grades 5 through 10 and were attending a summer program for the gifted. Self-concept was measured using the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ-II; H.…

  19. Using TV as a Guide: Associations between Television Viewing and Adolescents' Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Monique; Friedman, Kimberly

    2006-01-01

    Using both correlational and experimental methodology, this study examined contributions of TV viewing to adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior. A sample of 244 high school students was assigned to view clips depicting either one of three sexual stereotypes or neutral content. Participants then completed measures assessing their attitudes…

  20. Factors Influencing Adolescents' Decisions To Engage in Risk-Taking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolison, Mary R.; Scherman, Avraham

    2002-01-01

    In this study, 171 older adolescents completed a risk-taking inventory to measure risk involvement. Results showed that perceived risks affected risk-taking more significantly than did perceived benefits. Higher sensation seeking tendencies were affiliated with more risk-taking. Locus of control was not related to risk-taking. (Contains 38…