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Sample records for adolescents findings suggest

  1. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  2. Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M

    2012-10-01

    In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further

  3. Suggestions To Help Engage Young Adolescents with Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Grades Reading Network, Evansville, IN.

    Accompanying a collection of 85 books for teenagers donated to local service organizations in Indiana, or donated in the name of such an organization to local libraries, this pamphlet offers suggestions to help the organizations engage adolescents with books and lists the paperback books given to the organizations. Suggestions in the pamphlet…

  4. Puzzle Them First! Motivating Adolescent Readers with Question-Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciardiello, A. Vincent

    2007-01-01

    In this book, the author suggests that to truly learn, students should be puzzled about new knowledge. Question-finding, the unique strategy described in the book, fosters this learning by leading adolescent students to probe the multiple meanings of text and ask challenging, open-ended questions. Focus units illustrate how teachers can use…

  5. Adolescents Define Sexual Orientation and Suggest Ways to Measure It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, M. S. Mark S.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Gold, Melanie A.; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual…

  6. Findings suggest possible link between geomagnetic reversals and field intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    For the past 2000 years the Earth's magnetic field has been weakening. At the going rate of decay, the field's dipole—generated within the convecting metallic fluid of the outer core—would totally vanish, perhaps passing through zero and reversing polarity, in the coming millennia. This scenario of a coming attempt by Earth's dynamo to reverse its polarity is suggested by direct observation of the field since the 19th century and laboratory investigation of historic lavas and other fired materials that record the ambient field while cooling.The ongoing weakening of the field does not insure that a reversal will occur. After all, the north-south axial dipole changes to the opposite direction only on occasion; it currently reverses a few times each million years. How the dynamo actually approaches an attempted change of polarity and, moreover, the degree to which such a process can be predicted, are unclear. Nonetheless, a major step toward such an understanding may have been made through recently reported paleomagnetic findings obtained from the long, quasi-continuous records derived from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) marine sediment cores.

  7. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  8. Emerging Adolescence: Finding One's Place in the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Patricia

    2000-01-01

    Discusses emerging characteristics of early adolescents from a Montessorian perspective. Considers adolescents' revelations related to cosmic education, their need to serve, their need to think and to feel, and their need to know the cosmos through finding one's place in it. Discusses samples from students' cosmic autobiographies. (KB)

  9. Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing: Findings from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilman, Catherine S.; And Others

    Issues and trends related to adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in the United States are discussed in the 12 papers collected in this publication. Chapters I and II delineate trends in teenage childbearing and explore aspects of psychosocial development and social problems associated with teenage illegitimacy. Chapters III and IV describe…

  10. Adolescent Impulsivity: Findings from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2005-01-01

    Impulsivity is central to several psychopathological states in adolescence. However, there is little consensus concerning the definition of impulsivity and its core dimensions. In response to this lack of consensus, Whiteside and Lynam (2001, "Pers. Individ. Differ." 30, 669-689) have developed the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, which is able to…

  11. Interrogative Suggestibility among Adolescent Boys and Its Relationship with Intelligence, Memory, and Cognitive Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Krishna K.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1992-01-01

    Investigated hypotheses generated by Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. Adolescent boys (n=40) completed Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and measures of intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes toward persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with intelligence quotient and…

  12. Are Suicidal Behaviors Contagious in Adolescence?: Using Longitudinal Data to Examine Suicide Suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Abrutyn, Seth; Mueller, Anna S.

    2015-01-01

    Though Durkheim argued that strong social relationships protect individuals from suicide, we posit that these relationships have the potential to increase individuals’ vulnerability when they expose them to suicidality. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we evaluate whether new suicidal thoughts and attempts are in part responses to exposure to the suicide attempts of role models, specifically friends and family. We find that the suicide attempts of role models do in fact trigger new suicidal thoughts and in some cases attempts, even after significant controls are introduced. Moreover, we find that these effects fade with time, that girls are more vulnerable to them than boys, and that the relationship to the role model—for teenagers at least—matters. Friends appear to be more salient role models for both boys and girls. Our findings suggest that exposure to suicidal behaviors in significant others may teach individuals new ways to deal with emotional distress, namely by becoming suicidal. This reinforces the idea that the structure – and content – of social networks conditions their role in preventing suicidality. Specifically, social ties can be conduits of not just social support, but also anti-social behaviors, like suicidality. PMID:26069341

  13. Adolescent Drug Use: Findings of National and Local Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, E. R.; Beauvais, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Reviews current data on adolescent drug use, noting that, for drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and stimulants, lifetime prevalence continues to increase through high school; for inhalants and heroin, lifetime prevalence may decline, suggesting that students who use these drugs early may drop out. Examines drug use among rural, barrio, ghetto,…

  14. [Clinical forensic examination findings in assault cases among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Bode-Jänisch, Stefanie; Buddeke, Florian; Schulz, Yvonne; Fieguth, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Child and youth criminality has risen markedly over the past 25 years and causes increasing concern to the general public. The clinical forensic examination cases of youth violence victims examined at the Institute of Legal Medicine of the Hanover Medical School and its Oldenburg Branch between 1999 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. In all, 55 adolescents (37 females, 18 males; median age 15.5 years) were examined. In most cases the suspect was a close (40.0%) or passing (23.6%) acquaintance. 16 assaults were committed by two or more adolescents jointly. Most of the juveniles were victims of sexual assaults (56.4%). In 15 victims of sexual offences (51.7%) diagnostic findings were obtained on the basis of anogenital injuries and/or the presence of sperm. In summary, the analysis shows that adolescents frequently become victims of sexual assault. In addition, youth violence is often committed in a group. PMID:21254705

  15. Interrogative suggestibility among adolescent boys and its relationship with intelligence, memory, and cognitive set.

    PubMed

    Singh, K K; Gudjonsson, G H

    1992-06-01

    This study investigates some of the hypotheses generated by the Gudjonsson and Clark model of interrogative suggestibility. The subjects were 40 adolescent boys (11-16 years), who completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale and instruments measuring intellectual skills, memory, field-dependence, hostility, and attitudes towards persons in authority. Suggestibility correlated negatively with I.Q. and memory capacity, and positively with field-dependence. PMID:1527249

  16. ASSOCIATION AMONG HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS SUGGESTIVE OF PAPILLOMA VIRUS ON HEMORRHOIDECTOMY SPECIMENS

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Soraya Souto; NAKAJIMA, Gerson Suguiyama; GUIMARÃES, Ricardo Alexandre; MOURÃO, Flávia da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers studied human Papillomavirus infection in the anal area supposing it represents a risk factor for precursor lesions of anal cancer. Aim: To study the association between histological findings suggestive of injury by the virus in hemorrhoidectomy specimens. Method: Prevalence study was carried out based on histopathological analysis of hemorrhoidectomy specimens to find viral cytopathic effects. These findings were compared with anal condyloma acuminata that had no relationship with hemorrhoidectomy for microscopic comparison. Results: Of the 91 hemorroidectomies analyzed, eight had findings suggestive of viral cytopathic effects, with the presence of irregular acanthosis in 63%, koilocytes in 50% and other indirect viral cytopathic effects, such as hyperkeratosis (38%), parakeratosis (25% ) and papillomatosis (13%). Conclusion: This study was unable to conclude that there is an association between these two pathologic entities. PMID:26734795

  17. Fostering an Adolescent-Centered Community Responsive to Student Needs: Lessons Learned and Suggestions for Middle Level Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbock, Cheryl R.; Kiefer, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adolescents have unique basic and developmental needs. Middle level educators are best able to reach and teach young adolescents when they understand students' needs and when the school environment, including its organizational structures and teacher practices, are responsive to these needs. Findings from a recently conducted…

  18. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Farhat, Tilda

    2010-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking; discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking;…

  19. Internet addiction, adolescent depression, and the mediating role of life events: finding from a sample of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression. PMID:25178955

  20. [Norplant: an effective option for adolescent women. Subdermal implant contraception in adolescent women. Preliminary findings in 174 cases].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, R; Torres, L A

    1995-06-01

    Results are presented of a clinical study of Norplant subdermal implants in Colombian adolescents. Implants have been used by 365 adolescents, of whom 174 have completed 2 years of follow-up. Study participants were monitored at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postinsertion. Among the 174 women, 14% were 14-17 years old and 87% were 17-19. 21% were single, 30% married, and 49% in consensual unions. 38.5% were nulliparous, 56% had 1 child, and 5.7% had 2. 14.3% had a history of abortion. There were no pregnancies in the 2 years. 47.9% of users experienced menstrual irregularities at least once during the 2 years, with 9.3% reporting spotting or staining, 21.2% bleeding, and 19.3% amenorrhea. 6.4% reported nausea, 4.3% headache, 4.3% weight alterations, 2% acne, and 1.4% hair loss. There were 12 removals in the 2 years, 3 each because of menstrual and weight alterations, 2 for headaches, and 4 because of desire for pregnancy. 91.4% declared themselves satisfied with the method. The continuation rate was 93.2% at 2 years. The results suggest that Norplant is a good contraceptive choice for adolescents, but a prolonged study over 5 years is needed to confirm the findings. PMID:12319905

  1. Childhood traumatic events and adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory: Findings in a UK cohort

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Overgeneral autobiographical memory has repeatedly been identified as a risk factor for adolescent and adult psychopathology but the factors that cause such over-generality remain unclear. This study examined the association between childhood exposure to traumatic events and early adolescent overgeneral autobiographical memory in a large population sample. Methods Thirteen-year-olds, n = 5,792, participating in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study (ALSPAC) completed a written version of the Autobiographical Memory Test. Performance on this task was examined in relation to experience of traumatic events, using data recorded by caregivers close to the time of exposure. Results Results indicated that experiencing a severe event in middle childhood increased the likelihood of an adolescent falling into the lowest quartile for autobiographical memory specificity (retrieving 0 or 1 specific memory) at age 13 by approximately 60%. The association persisted after controlling for a range of potential socio-demographic confounders. Limitations Data on the traumatic event exposures was limited by the relatively restricted range of traumas examined, and the lack of contextual details surrounding both the traumatic event exposures themselves and the severity of children's post-traumatic stress reactions. Conclusions This is the largest study to date of the association between childhood trauma exposure and overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescence. Findings suggest a modest association between exposure to traumatic events and later overgeneral autobiographical memory, a psychological variable that has been linked to vulnerability to clinical depression. PMID:24657714

  2. Brief report: Benefit finding and identity processes in type 1 diabetes: Prospective associations throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Ramsey, Meagan A; Kelly, Caitlin S; Wiebe, Deborah J; Mello, Daniel; Oris, Leen; Prikken, Sofie; Verschueren, Margaux; Berg, Cynthia A

    2016-06-01

    Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence, but may be challenged when having a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. The present study examined whether viewing positive benefits to one's diabetes across adolescence was related to greater identity exploration and commitment later in time. A total of 55 adolescents (10-14 years; 47% female) with type 1 diabetes participated in a six-wave study spanning 3 years (with six-month measurement intervals). Through latent growth curve modeling, Time 6 identity scores were regressed on intercept and slope terms of benefit finding through Times 1-4, simultaneously controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Identity exploration (but not commitment) at Time 6 was positively predicted by the intercept and slope of benefit finding: adolescents who find benefits in diabetes are more inclined to explore different alternatives later on in adolescence. Benefit finding may constitute a resource facilitating identity formation in adolescents with diabetes. PMID:26999440

  3. Psychophysiology of Adolescent Peer Relations I: Theory and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna

    2013-01-01

    Developmental psychologists have become increasingly interested in how psychophysiological processes relate to adolescent peer functioning. This review discusses advances in the study of the psychophysiology of adolescent peer relations, with a focus on how the autonomic and neuroendocrine systems relate to antisocial behavior, victimization, and…

  4. Recent Findings on Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Farhat, Tilda

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses peer group influences on adolescent smoking with a particular focus on recently published longitudinal studies that have investigated the topic. Specifically, we examine the theoretical explanations for how social influence works with respect to adolescent smoking, discuss the association between peer and adolescent smoking; consider socialization and selection processes with respect to smoking; investigate the relative influence of best friends, close friends, and crowd affiliations; and examine parenting behaviors that could buffer the effects of peer influence. Our review indicates the following with respect to adolescent smoking: (1) substantial peer group homogeneity of smoking behavior; (2) support for both socialization and selection effects, although evidence is somewhat stronger for selection; (3) an interactive influence of best friends, peer groups and crowd affiliation; and (4) an indirect protective effect of positive parenting practices against the uptake of adolescent smoking. We conclude with implications for research and prevention programs. PMID:20614184

  5. The development of the Adolescent Nervios Scale: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Livanis, Andrew; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the construction of a scale to measure the culture-bound syndrome of nervios in Latino early adolescents, ages 11 to 14. Informed by nervios literature and experts, we developed the 31-item Adolescent Nervios Scale (ANS) with items comprised of symptoms representing various psychiatric conditions common to Western culture. In contrast to 277 non-Latino early adolescents who responded to the items as representing disparate constructs, 307 Latino early adolescents responded to ANS items in a unitary fashion. For Latino early adolescents, the ANS demonstrated good internal consistency and stability as well as concurrent, discriminative, and criterion-based validity. The results support the measurement of nervios and its relationship to the school performance and adjustment of Latino youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:20099960

  6. Transcranial Doppler and angiographic findings in adolescent stretch syncope.

    PubMed Central

    Sturzenegger, M; Newell, D W; Douville, C M; Byrd, S; Schoonover, K D; Nicholls, S C

    1995-01-01

    The clinical, angiographic, and Doppler findings are reported for two young patients with recurrent syncope induced by neck hyperextension during stretching. Transcranial Doppler monitoring of both posterior cerebral arteries was performed during head manoeuvres. There were reproducible rapid decreases in blood flow velocities in both patients to an average of 28% and 41% of baseline values when they performed neck hyperextension. These decreases were regularly associated with the patients' symptoms and were not found during rotation or flexion. On return to a neutral head position there was a transient increase of the blood flow velocities to an average of 131% and 136% of baseline values (reactive hyperaemia). Routine four vessel angiography was normal except for the demonstration of very small posterior communicating arteries in one patient. Dynamic angiography showed evidence of extracranial compression of the craniocervical arteries in both patients. It is concluded that decreased blood flow to the posterior circulation is an important factor in the pathogenesis of adolescent stretch syncope. Images PMID:7897424

  7. Who Adolescents Trust May Impact Their Health: Findings from Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Marshall, Beth; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert Wm

    2016-06-01

    This study is one of the first to explore the relevance of trust to the health of adolescents living in a disadvantaged urban setting. The primary objectives were to determine the differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between adolescents who do and do not trust and to examine the associations between trust and health. Data were drawn from the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study, which is a cross-sectional global study of adolescents in very low-income urban settings conducted in 2011-2013. This paper focused on 446 adolescents in Baltimore as it was the primary site where trust was explicitly measured. For the main analyses, six health outcomes were examined: (1) self-rated health; (2) violence victimization; (3) binge drinking; (4) marijuana use; (5) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and (6) condom use at last sex. Independent variables included sociodemographic variables (age, gender, current school enrolment, perceived relative wealth, and family structure) and two dimensions of trust: community trust (trust in individuals/groups within neighborhood) and institutional trust (trust in authorities). The results show that more than half the sample had no trust in police, and a high proportion had no trust in other types of authority. Among girls, those with higher levels of community trust were less likely to be victimized and involved in binge drinking. Meanwhile, girls with higher levels of institutional trust were more likely to use a condom and less likely to have used marijuana. Among boys, those with higher levels of community trust were more likely to use a condom, while those with higher levels of institutional trust were less likely to use marijuana, but more likely binge drink. Overall, this study highlights the importance of trust for adolescent health. Most surprising were the differences in the associations between boys and girls with regard to the type of trust and specific health outcome that was

  8. Co-occurrence of problem behaviors in South Korean adolescents: findings from Korea Youth Panel Survey.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Diane; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Khang, Young-Ho

    2007-02-01

    Study findings showed problem behaviors can be observed in clusters in South Korean adolescents. Prevention programs targeting problem behavior clusters may have a greater impact on adolescents at risk for more than one problem behavior than programs targeting only a portion of the cluster. PMID:17259067

  9. Adolescent Journeys: Finding Female Authority in "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubb, Christina Rose

    2007-01-01

    This article compares the first-person narratives of two adolescent girls in the novels "The Rain Catchers" and "The House on Mango Street". I propose that adolescent girls can use literacy to read the world around them as a text and therefore help them to form their own identities enough to ultimately find authority in telling their own stories.…

  10. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  11. The Kynurenine Pathway in Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings from a Proton MR Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Liebes, Leonard; Katz, Yisrael; Liu, Songtao; Mendoza, Sandra; Babb, James S.; Klein, Rachel G.; Gonen, Oded

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytokine induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). IDO metabolizes tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN), thereby decreasing TRP availability to the brain. KYN is further metabolized into several neurotoxins. The aims of this pilot were to examine possible relationships between plasma TRP, KYN, and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA, neurotoxic metabolite) and striatal total choline (tCho, cell membrane turnover biomarker) in adolescents with MDD. We hypothesized that MDD adolescents would exhibit: i) positive correlations between KYN and 3-HAA and striatal tCho and a negative correlation between TRP and striatal tCho; and, ii) the anticipated correlations would be more pronounced in the melancholic subtype group. Methods Fourteen adolescents with MDD (seven with melancholic features) and six healthy controls were enrolled. Minimums of 6 weeks MDD duration and a severity score of 40 on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised were required. All were scanned at 3 Tesla with MRI, multi-voxel 3-dimensional, high, 0.75 cm3, spatial resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. Striatal tCho concentrations were assessed using phantom replacement. Spearman correlation coefficients were Bonferroni-corrected. Results Positive correlations were found only in the melancholic group, between KYN and 3-HAA and tCho in the right caudate (r=0.93, p=0.03) and the left putamen (r=0.96, p=.006), respectively. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest a possible role of the KYN pathway in adolescent melancholic MDD. Larger studies should follow. PMID:19778568

  12. Dysfunctional Cognitions Associated with Adolescent Depression: Findings across Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined differences in reported depressive symptomatology and related dysfunctional cognitions in nonhandicapped, learning-disabled, and seriously emotionally disturbed adolescents from both public school and juvenile correction settings. No significant main effect was found for differences across label, but consequential differences…

  13. Individual and Family Correlates of Adolescents' Sexual Behavior: Multiethnic Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagurthi, Claudia; Johnson, Ashley Cahill; Somers, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of adolescent sexual activity, including age of first date, family composition, clarity of long term goals, and maternal and paternal views about premarital sex. There were 672 males and females, three races/ethnicities, both urban and suburban settings, and socioeconomic diversity. Sexual…

  14. Predictors of Adolescent Breakfast Consumption: Longitudinal Findings from Project EAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, Meg; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors of breakfast consumption among adolescents. Methods: Five-year longitudinal study Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Baseline surveys were completed in Minneapolis-St. Paul schools and by mail at follow-up by youth (n = 800) transitioning from middle to high school. Linear regression models examined associations…

  15. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  16. Psychological Subtyping Finds Pathological, Impulsive, and "Normal" Groups among Adolescents Who Self-Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Sarah; Jones, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research to date suggests that as many as 12-15% of young people engage in self-harm behaviour; however, the current understanding of the psychological basis of adolescent self-harm is limited. The objective was to determine whether adolescents who self-harm are a psychologically homogenous group. It was hypothesised that psychological…

  17. Predictors of rape: findings from the National Survey of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elwood, Lisa S; Smith, Daniel W; Resnick, Heidi S; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Amstadter, Ananda B; Hanson, Rochelle F; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    The current report examines data for 872 female adolescents obtained during the initial and follow-up interviews of the National Survey of Adolescents, a nationally representative sample. Lifetime prevalence of violence exposure reported was 12% and 13% for sexual assault, 19% and 10% for physical assault/punishment, and 33% and 26% for witnessing violence at Waves I and II, respectively. Racial/ethnic status, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and family drug problems emerged as significant predictors of new rape. Each of the PTSD symptom clusters significantly predicted new rape and analyses supported the mediational role of PTSD between CSA and new rape. African American or other racial identity was associated with lower risk. PMID:21425193

  18. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  19. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5 years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided. PMID:22016748

  20. Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: autopsy findings suggestive of a metabolic disorder.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Rossi, Massimiliano; Guibaud, Laurent; Vianey-Saban, Christine

    2016-09-01

    This review highlights the importance of performing an autopsy when faced with fetal abortion or termination of pregnancy with suspicion of an inborn error of metabolism. Radiological, macroscopic and microscopic features found at autopsy as well as placental anomalies that can suggest such a diagnosis are detailed. The following metabolic disorders encountered in fetuses are discussed: lysosomal storage diseases, peroxisomal disorders, cholesterol synthesis disorders, congenital disorders of glycosylation, glycogenosis type IV, mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders, transaldolase deficiency, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, hypophosphatasia, arylsulfatase E deficiency, inborn errors of serine metabolism, asparagine synthetase deficiency, hyperphenylalaninemia, glutaric aciduria type I, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, glutamine synthase deficiency, sulfite oxidase and molybdenum cofactor deficiency. PMID:27106218

  1. Preliminary Finnish measures of eating competence suggest association with health-promoting eating patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-05-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10-17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10-17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  2. Preliminary Finnish Measures of Eating Competence Suggest Association with Health-Promoting Eating Patterns and Related Psychobehavioral Factors in 10–17 Year Old Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanja, Tilles-Tirkkonen; Outi, Nuutinen; Sakari, Suominen; Jarmo, Liukkonen; Kaisa, Poutanen; Leila, Karhunen

    2015-01-01

    Eating competence is an attitudinal and behavioral concept, based on The Satter Eating Competence Model. In adults, it has been shown to be associated with a higher quality of diet. Eating competence or its association with the quality of diet has not been studied in adolescents. The aim of the current study was to explore the utility of using a preliminary Finnish translation of the ecSI 2.0 for evaluating presumed eating competence and its association with food selection, meal patterns and related psychobehavioral factors in 10–17 year old adolescents. Altogether 976 10–17 years old Finnish adolescents filled in the study questionnaire. When exploring the construct validity of ecSI 2.0, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated acceptable model fit and all four components of the ecSI 2.0 (eating attitudes, food acceptance, internal regulation of food intake, management of eating context) correlated with each other and were internally consistent. Over half (58%) of the adolescents scored 32 or higher and were thus classified as presumably eating competent (pEC). Eating competence was associated with greater meal frequency, more frequent consumption of vegetables and fruits, and more health-promoting family eating patterns. In addition the pEC, adolescents more often perceived their body size as appropriate, had less often tried to lose weight and had a higher self-esteem and a stronger sense of coherence than the not pEC ones. Family eating patterns and self-esteem were the main underlying factors of eating competence. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests eating competence could be a useful concept to characterize eating patterns and related behaviors and attitudes in adolescents. However, these preliminary findings need to be confirmed in further studies with an instrument fully validated for this age group. PMID:26007335

  3. Phylogenetic Findings Suggest Possible New Habitat and Routes of Infection of Human Eumyctoma

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A.; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Keisari, Maryam Saradeghi; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Eberhardt, Ursala; Verkleij, Gerard J.; Xin, Lian; Stielow, Benjamin; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored. PMID:23696914

  4. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  5. Novel findings associated with MTM1 suggest a higher number of female symptomatic carriers

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Marco; Musumeci, Olimpia; Giugliano, Teresa; Rubegni, Anna; Fiorillo, Chiara; Fattori, Fabiana; Torella, Annalaura; Battini, Roberta; Rodolico, Carmelo; Pugliese, Aniello; Piluso, Giulio; Maggi, Lorenzo; D'Amico, Adele; Bruno, Claudio; Bertini, Enrico; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Mora, Marina; Toscano, Antonio; Minetti, Carlo; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the MTM1 gene cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), characterized by neonatal hypotonia and respiratory failure, and are responsible for a premature mortality in affected males. Female carriers are usually asymptomatic but they may present with muscular weakness because of a hypothesized skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation. By combining next generation sequencing (NGS) and CGH array approaches, we have investigated the role of MTM1 variants in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients with a wide spectrum of myopathies. Seven novel XLMTM patients have been identified, including two girls with an unremarkable family history for myotubular myopathy. Moreover, we have detected and finely mapped a large deletion causing a myotubular myopathy with abnormal genital development. Our data confirm that the severe neonatal onset of the disease in male infants is sufficient to address the direct molecular testing toward the MTM1 gene and, above all, suggest that the number of undiagnosed symptomatic female carriers is probably underestimated. PMID:27017278

  6. ["Plica disease" (synovial folds) of the knee-joint: arthroscopic and histological findings, with suggestions for treatment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klein, W; Schulitz, K P; Huth, F

    1979-09-01

    A mediopatellar plica (synovial fold) of the knee-joint may develop without recognisable cause in adolescents or young adults, predominantly females. It leads to pain on pressure over the medial knee compartment, sudden or "springing" intraarticular movements and pseudolocking of the joint. Similar plicae occur after traumatic joint contusion, with meniscus disease, or more rarely with arthrosis deformans. Histologically they are characterized by band-like fibrosed evaginations of the synovial membrane and of the synovial fat and connective tissue into the joint spaces. The following therapeutic suggestions, based on the personal experience of 15 cases, are made in the knowledge that significant inflammatory or proliferative arthritic changes can be excluded: the plica can be cut through under arthroscopy; chondromalacial defects, directly or indirectly caused by plical rubbing, of the medial femoral condyle and the medial patella can be removed, also under arthroscopic control, with an electric razor. Arthrotomy is no longer needed in most cases. PMID:477536

  7. The Link between Mother and Adolescent Substance Use: Intergenerational Findings from the British Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608

  8. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  9. Adolescents' preferences regarding disclosure of incidental findings in genomic sequencing that are not medically actionable in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hufnagel, Sophia B; Martin, Lisa J; Cassedy, Amy; Hopkin, Robert J; Antommaria, Armand H Matheny

    2016-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing has challenged the consensus that predictive testing should not be performed on asymptomatic minors for conditions that are not medically actionable in childhood. While the available literature suggests that most parents want access to incidental findings discovered in genomic sequencing, there is little information regarding adolescents' views. This study's goal is to determine adolescent views regarding the disclosure of incidental findings for adult onset conditions that are not medically actionable in childhood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in 7-12th grade science classes in three Cincinnati public schools. Most (235 of 282, 83%) students wanted access to non-actionable incidental findings. These participants most frequently (38%) endorsed future planning as the reason for disclosure. Seventy-two percent of students believed they should participate in the decision making process. Seventy-three percent of students believed that parents of children less than 12 years old should have access to this information. Adolescents want to have access to and participate in decisions about incidental findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27149544

  10. Multilevel Predictors of Smoking Initiation among Adolescents: Findings from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kelvin; Bernat, Debra H.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how factors at multiple levels of influence impact adolescent smoking initiation. Method Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort, a population-based cohort, were analyzed. Adolescents were recruited from randomly selected geopolitical units (GPUs) in Minnesota at ages 12 to 13 (n=1,953), and were surveyed every six months (2000–2006) until 18. The association between baseline social factors and smoking initiation was analyzed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to analyze predictors and age of initiation among smokers (n=603). Results Higher proportion of 15–16 year-olds who smoke at the area-level (GPU) was associated with younger initiation (15.47 vs 15.87, p<.05). Higher proportion of the population employed and higher median household income were associated with older initiation (15.90 vs. 15.56 p<.05). Parent education, living with parents or siblings who smoke, living in homes that allow smoking, and having friends who smoke at baseline were associated with smoking initiation or younger initiation (p<.05). Participants whose parents had less than a high school education were 1.6 times more likely than those with college educated parents to have smoked more than a whole cigarette (CI=1.06, 2.26). Conclusion Factors at multiple levels of influence affect adolescent smoking initiation. Smoking by older age peers and lower SES predicts earlier smoking. PMID:22245269

  11. Bullying Victimisation and Social Support of Adolescent Male Dance Students: An Analysis of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This analysis (n?=?33), drawn from the findings of the author's larger mixed method research study, investigated bullying and harassment of adolescent male students (ages 13-18) pursuing dance study at the pre-professional level in the United States. Procedures for this analysis included review of primary and secondary sources from the…

  12. The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

  13. Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders and Nicotine Dependence among Adolescents: Findings from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesler, Pamela C.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Schaffram, Christine; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between nicotine dependence and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in 1,039 adolescents is examined. Findings revealed that psychiatric disorders most usually predicted the onset of the first basis of nicotine dependence while nicotine dependence does not appear to have an influence on the onset of psychiatric disorders. Other…

  14. Raising Genomic Citizens: Adolescents and the Return of Secondary Genomic Findings.

    PubMed

    Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    Whole genome and exome sequencing (WGS/WES) techniques raise hope for a new scale of diagnosis, prevention, and prediction of genetic conditions, and improved care for children. For these hopes to materialize, extensive genomic research with children will be needed. However, the use of WGS/WES in pediatric research settings raises considerable challenges for families, researchers, and policy development. In particular, the possibility that these techniques will generate genetic findings unrelated to the primary goal of sequencing has stirred intense debate about whether, which, how, and when these secondary or incidental findings (SFs) should be returned to parents and minors. The debate is even more pronounced when the subjects are adolescents, for whom decisions about return of SFs may have particular implications. In this paper, we consider the rise of "genomic citizenship" and the main challenges that arise for these stakeholders: adolescents' involvement in decisions relating to return of genomic SFs, the types of SFs that should be offered, privacy protections, and communication between researchers and adolescents about SFs. We argue that adolescents' involvement in genomic SF-related decisions acknowledges their status as valuable stakeholders without detracting from broader familial interests, and promotes more informed genomic citizens. PMID:27338605

  15. Preliminary Findings: Neural Responses to Feedback Regarding Betrayal and Cooperation in Adolescent Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Nawa, Norberto Eiji; Nelson, Eric E.; Detloff, Allison M.; Fromm, Stephen; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This study examined patterns of neural response to feedback received during simulated interpersonal interactions in adolescents with anxiety disorders and healthy peers. To this aim, behavioral and neural responses during the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) game, an economic exchange task, were compared between adolescents with anxiety disorders (N=12) and healthy controls (n=17). Participants were deceived to believe that their co-player (a pre-programmed computer algorithm) was another study participant. Anxious participants and controls differed significantly in patterns of neural activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), ACC, precuneus, insula, and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) when receiving feedback about co-player defection or cooperation. Groups also differed significantly in post-feedback behavior; specifically anxious adolescents were more likely than controls to cooperate following trials when the co- player betrayed them. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that, in social situations, anxious adolescents may not only behave differently than healthy peers, but they may also engage neural resources in different ways. These findings constitute a first step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying social impairment in youth with internalizing disorders. PMID:21516543

  16. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  17. Five-year longitudinal and secular shifts in adolescent beverage intake: findings from project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Melissa C; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Detailed research examining concurrent longitudinal and secular changes in adolescent beverage intake is not currently available, particularly since the year 2000. This study's objective was to evaluate these trends in beverage intake in a large, diverse adolescent cohort. Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-II is a 5-year longitudinal study (n=2,516) including two cohorts, which allows for the observation of longitudinal changes from early to mid-adolescence (junior high to high school) and from mid- to late adolescence (high school to post high school). Project EAT-II also examined secular trends in adolescent health behavior from 1999-2004 in mid-adolescence. Daily beverage servings were assessed using the Youth and Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire. Longitudinal findings indicate that intake of soda and sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, sweetened iced teas, and fruit drinks) increased significantly among younger males, and alcohol increased across all groups (P<0.01). Consumption of certain beverages decreased with age: fruit juice (among all males and older females, P< or =0.02), milk (older adolescents, P<0.01), other milk beverages (all females and older males, P<0.01), diet soda (younger adolescents, P<0.01), and coffee/tea (all males and younger females, P<0.01). Significant secular decreases were observed in fruit juice and coffee/tea for males and females (P< or =0.05). Overall, these findings reflect recent secular and longitudinal shifts in adolescent beverage consumption during the critical transition period from early to mid-adolescence and mid- to late adolescence. Although additional research is needed to better understand nuances in adolescent consumption patterns, registered dietitians and other health care practitioners working with adolescents should address the importance of limiting sugar-sweetened beverages with low nutrient density. PMID:19167959

  18. Body image of children and adolescents with cancer: a metasynthesis on qualitative research findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Chou, Shin-Shang; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2012-09-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer are confronted with many challenges. This review considered studies that used qualitative methods to examine the body image experience of children and adolescents with cancer. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between 1960 and October 2010. Qualitative research findings were extracted and pooled using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. The derived four metasyntheses included being distanced from the body, loss of self-identity, self-protective strategies and support, and getting rid of the shackles of the body. In conclusion, children and adolescents with cancer also experience various problems associated with changes in their body image. Repeated courses of treatment lead to loss of a normal, orderly life, and might even result in changes in interpersonal interactions. In response to body image change, individuals with cancer develop self-protective, coping strategies. Children and adolescents who experience life-threatening cancer come to face body image change positively, and might hold a confident attitude toward their future. PMID:22672500

  19. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations. PMID:25716137

  20. Adolescent over-general memory, life events and mental health outcomes: Findings from a UK cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Catherine; Heron, Jon; Gunnell, David; Lewis, Glyn; Evans, Jonathan; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggesting that over-general memory (OGM) may moderate the effect of life events on depressive symptoms and suicidality has sampled older adolescents or adults, or younger adolescents in high-risk populations, and has been conducted over relatively short follow-up periods. The authors examined the relationship between OGM at age 13 and life events and mental health outcomes (depression, self-harm, suicidal ideation and planning) at age 16 years within a sample of 5792 adolescents participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), approximately 3800 of whom had also provided data on depression and self-harm. There was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM at age 13 on levels of depression at age 16. Similarly there was no clear evidence of either direct or interactive effects of OGM on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Although there was some evidence that over-general autobiographical memory was associated with reduced risk of suicidal planning and increased risk of self-harm, these associations were absent when confounding variables were taken into account. The findings imply that although OGM is a marker of vulnerability to depression and related psychopathology in high-risk groups, this cannot be assumed to generalise to whole populations. PMID:25716137

  1. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies: Existing Findings and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Rescorla, Leslie A

    2016-10-01

    As summarized in this commentary, the first generation of cross-informant agreement research focused on perceptions of child and adolescent mental health. Contributions of this research include demonstrating that modest cross-informant agreement is a very robust phenomenon, utilizing numerous statistical approaches to measure degree of agreement, and identifying many factors that moderate agreement. An important focus of this work has been using multi-society international comparisons to examine cross-cultural similarities and differences in cross-informant agreement. The articles in this Special Issue represent a significant paradigm shift in which cross-informant agreement is examined as an independent variable predicting a wide variety of outcomes. Furthermore, moving beyond perceptions of adolescent mental health, these articles compare parent and adolescent perceptions of diverse aspects of family functioning (e.g., family conflict, parent-adolescent communication, family relationships, parental authority). Additionally, the research presented in this Special Issue employs innovative and sophisticated statistical techniques. Although the Special Issue represents some first steps toward considering cross-cultural aspects of perceptions of family functioning, much work still needs to be done in this area. Some suggestions for future research strategies to accomplish this goal conclude this commentary. PMID:27491416

  2. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25736181

  3. Barriers to and Suggestions for a Healthful, Active Lifestyle as Perceived by Rural and Urban Costa Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sanchez-Lopez, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of rural and urban Costa Rican adolescents regarding which barriers and motivators affect their adoption of an active lifestyle. Design: Data were collected in focus group discussions. Participants: 108 male and female adolescents aged 12 to 18 from the 7th to 11th grades. Setting: Two urban and 1 rural high…

  4. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  5. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (−786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles −786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2–5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  6. Dermatologic findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa of childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schulze, U M; Pettke-Rank, C V; Kreienkamp, M; Hamm, H; Bröcker, E B; Wewetzer, C; Trott, G E; Warnke, A

    1999-01-01

    The cutaneous signs of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have been described previously in adult patients. For the first time, we present here dermatologic findings in children and adolescents suffering from eating disorders. Thirty consecutive young anorexic and bulimic inpatients (8 to 17 years of age, mean 15.1 years) underwent a standardized dermatologic examination. Patients were checked for abnormalities of the skin including atopic stigmata, dermographism, hair, nails, and oral cavity. Serum was obtained for hemoglobin, iron, zinc, GPT, thyroid, and sex-hormone levels. In 13 patients, the total serum IgE was determined, and a prick test was carried out with defined type I allergens. Findings in order of frequency included xerosis of the skin, white dermographism, diffuse hypertrichosis, acrocyanosis, scars, diffuse effluvium, artifacts, brittle nails, and onychophagia. Significant co-relations were found between the presence of hypertrichosis and the existence of amenorrhea or a body mass index of less than 16. In 22 patients a low T3 level was found. In summary, children and adolescents suffering from AN or BN show dermatologic features similar to those reported in older patients. Special findings in this age group are extensive lanugo hair and signs of autoaggressive behavior. PMID:10337669

  7. Adolescent Outpatient Treatment and Continuing Care: Main Findings from a Randomized Clinical Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Godley, Susan H.; Garner, Bryan R.; Passetti, Lora L.; Funk, Rodney R.; Dennis, Michael L.; Godley, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of two types of outpatient treatment with and without Assertive Continuing Care (ACC) for 320 adolescents with substance use disorders. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) Chestnut’s Bloomington Outpatient Treatment (CBOP) without ACC; (b) CBOP with ACC; (c) Motivational Enhancement Therapy/Cognitive Behavior Therapy-7 session model (MET/CBT7) without ACC; and (d) MET/CBT7 with ACC. All study conditions attained high rates of participant engagement and retention. Follow-up interviews were completed with over 90% of the adolescents at three, six, nine, and twelve months after treatment admission. There was a significant time by condition effect over 12 months, with CBOP having a slight advantage for average percentage of days abstinent. Unlike previous findings that ACC provided incremental effectiveness following residential treatment, there were no statistically significant findings with regard to the incremental effectiveness of ACC following outpatient treatment. Analysis of the costs of each intervention combined with its outcomes revealed that the most cost-effective condition was MET/CBT7 without ACC. PMID:20219293

  8. Obesity impairs academic attainment in adolescence: findings from ALSPAC, a UK cohort

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J N; Tomporowski, P D; Boyle, J M E; Ness, A R; Joinson, C; Leary, S D; Reilly, J J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While being overweight or obese in adolescence may have detrimental effects on academic attainment, the evidence base is limited by reliance on cross-sectional studies with small sample sizes, failure to take account of confounders and lack of consideration of potential mediators. The present study aimed to address these limitations and examine longitudinal associations between obesity in adolescence and academic attainment. Design: Associations between weight status at 11 years old and academic attainment assessed by national tests at 11, 13 and 16 years were examined in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Healthy weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) Z-score <1.04; overweight as BMI Z-score 1.04–1.63; obesity as BMI Z-score ⩾1.64. Participants: Data from 5966 participants with objectively measured weight status were examined: 71.4% were healthy weight (1935 males; 2325 females), 13.3% overweight (372 males; 420 females) and 15.3% obese (448 males; 466 females). Results: Girls obese at 11 years had lower academic attainment at 11, 13 and 16 years compared with those of a healthy weight, even after controlling for a wide range of confounders. Associations between obesity and academic attainment were less clear in boys. The potential mediating effects of depressive symptoms, intelligence quotient (IQ) and age of menarche in girls were explored, but when confounders were included, there was no strong evidence for mediation. Conclusions: For girls, obesity in adolescence has a detrimental impact on academic attainment 5 years later. Mental health, IQ and age of menarche did not mediate this relationship, suggesting that further work is required to understand the underlying mechanisms. Parents, education and public health policy makers should consider the wide reaching detrimental impact of obesity on educational outcomes in this age group. PMID:24614099

  9. Genetically informative research on adolescent substance use: methods, findings and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method We present a selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. Results Adoption, twin and extended family designs have established there is a strong heritable component to liability to nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adults. However, shared environmental influences are relatively stronger in youth samples and at earlier stages of substance involvement (e.g., use). There is considerable overlap in the genetic influences associated with the abuse/ dependence across drug classes while shared genetic influences also contribute to the commonly observed associations between substance use disorders and both externalizing and, to a lesser extent, internalizing psychopathology. Rapid technological advances have made the identification of specific gene variants that influence risks for substance use disorders feasible and linkage and association (including genomewide association studies) have identified promising candidate genes implicated in the development of substance use disorders. Conclusions Studies using genetically informative research designs, including those that examine aggregate genetic factors and those examining specific gene variants, individually and in interaction with environmental influences, offer promising avenues not only for delineating genetic effects on substance use disorders but also for understanding the unfolding of risk across development and the interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of these disorders. PMID:21093770

  10. Ecstasy Use and Suicidal Behavior among Adolescents: Findings from a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jueun; Fan, Bin; Liu, Xinhua; Kerner, Nancy; Wu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between ecstasy use and suicidal behavior among adolescents in the United States was examined. Data from the adolescent subsample (ages 12-17, N = 19,301) of the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse were used in the analyses. Information on adolescent substance use, suicidal behaviors, and related sociodemographic, family,…

  11. Four Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurious Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: Findings from a Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiuhong; Ming, Qingsen; Zhang, Jibiao; Wang, Yuping; Liu, Mingli; Yao, Shuqiao

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) among adolescents is an important public health issue worldwide. It is still uncertain whether homogeneous subgroups of SIB can be identified and whether constellations of SIBs can co-occur due to the high heterogeneity of these behaviors. In this study, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a large school-based sample and latent class analysis was performed (n = 10,069, mean age = 15 years) to identify SIB classes based on 11 indicators falling under direct SIB (DSIB), indirect SIB (ISIB), and suicide attempts (SAs). Social and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were examined after controlling for age and gender. Results showed that a four-class model best fit the data and each class had a distinct pattern of co-occurrence of SIBs and external measures. Class 4 (the baseline/normative group, 65.3%) had a low probability of SIB. Class 3 (severe SIB group, 3.9%) had a high probability of SIB and the poorest social and psychological status. Class 1 (DSIB+SA group, 14.2%) had similar scores for external variables compared to class 3, and included a majority of girls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.94]. Class 2 (ISIB group, 16.6%) displayed moderate endorsement of ISIB items, and had a majority of boys and older adolescents (OR = 1.51). These findings suggest that SIB is a heterogeneous entity, but it may be best explained by four homogenous subgroups that display quantitative and qualitative differences. Findings in this study will improve our understanding on SIB and may facilitate the prevention and treatment of SIB. PMID:27392132

  12. Physical findings in 21q22 deletion suggest critical region for 21q - phenotype in q22

    SciTech Connect

    Thedoropoulos, D.S.; Cowan, J.M.; Elias, E.R.; Cole, C.

    1995-11-06

    Multiple abnormalities were observed in a newborn infant with a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 21, from band 22q22.1{yields}qter. The phenotype of this infant was similar to that previously described in infants with deletions spanning the long arm of chromosome 21, from the centromere to 21q22. However, as a phenotypically normal child with normal intelligence and with deletion of 21q11.1-21q21.3 has also been identified, this case suggests that the critical region of deletion for the 21q - phenotype lies distal to 21q21, within 21q22.1-22.2. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Clinical, instrumental, serological and histological findings suggest that hemophilia B may be less severe than hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Linari, Silvia; Manetti, Mirko; Romano, Eloisa; Sofi, Francesco; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with severe hemophilia B may have a less severe disease compared to severe hemophilia A. To investigate clinical, radiological, laboratory and histological differences in the arthropathy of severe hemophilia A and hemophilia B, 70 patients with hemophilia A and 35 with hemophilia B with at least one joint bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Joint bleedings (<10, 10–50, >50), regimen of treatment (prophylaxis/on demand), World Federation of Hemophilia, Pettersson and ultrasound scores, serum soluble RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin were assessed in all patients. RANK, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin expression was evaluated in synovial tissue from 18 hemophilia A and 4 hemophilia B patients. The percentage of patients with either 10–50 or more than 50 hemarthrosis was greater in hemophilia A than in hemophilia B (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), while that with less than 10 hemarthrosis was higher in hemophilia B (P<0.0001). World Federation of Hemophilia (36.6 vs. 20.2; P<0.0001) and ultrasound (10.9 vs. 4.3; P<0.0001) score mean values were significantly higher in hemophilia A patients. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand were decreased in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B (P<0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively). Osteoprotegerin expression was markedly reduced in synovial tissue from hemophilia A patients. In conclusion, the reduced number of hemarthrosis, the lower World Federation of Hemophilia and ultrasound scores, and higher osteoprotegerin expression in serum and synovial tissue in hemophilia B suggest that hemophilia B is a less severe disease than hemophilia A. Osteoprotegerin reduction seems to play a pivotal role in the progression of arthropathy in hemophilia A. PMID:26494839

  14. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kipping, Ruth R; Smith, Michèle; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inactivity were assessed in mid-adolescence (age 15–16 years). Associations between three measures of SES (maternal education, household income and parental social class) and (i) individual risk behaviours and (ii) the total number of risk behaviours were examined. Results. For a one-category reduction in social class, maternal education or income, the odds of having a greater number of multiple risk behaviours increased by 22, 15 and 12%, respectively. At the individual level, there was evidence of a strong relationship with decreasing SES across all three measures of SES and criminality, car passenger risk, TV viewing, scooter risk, early sexual behaviour and weekly tobacco use but insufficient evidence of a relationship for physical inactivity, cycling without a helmet and illicit substance use. There was weak evidence of association between SES and hazardous drinking, self-harm, cannabis use and unprotected sex, but this was not consistent across the SES measures. Conclusion. The association between multiple risk behaviours and SES suggests that prevention strategies should apply the principal of proportionate universalism with a focus on more deprived populations, within a population-wide strategy, to prevent widening of social inequalities. PMID:24963150

  15. Relationship Between Gambling Severity and Attitudes in Adolescents: Findings from a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Gori, Mercedes; Potente, Roberta; Pitino, Annalisa; Scalese, Marco; Bastiani, Luca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2015-09-01

    This study used a nationally representative sample of 14,910 high school adolescents, aged 15-19 years. The large sample size presents a unique opportunity to evaluate firstly the geographical distribution of gambling prevalence, secondly, on a subsample of 5,920 adolescents, we studied the association of "no-problem-gambling", "at-risk gambling" and a relatively rare condition, "problem gambling", with demographic, environmental and behavioral variables. It differs from other studies due to the broad sample, thus enabling the combined analysis of the above variables that typically have only been studied separately. This integrated analysis, involving multiple variables, individual and environmental, allows the control of important covariates. Multivariate analysis showed that at-risk/problem gamblers were more likely to be engaged in behaviors contrary to social rules/law including heavy episodic drinking, tranquillizer/sedatives use as well as to approve gambling and have friends who gamble. It's important to emphasize that risk-perception is not related to gambling. Furthermore, the great geographical variability of at-risk and problem-gambling rates suggest that social aspects have to be considered. Currently universal prevention specifically targeting gambling is lacking, thus an associative model such as social analysis have been implemented in this study, in order to construct the basis for the design of a future prevention program based on scientific results and thus having important implications for implementation within community based activities. Prevention is fundamental: 53.5% of underage individuals have engaged in gambling even though legislation attempts to restrict access. PMID:25063468

  16. Complications and comorbidities of T2DM in adolescents: findings from the TODAY clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Tryggestad, Jeanie B; Willi, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    With the rise in childhood obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized to occur in adolescents with increasing frequency. Although much is known about T2DM in adults, few studies have examined the treatment and complications of T2DM in youth. The Treatment Options for type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of various treatments and provided a unique opportunity to study the disease progression and appearance of complications in a pediatric cohort with recent onset of the disease. In the TODAY study, hypertension was present in 11.6% of the population at baseline and increased to 33.8% by the end of the study. Prevalence of high-risk LDL-cholesterol rose from 4.5% at baseline to 10.7% at the end of the study. Microalbuminuria was found in 6.3% of the cohort at baseline and increased to 16.6%. Retinopathy was not assessed upon entry into TODAY, but was present in 13.9% of the TODAY cohort at the end of the study. Experience to date indicates that these complications and comorbidities are similar to those seen in adults, but occur on an accelerated timeline. The early manifestation of diabetes complications in youth-onset T2DM suggests that this group will be burdened with the tangible consequences of cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, and retinopathy in the third and fourth decades of life. It is hoped that through an early, aggressive approach to treatment and prevention, we may be able to curb the onset and progression of these potentially devastating outcomes. PMID:25468310

  17. Impact of Project P.A.T.H.S. on adolescent developmental outcomes in Hong Kong: findings based on seven waves of data.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the longitudinal impact of Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) on adolescent developmental outcomes in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, seven waves of data were collected from 24 experimental schools (n=4049 at wave 1) in which students participated in the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n=3797 at wave 1). Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that, relative to the control participants, participants in the experimental group had: (a) a higher level of positive development; (b) a lower level of substance abuse; and (c) a lower level of delinquent behavior. Participants who regarded the program to be beneficial also showed higher levels of positive development and lower levels of problem behavior than did the control school students. The present findings suggest that Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in promoting positive development and preventing adolescent problem behavior in Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. PMID:22962205

  18. Socioeconomic differences in overweight and weight-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings from Project EAT.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mason, Susan M; Loth, Katie; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-06-01

    Reducing socioeconomic disparities in weight-related health is a public health priority. The purpose of this paper was to examine 10-year longitudinal patterns in overweight and weight-related behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood as a function of family-level socioeconomic status (SES) and educational attainment. Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) followed a diverse sample of 2287 adolescents from 1999 to 2009. Mixed-effects regression tested longitudinal trends in overweight, fast food, breakfast skipping, physical inactivity, and screen use by family-level SES. The influence of subsequent educational attainment in young adulthood was examined. Results revealed that the prevalence of overweight increased significantly from adolescence to young adulthood with the greatest change seen in those from low SES (mean change=30.7%, 95% CI=25.6%-35.9%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=21.7%, 95% CI=18.2%-25.1%). Behavioral changes from adolescence to young adulthood also differed by SES background; the prevalence of frequent fast food intake (≥3times/week) increased most dramatically in those from low SES (mean change=6%, 95% CI=0.5%-11%) as compared to high SES families (mean change=-1.2%, 95% CI=-5.2%-2.9%). Overall trends suggest that a higher educational attainment mitigates the negative impacts of a low SES background. These findings suggest that continued effort is needed to ensure that public health strategies addressing obesity and related behaviors reach adolescents and young adults from low SES backgrounds and do not contribute to widening socioeconomic gaps in weight-related health. PMID:26970036

  19. Marital and Birth Expectations of Urban Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Edward A.; Zabin, Laurie S.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the responses of 1,344 African-American and 580 white female adolescents, and 852 African-American and 520 white male adolescents to questions regarding their perceived ideal ages for marriage and first birth. Findings reveal differences between white and African-American adolescents' responses. Comparisons suggest that the adolescents'…

  20. A Boxing-Oriented Exercise Intervention for Obese Adolescent Males: Findings from a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sarah P.; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Lane, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    boys of Māori and Pasifika descent. However, despite these positive attributes, poor recruitment rates suggest that future work should focus on identifying the barriers to engagement. Key points A boxing-oriented intervention was developed for use with Māori and Pasifika adolescents to improve cardiometabolic risk factors. While results indicate positive benefits of participation in the 60-minute boxing-orientated programme, only three participants were recruited despite intense promotion. Future research should investigate the efficacy of strategies designed to raise intentions to exercise. PMID:25435766

  1. A boxing-oriented exercise intervention for obese adolescent males: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    adolescent boys of Māori and Pasifika descent. However, despite these positive attributes, poor recruitment rates suggest that future work should focus on identifying the barriers to engagement. Key pointsA boxing-oriented intervention was developed for use with Māori and Pasifika adolescents to improve cardiometabolic risk factors.While results indicate positive benefits of participation in the 60-minute boxing-orientated programme, only three participants were recruited despite intense promotion.Future research should investigate the efficacy of strategies designed to raise intentions to exercise. PMID:25435766

  2. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  3. Remission after Acute Treatment in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Findings from the CAMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Kendall, Philip C.; Sakolsky, Dara; Compton, Scott N.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne Marie; Walkup, John T.; Sherrill, Joel; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Rynn, Moira A.; Keeton, Courtney P.; McCracken, James T.; Bergman, Lindsey; Iyengar, Satish; Birmaher, Boris; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To report on remission rates in anxious youth who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). The CAMS, a multisite clinical trial, randomized 488 children and adolescents (ages 7-17 years; 79% Caucasian; 50% female) with separation, social, and/or generalized anxiety disorder to a 12-week treatment of…

  4. Hookah Smoking and Harm Perception among Asthmatic Adolescents: Findings from the Florida Youth Tobacco Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinasek, Mary P.; Gibson-Young, Linda; Forrest, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hookah tobacco smoking has increased in prevalence among Florida adolescents and is often viewed as a safer alternative to cigarette smoking by young adults. Asthmatic adolescents are at increased risk of the negative health effects of hookah smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine if hookah use and harm perception vary by…

  5. Experiences of Sexual Coercion among Adolescent Women: Qualitative Findings from Rakai District, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagman, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Waszak Geary, Cindy; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ron; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    Limited data from low-income countries are available on the continuum of coercive experiences, the contexts in which they occur, and how adolescent women perceive and respond to coercion. This article presents results from focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with pregnant and never pregnant sexually active female adolescents, aged 15…

  6. Finding a Voice: Art Therapy with Female Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backos, Amy K.; Pagon, Barb E.

    1999-01-01

    Adolescents who have suffered the trauma of incest or rape often search for inner resolution amidst a society that can be more rejecting than comforting. Therapists need to be aware of issues specific to this population, as well as societal influences that impact recovery. Describes the components of an adolescent art therapy group for female…

  7. The Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) Project: Preliminary Findings on Alternative School Intervention for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Donnie W.; Mouttapa, Michele; Reiber, Chris; McCuller, William Jason; Arancibia, Ruben; Kavich, Julia A.; Nieves, Elena; Novgrod, Judith; Mai, Noemi; Bisesi, Lorrie; Sim, Tiffanie

    2007-01-01

    A non-randomized control trial was conducted to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the Life Interventions for Family Effectiveness (LIFE) project: a family-based, evidence-based comprehensive substance abuse intervention for at-risk adolescents and their families. The Matrix Adolescent Treatment Model of program delivery was utilized in the…

  8. Family Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes: Converging Findings from Eastern and Western Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dmitrieva, Julia; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parent-adolescent relationships in mediating the association between family-related negative life events and adolescent depressive symptoms and problem behaviors among 1,696 eleventh graders from the United States (n=201), China (n=502), Korea (n=497), and Czech Republic (n=496). Results indicated that perceived…

  9. Rett syndrome in adolescent and adult females: clinical and molecular genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Smeets, E; Schollen, E; Moog, U; Matthijs, G; Herbergs, J; Smeets, H; Curfs, L; Schrander-Stumpel, C; Fryns, J P

    2003-10-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which is diagnosed clinically. We report on 30 adolescent and adult females with classical or atypical RTT of whom 24 have a MECP2 mutation. In these 24 females, the clinical manifestations, degree of severity, and disorder profiles are discussed as well as the genotype phenotype correlation. After X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) study in these cases, we found no correlation between skewing and milder phenotype. Three large deletions were found after additional Southern blot analysis in three classical RTT cases. We confirm that early truncating mutations in MECP2 are responsible for a more severe course of the disorder. Three disorder profiles related to the missense mutations R133C and R306C, and to deletions in the C terminal segment are described and are of interest for further clinical study on larger numbers of cases. The R133C genotype has a predominantly autistic presentation while the R306C genotype is associated with a slower disease progression. The phenotype of the "hotspot" deletions in the C terminal segment is predominantly characterized by rapid progressive neurogenic scoliosis. Older women with RTT are underdiagnosed: seven adults were first diagnosed as having RTT between 29 and 60 years of age, and confirmed on finding a MECP2 mutation. Knowledge of the clinical phenotype of RTT at an adult age is important for all involved in the care of these individuals. The involvement of the parent support group is very important in this matter. PMID:12966523

  10. Executive Function in Adolescence: A Commentary on Regulatory Control and Depression in Adolescents: Findings From Neuroimaging and Neuropsychological Research.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This commentary addresses the manner in which executive control processes and their development is impacted by major depressive episodes during adolescence. Strengths of the articles within this special issue include the breadth of executive functions that were examined, incorporation of biological probes to understand neural mechanisms involved in observed impairments, the use of longitudinal paradigms to assess developmental timing, consideration and modeling of comorbid conditions, and the identification of individual difference factors that may serve as both liabilities and resilience factors. This work is timely; a close examination of negative emotions and how they change during adolescence is needed if we are to fully understand motivation-cognition interactions and how they are impaired by psychopathology. PMID:26743038

  11. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2015-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network “types” may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among adolescents using data from 3,030 male respondents to the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Sampled youth were a mean of 16 years of age when surveyed about the nature of their peer networks, and 21.9 when asked to report about IPV perpetration in their adolescent and early adulthood relationships. A latent class analysis of the size, structure, gender composition and delinquency level of friendship groups identified four unique profiles of peer network structures. Men in the group type characterized by small, dense, mostly male peer networks with higher levels of delinquent behavior reported higher rates of subsequent IPV perpetration than men whose adolescent network type was characterized by large, loosely connected groups of less delinquent male and female friends. Other factors known to be antecedents and correlates of IPV perpetration varied in their distribution across the peer group types, suggesting that different configurations of risk for relationship aggression can be found across peer networks. Implications for prevention programming and future research are addressed. PMID:20422351

  12. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  13. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner. PMID:24344782

  14. Long-term symptoms and posttraumatic growth in traumatised adolescents: findings from a specialised outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Vloet, Andrea; Simons, Michael; Vloet, Timo D; Sander, Melanie; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2014-10-01

    Although traumatic experiences are associated with an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, little is known regarding the long-term outcomes of traumatised adolescents. In the current study, 42 traumatised adolescents who had been referred to a specialised health service were reassessed 2 to 5 years after the traumatic event. The course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric symptoms, the development of posttraumatic growth (PTG), and parental PTSD were analysed. The rate of PTSD (full and partial) declined from 59.5% to 11.9% between the first assessment and the follow-up. On average, low levels of PTG were reported by the adolescents at follow-up. Sexual abuse was associated with most severe PTSD symptoms at initial assessment (η(2) = .18) and the highest PTG (η(2) = .12). Adolescents with psychotherapeutic support showed the largest symptom reduction (η(2) = .15). Adolescent PTSD at follow-up was shown to be correlated with both PTG (r = .34) and parental PTSD (r = .58). The results highlight the need for psychotherapeutic support for traumatised adolescents and their parents to prevent long-term psychological impairment. The development of PTG should be considered in the aftermath of trauma and its relevance for posttraumatic recovery should be addressed in future studies. PMID:25270037

  15. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: a review of empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today's teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today's youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  16. Puzzling Findings in Studying the Outcome of “Real World” Adolescent Mental Health Services: The TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Jörg, Frederike; Ormel, Johan; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Jansen, Daniëlle E. M. C.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The increased use and costs of specialist child and adolescent mental health services (MHS) urge us to assess the effectiveness of these services. The aim of this paper is to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents with and without MHS use in a naturalistic setting. Method and Findings Participants are 2230 (pre)adolescents that enrolled in a prospective cohort study, the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Response rate was 76%, mean age at baseline 11.09 (SD 0.56), 50.8% girls. We used data from the first three assessment waves, covering a six year period. Multiple linear regression analysis, propensity score matching, and data validation were used to compare the course of emotional and behavioural problems of adolescents with and without MHS use. The association between MHS and follow-up problem score (β 0.20, SE 0.03, p-value<0.001) was not confounded by baseline severity, markers of adolescent vulnerability or resilience nor stressful life events. The propensity score matching strategy revealed that follow-up problem scores of non-MHS-users decreased while the problem scores of MHS users remained high. When taking into account future MHS (non)use, it appeared that problem scores decreased with limited MHS use, albeit not as much as without any MHS use, and that problem scores with continuous MHS use remained high. Data validation showed that using a different outcome measure, multiple assessment waves and multiple imputation of missing values did not alter the results. A limitation of the study is that, although we know what type of MHS participants used, and during which period, we lack information on the duration of the treatment. Conclusions The benefits of MHS are questionable. Replication studies should reveal whether a critical examination of everyday care is necessary or an artefact is responsible for these results. PMID:23028584

  17. Vestibular Migraine in Children and Adolescents: Clinical Findings and Laboratory Tests

    PubMed Central

    Langhagen, Thyra; Lehrer, Nicole; Borggraefe, Ingo; Heinen, Florian; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM) is the most common cause of episodic vertigo in children. We summarize the clinical findings and laboratory test results in a cohort of children and adolescents with VM. We discuss the limitations of current classification criteria for dizzy children. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 118 children with migraine related vertigo at a tertiary care center. Patients were grouped in the following categories: (1) definite vestibular migraine (dVM); (2) probable vestibular migraine (pVM); (3) suspected vestibular migraine (sVM); (4) benign paroxysmal vertigo (BPV); and (5) migraine with/without aura (oM) plus vertigo/dizziness according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Results: The mean age of all patients was 12 ± 3 years (range 3–18 years, 70 females). 36 patients (30%) fulfilled criteria for dVM, 33 (28%) for pVM, 34 (29%) for sVM, 7 (6%) for BPV, and 8 (7%) for oM. Somatoform vertigo (SV) co-occurred in 27% of patients. Episodic syndromes were reported in 8%; the family history of migraine was positive in 65%. Mild central ocular motor signs were found in 24% (most frequently horizontal saccadic pursuit). Laboratory tests showed that about 20% had pathological function of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex, and almost 50% had abnormal postural sway patterns. Conclusion: Patients with definite, probable, and suspected VM do not differ in the frequency of ocular motor, vestibular, or postural abnormalities. VM is the best explanation for their symptoms. It is essential to establish diagnostic criteria in clinical studies. In clinical practice, however, the most reasonable diagnosis should be made in order to begin treatment. Such a procedure also minimizes the fear of the parents and children, reduces the need to interrupt leisure time and school activities, and prevents the development of SV. PMID:25674076

  18. A process evaluation of an adolescent weight management intervention: findings and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh; Shrewsbury, Vanessa A; O'Connor, Janice; Lau, Christine; Steinbeck, Katharine S; Hill, Andrew J; Baur, Louise A

    2015-06-01

    Process evaluation is valuable in guiding development of effective intervention programmes but rare in adolescent weight management. This paper presents a process evaluation of the Loozit(®) randomized controlled trial, a community-based behavioural lifestyle intervention for obese 13-16 year olds. Adolescents were randomized to receive the two-phase Loozit(®) group programme, with (n = 73) or without (n = 78), additional therapeutic contact (telephone coaching, short message service and/or emails) in Phase 2. Quantitative and qualitative process data were collected. Facilitators used a standardized evaluation form to document participant attendance, and comment on lesson adherence and process delivery. Adolescents and parents completed satisfaction questionnaires at 2-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Following the intervention, 14 adolescents who provided informed written consent were interviewed about their experience with additional therapeutic contact. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, parametric and non-parametric tests to compare group means, and thematic analyses. Group attendance rates averaged 85 and 47% during Phases 1 (0-2 months) and 2 (3-24 months), respectively. Facilitators frequently noted that participants reported making healthy lifestyle changes. Elements enjoyed in the sessions included practical activities, fun active games, resistance training and forming new friendships. Adolescents struggled with setting specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timely (SMART) goals. Overall, participants were satisfied with the help received including the telephone and electronic contact. More than 80% of participants found the programme changed adolescents' eating and physical activity habits, and 89% of parents reported changing parenting strategies. Future adolescent group-based programmes may enhance participant engagement and programme effectiveness by including more interactive and frequent telephone and electronic contact. PMID

  19. Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

  20. Association among smoking, depression, and anxiety: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between smoking and depression and anxiety using data from a nationwide survey representing Korean adolescents. Subjects were 6,489 adolescents in middle and high school (age 13–18) who had participated in the 2011 Korean Study of Promotion Policies on Children and Adolescents—Mental Health (KSPCAM). Daily smoking number of times for current smokers was classified as 1–2 times, 2–4 times and over 5 times. The odds ratio for the statistical test was presented using hierarchical logistic regression. When adjusted for covariates (gender, age, household economy, type of residing city, type of school, school record, satisfaction with school life, subjective health status, satisfaction with relationship with parents, and drinking experience), smokers more significantly likely to have depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI [1.02–1.57]), and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.14–1.96]) than non-smokers (p < 0.05). In addition, adolescents who smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day were 1.5 times more likely to have depression (OR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.92]) and anxiety (OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.07–2.08]) than those who do not smoke. Smoking in adolescence was found to be significantly related with depression and anxiety. To promote the mental health of adolescents, effective smoking cessation programs are required. PMID:26557425

  1. Suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents: A review of empirical findings

    PubMed Central

    Galaif, Elisha R; Sussman, Steve; Newcomb, Michael D; Locke, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a serious health problem as it is currently the third leading cause of death for teenagers between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Depression, which is also a serious problem for adolescents, is the most significant biological and psychological risk factor for teen suicide. Alcohol use remains extremely widespread among today’s teenagers and is related to both suicidality and depression. Suicidality refers to the occurrence of suicidal thoughts or suicidal behavior. The consensus in empirical research is that mental disorders and substance abuse are the most important risk factors in both attempted and completed adolescent suicide. Therefore, it is incumbent upon researchers to identify the factors that can lead to their prevention among today’s youth. This review compiles the existing literature on suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents spanning over the past 15 years. Both Problem Behavior Theory and Stress-coping Theory can explain the relationships among suicidality, depression and alcohol use. The prevention of suicidality is critical, especially during the early school years, when it is associated with depression and alcohol use. Suicidality, depression and alcohol use are three phenomenon that noticeably increase in adolescence marking this time period as an ideal opportunity for prevention efforts to commence. Future empirical work is needed that will further assess the impact of adolescent depression and alcohol use on suicidality. In sum, this review of empirical research highlights critical results and limitations, as well as indicates a need for continued efforts in preventing suicidality, depression, and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:17458321

  2. Finding a Way through the Rough Years: How Blind Girls Survive Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Deborah

    1983-01-01

    The author, blind herself, looks back on her own adolescence and that of seven other women to give some impressions of the feelings and experiences of blind teenage girls and of their special problems with peers, dating, fashion, and makeup. (Author/CL)

  3. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Is Associated with Conduct Disorder in Adolescence: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…

  4. Consequences of Parenthood in Late Adolescence: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggstrom, Gus W.; Morrison, Peter A.

    The effects of adolescent parenthood upon certain outcome measures reflecting changes in aspirations, attitudes, and well-being were investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972. Analyses were computed for expected educational attainment; self-esteem; locus of control; orientation toward work, family,…

  5. The Peer Context of Adolescent Substance Use: Findings from Social Network Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Foshee, Vangie A.; Cai, Li; DuRant, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    To examine the peer context of adolescent substance use, social network analysis was used to measure three domains of attributes of peer networks: social embeddedness, social status, and social proximity to substance users. The sample was a panel of 5,104 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders in three public school systems surveyed every 6 months for…

  6. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  7. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid-1960s, when illicit drug use burgeoned in the normal youth population, substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly changing phenomenon. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How vigorously the nation responds to…

  8. Lost in (cyber)space: finding two adolescent boys hiding from their own humanity.

    PubMed

    Tyminski, Robert

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the intense psychological effects of compulsive Internet use, which has become increasingly common among adolescent boys and young men. Two cases are presented and discussed to illustrate some of the psychic distortions around thinking and feeling, as these occurred in the analysis of a mid-adolescent boy and of another patient in later adolescence. A kind of narcissistic omnipotence grounded in magical thinking appeared to take root in their minds, and it led to an avoidant pattern in relationships because of such strong wishes for both distance and control. A short review of the conceptual origins of magical thinking underscores its continued relevance because so many now engage with the Internet. In addition, Anzieu's idea of the 'skin ego' is applied to the clinical case material to provide a theoretical framework for the developmental challenges that can appear in adolescent boys who seek to use the Internet as a form of psychic container. Emerging problems that immersion in the Internet might bring into our practices, for example the depleting effects of massive projective identification, are considered and discussed, along with the obvious ways in which using the Internet can be beneficial for connecting with others, for creating new platforms of expression, and for education. PMID:25808471

  9. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Substance use by American young people has proven to be a rapidly-changing phenomenon, requiring frequent assessments and reassessments. Since the mid-1960s it has remained a major concern for the nation. Smoking, drinking, and illicit drug use are leading causes of morbidity and mortality, both during adolescence as well as later in life. How…

  10. Effective Components of TORDIA Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Clarke, Greg N.; Weersing, V. Robin; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Shamseddeen, Wael; Porta, Giovanna; Berk, Michele; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham J.; Keller, Martin B.; Wagner, Karen D.; Brent, David A.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we conducted a secondary analysis of the Treatment of SSRI-Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study to explore the impact of specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment components on outcome. In TORDIA, 334 youths (ages 12 to 18 years) with major depressive disorder who had failed to respond to an adequate…

  11. Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy in La Paz, Bolivia: Findings from a Quantitative-Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovsek, Varja; Karim, Ali Mehryar; Gutierrez, Emily Zielinski; Magnani, Robert J.; Gomez, Maria del Carmen Castro

    2002-01-01

    Study explores why some female adolescents in La Paz, Bolivia, become pregnant while others in similar circumstances avoid early pregnancy. Results reveal that girls who had experienced a pregnancy were less likely to have reported affectionate and supportive parents, more likely to have reported fighting in their home, and exhibited lower levels…

  12. "Jesus Loves Me, This I Know": Finding a Rainbow God in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Caroline E.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores four adolescent novels published between 1999 and 2010 specifically for the intersections of Christian faith and lesbian and gay sexual identities. Using cultural, queer, and ideological theories, the piece makes distinctions between progressive and traditional depictions of both Christianity and LGBTQ teen protagonists in…

  13. A Condom Distribution Program for Adolescents: The Findings of a Feasibility Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Charles B.; Cogswell, Betty E.

    This paper describes a family planning service for adolescent males in an inner-city area. The program utilized the distribution of free condoms through local commercial outlets (barber shops, grocery stores, pool hall, restaurant). The proprietors agreed to distribute condoms in the target area which included approximately 3,000 males aged 12-26…

  14. Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Adjustment: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    This study extends previous understanding of the association between adolescent extracurricular activity participation and adjustment by asking whether participation in school-based extracurricular activities is associated with lower substance use and depression, higher grades and academic aspirations, and more positive attitude toward school. In…

  15. Social Support Buffers the Effects of Terrorism on Adolescent Depression: Findings from Sderot, Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrich, Christopher C.; Shahar, Golan

    2008-01-01

    A prospective study of 29 Israeli middle school students experiencing rocket attacks in Sderot, Israel, examined if higher levels of baseline social support acted as a buffer against the adverse psychological effects of terrorism on adolescent depression. Results demonstrate the importance of community mental health efforts to promote family,…

  16. Finding the Roots of Adolescent Aggressive Behaviour: A Test of Three Developmental Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Veronneau, Marie-Helene; Boet, Sylvie; Born, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive behaviours in adolescence often originate in early development. This study tested three longitudinal pathways starting in early childhood, in a sample of 325 Belgian participants (162 girls) assessed every 1 or 2 years from birth through age 14. Structural equation models supported the "mother early dissatisfaction" pathway…

  17. Structured Extracurricular Activities among Adolescents: Findings and Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Rich; Meyers, Joel; Perez, Laura

    2004-01-01

    One factor that contributes to adolescent positive mental health is active engagement. Engagement is defined as any activity that is initiated to attain an outcome. In general, two forms of activities exist that correspond with engagement: solitary, non-structured, and non-cooperative pursuits, often without adult supervision (e.g., playing video…

  18. Health Education Video Games for Children and Adolescents: Theory, Design, and Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Debra A.

    This study examined whether video games could be effective health education and therapeutic interventions for children and adolescents with diabetes. KIDZ Health Software developed a game about diabetes self-management, and tested its effectiveness for children with diabetes. The Packy and Marlon Super Nintendo video game promotes fun,…

  19. Adolescent Sexual Activity: An Ecological, Risk-Factor Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Stephen A.; Luster, Tom

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between adolescent sexual intercourse and history of physical abuse, neighborhood monitoring, and adolescent's attachment to school. Findings from 2,108 adolescents suggest that there are many significant risk factors related to whether adolescents are sexually experienced and that importance of some factors vary by gender.…

  20. Adolescent fathers: an approach for intervention.

    PubMed

    Joshi, N P; Battle, S F

    1990-01-01

    Many myths exist concerning the needs and problems confronting adolescent fathers. Research on adolescent pregnancy has proliferated in the last decade. We now have a substantial body of empirically-based findings in this area. Unfortunately, few substantive findings are available on adolescent fathers, yet the magnitude of this problem has reached epidemic proportion. This article will provide an overview of current research on adolescent fathers and their needs and offer suggestions for appropriate intervention. PMID:10112200

  1. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  2. Problematic Internet Use and Problematic Online Gaming Are Not the Same: Findings from a Large Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  3. The relationship of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to cognitive processing in adolescents: findings from the ALSPAC birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Pindus, Dominika M; Davis, Robert D Moore; Hillman, Charles H; Bandelow, Stephan; Hogervorst, Eef; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relations of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) to cognitive functions in 15-year-old adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children while controlling for aerobic fitness. A sub-sample of 667 adolescents (M(age) = 15.4 ± 0.16 years; 55% females) who provided valid data on variables of interest, were used in the analyses. MVPA was objectively assessed using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer and aerobic fitness was expressed as physical work capacity at the heart rate of 170 beats per minute from a cycle ergometer test. A computerized stop-signal task was used to measure mean reaction time (RT) and standard deviation of RT, as indicators of cognitive processing speed and variability during an attention and inhibitory control task. MVPA was not significantly related to cognitive processing speed or variability of cognitive performance in hierarchical linear regression models. In simple regression models, aerobic fitness was negatively related to mean RT on the simple go condition. Our results suggest that aerobic fitness, but not MVPA, was associated with cognitive processing speed under less cognitively demanding task conditions. The results thus indicate a potential global effect of aerobic fitness on cognitive functions in adolescents but this may differ depending on the specific task characteristics. PMID:25351943

  4. Social anxiety disorder in adolescence: How developmental cognitive neuroscience findings may shape understanding and interventions for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Haller, Simone P W; Cohen Kadosh, Kathrin; Scerif, Gaia; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-06-01

    Social anxiety disorder represents a debilitating condition that has large adverse effects on the quality of social connections, educational achievement and wellbeing. Age-of-onset data suggests that early adolescence is a developmentally sensitive juncture for the onset of social anxiety. In this review, we highlight the potential of using a developmental cognitive neuroscience approach to understand (i) why there are normative increases in social worries in adolescence and (ii) how adolescence-associated changes may 'bring out' neuro-cognitive risk factors for social anxiety in a subset of individuals during this developmental period. We also speculate on how changes that occur in learning and plasticity may allow for optimal acquisition of more adaptive neurocognitive strategies through external interventions. Hence, for the minority of individuals who require external interventions to target their social fears, this enhanced flexibility could result in more powerful and longer-lasting therapeutic effects. We will review two novel interventions that target information-processing biases and their neural substrates via cognitive training and visual feedback of neural activity measured through functional magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:25818181

  5. Influence of methylphenidate on spatial attention asymmetry in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Silk, Timothy J; Newman, Daniel P; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Vance, Alasdair; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Atypical asymmetries of spatial attention have been reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and may be exacerbated by non-spatial factors such as attentional capacity. Although preliminary evidence suggests that asymmetries of attention in ADHD may be modifiable by the psychostimulant, methylphenidate, further placebo-controlled studies are required. This study first aimed to confirm recent evidence that increasing non-spatial processing load at fixation can unmask a spatial gradient of target detection in children with ADHD but not Controls. Second, we used placebo-controlled randomised trial methodology to ask whether 20mg of methylphenidate (MPH) could remediate any load-dependent asymmetry of spatial attention in adolescents with ADHD. Twelve male adolescents with ADHD were assessed twice in a double-blind, randomized design, under either placebo or an acute dose of methylphenidate. Thirteen typically developing adolescent Controls completed a single session under placebo. Participants completed a computer-based task in which they monitored a centrally presented rapid serial visual presentation stream for a probe stimulus, while also responding to brief peripheral events. The attentional load of the central task was manipulated by varying the target instructions but not the physical stimuli or the frequency of targets. Between-group analyses under placebo conditions indicated that increased attentional load induced a spatial gradient for target detection in the ADHD but not Controls, such that load slowed response times for left, but not, right hemi-field targets. This load-dependent spatial asymmetry in the adolescents with ADHD was abolished by administration of methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may "normalise" target detection between the hemi-fields in ADHD via enhancement of the right-lateralised ventral attention networks that support non-spatial attention. PMID:24486422

  6. Enuresis and Hyperactivity-Inattention in Early Adolescence: Findings from a Population-Based Survey in Tokyo (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey)

    PubMed Central

    Kanata, Sho; Koike, Shinsuke; Ando, Shuntaro; Nishida, Atsushi; Usami, Satoshi; Yamasaki, Syudo; Morimoto, Yuko; Toriyama, Rie; Fujikawa, Shinya; Sugimoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2016-01-01

    Background Enuresis (9% at age 9.5) negatively affects children’s psychosocial status. Clinically-diagnosed enuresis (2% at the age) is associated with hyperactivity-inattention, and common neural bases have been postulated to underlie this association. It is, however, unclear whether this association is applicable to enuresis overall among the general population of early adolescents when considered comorbid behavioral problems. We aimed to examine whether enuresis correlates with hyperactivity-inattention after controlling for the effects of other behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 4,478 children (mean age 10.2 ± 0.3 years old) and their parents from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey (T-EAS), a population-representative cross-sectional study conducted in Tokyo, Japan conducted from 2012 to 2015. Children’s enuresis and behavioral problems, including hyperactivity-inattention (as measured by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire), were examined using parent-reporting questionnaires. Multivariate linear regression was used to explore whether enuresis predicts hyperactivity-inattention. Results The hyperactivity-inattention score was significantly higher in the enuretic group than the non-enuretic group (enuretic: M (SD) = 3.8 (2.3), non-enuretic: M (SD) = 3.0 (2.1), Hedge’s g = 0.39, p < .001). This association remained significant even after controlling for other behavioral problems and including sex, age, intelligence quotient (IQ), low birth weight and parents’ education (β = .054 [95% CI: .028–.080], p < .001). Conclusions Enuresis was independently associated with hyperactivity-inattention in early adolescents among general population even when other behavioral problems were considered. These results suggest that, as with clinically-diagnosed cases, enuresis may predict need for screening and psychosocial support for hyperactivity-inattention. PMID:27414399

  7. Media Use and Health Outcomes in Adolescents: Findings from a Nationally Representative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Casiano, Hygiea; Kinley, D. Jolene; Katz, Laurence Y.; Chartier, Mariette J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the association between quantity of media use and health outcomes in adolescents. Method: Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted with the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.1 (youth aged 12–19 (n=9137)) to determine the association between hours of use of television/videos, video games, and computers/Internet, and health outcomes including depression, alcohol dependence, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, help-seeking behaviour, risky sexual activity, and obesity. Results: Obesity was associated with frequent television/video use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.10). Depression and risky sexual behaviour were less likely in frequent video game users (AOR 0.87 and 0.73). Binge drinking was less likely in frequent users of video games (AOR 0.92) and computers/Internet (AOR 0.90). Alcohol dependence was less likely in frequent computer/Internet users (AOR 0.89). Conclusions: Most health outcomes, except for obesity, were not associated with using media in youth. Further research into the appropriate role of media will help harness its full potential. PMID:23133464

  8. Parent-Adolescent Child Concordance in Social Norms related to Gender Equity in Marriage- Findings from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl’s marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n=113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n=227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen’s unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K=.25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls’ right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls’ right to choose when (K=.22, slight) and who (K=.20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K=.53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  9. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  10. [Relevance of neuroimaging findings for diagnoses and treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Konrad, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with a marked loss of brain volumes during the acute stage of the disease. Due to the advances in neuroimaging methods during the last years our understanding of the consequences of starvation and the etiology of eating disorders has increased considerably, however, still the clinical relevance of these findings is limited. Thus, some future perspectives of neuroimaging findings for diagnoses and treatment of anorexia nervosa are summarized in the current review. PMID:25594269

  11. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

  12. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  13. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  14. Some Current Findings on Brain Characteristics of the Mathematically Gifted Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Boyle, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the brain characteristics of mathematically gifted youth indicate that they possess a unique functional organisation as compared to those of average math ability (O'Boyle, et al., 1995). Specifically, data from a variety of behavioural and psychophysiological experiments tend to suggest enhanced processing…

  15. Effectiveness of Antismoking Media Messages and Education Among Adolescents in Malaysia and Thailand: Findings From the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Project

    PubMed Central

    Zawahir, Shukry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Finding ways to discourage adolescents from taking up smoking is important because those who begin smoking at an earlier age are more likely to become addicted and have greater difficulty in quitting. This article examined whether anti smoking messages and education could help to reduce smoking susceptibility among adolescents in two Southeast Asian countries and to explore the possible moderating effect of country and gender. Methods: Data came from Wave 1 of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Project (ITC-SEA) survey conducted in Malaysia (n = 1,008) and Thailand (n = 1,000) where adolescents were asked about receiving antismoking advice from nurses or doctors, being taught at schools about the danger of smoking, noticing antismoking messages, knowledge of health effects of smoking, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, smoking susceptibility, and demographic information. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Results: Overall, significantly more Thai adolescents reported receiving advice from their nurses or doctors about the danger of smoking (p < .001), but no country difference was observed for reported antismoking education in schools and exposure to antismoking messages. Multivariate analyses revealed that only provision of antismoking education at schools was significantly associated with reduced susceptibility to smoking among female Malaysian adolescents (OR = 0.26). Higher knowledge of smoking harm and higher perceived health risk of smoking were associated with reduced smoking susceptibility among Thai female (OR = 0.52) and Malaysian male adolescents (OR = 0.63), respectively. Conclusions: Educating adolescents about the dangers of smoking in schools appears to be the most effective means of reducing adolescents’ smoking susceptibility in both countries, although different prevention strategies may be necessary to ensure effectiveness for male and female adolescents. PMID:22949569

  16. Does Social Support Protect against Depression & Psychological Distress? Findings from the RELACHS Study of East London Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences…

  17. Suicide Attempts and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents: Findings from the TORDIA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Porta, Giovanna; Spirito, Anthony; Emslie, Graham; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Keller, Martin; Birmaher, Boris; McCracken, James; Mayes, Taryn; Berk, Michelle; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical and prognostic significance of suicide attempts (SAs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents with treatment-resistant depression. Method: Depressed adolescents who did not improve with an adequate SSRI trial (N = 334) were randomized to a medication switch (SSRI or venlafaxine), with or without…

  18. Academic Competence for Adolescents Who Bully and Who Are Bullied: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lang; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    School bullying has negative implications for adolescent academic competence, making it important to explore what factors promote such competence for adolescents who bully and who are bullied. Potential contextual and individual variables linked to academic competence were examined in the context of bullying. Data were derived from the Grades 5…

  19. Trends in adolescent alcohol and other drug use: findings from three sentinel sites in South Africa (1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn; Morojele, Neo K; Flisher, Alan J; Bhana, Arvin; Donson, Hilton; Plüddemann, Andreas

    2004-08-01

    This paper aims to provide surveillance information about the extent and consequences of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use by adolescents for three sentinel sites in South Africa (Cape Town, Durban and Gauteng province). From 1997 to 2001, data were gathered from multiple sources, including specialist treatment centres, trauma units, school students, rave party attenders, and arrestees. Since the start of surveillance, an increasing proportion of South African adolescents are using AODs. Surveys point to high levels of alcohol misuse among high school students, with alcohol being the most common substance of abuse. Cannabis is the most frequently reported illicit drug of abuse among adolescents. This is reflected in the large proportion of adolescents receiving treatment for cannabis, cannabis-positive arrestees, and cannabis-positive trauma patients. Cannabis smoked together with methaqualone is the second most common primary drug of abuse in Cape Town. Arrestee data highlights the potentially negative effect of adolescent methaqualone use. Cocaine and heroin are emerging as problem drugs of abuse among adolescents in large metropolitan centres. Ecstasy (MDMA) use occurs mainly among adolescents who attend rave parties and clubs. The study points to the need for AOD intervention programmes that target young people and the need for continued monitoring of adolescent AOD use in the future. PMID:15288752

  20. Structural brain imaging in children and adolescents following prenatal cocaine exposure: preliminary longitudinal findings.

    PubMed

    Akyuz, Nurunisa; Kekatpure, Minal V; Liu, Jie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Quinn, Brian T; Lala, Meenakshi D; Kennedy, David; Makris, Nikos; Lester, Barry M; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    The brain morphometry of 21 children, who were followed from birth and underwent structural brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-10 years, was studied. This cohort included 11 children with prenatal cocaine exposure (CE) and 10 noncocaine-exposed children (NCE). We compared the CE versus NCE groups using FreeSurfer to automatically segment and quantify the volume of individual brain structures. In addition, we created a pediatric atlas specifically for this population and demonstrate the enhanced accuracy of this approach. We found an overall trend towards smaller brain volumes among CE children. The volume differences were significant for cortical gray matter, the thalamus and the putamen. Here, reductions in thalamic and putaminal volumes showed a robust inverse correlation with exposure levels, thus highlighting effects on dopamine-rich brain regions that form key components of brain circuitry known to play important roles in behavior and attention. Interestingly, head circumferences (HCs) at birth as well as at the time of imaging showed a tendency for smaller size among CE children. HCs at the time of imaging correlated well with the cortical volumes for all subjects. In contrast, HCs at birth were predictive of the cortical volume only for the CE group. A subgroup of these subjects (6 CE, 4 NCE) was also scanned at 13-15 years of age. In subjects who were scanned twice, we found that the trend for smaller structures continued into teenage years. We found that the differences in structural volumes between the CE and NCE groups are largely diminished when the HCs are controlled for or matched by study design. Participants in this study were drawn from a unique longitudinal cohort and, while the small sample size precludes strong conclusions regarding the longitudinal findings reported, the results point to reductions in HCs and in specific brain structures that persist through teenage years in children who were exposed to cocaine in utero. PMID:24994509

  1. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288

  2. Religiosity and violence among adolescents in the United States: findings from the national survey on drug use and health 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Maynard, Brandy R

    2014-05-01

    There is a pressing need to develop a more nuanced understanding of the relationships between particular expressions of religiosity and the various manifestations of violence among youth. This study examines these relationships among adolescents in the general population as well as across racial/ethnic, gender, and family income differences. Using a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 90,202) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2006-2010), logistic regression is used to examine the relationships between religiosity and violence. Results indicate that multiple components of adolescent religiosity are associated with the decreased likelihood of fighting, group fighting, and, to a lesser extent, violent attacks. A number of noteworthy differences were identified across race/ethnicity, gender, and family income. Findings from this investigation shed light on the relationship between particular facets of religiosity and violence that may be useful for violence prevention organizations seeking to integrate religious components into intervention efforts. PMID:24288193

  3. Findings from SHAZ!: a feasibility study of a microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention to reduce risk among adolescent female orphans in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Megan S; Maternowska, M Catherine; Kang, Mi-Suk J; Laver, Susan M; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Padian, Nancy S

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the feasibility of a combined microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention among 50 adolescent female orphans in urban/peri-urban Zimbabwe. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on intervention delivery, HIV knowledge and behavior, and economic indicators. The study also tested for HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy. At 6 months, results indicated improvements in knowledge and relationship power. Because of the economic context and lack of adequate support, however, loan repayment and business success was poor. The results suggest that microcredit is not the best livelihood option to reduce risk among adolescent girls in this context. PMID:20391061

  4. Findings from SHAZ!: A Feasibility Study of a Microcredit and Life-Skills HIV Prevention Intervention to Reduce Risk among Adolescent Female Orphans in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, Megan S.; Maternowska, Catherine; Kang, Mi-Suk J.; Laver, Susan M.; Mudekunye, Imelda; Padian, Nancy S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study tested the feasibility of a combined microcredit and life-skills HIV prevention intervention among 50 adolescent female orphans in urban/peri-urban Zimbabwe. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on intervention delivery, HIV knowledge and behavior, and economic indicators. The study also tested for HIV, HSV-2, and pregnancy. At 6 months, results indicated improvements in knowledge and relationship power. Because of the economic context and lack of adequate support, however, loan repayment and business success was poor. The results suggest that microcredit is not the best livelihood option to reduce risk among adolescent girls in this context. PMID:20391061

  5. "Gateway hypothesis" and early drug use: Additional findings from tracking a population-based sample of adolescents to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Minelli, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors. PMID:27413674

  6. Do Executive Function and Impulsivity Predict Adolescent Health Behaviour after Accounting for Intelligence? Findings from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Deary, Ian J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Executive function, impulsivity, and intelligence are correlated markers of cognitive resource that predict health-related behaviours. It is unknown whether executive function and impulsivity are unique predictors of these behaviours after accounting for intelligence. Methods Data from 6069 participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children were analysed to investigate whether components of executive function (selective attention, attentional control, working memory, and response inhibition) and impulsivity (parent-rated) measured between ages 8 and 10, predicted having ever drunk alcohol, having ever smoked, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and overweight at age 13, after accounting for intelligence at age 8 and childhood socioeconomic characteristics. Results Higher intelligence predicted having drunk alcohol, not smoking, greater fruit and vegetable consumption, and not being overweight. After accounting for intelligence, impulsivity predicted alcohol use (odds ratio = 1.10; 99% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.19) and smoking (1.22; 1.11, 1.34). Working memory predicted not being overweight (0.90; 0.81, 0.99). Conclusions After accounting for intelligence, executive function predicts overweight status but not health-related behaviours in early adolescence, whilst impulsivity predicts the onset of alcohol and cigarette use, all with small effects. This suggests overlap between executive function and intelligence as predictors of health behaviour in this cohort, with trait impulsivity accounting for additional variance. PMID:27479488

  7. Preliminary findings suggest the number and volume of supragranular and infragranular pyramidal neurons are similar in the anterior superior temporal area of control subjects and subjects with autism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Esther; Camacho, Jasmin; Combs, Zachary; Ariza, Jeanelle; Lechpammer, Mirna; Noctor, Stephen; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the cytoarchitecture of the anterior superior temporal area (TA2) of the postmortem cerebral cortex in 9 subjects with autism and 9 age-matched typically developing subjects between the ages of 13 and 56 years. The superior temporal gyrus is involved in auditory processing and social cognition and its pathology has been correlated with autism. We quantified the number and soma volume of pyramidal neurons in the supragranular layers and pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers in each subject. We did not find significant differences in the number or volume of supragranular or infragranular neurons in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism compared to typically developing subjects. This report does not support an alteration of supragranular to infragranular neurons in autism. However, further stereological analysis of the number of cells and cell volumes in specific cortical areas is needed to better establish the cellular phenotype of the autistic cerebral cortex and to understand its clinical relevance in autism. PMID:25582788

  8. Psychosocial-Environmental Risk Factors for Suicide Attempts in Adolescents with Suicidal Ideation: Findings from a Sample of 73,238 Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Baek, Ji Hyun; Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2015-08-01

    We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide. PMID:25443162

  9. Stigma reduction in adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV: findings from the Project ACCEPT intervention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Gary W; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma-personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV-as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  10. Stigma Reduction in Adolescents and Young Adults Newly Diagnosed with HIV: Findings from the Project ACCEPT Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article describes the influence of a group-based behavioral intervention for adolescents and young adults newly diagnosed with HIV (Project ACCEPT) on four dimensions of HIV-related stigma—personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes about people with HIV—as measured by the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Stigma was addressed in a holistic manner during the intervention by providing HIV/AIDS-related information, facilitating the acquisition of coping skills, and providing contact with other youth living with HIV in order to improve social support. Fifty youth (28 male, 22 female; mean age=19.24 years) newly diagnosed with HIV from four geographically diverse clinics participated in a one-group pretest-posttest design study whereby they received the intervention over a 12-week period, and completed assessments at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Results from the combined sample (males and females) revealed overall reductions in stigma in three dimensions: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, and negative self-image, although only the combined-sample effects for negative self-image were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Gender-specific analyses revealed that the intervention reduced stigma for males across all four dimensions of stigma, with all effects being maintained to some degree at the 3-month follow-up. Only personalized stigma demonstrated a decrease for females, although this effect was not maintained at the 3-month follow-up; while the other three types of stigma increased at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Findings are discussed in terms of gender specific outcomes and the need for a different type of intervention to reduce stigma for young women. PMID:25216106

  11. Delinquent histories of adolescents adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct.

    PubMed

    Way, Ineke; Urbaniak, Danielle

    2008-09-01

    A content analysis of closed case records from family court examined personal and family history variables for adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors who had been adjudicated for criminal sexual conduct and compared subgroups of adolescents with ( n = 72) and without (n = 80) prior other delinquent behavior. The study's findings indicate that adolescents with and without prior delinquent behaviors differed on a majority of the variables measured in this study. Adolescents with sexual offending behaviors who also had prior delinquent behaviors were older and had higher rates of documented childhood maltreatment, and drug and alcohol use. These adolescents had caregivers with more substance use and abuse problems and more extensive criminal histories. These findings have a number of practice implications when working with adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors. The findings also suggest that comparisons between adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors and other delinquents may be misleading if these subgroups of adolescents with sexually abusive behaviors are not distinguished. PMID:18309043

  12. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095

  13. Individuation or Identification? Self-Objectification and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship.

    PubMed

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Budge, Stephanie L; Lindberg, Sara M; Hyde, Janet S

    2013-09-01

    Do adolescents model their mothers' self-objectification? We measured self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), body mass index (BMI), body esteem, and quality of the mother-adolescent relationship in 179 female and 162 male adolescents at age 15, as well as self-objectification in their mothers. Initial analyses indicated no improvement in model fit if paths were allowed to differ for females and males; therefore a single model was tested for the combined sample. Findings revealed that mothers' body surveillance negatively predicted adolescents' body surveillance. Mothers' body shame was unrelated to adolescents' body shame, but positively predicted adolescents' body surveillance. Results for the relationship between mothers' and adolescents' self-objectification suggest that adolescents engaged in more individuation than modeling. A more positive mother-adolescent relationship predicted lower body shame and higher body esteem in adolescents, suggesting that the quality of the relationship with the mother may be a protective factor for adolescents' body image. Mother-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate the association between mothers' and adolescents' self-objectification. These findings contribute to our understanding about the sociocultural role of parents in adolescents' body image and inform interventions addressing negative body image in this age group. The quality of the mother-adolescent relationship is a clear point of entry for such interventions. Therapists should work with adolescents and their mothers toward a more positive relationship quality, which could then positively impact adolescents' body image. PMID:24363490

  14. Associations of maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dylan M; Fraser, Abigail; Fraser, William D; Hyppönen, Elina; Davey Smith, George; Deanfield, John; Hingorani, Aroon; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower maternal vitamin D status in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring cardiovascular risk in later life, but evidence for this is scant. We examined associations of maternal total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in pregnancy with offspring cardiovascular risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence. Design A longitudinal, prospective study. Setting The study was based on data from mother–offspring pairs in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK prospective population-based birth cohort (N=4109). Outcome measures Offspring cardiovascular risk factors were measured in childhood (mean age 9.9 years) and in adolescence (mean age 15.4 years): blood pressure, lipids, apolipoproteins (at 9.9 years only), glucose and insulin (at 15.4 years only), C reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin 6 (at 9.9 years only) were measured. Results After adjustments for potential confounders (maternal age, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, parity, socioeconomic position, ethnicity, and offspring gestational age at 25(OH)D sampling; gender, age, and BMI at outcome assessment), maternal 25(OH)D was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (−0.48 mm Hg difference per 50 nmol/L increase in 25(OH)D; 95% CI −0.95 to −0.01), Apo-B (−0.01 mg/dL difference; 95% CI −0.02 to −0.001), and CRP (−6.1% difference; 95% CI −11.5% to −0.3%) at age 9.9 years. These associations were not present for risk factors measured at 15.4 years, with the exception of a weak inverse association with CRP (−5.5% difference; 95% CI −11.4% to 0.8%). There was no strong evidence of associations with offspring triglycerides, glucose or insulin. Conclusions Our findings suggest that fetal exposure to 25(OH)D is unlikely to influence cardiovascular risk factors of individuals later in life. PMID:24125739

  15. Whole Grain Intakes in the Diets Of Malaysian Children and AdolescentsFindings from the MyBreakfast Study

    PubMed Central

    AK, Norimah; Koo, H. C.; JM, Hamid Jan; MT, Mohd Nasir; Tan, S. Y.; Appukutty, Mahendran; AR, Nurliyana; Thielecke, Frank; Hopkins, Sinead; Ong, M. K.; Ning, C.; Tee, E. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diets rich in whole grain are associated with several health benefits. Little is known however, about whole grain consumption patterns in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to assess whole grain intakes and dietary source in Malaysian children and adolescents. Methods This analysis is from the MyBreakfast study, a national cross sectional study investigating eating habits among primary and secondary school children throughout Malaysia, conducted in 2013. Children (n = 5,165) and adolescents (n = 2,947) who completed two days of dietary assessment using a food record or recall respectively were included. The whole grain content of foods was estimated mainly through the use of quantitative ingredient declarations on food labels. All wholegrain foods were considered irrespective of the amount of whole grain they contained. Results Overall, only 25% of children and 19% of adolescents were wholegrain consumers. Mean daily intakes in the total sample were 2.3g/d (SD 5.8g/d) in children and 1.7g/d (SD 4.7g/d) in adolescents and in the consumer’s only sample, mean intakes reached 9.1g/d (SD 8.6) and 9.2g/d (SD 7.1g/d) respectively. Wheat was the main grain source of whole grain while ready to eat breakfast cereals and hot cereals were the main food contributors. Less than 3% of the children and adolescents reached the US quantitative whole grain recommendation of 48g/day. Conclusion Whole grain is consumed by only a minority of Malaysian children and adolescents and even among consumers, intakes are well below recommendations. Efforts are needed to firstly understand the barriers to whole grain consumption among Malaysian children in order to design effective health promotion initiatives to promote an increase in whole grain consumption. PMID:26473369

  16. An Extension of the Findings of Moore, Peterson, and Furstenberg (1986) regarding Family Sexual Communication and Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Terri D.

    1989-01-01

    Used variables of gender and parental sexual attitudes to categorize college students (N=349) and their parents to examine relationship between family communication about sexuality and adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes, knowledge and contraception use. Found sexual behavior of females correlated with parent-child communication; sexual…

  17. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  18. Trends in Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use: Findings from Three Sentinel Sites in South Africa (1997-2001)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Myers, Bronwyn; Morojele, Neo K.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bhana, Arvin; Donson, Hilton; Pluddemann, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to provide surveillance information about the extent and consequences of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use by adolescents for three sentinel sites in South Africa (Cape Town, Durban and Gauteng province). From 1997 to 2001, data were gathered from multiple sources, including specialist treatment centres, trauma units, school…

  19. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse and a Bulimic Behavior: Findings from Community-Wide Surveys of Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Luster, Tom

    Reviews of the pertinent literature reveal a lack of consensus as to whether there is an association between sexual abuse history and eating disorders. Therefore, an examination of the relationship between sexual abuse and a bulimic behavior (purging) in a large sample of female adolescents was undertaken. Answers taken from a sample of 8,680…

  20. The 1989 Georgia Survey of Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Use. Volume I: The Narrative Report for Survey Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ronald D.; And Others

    The 1989 Georgia Survey of Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Use was conducted in 373 schools throughout Georgia. The stratified random sample was obtained from schools that participated in the 1987 survey (in which 93% of the school systems in Georgia participated) and were selected randomly from strata based on size of community and geographic…

  1. Mediators Affecting Girls’ Levels of Physical Activity Outside of School: Findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Moody, Jamie; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Parra-Medina, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background Providing after school activities is a community level approach for reducing the decline in physical activity of girls as they reach early adolescence. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial, environmental, and behavioral factors as potential mediators of after school physical activity in adolescent girls. Methods We assessed objectively measured levels of physical activity occurring outside of school and potential predictors and mediators of activity in girls participating in the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Results We found that the TAAG intervention had a statistically significant and positive effect on out of school activity in the 2006 cohort. Self-efficacy, friends’ social support, total social support, and difficulty getting to and from community activities mediated the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity in girls. Conclusions Parents, communities, and schools should provide and enhance opportunities outside of the school day for adolescents to be active. Reducing transportation barriers and enlisting social support appear to be key. PMID:20012810

  2. Young Adolescents' Positioning of Human Rights: Findings from Colombia, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how young adolescents thought about the location of human rights issues and the nature of violations in differing geographic regions. Open-ended, task-based interviews were conducted with 116 students in Colombia, Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland and the United States. Although students in each location pointed to…

  3. The Structure of Male Adolescent Peer Networks and Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration: Findings from a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Erin A.; Beadnell, Blair

    2010-01-01

    Although peer networks have been implicated as influential in a range of adolescent behaviors, little is known about relationships between peer network structures and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) among youth. This study is a descriptive analysis of how peer network "types" may be related to subsequent risk for IPV perpetration among…

  4. Social-Cognitive Origins of Chronic Stress in Adolescents: Recent Findings from School-Based Studies of Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Craig K.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes results from a series of investigations of relationships between high-risk adolescents' interpersonal strivings, social expectations, emotional distress, blood pressure responses to stressors, and elevations in blood pressure during regular school days. Surveys and blood pressure readings indicated that cognitive expectancies and goals…

  5. Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  6. Breaking Away to Find a Way: Poverty and School Failure in a Spanish Adolescent Life-History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon-Almendros, I.

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a biographical research study, and explores the social path that an adolescent from a marginal background in Malaga (Spain) has travelled throughout his life. The research shows a class differentiation that divides society in two: you, who control the means of production, impose your culture, and define the policy and the…

  7. Effectiveness of early interventions for substance-using adolescents: findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the impact of available interventions that address adolescent substance use and delinquency can inform investment choices. This article aims to identify and evaluate early interventions that target adolescent substance use as a primary outcome, and criminal or delinquent behaviours as a secondary outcome. Method A systematic review of early interventions for adolescent substance use and behavioural outcomes was conducted. Results We identified nine studies using specific search strategies. All but one of the studies reported the use of brief intervention strategies. Only seven studies contained information which allowed for the calculation of an effect size, and were therefore included in the meta-analysis. The overall effect size for all outcomes combined was small but significant (g = 0.25, p < 0.001). The overall outcome for substance use was also small but significant (g = 0.24, p < 0.001). For studies with behavioural outcomes, the overall effect size reached significance (g = 0.28, p < 0.001). In general, subgroup analysis showed that individual interventions with more than one session had a stronger effect on the outcomes of interest. Conclusions Early interventions for adolescent substance use do hold benefits for reducing substance use and associated behavioural outcomes. Interventions are most promising if delivered in an individual format and over multiple sessions. One intervention in particular had large effect sizes. As all the interventions were tested in developed countries, further testing is needed in low- and middle-income countries where there is a lack of research on evidence-based interventions for adolescent risk behaviours. Additional recommendations for policy and practice are provided in this paper. PMID:22697269

  8. Depression, Stressful Life Events, and the Impact of Variation in the Serotonin Transporter: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health)

    PubMed Central

    Haberstick, Brett C.; Boardman, Jason D.; Wagner, Brandon; Smolen, Andrew; Hewitt, John K.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Tabor, Joyce; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Brummett, Beverly H.; Williams, Redford B.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Mullan Harris, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background The low transcriptionally efficient short-allele of the 5HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism has been implicated to moderate the relationship between the experience of stressful life events (SLEs) and depression. Despite numerous attempts at replicating this observation, results remain inconclusive. Methods We examined this relationship in young-adult Non-Hispanic white males and females between the ages of 22 and 26 (n = 4724) participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) with follow-up information every six years since 1995. Results Linear and logistic regression models, corrected for multiple testing, indicated that carriers of one or more of the S-alleles were more sensitive to stress than those with two L-alleles and at a higher risk for depression. This relationship behaved in a dose-response manner such that the risk for depression was greatest among those who reported experiencing higher numbers of SLEs. In post-hoc analyses we were not able to replicate an interaction effect for suicide ideation but did find suggestive evidence that the effects of SLEs and 5HTTLPR on suicide ideation differed for males and females. There were no effects of childhood maltreatment. Discussion Our results provide partial support for the original hypothesis that 5-HTTLPR genotype interacts with the experience of stressful life events in the etiology of depression during young adulthood. However, even with this large sample, and a carefully constructed a priori analysis plan, the results were still not definitive. For the purposes of replication, characterizing the 5HTTLPR in other large data sets with extensive environmental and depression measures is needed. PMID:26938215

  9. Anger Management in Parent-Adolescent Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an outcome investigation of the role of anger management in parent-adolescent conflict. Eighteen parent-adolescent dyads were randomly assigned either to a conflict resolution group treatment or combined conflict management and conflict resolution group treatment. Findings suggest that the combination treatment group parents and teens…

  10. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Bomba, Monica; Riva, Anna; Morzenti, Sabrina; Grimaldi, Marco; Neri, Francesca; Nacinovich, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN) suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. PMID:25834442

  11. Childhood Anxiety Trajectories and Adolescent Disordered Eating: Findings from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    PubMed Central

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Von Holle, Ann; Watson, Hunna; Gottfredson, Nisha; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present paper was to examine whether childhood anxiety trajectories predict eating psychopathology. We predicted that girls with trajectories of increasing anxiety across childhood would have significantly greater risk of disordered eating in adolescence in comparison to girls with stable or decreasing trajectories of anxiety over childhood. Method Data were collected as part of the prospective longitudinal NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N=450 girls). Childhood anxiety was assessed yearly (54 months through 6th grade) via maternal report on the Child Behavior Checklist. Disordered eating behaviors were assessed at age 15 via adolescent self-report on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26). We conducted latent growth mixture modeling to define girls’ childhood anxiety trajectories. Maternal sensitivity, maternal postpartum depression, maternal anxiety, and child temperament were included as predictors of trajectory membership. Results The best fitting model included three trajectories of childhood anxiety, the low-decreasing class (22.9% of girls), the high-increasing class (35.4%), and the high-decreasing class (41.6%). Mothers with more symptoms of depression and separation anxiety had girls who were significantly more likely to belong to the high-increasing anxiety trajectory. There were no significant differences in adolescent disordered eating for girls across the three childhood anxiety trajectories. Conclusions Childhood anxiety, as captured by maternal report, may not be the most robust predictor of adolescent disordered eating and may be of limited utility for prevention programs that aim to identify children in the community at greatest risk for disordered eating. PMID:24938214

  12. Adolescent Heavy Drinking Does Not Affect Maturation of Basic Executive Functioning: Longitudinal Findings from the TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Boelema, Sarai R.; Harakeh, Zeena; van Zandvoort, Martine J. E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Excessive alcohol use is assumed to affect maturation of cognitive functioning in adolescence. However, most existing studies that have tested this hypothesis are seriously flawed due to the use of selective groups and/or cross-sectional designs, which limits the ability to draw firm conclusions. This longitudinal study investigated whether patterns of alcohol use predicted differences in maturation of executive functioning in adolescence. Additionally, gender was tested as a possible moderator. Methods We used data from the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which comprises a cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents. Maturation of executive functioning was measured by assessing the standardized improvement on each of four basic executive functions (i.e., inhibition, working memory, and shift- and sustained attention) between ages 11 and 19. Participants were assigned to one of six (heavy) drinking groups (i.e., non-drinkers, light drinkers, infrequent heavy drinkers, increased heavy drinkers, decreased heavy drinkers, and chronic heavy drinkers). We conducted linear regression analyses, and adjusted for relevant confounders. Results The six drinking groups did not reveal significant differences in maturation between drinking groups. E.g., maturation executive functioning of chronic heavy drinkers in comparison to non-drinkers; inhibition: B = -0.14, 95% CI [-0.41 to 0.14], working memory: B = -0.03, 95% CI [-0.26 to 0.21], shift attention: B = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.17 to 0.41], sustained attention: B = 0.12, 95% CI [-0.60 to 0.36]. Furthermore, gender was not found to be a significant moderator. Conclusions Four years of weekly heavy drinking (i.e., chronic heavy drinkers) did not result in measurable impairments in four basic executive functions. Thus, regular heavy drinking in adolescence does not seem to affect these basic behavioural measures of executive functioning. PMID:26489080

  13. The association between school class composition and suicidal ideation in late adolescence: Findings from the Young-HUNT 3 study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the association between social context and suicidal ideation using multilevel models. This study examines how suicidal ideation in adolescence is related to school class composition. Methods Data were obtained from the Young-HUNT 3 study (2006–2008), a population study of adolescents attending secondary school in the Norwegian county of Nord-Trøndelag. The final sample included 2923 adolescents distributed among 379 school classes in 13 schools. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the contribution of various factors at the individual and school class levels. Results The results indicate that 5.3 percent of the variation in suicidal ideation can be attributed to differences between school classes. However, a substantial part of this variation can be explained by an unequal distribution of students at risk as a result of individual factors. After controlling for individual-level variables, the results show a higher probability of suicidal ideation in school classes having higher proportions of girls as well as in those following a vocational education programme. Conclusion Targeting classes that either follow a vocational education programme or have a high proportion of girls can be an effective approach to intervention because such classes may include a greater number of students at risk for having suicidal thoughts compared to classes with a high proportion of boys or classes following a general education programme. PMID:23186517

  14. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  15. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    PubMed

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  16. A Moving Target: Reasons Given by Adolescents for Alcohol and Narcotics Use, 1984 and 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmqvist, Riia A.; Martikainen, Liisa K.; von Wright, Maijaliisa Rauste

    2003-01-01

    Studied the reasons given by Finnish adolescents for alcohol use and the use of alcohol and narcotics by others. Findings for 396 adolescents in 1984 and 488 in 1999 suggest that adolescents' attitudes have become more liberal toward alcohol and narcotics use and that prevention campaigns may be aiming at a moving target of cultural opinion. (SLD)

  17. The Relationship of Gender and Achievement to Future Outlook among African American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honora, Detris T.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the connection between future outlook and school achievement among low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings suggest gender and achievement differences in adolescents' goals and expectations. Highlights the importance of understanding the historical and cultural contexts that may shape adolescents' perceptions of the…

  18. Parent-child acculturation, parenting, and adolescent depressive symptoms in Chinese immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of 388 father-adolescent and 399 mother-adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father-adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father-adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents' and adolescents' sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  19. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade. PMID:25356610

  20. Do gender and age moderate the symptom structure of PTSD? Findings from a national clinical sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Ateka A; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Ford, Julian D; Elhai, Jon D

    2013-12-30

    A substantial body of evidence documents that the frequency and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are linked to such demographic variables as female sex (e.g., Kaplow et al., 2005) and age (e.g., Meiser-Stedman et al., 2008). Considerably less is known about relations between biological sex and age with PTSD's latent factor structure. This study systematically examined the roles that sex and age may play as candidate moderators of the full range of factor structure parameters of an empirically supported five-factor PTSD model (Elhai et al., 2011). The sample included 6591 trauma-exposed children and adolescents selected from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set. Confirmatory factor analysis using invariance testing (Gregorich, 2006) and comparative fit index difference values (Cheung and Rensvold, 2002) reflected a mixed pattern of test item intercepts across age groups. The adolescent subsample produced lower residual error variances, reflecting less measurement error than the child subsample. Sex did not show a robust moderating effect. We conclude by discussing implications for clinical assessment, theory building, and future research. PMID:24103907

  1. Social Anxiety, Stress Type, and Conformity among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Deng, Yanhe; Yu, Xue; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Xiangping

    2016-01-01

    Social anxiety and stress type can influence strong conformity among adolescents; however, the interaction between them is not clear. In this study, 152 adolescents were recruited and assigned one of two conditions: an interaction and a judgment condition. In the interaction condition, adolescents with high social anxiety (HSA) were less likely to conform when completing a modified Asch task, compared to adolescents who had low social anxiety. In the judgment condition, adolescents with HSA were more likely to conform to the opinions from the unanimous majority. The results suggest that adolescents with HSA may show different styles of strong conformity with the change of stress type. We believe that socially anxious adolescents avoid potential social situations with weaker conformity, while avoiding negative evaluations from others with stronger conformity. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the social dysfunctions among adolescents with HSA and provide a new direction for clinical interventions. PMID:27242649

  2. Psychological Adjustment in Young Korean American Adolescents and Parental Warmth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung

    2008-01-01

    Problem: The relation between parental warmth and psychological adjustment is not known for young Korean American adolescents. Methods: 103 adolescents' perceived parental warmth and psychological adjustment were assessed using, respectively, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire and the Child Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Findings: Low perceived maternal and paternal warmth were positively related to adolescents' overall poor psychological adjustment and almost all of its attributes. When maternal and paternal warmth were entered simultaneously into the regression equation, only low maternal warmth was related to adolescents' poor psychological adjustment. Conclusion: Perceived parental warmth is important in predicting young adolescents' psychological adjustment as suggested in the parental acceptance-rejection theory. PMID:19885379

  3. Associations of Blood Pressure in Pregnancy With Offspring Blood Pressure Trajectories During Childhood and Adolescence: Findings From a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Staley, James R; Bradley, John; Silverwood, Richard J; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are related to higher offspring blood pressure (BP), but it is not known whether this association strengthens or weakens as BP changes across childhood. Our aim was to assess the associations of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and maternal BP changes during pregnancy with trajectories of offspring BP from age 7 to 18 years. Methods and Results In a large UK cohort of maternal–offspring pairs (N=6619), we used routine antenatal BP measurements to derive hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and maternal BP trajectories. These were related to offspring BP trajectories, obtained from research clinic assessments, using linear spline random-effects models. After adjusting for maternal and offspring variables, including body mass index, offspring of women who had existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia during pregnancy had on average higher BP at age 7 years compared to offspring of normotensive pregnancies (mean difference [95%CI] in systolic BP: 1.67 mm Hg [0.48, 2.86], 1.98 mm Hg [1.32, 2.65], and 1.22 mm Hg [−0.52, 2.97], respectively). These differences were consistent across childhood to age 18 years, as the patterns of BP change did not differ between offspring of hypertensive pregnancies and normotensive pregnancies. Maternal BP at 8 weeks’ gestation was also positively associated with offspring BP in childhood and adolescence, but changes in BP across pregnancy were not strongly associated. Conclusions The differences in BP between offspring of hypertensive pregnancies and offspring of normotensive pregnancies remain consistent across childhood and adolescence. These associations appear to be most contributed to by higher maternal BP in early pregnancy rather than by pregnancy-related BP changes. PMID:25994439

  4. Chemical dependency and adolescent self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Wasson, D; Anderson, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether self-esteem differs between chemically dependent adolescents and adolescents from the general high school population. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1987) was completed by 119 adolescents (31 inpatient, 31 aftercare, and 57 general high school students) aged 13 to 18. Findings suggest that inpatient, chemically dependent adolescents have lower self-esteem than the other two groups. For the chemically dependent adolescent, nursing case management with communication among and between health care providers, school professionals, and family may facilitate successful, long-term recovery. For adolescents at risk for development of chemical dependence, nursing health promotion behaviors, such as early assessment and implementation of self-esteem-building activities, may assist in prevention of chemical dependency. PMID:7633338

  5. Cognitive ability, parental socioeconomic position and internalising and externalising problems in adolescence: Findings from two European cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Ricardo; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether cognitive ability (CA) may be a moderator of the relationship of parental socioeconomic position (SEP) with internalising and externalising problems in adolescents. We used data from two longitudinal cohort studies; the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Tracking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Indicators of SEP were mother’s education and household income. CA was estimated with IQ scores, derived from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Internalising and externalising problems were measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in ALSPAC and with the Child Behavior Checklist in TRAILS. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relative index of inequality (RII) for each outcome; the RII provides the odds ratio comparing the most to least deprived for each measure of SEP. In fully adjusted models an association of mother’s education with externalising problems was observed [ALSPAC RII 1.42 (95%CI: 1.01–1.99); TRAILS RII 2.21 (95%CI: 1.37–3.54)], and of household income with internalising and externalising problems [pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS internalising RII 1.30 (95%CI: 0.99–1.71); pooled ALSPAC & TRAILS externalising RII 1.38 (95%CI: 1.03–1.84)]. No consistent associations were observed between mother’s education and internalising problems. Results of stratified analyses and interaction-terms showed no evidence that CA moderated the association of SEP with internalising or externalising problems. PMID:20535529

  6. Optimism as a Mediator of the Relation between Perceived Parental Authoritativeness and Adjustment among Adolescents: Finding the Sunny Side of the Street

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Lynne M.; Pratt, Michael W.; Hunsberger, Bruce; Pancer, S. Mark

    2005-01-01

    Authoritative parenting has been associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents, but less is known about the mechanisms responsible for such effects. Two longitudinal studies examined the hypothesis that the relation between authoritative parenting and adolescents' adjustment is mediated by adolescents' level of dispositional…

  7. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  8. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  9. Substance abuse in early adolescents and HIV preventive behaviors: findings from a school-based cross-sectional survey for the period from 2009 to 2013, Bangkok Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S

    2016-10-01

    This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex. PMID:27120264

  10. Psychiatric Disorders Associated with the Onset and Persistence of Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder during Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaider, Talia I.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cockell, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a prospective longitudinal study to investigate whether anxiety, depressive, personality, or substance abuse disorders increase risk for onset of bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge eating disorder (BED) during adolescence. Findings for 201 adolescents suggest that adolescents with chronic depressive symptoms may be at elevated risk for the…

  11. High impact activity is related to lean but not fat mass: findings from a population-based study in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Davey Smith, George; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Background Objective measures of physical activity calibrated against energy expenditure may have limited utility in studying relationships with musculoskeletal phenotypes. We wished to assess an alternative approach using an accelerometer calibrated according to impact loading. Methods Of the 17-year olds from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), 732 wore Newtest accelerometers while performing day-to-day activities for a mean of 5.8 days. Outputs were categorized as light, moderate, high and very high impact, based on the thresholds identified in 22 adolescents during graded activities. In subsequent regression analyses, activity data and fat mass were normalized by log transformation. Results The number of counts relating to high impact activity was ∼2% that of light impact activity, and 33% greater in boys when compared with girls. High impact activity was more strongly related to lean mass [light: 0.033 (95% CI −0.023 to 0.089), moderate: 0.035 (95% CI −0.010 to 0.080) and high: 0.044 (95% CI 0.010 to 0.078)] (β = SD change in outcome per doubling in activity, height adjusted, boys and girls combined). In contrast, lower impact activity was more strongly related to fat mass [light: −0.069 (95% CI −0.127 to −0.011), moderate: −0.060 (95% CI −0.107 to −0.014) and high: −0.033 (95% CI −0.069 to 0.003)]. In a more fully adjusted model including other activity types and fat/lean mass, lean mass was related to only high activity (boys and girls combined), whereas fat mass was related to only moderate activity (girls only). Conclusions Using an accelerometer calibrated according to impact loading revealed that high impact activity is related to lean but not fat mass. PMID:22576953

  12. Parent–Child Acculturation, Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chen, Qi; Li, Jing; Huang, Xuan; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Using a sample of 388 father–adolescent and 399 mother–adolescent dyads in Chinese immigrant families, the current investigation tested Portes and Rumbaut's (1996) assertion that generational dissonance may indicate a family context that places children at increased risk for adverse outcomes. Study findings suggest that a high discrepancy in father–adolescent acculturation levels relates significantly to more adolescent depressive symptoms. The study further demonstrates that the quality of the parenting relationship between fathers and adolescents operates as a mediator between father–adolescent acculturation discrepancy and adolescent depressive symptoms. Specifically, a high level of discrepancy in American orientation between fathers and adolescents is associated with unsupportive parenting practices, which, in turn, are linked to more adolescent depressive symptoms. These relationships are significant even after controlling for the influence of family socioeconomic status and parents’ and adolescents’ sense of discrimination within the larger society. PMID:19586205

  13. Understanding the Mechanism behind Maternal Imprisonment and Adolescent School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically tested 3 mechanisms commonly suggested to disadvantage youths whose mothers are incarcerated in prison. An event history analysis of school dropout was conducted on a sample of 6,008 adolescents in a large city created by merging several Illinois state administrative data. Findings revealed that adolescents are indeed at…

  14. Relationship of Family Socialization Processes to Adolescent Moral Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fiona A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between family socialization processes, focusing on adaptability, cohesion, and parent-child communication, and adolescent moral thought. Used a sample of 271 Australian adolescents and their parents. Presents the findings. The results suggest that there is a relationship between family-socialization processes and…

  15. Nutritional Status of Institutionalized Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesce, Kathleen A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive nutritional assessment was conducted of 37 institutionalized developmentally disabled children/adolescents. Variables included dietary intake, serum laboratory values, anthropometric measurements, feeding skills assessment, and clinical assessment. Findings suggested that the children/adolescents were adequately nourished and had…

  16. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  17. Methodology and Early Findings of the Assessment of Determinants of Weight Disorders among Iranian Children and Adolescents: The Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Noncommunicable Disease-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Bahreynian, Maryam; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Kabir, Kourosh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Safari, Omid; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: This paper presents the methodology and primary findings of a national project on determinants of weight disorders among Iranian children and adolescents at national and sub-national levels. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011–2012 in Iran as part of the fourth phase of a national surveillance program entitled Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and PreventIon of Adult Noncommunicable disease-IV study. It had two phases of qualitative and quantitative study. This multicentric study was conducted among 25,000 students aged 6–18 years, living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Students were selected by multistage cluster sampling method. Data regarding weight disorders including sociodemographic variables, perinatal factors, lifestyle factors, family and student dietary habits, quality of life, and family history of chronic diseases as well as body image were gathered via validated questionnaires. Results: Overall, 23043 students completed the survey (participation rate: 92.17%). The mean age of participants was 12.55 ± 3.31 years; 50.8% were boys, and 73.4% were from urban areas. Underweight was found in 10.4% of boys and 9.2% of girls, the corresponding figure for overweight and obesity was 21% and 18.3%. Abdominal obesity was found in 17.6% of students. Among parents, obesity was more frequent than other weight disorders, with higher prevalence in parents of girls than boys (24.5% vs. 21.5%, respectively, P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were more prevalent in urban than in rural parents (66.7% vs. 59.7%, respectively, P < 0.001). Conclusions: This survey serves as confirmatory evidence on the prevalence of dual burden of weight disorders in Iran. Its findings on determinants of weight disorders would help policymakers to implement relevant programs at national and sub-national levels. PMID:26425332

  18. International Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology II: Integration and Applications of Dimensional Findings from 44 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Begovac, Ivan; Chahed, Myriam; Drugli, May Britt; Emerich, Deisy Ribas; Fung, Daniel S. S.; Haider, Mariam; Hansson, Kjell; Hewitt, Nohelia; Jaimes, Stefanny; Larsson, Bo; Maggiolini, Alfio; Markovic, Jasminka; Mitrovic, Dragan; Moreira, Paulo; Oliveira, Joao Tiago; Olsson, Martin; Ooi, Yoon Phaik; Petot, Djaouida; Pisa, Cecilia; Pomalima, Rolando; da Rocha; Marina Monzani; Rudan, Vlasta; Sekulic, Slobodan; Shahini, Mimoza; de Mattos Silvares, Edwiges Ferreira; Szirovicza, Lajos; Valverde, Jose; Vera, Luis Anderssen; Villa, Maria Clara; Viola, Laura; Woo, Bernadine S. C.; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To build on Achenbach, Rescorla, and Ivanova (2012) by (a) reporting new international findings for parent, teacher, and self-ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report, and Teacher's Report Form; (b) testing the fit of syndrome models to new data from 17 societies, including previously underrepresented regions; (c)…

  19. Organizational Predictors and Use of Evidence-Based Practices in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Paino, Maria; Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent substance abuse remains a significant problem in the United States, yet treatment centers do not always admit adolescent clients. In this article, we first determine the extent to which treatment is available for adolescents in general and whether or not adolescent-specific (segregated) tracks are offered. Second, we examine the organizational characteristics associated with adolescent treatment. Third, we illuminate how the adolescent caseload in a treatment center is related to offering evidence-based practices (EBPs). Methods Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of U.S. treatment programs, we use logistic regression to assess how organizational characteristics are associated with the provision of adolescent treatment. Using ordinal logistic regression, we analyze how the treatment center’s adolescent caseload and organizational characteristics affect the extent to which a treatment center offers medication-assisted treatment (MAT) and psychosocial treatment. Results Half (49.5%) of treatment programs admitted adolescents and 41.8% offered an adolescent-specific track. Findings from the logistic regression suggested several organizational characteristics that were significantly associated with treating adolescents and/or having an adolescent-only track. Our findings from the ordinal models indicated a negative relationship between the percent of adolescents in a treatment center and the extent of MAT, and a positive relationship between the percent of adolescent clients and the extent of psychosocial treatment offered. Conclusions This paper highlights organizational barriers to treatment entry for adolescents, who remain a small proportion of clients in treatment centers. When treatment centers serve adolescents, however, those adolescents are likely to receive care in adolescent-only tracks and/or services and in programs that offer several psychosocial EBPs. Finally, adolescents are less likely to receive treatment in centers

  20. 2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local findings with…

  1. Biomarkers of kidney integrity in children and adolescents with dental amalgam mercury exposure: Findings from the Casa Pia children's amalgam trial

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, James S. Martin, Michael D.; Leroux, Brian G.; DeRouen, Timothy A.; Bernardo, Mario F.; Luis, Henrique S.; Leitao, Jorge G.; Kushleika, John V.; Rue, Tessa C.; Korpak, Anna M.

    2008-11-15

    Mercury is toxic to the kidney, and dental amalgam is a source of mercury exposure. Few studies have evaluated the effects of dental amalgam on kidney function in a longitudinal context in children. Here, we evaluated urinary concentrations of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) {alpha} and {pi} as biomarkers of renal proximal and distal tubular integrity, respectively, and albumin as a biomarker of glomerular integrity in children and adolescents 8-18 years of age over a 7-year course of dental amalgam treatment. Five hundred seven children, 8-12 years of age at baseline, participated in a clinical trial to evaluate the neurobehavioral and renal effects of dental amalgam in children. Subjects were randomized to either dental amalgam or resin composite treatments. Urinary GSTs {alpha} and {pi}, albumin, and creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline and annually in all subjects. Results were evaluated using linear regression analysis. GST-{alpha} concentrations were similar between treatment groups and in each sex and race (white vs. non-white) group in each follow-up year. GST-{pi} levels tended upward over the course of follow-up by four- to six-fold. This increase was seen in all groups irrespective of the treatment, race, or gender. Females had GST-{pi} levels approximately twice those of males at all ages. Albumin concentrations were constant throughout the follow-up period and did not differ by treatment, although females had 39% higher albumin levels than males. Additionally, we found no significant effects of amalgam treatment on the proportion of children with microalbuminuria (>30 mg/g creatinine). These findings are relevant within the context of children's health risk assessment as relates to the safety of mercury exposure from dental amalgam on kidney function. These data also provide normative values for sensitive indices of renal functional integrity that may serve in the evaluation of children and adolescents with renal disorders.

  2. Methodology and Early Findings of the Fourth Survey of Childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non-Communicable Disease in Iran: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Ardalan, Gelayol; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Bahreynian, Maryam; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Heshmat, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The fourth survey of the surveillance system named “childhood and adolescence surveillance and prevention of adult non-communicable disease” (CASPIAN-IV study), was conducted among a national representative sample of Iranian students. This paper describes the methods and early findings of this survey. Methods: This nationwide school-based study was conducted in 2011-2012 in 30 provinces of Iran among 13,486 students, 6-18 years (6640 girls, 75.6% from urban areas) and one of their parents. Results: Mean age of students was 12.5 years. Based on the World Health Organization growth curves, 12.2% were underweight, 9.7% overweight and 11.9% were obese. Abdominal obesity was observed in 19.1% of students. The dominant type of cooking oil in urban families was liquid oil and hydrogenated fat (39% and 32%), most rural families used hydrogenated fat (53%), respectively. A total of 18% of students had at least 30 min of daily physical activity; 41% of students used computer in weekdays and 44% used it in weekends. Almost 34.5% of students reported to have at least one cigarette smoker and 21.5% reported to have a waterpipe smoker in their relatives. Moreover, 20.3% of students reported that they had suffered an injury needing the help of school health providers during the year prior to the study. Conclusions: Current evidence on the health risky behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents confirms the importance of conducting comprehensive surveillance surveys to identify health risk behaviors. Data of this survey and the trend of variables provide necessary information for health policy makers to implement action-oriented interventions. PMID:24498502

  3. Fertile bodies, immature brains?: A genealogical critique of neuroscientific claims regarding the adolescent brain and of the global fight against adolescent motherhood.

    PubMed

    Koffman, Ofra

    2015-10-01

    This article presents a critique of neuroscientific claims regarding the adolescent brain and the suggestion that adolescent motherhood disrupts the healthy development of the mother and her child. It does so by presenting a genealogical investigation of the conceptualisation of 'adolescence' in Western psychology and the emergence of the problematization of 'adolescent motherhood'. This examination reveals that antecedents to neuroscientific claims regarding adolescent immaturity, impulsivity and instability were articulated by psychologists throughout the first half of the 20th century. However, up until the 1960s there was no problematization of 'adolescent motherhood' per se and adolescent mothers were only discussed as part of the concern with 'unwed mothers'. Exploring the continuities and shifts in assertions regarding adolescence, this article highlights the complex history of some of the notions currently found in neuroscience. In doing so it aims to contribute to a growing body of critical literature questioning the universality of neuroscientific findings. PMID:25464875

  4. Case Report of Fire Eater’s Pneumonia in Adolescent Female Patient – Evolution of Radiologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Olchowy, Cyprian; Łasecki, Mateusz; Inglot, Marcin; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background We present a case of a 16-year-old girl with fire-eater’s pneumonia (hydrocarbon pneumonitis). The goal of this report was to assess evolution of radiological findings. Case Report The reported case was unique because that was the first completely described case of fire-eater’s pneumonia reported in an under-aged person. Moreover, this disease is very rare even in adults and only a few scientific reports can be found, mostly because of a small occupational group. Conclusions The aim of this report was to show that the problem of fire-eater’s pneumonia can occur in under-aged patients and should be taken into consideration in case of severe pneumonia. Another objective was to point out that chest radiograph is not sufficient to depict the evolution of radiological manifestations. PMID:25593634

  5. Differences in Adolescent Substance Use by Hispanic Subgroup: What We Know and What We Need to Find out.

    PubMed

    Carlton-Smith, Allison R; Skeer, Margie R

    2015-01-01

    Differences in health outcomes on the basis of racial and/or ethnic group membership have been documented among Hispanics in the US. As this heterogeneous population continues to grow, so does the importance of understanding the subgroups within it and the possible effect that between-group variations may have on health outcomes. This article highlights a major limitation of the existing research: that the Hispanic population is almost exclusively lumped into one pan-ethnic category when examining substance use behaviors. However, there is evidence to suggest that differences in substance use behaviors exist between Hispanic subgroups, which may be important when designing prevention and intervention programs. While the majority of research in this arena has focused on adults, more research is required to understand subgroup differences in substance use behaviors among Hispanic youth. This article provides a synopsis of the research on U.S. Hispanic substance use behaviors, including how factors such as acculturation, nativity, and culture of origin can act as risk and protective factors. However, there is an insufficient amount of research looking at how the differences between Hispanic subgroups may interact with acculturation levels to increase or decrease risk factors associated with substance use. Therefore, the authors suggest that substance use researchers attempt to improve future study designs by asking standardized demographic questions of national origin and/or ethnic/subgroup identity and take this into account in their analyses. The collection of such specific data could then be used to develop more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:26213214

  6. A prospective study of self-esteem in the prediction of eating problems in adolescent schoolgirls: questionnaire findings.

    PubMed

    Button, E J; Sonuga-Barke, E J; Davies, J; Thompson, M

    1996-05-01

    A number of authors have emphasized the importance of self-esteem in the aetiology of the eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Evidence for such theorizing, however, mainly derives from clinical observations on people being treated for eating disorders. This study is the first prospective study to investigate the role of self-esteem in aetiology prior to the onset of an eating disorder. Self-esteem was measured in 594 schoolgirls aged 11-12 using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965). Almost 400 of these girls were successfully followed up at age 15-16 and they completed a questionnaire examining eating and other psychological problems. Results showed that girls with low self-esteem at age 11-12 were at significantly greater risk of developing the more severe signs of eating disorders, as well as other psychological problems, by the age of 15-16. It is argued that more research is needed to replicate and extend these findings. The results also give weight to the case for examining the potential role of self-esteem enhancement in the prevention of eating disorders. PMID:8773797

  7. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  8. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures. PMID:9831888

  9. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N=183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic partners. Adolescents' perceptions and appraisals of interparental conflict were related to the amount of conflict in romantic relationship and adolescents' conflict styles. Adolescents' appraisals of interparental conflict (i.e., self-blame, perceived threat) moderated many of the associations between interparental conflict and conflict behavior with romantic partners. The patterns of moderated effects differed by gender. These findings suggest that the meanings boys and girls ascribe to interparental conflict are important for understanding how family experiences contribute to the development of romantic relationships. PMID:20186259

  10. Predicting resilience in sexually abused adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Javonda; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This research examined factors that predicted resilience in sexually abused adolescents. Using Bronfenbrenner's Process-Person-Context-Time (PPCT) ecological model, this study considered the proximal and distal factors that would contribute to adolescents' reactions to sexual victimization. This correlational study used hierarchical regression analysis (n=237) with cross-sectional data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being Wave I (NSCAW, Dowd et al., 2002). This study found that school engagement, caregiver social support, hope and expectancy, caregiver education and SES predicted resilience. In line with the PPCT model, findings suggest that placing a greater emphasis on the contextual environment could improve support for adolescent resilience. Augmenting interventions that focus on individual change with those that address environmental factors may increase the benefits to adolescents affected by sexual abuse. PMID:22265933

  11. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. PMID:25460036

  12. Pubertal Timing and Vulnerabilities to Depression in Early Adolescence: Differential Pathways to Depressive Symptoms by Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early-maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge. PMID:24439622

  13. Sexual Orientation, Adult Connectedness, Substance Use, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Adolescents: Findings From the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seil, Kacie S.; Desai, Mayur M.; Smith, Megan V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) and lacking a connection with an adult at school on adolescent substance use and mental health outcomes including suicidality. Methods We analyzed data from the 2009 New York City Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 8910). Outcomes of interest included alcohol use, marijuana use, illicit drug use, depressive symptomatology, suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. Results The prevalence of each outcome was significantly higher among LGB adolescents than heterosexual adolescents and among those who lacked an adult connection at school than among those who did have such a connection. Even when LGB adolescents had an adult connection at school, their odds of most outcomes were significantly higher than for heterosexual adolescents. Those LGB adolescents who lacked a school adult connection had the poorest outcomes (about 45% reported suicide ideation; 31% suicide attempt). Conclusions Adolescents who are LGB, particularly those who lack a connection with school adults, are at high risk for substance use and poorer mental health outcomes. Interventions should focus on boosting social support and improving outcomes for this vulnerable group. PMID:25121812

  14. Adolescent substance use and other illegal behaviors and racial disparities in criminal justice system involvement: findings from a US national survey.

    PubMed

    Kakade, Meghana; Duarte, Cristiane S; Liu, Xinhua; Fuller, Cordelia J; Drucker, Ernest; Hoven, Christina W; Fan, Bin; Wu, Ping

    2012-07-01

    We used data from a national survey to examine arrest rate disparities between African American and White adolescents (aged 12-17 years; n=6725) in relation to drug-related and other illegal behaviors. African American adolescents were less likely than Whites to have engaged in drug use or drug selling, but were more likely to have been arrested. Racial disparities in adolescent arrest appear to result from differential treatment of minority youths and to have long-term negative effects on the lives of affected African American youths. PMID:22594721

  15. Media use among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Melissa H; Orsmond, Gael I; Coster, Wendy J; Cohn, Ellen S

    2014-11-01

    This study explores how adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use media, and the factors associated with their media use. A total of 91 adolescents with ASD and their parents completed mail-based surveys. In all, 78% of the adolescents with ASD watched television (approximately 2 h/day), and 98% used computers (approximately 5 h/day) on any given day. They most frequently watched cartoons, played computer or video games that involved shooting, and visited websites that contained information on video games. Adolescents with ASD who watched television with parents reported more positive parent-child relationships. Adolescents with ASD who visited social networking websites or received emails from friends reported more positive friendships. The findings help us understand media-use habits of adolescents with ASD and suggest areas for future research. PMID:24142797

  16. Violent behavior in Chinese adolescents with an economic disadvantage. Psychological, family and interpersonal correlates.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T; Tang, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Two studies investigating the psychological, family and interpersonal correlates of adolescent violent behavior are reported in this paper. In Study 1, secondary school students (N = 1,519) responded to established scales assessing their psychological attributes, family functioning, parenting qualities and psychosocial support and conflict. Results of Study 1 showed that: a) adolescents who showed higher levels of perceived stress and psychological symptoms displayed more signs of adolescent violence; b) adolescents who had a higher sense of mastery and existential mental health displayed less signs of violence; c) adolescents' attitudes towards poverty and traditional Chinese beliefs about adversity were significantly related to adolescent violence; d) higher levels of family functioning, positive parenting styles as well as interpersonal support and lower levels of interpersonal conflicts were associated with a lower level of adolescent violence. Results further showed that some of the above factors were more strongly related to adolescent violence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage than in adolescents who did not experience economic disadvantage. Some of the findings of Study 1 were replicated in Study 2, where adolescents from 229 families (either families on welfare or low income families) were recruited. These studies suggested that several psychological, family and interpersonal factors are related to adolescent violent behavior, particularly in adolescents with economic disadvantage. PMID:12964444

  17. Domestic violence and immigration status among Latina mothers in the child welfare system: findings from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being II (NSCAW II).

    PubMed

    Ogbonnaya, Ijeoma Nwabuzor; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-01-01

    Many children involved with the child welfare system witness parental domestic violence. The association between children's domestic violence exposure and child welfare involvement may be influenced by certain socio-cultural factors; however, minimal research has examined this relationship. The current study compares domestic violence experiences and case outcomes among Latinas who are legal immigrants (n=39), unauthorized immigrants (n=77), naturalized citizens (n=30), and US-born citizen mothers (n=383) reported for child maltreatment. This analysis used data from the second round of the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Mothers were asked about whether they experienced domestic violence during the past year. In addition, data were collected to assess if (a) domestic violence was the primary abuse type reported and, if so, (b) the maltreatment allegation was substantiated. Results show that naturalized citizens, legal residents, and unauthorized immigrants did not differ from US-born citizens in self-reports of domestic violence; approximately 33% of mothers reported experiences of domestic violence within the past year. Yet, unauthorized immigrants were 3.76 times more likely than US-born citizens to have cases with allegations of domestic violence as the primary abuse type. Despite higher rates of alleged domestic violence, unauthorized citizens were not more likely than US-born citizens to have these cases substantiated for domestic violence (F(2.26, 153.99)=0.709, p=.510). Findings highlight that domestic violence is not accurately accounted for in families with unauthorized immigrant mothers. We recommend child welfare workers are trained to properly assess and fulfill the needs of immigrant families, particularly as it relates to domestic violence. PMID:25459990

  18. Adolescent Distress in Traumatic Stress Research: Data From the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Kristyn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Small numbers of adults report distress in response to traumatic stress surveys. Less is known about adolescent research participants. We examined distress in response to a survey on traumatic stress using data from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication, a nationally representative sample of 3,614 youth aged 12–17 years. Although 204 (5.7%) adolescents found some questions distressing, only 8 (0.2%) remained upset at the end of the interview, and 2 (<0.1%) wished to speak to a counselor. Adolescents reporting traumatic experiences or mental health problems were significantly more likely to report distress compared to those not endorsing such problems. Significantly more girls (7.5%) reported distress than boys (3.9%). Findings suggest that survey questions about trauma pose minimal risk to adolescents. PMID:21412852

  19. Coping styles of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myors, K; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the coping styles and specific strategies used by a group of pregnant adolescents attending an adolescent family support service. Seventy-one adolescents, with a mean age of 17 years, and a mean gestation of 25 weeks, completed the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS-R). The findings demonstrated that the optimistic coping style (emotion-focused) was the most frequently used and most effective coping style for these young women. A confrontive coping style (problem-focused) was also used and found to be effective. A combination of problem-focused and emotion-focused styles is recommended, with an increased emphasis on problem-focused approaches. The focus by the adolescents on optimistic approaches is suggestive of a lack of understanding of the challenges that motherhood will place upon them, but is consistent with their age and developmental stage. A longitudinal study of coping styles and changes in style throughout pregnancy and early motherhood is recommended. Initial assessment and monitoring of coping styles of pregnant adolescents is proposed. This assessment would be the beginning point for a teaching program that highlights increased use of adaptive coping styles (problem-focused) with decreased use of maladaptive approaches, and includes emotion-focused styles. By expanding the repertoire of coping styles and strategies available to the adolescent, the public health nurse (PHN) prepares these vulnerable mothers for the challenges ahead. PMID:11251870

  20. Personal and socio-environmental predictors of dieting and disordered eating behaviors from adolescence to young adulthood: 10-year longitudinal findings

    PubMed Central

    Loth, K; MacLehose, R; Bucchianeri, M; Crow, S; Neumark-Stainer, D

    2015-01-01

    Aim To identify personal and socio-environmental factors associated with the persistence of dieting or disordered eating from adolescence to young adulthood, as well as factors associated with the initiation of dieting or disordered eating during young adulthood. Methods Participants (n= 4,746) completed EAT-I surveys as adolescents; EAT-III surveys were completed 10 years later by 1,902 of the original participants (1082 females and 820 males). Results Study results indicate that there are personal factors, including weight concerns, weight importance, depressive symptoms and body satisfaction, present during adolescence that are predictive of an individual's engagement in dieting or disordered eating behaviors ten years later. For example, among both males and females weight importance was found to be predictive of continued dieting and disordered eating from adolescence through young adulthood. For example, 26.1% of males with low levels of weight concern at baseline reported engaging in persistent disordered eating as compared to 60.4% of males with high levels of weight concern at baseline (Prevalence difference: 34.3, 95% CI: 10.5, 58.1; p<0.01). Parental weight concerns, peer dieting and weight teasing at baseline were not found to be predictive of dieting or disordered eating at 10-year follow-up. Conclusions Personal factors identified during adolescence were found to be predictive of both persistent dieting and disordered eating from adolescence into young adulthood, as well as initiation of these behaviors during young adulthood. In particular, weight concerns and weight importance were found to be predictive in most models providing support for inclusion of these factors in adolescent health screening. PMID:24925491

  1. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Shauna M.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2012-01-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization—racial barrier socialization—have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 African American adolescents, the present study focuses attention on the quality of mother-adolescent relations as an indicator of affective context, and examines its moderating influence on the association between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the link between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment is moderated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. However, these associations varied by gender. PMID:23152648

  2. Racial Barrier Socialization and the Well-being of African American Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Mother-Adolescent Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Shauna M; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2011-12-01

    Racial socialization has been suggested as an important factor in helping African American adolescents cope effectively with racism and discrimination. Although multiple studies have reported a positive link between racial pride socialization and psychological adjustment among African American youth, assessments of the association between adolescent adjustment and another dimension of racial socialization-racial barrier socialization-have yielded inconsistent findings. Using a sample of 190 African American adolescents, the present study focuses attention on the quality of mother-adolescent relations as an indicator of affective context, and examines its moderating influence on the association between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment. Regression analyses indicated that the link between racial barrier socialization and adolescent adjustment is moderated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. However, these associations varied by gender. PMID:23152648

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement

    PubMed Central

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement. PMID:23667732

  4. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point. PMID:27087729

  5. A window of vulnerability: impaired fear extinction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathryn D; Den, Miriam L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2014-09-01

    There have been significant advances made towards understanding the processes mediating extinction of learned fear. However, despite being of clear theoretical and clinical significance, very few studies have examined fear extinction in adolescence, which is often described as a developmental window of vulnerability to psychological disorders. This paper reviews the relatively small body of research examining fear extinction in adolescence. A prominent finding of this work is that adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction relative to both younger (e.g., juvenile) and older (e.g., adult) groups. We then review some potential mechanisms that could produce the striking extinction deficit observed in adolescence. For example, one neurobiological candidate mechanism for impaired extinction in adolescence involves changes in the functional connectivity within the fear extinction circuit, particularly between prefrontal cortical regions and the amygdala. In addition, we review research on emotion regulation and attention processes that suggests that developmental changes in attention bias to threatening cues may be a cognitive mechanism that mediates age-related differences in extinction learning. We also examine how a differential reaction to chronic stress in adolescence impacts upon extinction retention during adolescence as well as in later life. Finally, we consider the findings of several studies illustrating promising approaches that overcome the typically-observed extinction impairments in adolescent rodents and that could be translated to human adolescents. PMID:24513634

  6. The Arithmetic Test Performance of Low Vision Adolescents Using Two Modes of Magnification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efron, Marvin; Lackey, George H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Visolett, a small magnification device, was as effective as large print materials for 45 visually handicapped adolescents performing arithmetic tasks. Findings suggested potential uses for the device, including as a supplement to large print materials. (CL)

  7. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  8. School Socioeconomic Composition and Adolescent Sexual Initiation in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho

    2015-09-01

    Numerous studies have documented the determinants of sexual behavior among adolescents in less-developed countries, yet relatively little is known about the influence of social contexts such as school and neighborhood. Using two waves of data from a school-based longitudinal survey conducted in Malawi from 2011-13, this study advances our understanding of the relationship between school-level socioeconomic contexts and adolescents' sexual activity. The results from two-level multinomial logistic regression models suggest that high socioeconomic composition of the student body in school decreases the odds of initiation of sexual activity, independent of other important features of schools and individual-level characteristics. This study also finds that the association between school socioeconomic composition and sexual activity is statistically significant among male adolescents but not female adolescents, suggesting that schools' socioeconomic contexts may be more relevant to male adolescents' initiation of sexual activity. PMID:26347090

  9. African American Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease: Support Groups and Psychological Well-Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Marilyn M.; Telfair, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Studied the impact of support groups on the psychological well-being of adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). Response of 79 adolescent SCD group members show that psychological well-being was best predicted by fewer physical symptoms and greater satisfaction with the group. Findings suggest the beneficial effects of SCD support groups. (SLD)

  10. Implications of Shift Work for Parent-Adolescent Relationships in Dual-Earner Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examined the implications of shift work for parent-adolescent relationship quality--intimacy, conflict, parental knowledge, and involvement--in a sample of 376 dual-earner families. The findings suggested that mothers' relationships with their adolescents were not negatively impacted by their working nonstandard schedules but…

  11. The Impact of Early Childbearing on Developmental Outcomes: The Case of Black Adolescent Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Donna L.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews studies that evaluate parenting of adolescent single mothers compared with parenting of mothers who delay childbearing. Presents brief historical sketch of problem of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing. Discusses approaches to family intervention in light of recent research findings and suggests directions for future research.…

  12. The Impact of Attachment Security and Emotion Dysregulation on Anxiety in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Patrick K.; Sømhovd, Mikael; Pons, Francisco; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie L.; Esbjørn, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical views and empirical findings suggest interrelations among attachment security, emotion dysregulation and anxiety in childhood and adolescence. However, the associations among the three constructs have rarely been investigated in children, and no study has yet addressed these associations in adolescence. The aim of the present study was…

  13. Identifying and Assessing Self-Images in Drawings by Delinquent Adolescents (in 2 Parts).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rawley; Ellison, JoAnne

    1995-01-01

    Examines assumption that art therapists can objectively identify self-images in drawings by troubled adolescents without talking to these youth. Findings suggest that discussion, though preferable, is not required for identifying self-images. Analysis of adolescents' drawings indicates that structured art assessment can be useful in evaluating…

  14. Latino Adolescents Perception of Parenting Behaviors and Self-Esteem: Examining the Role of Neighborhood Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamaca, Mayra Y.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Shin, Nana; Alfaro, Edna C.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relations among parenting behaviors, adolescents' self-esteem, and neighborhood risk with a Midwestern sample of 324 Latino adolescents. The findings suggest that boys' self-esteem is influenced by both mothers' and fathers' parenting behaviors, whereas girls' self-esteem is influenced by mothers' behaviors only. In addition, the…

  15. Family ecology and HIV sexual risk behaviors among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Voisin, Dexter R

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between family ecology and HIV sexual risk behavior among African American and Puerto Rican adolescent males. Family, psychosocial, and HIV risk factors were assessed in 171 African American and 187 Puerto Rican adolescent males. Findings suggest that family ecology, culture, and gender role variables may differentially affect HIV sexual risk behaviors within these groups. PMID:15792069

  16. Delinquency Among Adolescents with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Dennis P.

    2013-01-01

    This study expands upon previous research by utilizing nationally representative data and multivariate analyses to examine the relationship between an adolescent’s disability status and their likelihood of engaging in a spectrum of delinquent behaviors through age 16. Logistic regression models of 7,232 adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 are used to investigate the association between the presence of a learning disability or emotional condition, chronic health condition, sensory condition, physical disability, or multiple conditions and ten delinquent acts, including violence-related delinquency, property crimes, drug offenses, and arrest. Additional analyses explore differences in delinquency prevalence by more specific types of limiting conditions. Results indicate that adolescents with learning disabilities or emotional conditions are particularly at risk of committing delinquent acts. Findings suggest that disability status is important to consider when examining adolescent delinquency; however, not all youth with disabilities have equal experiences. PMID:24273625

  17. Xenophobia and tolerance toward immigrants in adolescence: cross-influence processes within friendships.

    PubMed

    van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Kerr, Magraret; van Zalk, Nejra; Stattin, Håkan

    2013-05-01

    To what extent do adolescents and their friends socialize each others' attitudes toward immigrants? Can friends' positive attitudes toward immigrants counter adolescents' negative attitudes toward immigrants, and do friends' negative attitudes decrease adolescents' positive attitudes? These questions were examined by following a large (N = 1,472) friendship network of adolescents (49.2 % girls; M(age) = 13.31 at first measurement) across three annual measurements. Selection and influence processes regarding tolerance and xenophobia were distinguished with longitudinal social network analyses, controlling for effects of age, gender, and immigrant background. Findings showed that friends' tolerance predicted increases in adolescents' tolerance and friends' xenophobia predicted increases in adolescents' xenophobia. Moreover, friends' tolerance predicted a lower likelihood of adolescents' xenophobia increasing. The current results suggest that interventions should distinguish between tolerance and xenophobia, as these appear to represent two separate dimensions that are each influenced in specific ways by friends' tolerance and xenophobia. PMID:23129524

  18. Monitoring challenges: a closer look at parental monitoring, maternal psychopathology, and adolescent sexual risk.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Wendy; Hunter, Heather L; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Lescano, Celia; Thompson, Ariel; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K

    2011-04-01

    The present study sought to examine associations between maternal psychopathology, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual activity among adolescents in mental health treatment. Seven hundred ninety mother-adolescent dyads recruited from adolescent mental health treatment settings completed audio computer-assisted structured interview assessments examining parent psychiatric symptoms, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual risk behavior. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between variables of interest. Maternal caregivers who reported more mental health symptoms were more likely to have adolescents who reported recent sex and this relationship was mediated by less parental monitoring. These findings suggest that maternal caregivers with mental health symptoms may need specific interventions that provide assistance and support in monitoring their teens in order to reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents in mental health treatment. PMID:21417519

  19. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  20. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 1: Who Are the Children in Foster Care? Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Over 530,000 children are in foster care in the United States. These children live in a variety of settings, including non-relative foster homes, the homes of relatives, and group homes. This research brief offers a national portrait of children who had been in foster care for one year. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being…

  1. Relationships among Subjective Social Status, Weight Perception, Weight Control Behaviors, and Weight Status in Adolescents: Findings from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Yeongmi; Choi, Eunsook; Seo, Yeongmi; Kim, Tae-gu

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study identified relationships among subjective social status (SSS), weight perception, weight control behaviors, and weight status in Korean adolescents using nationally representative data collected from the 2009 Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey. Methods: Data from 67,185 students aged 12-18 years were analyzed.…

  2. The Uses of Television and Their Educational Implications; Preliminary Findings from a Survey of Adult and Adolescent New York Television Viewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Herbert J.

    To collect data on how to make television a more effective learning instrument outside of the classroom, a standard probability sample with quotas consisting of 200 adults and 200 adolescents living in New York City was interviewed to study how people use TV, their attitudes toward various types of programing, and their viewing preferences.…

  3. Intentional Self-Regulation and Positive Youth Development in Early Adolescence: Findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gestsdottir, Steinunn; Lerner, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research, the authors examined the development of intentional self-regulation in early adolescence, which was operationalized through the use of a measure derived from the model of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC). This model describes the individual's contributions to mutually influential relations between the person and…

  4. Effectiveness of a School-Based Yoga Program on Adolescent Mental Health, Stress Coping Strategies, and Attitudes toward Violence: Findings from a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jennifer L.; Bose, Bidyut; Schrobenhauser-Clonan, Alex

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a universal yoga-based social-emotional wellness promotion program, Transformative Life Skills, on indicators of adolescent emotional distress, prosocial behavior, and attitudes toward violence in a high-risk sample. Participants included 49 students attending an alternative education school in an…

  5. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  6. National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, No. 7: Special Health Care Needs among Children in Child Welfare, Research Brief: Findings from the NSCAW Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This research brief, the seventh in a series of National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) briefs, examines the presence of special health care needs among children in the child welfare system (CWS). It specifically examines the presence of chronic health conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes) and special needs (e.g., emotional…

  7. Finding the Way out: A Non-Dichotomous Understanding of Violence and Depression Resilience of Adolescents Who Are Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Scambor, Christian; Scambor, Elli; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this cross-sectional study on family violence and resilience in a random sample of 5,149 middle school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) we examined the prevalence of exposure to family violence, and we worked from the premise that adolescent can be resilient to…

  8. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  9. Parenting Style as a Predictor of Adolescent Weight and Weight-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Current research indicates that specific parenting styles are associated with adolescent overweight, dietary intake and physical activity, but the majority of research has been cross-sectional making it difficult to determine the temporal order of these associations. The current study adds to the previous research by examining 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors. Methods: Data from Project EAT, a population-based study with adolescents from diverse ethic and socioeconomic backgrounds were used. Adolescents (N = 2516) from 31 Minnesota schools completed in-class assessments in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean levels of adolescent outcomes at Time 2 from parenting style at Time 1. Results: Time 1 maternal authoritative parenting style predicted lower BMI in adolescent sons and daughters at Time 2. Time 1 paternal permissive parenting style predicted more fruits and vegetables intake in daughters at Time 2. Significant associations were not found between parenting style and adolescent physical activity. Conclusions: Findings suggest that authoritative parenting style may play a protective role related to adolescent overweight and that the dimension of warmth/caring in the parent/adolescent relationship may be important in relation to female adolescent healthy dietary intake. Further exploration of opposite sex parent/adolescent dyad patterns related to parenting style and adolescent weight and weight-related behaviors is warranted. PMID:20307821

  10. [Adolescence: viewpoints from adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bürgin, D; von Klitzing, K

    1994-05-01

    Adolescence is a phase of human development which is marked by a high vulnerability due to the ongoing psycho-physiological transformations. The regulation of the self-esteem is especially in danger in youngsters who went into adolescence with a marked burden of conflicts or who lived in families with disturbed intrafamilial dynamics. To be present as a partner and not to find the solutions for the adolescents' conflicts, to accept their questioning of what is established and to recognize their movements of reconciliation are the quite complex demands put on to the world of the adults. Adolescents urge us to a review of our own adolescence, to a balancing of hate and love, openness and rigidity, and to dialectic movements between disintegration and reintegration as well as between the generations. Any help, be it on the physical, the social or the psychic level, should be directed toward a restitution of the intrapsychic, intrafamilial or intergenerational balance; sociocultural factors have also always to be respected. The helpers--especially in a culture with rapid change--are often confronted with their own adolescence, which took place a generation before and mostly under totally different conditions. PMID:8016759

  11. Does involvement in food preparation track from adolescence to young adulthood and is it associated with better dietary quality? Findings from a ten-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether involvement in food preparation tracks over time, between adolescence (15–18 years), emerging adulthood (19–23 years), and the mid-to-late twenties (24–28 years), as well as examine 10-year longitudinal associations between home food preparation, dietary quality and meal patterning. Design Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. Setting Participants were originally sampled from Minnesota public secondary schools (USA). Subjects Participants enrolled in Project EAT (Eating Among Teens)-I, EAT-II, and EAT-III (n=1,321). Results Most participants in their mid-to-late twenties reported an enjoyment of cooking (73% of males, 80% of females); however, few prepared meals including vegetables most days of the week (24% males, 41% females). Participants in their mid-to-late twenties who enjoyed cooking were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as adolescents and emerging adults (p<0.01); those who frequently prepared meals including vegetables were more likely to have engaged in food preparation as emerging adults (p<0.001), but not adolescents. Emerging adult food preparation predicted better dietary quality five years later in the mid-to-late twenties, including higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, dark green/orange vegetables, and less sugar sweetened beverage and fast food consumption. Associations between adolescent food preparation and later dietary quality yielded few significant results. Conclusions Food preparation behaviors appeared to track over time, and engagement in food preparation during emerging adulthood, but not adolescence, was associated with healthier dietary intake during the mid-to-late twenties. Intervention studies are needed to understand whether promoting healthy food preparation results in improvements in eating patterns during the transition to adulthood. PMID:22124458

  12. Parental Knowledge is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Externalizing

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents’ characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents’ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. Method The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. Conclusions In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:24975929

  13. Neuroimaging methods for adolescent substance use disorder prevention science

    PubMed Central

    Clark, DB; Chung, T; Pajtek, S; Zhai, Z; Long, E; Hasler, B

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods safely provide in vivo indicators of cerebral macrostructure, microstructure, and activation that can be examined in relation to substance use disorder (SUD) risks and effects. This article will provide an overview of MRI approaches, including volumetric measures, diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, that have been applied to studies of adolescent neuromaturation in relationship to risk phenotypes and adolescent SUD. To illustrate these applications, examples of research findings will be presented. MRI indicators have demonstrated that neurobiological maturation continues throughout adolescence. MRI research has suggested that variations in neurobiological maturation may contribute to SUD risk, and that substance use adversely influence adolescent brain development. Directly measured neurobiological variables may be viable preventive intervention targets and outcome indicators. Further research is needed to provide definitive findings on neurodevelopmental immaturity as an SUD risk and to determine the directions such observations suggest for advancing prevention science. PMID:23417665

  14. Relation of perseverative tendency and life events to depressive symptoms: findings from a prospective study in non-referred adolescents in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Yang, Hao-Jan; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Chen, Wei J

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of perseveration in the relations between life events and depression in a 2-year prospective study of non-referred adolescents. Participants were 400 middle school students randomly selected in Taipei. Baseline perseveration was measured using Perseverative Errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and psychological distress was measured using Anxious/Depressed syndrome on the Child Behavior Checklist. These individuals also completed the Life Event Checklist and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scales at follow-up. With adjustment for initial psychological distress and demographic features, the results of multiple regression analyses showed that more perseveration at baseline was associated with greater influence of negative life events on the subsequent depressive symptoms. Perseveration might act as a moderator on the relations of life events to depressive symptoms and lowering perseveration may be a plausible way to decrease the impact of negative life events on adolescent depressive symptoms. PMID:21347904

  15. The relationship between stress and body satisfaction in female and male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen; Rieger, Elizabeth; Byrne, Don

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and body satisfaction in adolescence. A sample consisting of 515 adolescents aged 12-16 years completed a series of self-report questionnaires assessing general and specific aspects of adolescent stress, body satisfaction and the psychological constructs of self-esteem, depressive symptoms and body importance. Results revealed a significant association between higher body dissatisfaction and higher ratings of peer stress, lower self-esteem and greater body importance for female and male adolescents. These findings suggest that adolescent stress relates to satisfaction with the body and that this stress is specifically focused on the peer environment for both genders during adolescence. This may have implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving body satisfaction, suggesting that the inclusion of stress management training in these programmes could specifically focus on difficulties within the peer domain. PMID:23897844

  16. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Matthew D; Trucco, Elisa M; Coffman, Donna L; Colder, Craig R

    2015-08-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  17. Selection and Socialization Effects in Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: A Propensity Score Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Matthew D.; Trucco, Elisa M.; Coffman, Donna L.; Colder, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    The robust correlation between peer and adolescent alcohol use (AU) has been taken as evidence for both socialization and selection processes in the etiology of adolescent AU. Accumulating evidence from studies using a diverse range of methodological and statistical approaches suggests that both processes are involved. A major challenge in testing whether peer AU predicts an adolescent's drinking (socialization) or whether an adolescent's drinking predicts peer AU (selection) is the myriad of potentially confounding factors that might lead to an overestimation of socialization and selection effects. After creating AU transition groups based on peer and adolescent AU across two waves (N = 765; age = 10-15; 53% female), we test whether transitions into AU by adolescents and peers predict later peer and adolescent AU respectively, using (1) propensity score analysis to balance transition groups on 26 potential confounds, (2) a longitudinal design with three waves to establish temporal precedence, and (3) both adolescent (target) and peer self-report of peer AU to disentangle effects attributable to shared reporter bias. Both selection and socialization were supported using both peer self-report of AU and adolescent-report of peer AU. Although cross-sectional analyses suggested peer self-reported models were associated with smaller effects than perceived peer AU, longitudinal analyses suggest a similar sized effect across reporter of peer AU for both selection and socialization. The implications of these findings for the etiology and treatment of adolescent AU are discussed. PMID:25601099

  18. 'By seeing with our own eyes, it can remain in our mind': qualitative evaluation findings suggest the ability of participatory video to reduce gender-based violence in conflict-affected settings.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Trappler, Regan M; Acosta, Angela; McCray, Pamella A; Cooper, Chelsea M; Goodsmith, Lauren

    2014-08-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive and poses unique challenges in conflict-affected settings, with women and girls particularly vulnerable to its sequelae. Furthermore, widespread stigmatization of gender-based violence promotes silence among survivors and families, inhibiting access to services. Little evidence exists regarding effective gender-based violence prevention interventions in these settings. Through Our Eyes, a multi-year participatory video project, addressed gender-based violence by stimulating community dialogue and action in post-conflict settings in South Sudan, Uganda, Thailand, Liberia and Rwanda. The present qualitative analysis of project evaluation data included transcripts from 18 focus group discussions (n = 125) and key informant interviews (n = 76). Study participants included project team members, representatives from partner agencies, service providers and community members who either participated in video production or attended video screenings. Study findings revealed that the video project contributed to a growing awareness of women's rights and gender equality. The community dialogue helped to begin dismantling the culture of silence gender-based violence, encouraging survivors to access health and law enforcement services. Furthermore, both men and women reported attitude and behavioral changes related to topics such as wife beating, gender-based violence reporting and girls' education. Health education professionals should employ participatory video to address gender-based violence within conflict-affected settings. PMID:24973224

  19. Age Variability in the Association between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Large-Scale, School-Based Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Schilling, Elizabeth A.; James, Amy; Glanovsky, Jaime L.; Jacobs, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is significantly linked to the suicidal behavior of adolescents according to the data on 32,217 students aged 11 to 19 years old. A substantial age variation is seen with youths aged 13 years and younger roughly 2.6 times more likely to report an attempt as compared to 1.2 times among youths aged 18 years and older.

  20. Childhood Predictors and Adult Life Success of Adolescent Delinquency Abstainers.

    PubMed

    Mercer, N; Farrington, D P; Ttofi, M M; Keijsers, L; Branje, S; Meeus, W

    2016-04-01

    While much is known about adolescent delinquency, considerably less attention has been given to adolescent delinquency abstention. Understanding how or why some adolescents manage to abstain from delinquency during adolescence is informative for understanding and preventing adolescent (minor) delinquency. Using data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (N = 411 males) to compare abstainers, self-report delinquents and convicted delinquents we found five childhood factors (ages 8-10) that predicted adolescent abstention (ages 10-18). First, we find that adolescent abstainers possess characteristics opposite to those of convicted delinquents (namely, abstainers are high on honesty, conformity and family income). However, we also found that abstainers also share some childhood characteristics with convicted delinquents (namely, low popularity and low school achievement). A latent class analysis indicated that the mixed factors predicting abstention can be accounted for by two groups of abstainers: an adaptive group characterized by high honesty, and a maladaptive group characterized by low popularity and low school achievement. Further, validation of these two types of abstainers using data collected at age 48 suggested that adaptive abstainers outperform all other adolescents in general life success, whereas maladaptive abstainers only fare better than delinquent adolescents in terms of lower substance use and delinquency later in life. PMID:26267237

  1. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  2. Unmotivated Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jill; Diller, Howard

    This book examines the characteristics and educational needs of unmotivated adolescents. It suggests that many of these students suffer from low self-esteem and are learning disabled and/or have an attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. It offers a definition of learning disabilities that emphasizes the presence of significant differences…

  3. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic social stress: Immediate and long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339

  4. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Matthias; Leppin, Anja; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2006-01-01

    Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more

  5. A different way of being: adolescents' experiences with cancer.

    PubMed

    Woodgate, Roberta Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Adolescents with cancer face many challenges that may impact negatively their psychological well-being. In evaluating the psychosocial functioning of adolescents with cancer, research suggests that an altered self-image may emerge in those who have difficulty adjusting. However, little is known about adolescents' perceptions of how cancer affects their sense of self. Part of a larger study, this article addresses findings specific to understanding the impact that cancer and its symptoms had on adolescents' sense of self. To help discover meaningful interpretations of their experiences, a longitudinal, qualitative study was conducted. Data collection methods included open-ended, individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. The constant comparative method of data analysis yielded theoretical categories that were supported by the adolescents' narratives. Findings revealed that adolescents experienced changes in their lived bodies because of the symptoms and this, in turn, impacted their sense of self and way of being in the world. Six ways of being in the world were identified: life as a klutz; life as a prisoner; life as an invalid; life as an alien; life as a zombie; and life as a kid. In helping adolescents deal with the changes, it was important to family and friends to respond to them like they were the same person, but also to treat them special at times. Although adolescents spoke to the significance that cancer had on their lives, they described themselves as "still being pretty much the same person." PMID:15681977

  6. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  7. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  8. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  9. Rejection sensitivity and adolescents' perceptions of romantic interactions.

    PubMed

    Norona, Jerika C; Salvatore, Joseph F; Welsh, Deborah P; Darling, Nancy

    2014-12-01

    Rejection sensitivity - the tendency to expect, perceive, and overreact to rejection by others - is linked with individuals' expectations that their romantic partners' behaviors have negative intent, even if, perhaps, such behaviors could be considered neutral when observed by another. The aim of the present study was to test this proposition, derived from rejection sensitivity theory, using a Video-Recall Procedure with adolescent couples in the US (N = 386 adolescents, 50% girls). We examined whether adolescents who were more sensitive to rejection perceived their romantic partners' behaviors as more conflictual than when viewed by trained, third-party observers. Findings suggest that, at the micro-analytic level, higher rejection sensitivity is associated with adolescents' heightened perception of their romantic partners as conflictual when compared to observers, who more often coded the same behaviors as neutral rather than conflictual. Implications for adolescent mental health and well-being are discussed. PMID:25282535

  10. ADHD among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: Pre-pathway influences

    PubMed Central

    Neece, Cameron; Baker, Bruce; Lee, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID) are at heightened risk for developing ADHD. However, the validity of ADHD as a diagnosis for youth with ID remains controversial. To advance research on validity, the present study examined the hypothesized precursors to ADHD in typically developing adolescents (TD) and adolescents with ID, specifically with regard to family history of ADHD, molecular genetics, and neuropsychological functioning. Results indicated that youth ADHD symptoms were related to parental ADHD symptoms regardless of the adolescent’s cognitive functioning. Additionally, findings suggested that the DRD4 genetic variant and adolescent set-shifting abilities were related to adolescent ADHD symptoms independent of cognitive functioning. This study provides an initial investigation of the biological correlates of ADHD among youth with ID. PMID:23665431

  11. Peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614

  12. The Dynamics and Correlates of Religious Service Attendance in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Pearce, Lisa D.; Denton, Melinda Lundquist

    2013-01-01

    This study examines changes in religious service attendance over time for a contemporary cohort of adolescents moving from middle to late adolescence. We use two waves of a nationally representative panel survey of youth from the National Study of Youth and Religion (NSYR) to examine the dynamics of religious involvement during adolescence. We then follow with an analysis of how demographic characteristics, family background, and life course transitions relate to changes in religious service attendance during adolescence. Our findings suggest that, on average, adolescent religious service attendance declines over time, related to major life course transitions such as becoming employed, leaving home, and initiating sexual activity. Parents’ affiliation and attendance, on the other hand, are protective factors against decreasing attendance. PMID:26900186

  13. Predictors of Cigarette Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, David W.; Rosen, Zohn

    2005-01-01

    The present study assesses the interrelation among domains of ethnic factors, the individual’s sense of well-being, personality/attitudes/behaviors, sibling and peer smoking, and adolescent smoking behavior. The sample consisted of 1,468 South African adolescents selected from four ethnic groups self-identified as defined by current South African usage: Black (mainly Zulu and Xhosa), Indian, White, and Coloured (mixed ancestry). In accordance with Family Interactional Theory, there was a sequence of patterning from ethnic factors and the individual’s sense of well-being to adolescent personality/attitudes/behaviors and models of smoking. All of the four domains in the model also had a direct effect on adolescent smoking behavior. The findings suggest four possible targets of therapeutic or preventive intervention with regard to adolescent smoking: ethnic factors, the individual’s sense of well-being, personality/attitudes/behaviors, and smoking within the peer group. PMID:16262539

  14. [Internet use and adolescents' sexual health].

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ying-Hua; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chou, Fan-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Internet use is an important part of the daily life of adolescents. The ease of searching the internet for information makes finding information on sex, a topic of particular interest to adolescents, easy. Although the internet is replete with sexual information, the influence of internet use on adolescents' sexual health is analogous to a double-edged sword. This article identifies the four main sexual dilemmas facing Taiwan adolescents and analyzes the pros and cons of internet use with regard to adolescents' sexual health. Cons include the predominance of internet pornography and the potential risks of making friends online. Pros include the internet's role as an optimal communications platform and tool for sex-related research. We suggest that nurses have a unique role and functions to play in promoting adolescent sexual health. We also offer recommendations for school health nursing and clinical nursing. Further internet-based quantitative and qualitative research is necessary to clarify relevant sexual health issues. Finally, we offer design suggestions for sexual education homepages. PMID:23212259

  15. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  16. Phasic dopamine neuron activity elicits unique mesofrontal plasticity in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mastwal, Surjeet; Ye, Yizhou; Ren, Ming; Jimenez, Dennisse V; Martinowich, Keri; Gerfen, Charles R; Wang, Kuan Hong

    2014-07-16

    The mesofrontal dopaminergic circuit, which connects the midbrain motivation center to the cortical executive center, is engaged in control of motivated behaviors. In addition, deficiencies in this circuit are associated with adolescent-onset psychiatric disorders in humans. Developmental studies suggest that the mesofrontal circuit exhibits a protracted maturation through adolescence. However, whether the structure and function of this circuit are modifiable by activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence remains unknown. Using optogenetic stimulation and in vivo two-photon imaging in adolescent mice, we found that phasic, but not tonic, dopamine neuron activity induces the formation of mesofrontal axonal boutons. In contrast, in adult mice, the effect of phasic activity diminishes. Furthermore, our results showed that dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission regulate this axonal plasticity in adolescence and inhibition of dopamine D2-type receptors restores this plasticity in adulthood. Finally, we found that phasic activation of dopamine neurons also induces greater changes in mesofrontal circuit activity and psychomotor response in adolescent mice than in adult mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that the structure and function of the mesofrontal circuit are modifiable by phasic activity in dopaminergic neurons during adolescence and suggest that the greater plasticity in adolescence may facilitate activity-dependent strengthening of dopaminergic input and improvement in behavioral control. PMID:25031392

  17. Adolescents' experience with scoliosis surgery: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rullander, Anna-Clara; Isberg, Stefan; Karling, Mats; Jonsson, Håkan; Lindh, Viveca

    2013-03-01

    This article reports a study of adolescents' narrated experiences of undergoing scoliosis surgery. Six adolescents were interviewed. Open and semistructured questions were asked, and a qualitative content analysis of the text was performed. The results are presented in three main categories followed by subcategories. The three main categories of experience were emotional, physical, and social. The emotional aspects that emerged were fear, nightmares, nervousness, and helplessness. These had a great impact on adolescents' well-being before, during, and after the hospital visit. The physical aspects were mobilization, scars, different hip levels, pain, nausea, appetite, and urinary catheter. These aspects caused much discomfort, mostly during the hospital visit. The social aspects were friends, power, coaching and comfort, and sports. Some of the social aspects had a strong negative impact on the adolescents' well-being mostly after the hospital visit. This study suggests that both before and long after the surgery adolescents have strong emotions that they should be better prepared and helped to manage. To optimize perioperative care an interdisciplinary, a holistic approach must be taken that incorporates the complexity and whole of the adolescent's experiences. The findings of this study suggest that perioperative care of adolescents during scoliosis surgery needs to be optimized. To improve patients' psychologic preparation before surgery pediatric nurses should learn more about the individual patient and make care plans from a holistic perspective. Follow-up after discharge should address emotional, social, and physical aspects of the adolescent's health. PMID:23452527

  18. Conceptions of Adolescence: Implications for Differences in Engagement in School Over Early Adolescence in the United States and China.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Pomerantz, Eva M; Wang, Meifang; Cheung, Cecilia; Cimpian, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    American youth are more prone to storm and stress during adolescence than are Chinese youth (e.g., American youth's engagement in school declines more). However, it is unclear why. This research examined differences in conceptions of adolescence in the United States and China. Using both open- and closed-ended measures, youth (N = 397; 50 % female; mean age = 13.19 years) reported on their views of teens. American (vs. Chinese) youth were more likely to see adolescence as a time of decreased family responsibility along with increased individuation from parents, school disengagement, and peer orientation. Conceptions of adolescence as a time of dampened family responsibility and heightened school disengagement contributed to American (vs. Chinese) youth being less engaged in school over the seventh and eighth grades. The findings suggest that culture shapes ideas about adolescence, which contribute to differences in American and Chinese youth's engagement in school over this phase. PMID:27160846

  19. Longitudinal Associations among Impulsivity, Friend Substance Use, and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent substance use is an increasing problem in the United States, and some researchers posit a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and the personality trait of impulsivity (e.g., Quinn, Stappenbeck, & Fromme, 2011). Friend substance use has been shown to be a powerful predictor of adolescent substance use, with prior research suggesting a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and friend substance use (e.g., Simons-Morton & Chen, 2006). Extant literature has not tested the bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity with longitudinal data nor has it examined this relation while considering the bidirectional relation with the social context factor of friend substance use. Using three waves of longitudinal data, we tested if there was a bidirectional relation between adolescent substance use and impulsivity while also examining the influences of friend substance use. Participants were 131 adolescents (male = 55%, mean age = 13 years at Wave 1). We tested nested models and examined whether adding equality constraints degraded the model fit using a Wald test. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that, after controlling for baseline levels of substance use, impulsivity predicted adolescent and friend substance use over time, whereas adolescent and friend substance use did not predict impulsivity. Adolescents with substance using friends were likely to increase their own substance use. The findings imply that aiming at both improving adolescents’ ability to regulate impulsivity and deterring associations with friends who are using substances is essential for prevention and intervention efforts against substance use development in adolescents. PMID:26523239

  20. Nurse-midwives' attitudes towards adolescent sexual and reproductive health needs in Kenya and Zambia.

    PubMed

    Warenius, Linnéa U; Faxelid, Elisabeth A; Chishimba, Petronella N; Musandu, Joyce O; Ong'any, Antony A; Nissen, Eva B-M

    2006-05-01

    Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services. PMID:16713886

  1. A Proposed Framework for Preventing Perfectionism and Promoting Resilience and Mental Health among Vulnerable Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flett, Gordon L.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that perfectionism is highly prevalent among children and adolescents, and perfectionism can be quite destructive in terms of its links with anxiety, depression, and suicide. In this article, we provide an overview of recent research illustrating the costs and consequences of perfectionism among children and adolescents. We…

  2. Early Adolescent Executive Functioning, Intrauterine Exposures and Own Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Soenksen, Shayna; Appugliese, Danielle P.; Cabral, Howard J.; Richardson, Mark A.; Beeghly, Marjorie; Heeren, Timothy C.; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in adolescents' executive functioning are often attributed either to intrauterine substance exposure or to adolescents' own substance use, but both predictors typically have not been evaluated simultaneously in the same study. This prospective study evaluated whether intrauterine drug exposures, the adolescents' own substance use, and/or their potential interactions are related to poorer executive functioning after controlling for important contextual variables. Analyses were based on data collected on a sample of 137 predominantly African-American/ African Caribbean adolescents from low-income urban backgrounds who were followed since their term birth. Intrauterine substance exposures (cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, cigarettes) and adolescents' substance use were documented using a combination of biological assays and maternal and adolescent self-report. At 12-14 years of age, examiners masked to intrauterine exposures and current substance use assessed the adolescents using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), an age-referenced instrument evaluating multiple dimensions of executive functioning (EF). Results of covariate-controlled analyses in this study suggest that when intrauterine substance exposures and young adolescents' substance use variables were in the same analysis models, subtle differences in specific EF outcomes were identifiable in this non-referred sample. While further study with larger samples is indicated, these findings suggest that 1) research on adolescent substance use and intrauterine exposure research should evaluate both predictors simultaneously; 2) subtle neurocognitive effects associated with specific intrauterine drug exposures can be identified during early adolescence; and 3) intrauterine substance exposure effects may differ from those associated with adolescents' own drug use. PMID:21371553

  3. Parenting adolescents with cystic fibrosis: the adolescents’ and young adults’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Background When suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF), a number of problems may arise during adolescence; for example, poor adherence. The problems may be attributed to the adolescent being insufficiently prepared for adult life. Research on different ways of parenting adolescents with CF and the influence of different parenting styles on the adolescents’ adherence to treatment is still limited. Aim The aim of this study was to identify the types of parental support that adolescents and young adults with CF want and find helpful in terms of preparing them for adult life. Methods Sixteen Danish adolescents with CF, aged 14–25, participated in the study. Two focus group interviews were carried out, one for 14–18-year-olds and one for 19–25-year-olds. Individual interviews were conducted, with three subjects. Using interpretive description strategy, a secondary analysis of the interview data was conducted. Results The adolescents and young adults wanted their parents educated about the adolescent experience. They wanted their parents to learn a pedagogical parenting style, to learn to trust them, and to learn to gradually transfer responsibility for their medical treatment. Additionally, the adolescents noted that meeting other parents may be beneficial for the parents. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that adolescents and young adults with CF want their parents to be educated about how to handle adolescents with CF and thereby sufficiently prepare them for adult life. PMID:22114471

  4. A newly identified group of adolescents at “invisible” risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study

    PubMed Central

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group (“invisible” risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the “invisible” risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the “invisible” group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The “invisible” group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. PMID:24497256

  5. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  6. Anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking among 19,643 adolescents in South Asia: findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking habit usually begins in adolescence. The developing countries in South Asia like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Nepal, where the largest segment of the population is comprised of adolescents, are more susceptible to smoking epidemic and its consequences. Therefore, it is important to identify the association between anti-smoking initiatives and current smoking status in order to design effective interventions to curtail the smoking epidemic in this region. Methods This is a secondary analysis of national data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Pakistan (year 2003), India (year 2006), Bangladesh (year 2007), and Nepal (year 2007). GYTS is a school-based survey of students targeting adolescents of age 13–15 years. We examined the association of different ways of delivering anti-smoking messages with students’ current smoking status. Results A total of 19,643 schoolchildren were included in this study. The prevalence of current smoking was 5.4% with male predominance. No exposure to school teachings, family discussions regarding smoking hazards, and anti-smoking media messages was significantly associated with current smoking among male students. Participants who were deprived of family discussion regarding smoking hazards (girls: odds ratio (OR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–2.89, p value 0.152; boys: OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04–1.80, p value 0.025), those who had not seen media messages (girls: OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.58–5.28, p value <0.001; boys: OR 1.32, 95% CI 0.91–1.88, p value 0.134), and those who were not taught the harmful effects of smoking at school (girls: OR 2.00, 95% CI 0.95–4.21, p value 0.066; boys: OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.44–2.48, p value <0.001) had higher odds of being current smokers after multivariate adjustment. Conclusion School-going adolescents in South Asia (Pakistan, India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) who were not exposed to anti-tobacco media messages or were not taught about the

  7. Exploring associations between exposure to sexy online self-presentations and adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen; Boot, Inge

    2015-05-01

    Previous research suggests that adolescents' social network site use is related to their sexual development. However, the associations between adolescents' exposure to sexy self-presentations of others on social network sites and their sexual attitudes and experience have not yet been empirically supported. This study investigated reciprocal longitudinal relationships between adolescents' exposure to others' sexy self-presentations on social network sites and their sexual attitudes (i.e., sexual objectification of girls and instrumental attitudes towards sex) and sexual experience. We further tested whether these associations depended on adolescents' age and gender. Results from a representative two-wave panel study among 1,636 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17, 51.5 % female) showed that exposure to sexy online self-presentations of others predicted changes in adolescents' experience with oral sex and intercourse 6 months later, but did not influence their sexual attitudes. Adolescents' instrumental attitudes towards sex, in turn, did predict their exposure to others' sexy online self-presentations. Sexual objectification increased such exposure for younger adolescents, but decreased exposure for older adolescents. In addition, adolescents' experience with genital touching as well as oral sex (only for adolescents aged 13-15) predicted their exposure to sexy self-presentations of others. These findings tentatively suggest that the influence on adolescents' sexual attitudes previously found for sexual media content may not hold for sexy self-presentations on social network sites. However, exposure to sexy self-presentations on social network sites is motivated by adolescents' sexual attitudes and behavior, especially among young adolescents. PMID:25287000

  8. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  9. Does Adolescents’ Religiousness Moderate Links between Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use?

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Longo, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents’ psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (N = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control. PMID:24979658

  10. Osteomyelitis of the Mandible in an Adolescent.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Peter M; Cerrud, Clinio C; Buckley, Ian A; Demian, Nagi M

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old female, who had been experiencing episodes of mandibular pain and swelling for approximately six months, was referred to a university urgent care dental clinic for evaluation after receiving endodontic treatment. At the referral examination, clinical and radiographic findings were suggestive of osteomyelitis. The purpose of this report is to present the possible etiology, clinical and radiographic findings and surgical management of mandibular osteomyelitis in an adolescent patient. PMID:26349798

  11. Suggestion and psychoanalytic technique.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T; Inderbitzin, L B

    2000-01-01

    The role of the analyst's suggestive influence on the course and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment is explored, and traditional and newer perspectives on analytic technique are contrasted. The intersubjective critique of the neutral, objective analyst in relation to suggestion is examined. The inevitable presence and need for suggestive factors in analysis, and the relationship of suggestion to transference susceptibility, are emphasized. The manner in which the analysis of suggestive factors is subsumed in transference analysis as part of traditional technique is highlighted. PMID:11059395

  12. Individuation or Identification? Self-Objectification and the Mother-Adolescent Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Budge, Stephanie L.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    Do adolescents model their mothers’ self-objectification? We measured self-objectification (body surveillance and body shame), body mass index (BMI), body esteem, and quality of the mother-adolescent relationship in 179 female and 162 male adolescents at age 15, as well as self-objectification in their mothers. Initial analyses indicated no improvement in model fit if paths were allowed to differ for females and males; therefore a single model was tested for the combined sample. Findings revealed that mothers’ body surveillance negatively predicted adolescents’ body surveillance. Mothers’ body shame was unrelated to adolescents’ body shame, but positively predicted adolescents’ body surveillance. Results for the relationship between mothers’ and adolescents’ self-objectification suggest that adolescents engaged in more individuation than modeling. A more positive mother-adolescent relationship predicted lower body shame and higher body esteem in adolescents, suggesting that the quality of the relationship with the mother may be a protective factor for adolescents’ body image. Mother-adolescent relationship quality did not moderate the association between mothers’ and adolescents’ self-objectification. These findings contribute to our understanding about the sociocultural role of parents in adolescents’ body image and inform interventions addressing negative body image in this age group. The quality of the mother-adolescent relationship is a clear point of entry for such interventions. Therapists should work with adolescents and their mothers toward a more positive relationship quality, which could then positively impact adolescents’ body image. PMID:24363490

  13. Characterization of Psychotic Experiences in Adolescence Using the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire: Findings From a Study of 5000 16-Year-Old Twins

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Angelica; Sieradzka, Dominika; Cardno, Alastair G.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; McGuire, Philip; Freeman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to characterize multiple psychotic experiences, each assessed on a spectrum of severity (ie, quantitatively), in a general population sample of adolescents. Over five thousand 16-year-old twins and their parents completed the newly devised Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ); a subsample repeated it approximately 9 months later. SPEQ was investigated in terms of factor structure, intersubscale correlations, frequency of endorsement and reported distress, reliability and validity, associations with traits of anxiety, depression and personality, and sex differences. Principal component analysis revealed a 6-component solution: paranoia, hallucinations, cognitive disorganization, grandiosity, anhedonia, and parent-rated negative symptoms. These components formed the basis of 6 subscales. Correlations between different experiences were low to moderate. All SPEQ subscales, except Grandiosity, correlated significantly with traits of anxiety, depression, and neuroticism. Scales showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. Girls endorsed more paranoia, hallucinations, and cognitive disorganization; boys reported more grandiosity and anhedonia and had more parent-rated negative symptoms. As in adults at high risk for psychosis and with psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences in adolescents are characterized by multiple components. The study of psychotic experiences as distinct dimensional quantitative traits is likely to prove an important strategy for future research, and the SPEQ is a self- and parent-report questionnaire battery that embodies this approach. PMID:24062593

  14. Understanding links between adolescent health and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2009-11-01

    The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents'health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824

  15. Unexpected Finding Suggests Method for Controlling Pollen Dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies on the genetic inheritance of a wheat genomic DNA fragment in transgenic corn conclude that this DNA fragment is inherited maternally because it functions as a pollen specific gametocide. The authors of these studies illustrate that this transgene can but used to control transfer of a s...

  16. Anger Communication in Bicultural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novin, Sheida; Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about bicultural adolescents' emotional competence. The aim of the present study was to examine anger communication by comparing thirty-eight 16-year-old Moroccan-Dutch adolescents with 40 Dutch and 40 Moroccan peers using hypothetical anger-eliciting vignettes. Findings show that although Moroccan and Dutch adolescents were…

  17. Neural mechanisms of social influence in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Welborn, B Locke; Lieberman, Matthew D; Goldenberg, Diane; Fuligni, Andrew J; Galván, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H

    2016-01-01

    During the transformative period of adolescence, social influence plays a prominent role in shaping young people's emerging social identities, and can impact their propensity to engage in prosocial or risky behaviors. In this study, we examine the neural correlates of social influence from both parents and peers, two important sources of influence. Nineteen adolescents (age 16-18 years) completed a social influence task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. Social influence from both sources evoked activity in brain regions implicated in mentalizing (medial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction, right temporoparietal junction), reward (ventromedial prefrontal cortex), and self-control (right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). These results suggest that mental state reasoning, social reward and self-control processes may help adolescents to evaluate others' perspectives and overcome the prepotent force of their own antecedent attitudes to shift their attitudes toward those of others. Findings suggest common neural networks involved in social influence from both parents and peers. PMID:26203050

  18. Korean American Adolescent Depression and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunjung; Cain, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    PROBLEM Korean American adolescents tend to experience more mental health problems than adolescents in other ethnic groups. METHODS The goal of this study was to examine the association between Korean American parent-adolescent relationships and adolescents’ depressive symptoms in 56 families. FINDINGS Thirty-nine percent of adolescents reported elevated depressive symptoms. Adolescents’ perceived low maternal warmth and higher intergenerational acculturation conflicts with fathers were significant predictors for adolescent depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The findings can be used to develop a family intervention program, the aim of which would be to decrease adolescent depressive symptoms by promoting parental warmth and decreasing parent-adolescent acculturation conflicts. PMID:18429840

  19. Predictors of Parental Monitoring Among Families With a Runaway Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Reed, Sandra; Letcher, Amber; Katafiasz, Heather; Jones, Travis; Buettner, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research shows that parental monitoring is a critical factor in child adjustment. Using parent and adolescent reports, this study sought to examine predictors of parental monitoring among an understudied, high-risk sample of runaway adolescents. Parent-reported depressive symptoms, couple (romantic) relationship satisfaction, and adolescent-reported bonding with parents were used as predictors of both child- and parent-reported monitoring. Findings indicated that, among parents, the couple relationship was the primary predictor of monitoring, whereas among adolescents, the parent-child relationship was the primary predictor. Maternal depressive symptoms were unrelated to monitoring. These findings suggest the utility of considering monitoring as an interpersonal phenomenon rather than primarily a parent- or child-driven phenomenon. PMID:22239389

  20. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia Moderates the Relation between Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Adolescents' Social Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol; Branje, Susan

    2016-02-01

    This 2-wave longitudinal study aimed (1) to investigate whether high resting RSA predicted adolescents' lower externalizing behavior and higher empathic concern, and (2) to address the potential moderating role of resting RSA in the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' externalizing behavior and empathic concern. In a sample of 379 adolescents (212 boys, 167 girls), resting RSA was assessed during a laboratory session, and adolescents reported on parental support, negative interaction with parents, empathic concern and externalizing behavior during a home visit. We found no support for high resting RSA predicting low externalizing behavior or high empathic concern. However, in line with our hypotheses, we did find several instances of RSA functioning as a moderator, although the interaction patterns varied. First, negative interaction with parents was a negative predictor of externalizing behavior for girls low in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls with high RSA. Second, higher negative interaction with parents predicted lower empathic concern for boys high in resting RSA, whereas the association was reversed for boys with low resting RSA. Third, parental support was a positive predictor of empathic concern for girls high in resting RSA, whereas the association was non-significant for girls low in resting RSA. The findings suggest that adolescents with different levels of resting RSA respond differentially to relationship quality with parents. PMID:25711459

  1. Violence, Older Peers, and the Socialization of Adolescent Boys in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Most theoretical perspectives on neighborhood effects on youth assume that neighborhood context serves as a source of socialization, but the exact sources and processes underlying adolescent socialization in disadvantaged neighborhoods are largely unspecified and unelaborated. This paper proposes that cross-cohort socialization by older neighborhood peers is one source of socialization for adolescent boys in such neighborhoods. Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Survey suggest that adolescents in disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to spend time with older individuals. Qualitative interview data from 60 adolescent boys in three neighborhoods in Boston are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of these interactions and relationships. I find that some of the strategies these adolescents employ to cope with violence in disadvantaged neighborhoods promote interaction with older peers, particularly those who are most disadvantaged, and that such interactions can expose adolescents to local, “unconventional,” or “alternative” cultural models. PMID:20161350

  2. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors Between Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Stephanie M; Jakicic, John M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were more likely to be overweight and obese, and less likely to engage in regular PA versus typically developing adolescents (p's < 0.05). Increased odds for overweight and obesity were attenuated after adjustment for PA. Higher autism severity was associated with increased odds of overweight and obesity and decreased odds of PA, sport, and club participation. These findings suggest adolescents with ASD are in need of targeted programs to decrease obesity and increase physical activity. PMID:26936162

  3. Binge ethanol intoxication heightens subsequent ethanol intake in adolescent, but not adult, rats.

    PubMed

    Fabio, María Carolina; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2014-04-01

    A question still to be answered is whether ethanol initiation has a greater effect on ethanol consumption if it occurs during adolescence than in adulthood. This study assessed the effect of ethanol initiation during adolescence or adulthood on voluntary ethanol consumption when animals were still within the same age range. Adolescent or adult rats were given 5, 2, or 0 ethanol exposures. The animals were tested for ethanol consumption through two-bottle choice tests, before undergoing a 1-week deprivation. A two-bottle assessment was conducted after the deprivation. Adolescents, but not adults, given two ethanol administrations during initiation exhibited significantly higher ethanol intake during the pre-deprivation period. These adolescents also exhibited a threefold increase in ethanol intake after 7 days of drug withdrawal, when compared with controls. These findings suggest that very brief experience with binge ethanol intoxication in adolescence, but not in adulthood, impacts later predisposition to drink. PMID:23341340

  4. Cognitive vulnerabilities amplify the effect of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-05-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  5. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rebecca M.; Somerville, Leah H.; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J.; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, BJ

    2014-01-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The current study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents towards action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggests possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior. PMID:24550063

  6. Adolescent Steroid Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…

  7. The influence of parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication on Bahamian adolescent risk involvement: A three-year longitudinal examination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Cottrell, Lesley; Deveaux, Lynette; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The literature suggests that parental monitoring can best be conceptualized and measured through the domains of parental knowledge, youth disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental control. Using longitudinal data on 913 grade-six Bahamian students followed over a period of three years, we examined the unique and independent roles of these domains of parental monitoring and parent–adolescent communication in relation to adolescent involvement in delinquency, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. The results obtained with mixed-effects models indicate that parental knowledge, youth disclosure, and parental control are negatively associated with both delinquency and substance use. Open parent—adolescent communication was associated with decreased sexual risk behavior, whereas problematic parent–adolescent communication was associated with increased sexual risk behavior. The results obtained with path models indicate that youth disclosure is a significant longitudinal predictor of reduced adolescent delinquency and that parental control during early adolescence predicted reduced substance use in middle adolescence. The findings suggest that parental knowledge, youth disclosure and parental control differ in their impacts on substance use, delinquency and sexual risk behaviors. Problematic parent–adolescent communication is consistently associated with increases in all three types of adolescent risk behaviors. Future parental monitoring interventions should focus on enhancing parents’ interpersonal communication skills and emphasize the differences in and importance of the unique components of parental monitoring. PMID:24161101

  8. Arthroscopic Bioabsorbable Screw Fixation of Unstable Osteochondritis Dissecans in Adolescents: Clinical Results, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Second-Look Arthroscopic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Keun Churl; Kim, Kwang Mee; Jeong, Ki Joon; Lee, Yong Chan; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of arthroscopic bioabsorbable screw fixation in osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in adolescent patients with unstable lesions causing pain. Methods The study included 11 patients (10 males and 1 female) with OCD who underwent arthroscopic bioabsorbable screw fixation between July 2007 and February 2014 and were available for follow-up for more than 12 months. The mean age at diagnosis was 16.3 years (range, 11 to 19 years), and the average follow-up period was 51 months (range, 12 to 91 months). Clinical results were evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Lysholm knee score, and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score measured before surgery and at follow-up. Functional evaluation was made using the Tegner activity scale. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and second-look arthroscopy were performed at the 12-month follow-up. Results Between the preoperative assessment and follow-up, improvements were seen in the KOOS (range, 44.9 to 88.1), Lysholm knee score (range, 32.6 to 82.8), and IKDC score (range, 40.8 to 85.6). The Tegner activity scale also improved from 2.8 to 6.1. Based on postoperative MRI, there were eight Dipaola grade I cases and three grade II cases. No complications due to fixation failure developed in any case. Second-look arthroscopy at 12 months postoperatively revealed that the lesion was covered with cartilage in all cases. Conclusions For unstable OCD lesions causing pain in adolescents, arthroscopic bioabsorbable screw fixation provided favorable outcomes with reduced pain and restoration of movement. Therefore, it should be considered as an effective treatment for OCD. PMID:26929800

  9. Race, Ethnicity, and Adolescent Violent Victimization.

    PubMed

    Tillyer, Marie Skubak; Tillyer, Rob

    2016-07-01

    The risk of adolescent violent victimization in the United States varies considerably across racial and ethnic populations; it is unknown whether the sources of risk also vary by race and ethnicity. This study examined the correlates of violent victimization for White, Black, and Hispanic youth. Data collected from 11,070 adolescents (51 % female, mean age = 15.04 years) during the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were used to estimate group-specific multilevel logistic regression models. The results indicate that male, violent offending, peer deviance, gang membership, and low self-control were significantly associated with increased odds of violent victimization for all groups. Some activities-including getting drunk, sneaking out, and unstructured socializing with peers-were risk factors for Black adolescents only; skipping school was a risk factor only for Hispanic adolescents. Although there are many similarities across groups, the findings suggest that minority adolescents are particularly vulnerable to violent victimization when they engage in some activities and minor forms of delinquency. PMID:26769575

  10. The Neuroendocrine Control of the Circadian System: Adolescent Chronotype

    PubMed Central

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, public health and school officials are paying growing attention to the mechanism underlying the delayed sleep patterns common in human adolescents. Data suggest that a propensity towards evening chronotype develops during puberty, and may be caused by developmental alterations in internal daily timekeeping. New support for this theory has emerged from recent studies which show that pubertal changes in chronotype occur in many laboratory species similar to human adolescents. Using these species as models, we find that pubertal changes in chronotype differ by sex, are internally generated, and driven by reproductive hormones. These chronotype changes are accompanied by alterations in the fundamental properties of the circadian timekeeping system, including endogenous rhythm period and sensitivity to environmental time cues. After comparing the developmental progression of chronotype in different species, we propose a theory regarding the ecological relevance of adolescent chronotype, and provide suggestions for improving the sleep of human adolescents. PMID:22634481

  11. Executive functioning: developmental consequences on adolescents with histories of maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Kirke-Smith, Mimi; Henry, Lucy; Messer, David

    2014-09-01

    Research suggests that children exposed to maltreatment have deficits in executive functioning (EF) but few studies have focused on the adolescent age group. We investigated whether maltreated adolescents had lower EF abilities compared to a group of non-maltreated adolescents. Forty adolescents with histories of child maltreatment, together with a comparison group of 40 non-maltreated adolescents matched for age, completed a comprehensive battery of EF tasks. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, controlling for IQ, were carried out using each of the EF measures as dependent variables to examine group differences. Maltreated adolescents had significantly lower performance than non-maltreated adolescents on tasks assessing executive loaded working memory, fluency, and inhibition, although switching was not impaired. Emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) were included in additional regression analyses to examine whether these variables would explain the group differences. The inclusion of EBD variables had some effect on group differences, as expected, but did not eliminate them. These findings support the theory that impairments in EF may be one underlying reason why adolescents with histories of maltreatment struggle to cope both inside and outside the classroom. PMID:24684281

  12. Interpersonal Goals and Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Risk Factors for Intentions to Initiate Substance Use during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Though peer socialization theories are prominent in the adolescent substance use literature, variability in the degree to which adolescents are vulnerable to peer influence is likely, and few studies have examined this issue. This study examines the association between perceived peer substance use/approval of substance use and adolescent intentions to initiate alcohol and cigarette use, and how social goals moderate this relationship. Results support the moderating role of social goals, and suggest important differences across alcohol and cigarette use. Peer use and approval of cigarette use was associated with future intentions to smoke for adolescents with strong agentic goals, and peer use and approval of alcohol use was associated with intentions to drink for adolescents with strong communal goals. These findings suggest that adolescent substance use theories and prevention programs focusing on peer socialization should consider individual differences in social goals and potential differences in peer influence across drugs. PMID:21857763

  13. Evidence for a Role of Adolescent Endocannabinoid Signaling in Regulating HPA Axis Stress Responsivity and Emotional Behavior Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tiffany T-Y; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a period characterized by many distinct physical, behavioral, and neural changes during the transition from child- to adulthood. In particular, adolescent neural changes often confer greater plasticity and flexibility, yet with this comes the potential for heightened vulnerability to external perturbations such as stress exposure or recreational drug use. There is substantial evidence to suggest that factors such as adolescent stress exposure have longer lasting and sometimes more deleterious effects on an organism than stress exposure during adulthood. Moreover, the adolescent neuroendocrine response to stress exposure is different from that of adults, suggesting that further maturation of the adolescent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is required. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a potential candidate underlying these age-dependent differences given that it is an important regulator of the adult HPA axis and neuronal development. Therefore, this review will focus on (1) the functionality of the adolescent HPA axis, (2) eCB regulation of the adult HPA axis, (3) dynamic changes in eCB signaling during the adolescent period, (4) the effects of adolescent stress exposure on the eCB system, and (5) modulation of HPA axis activity and emotional behavior by adolescent cannabinoid treatment. Collectively, the emerging picture suggests that the eCB system mediates interactions between HPA axis stress responsivity, emotionality, and maturational stage. These findings may be particularly relevant to our understanding of the development of affective disorders and the risks of adolescent cannabis consumption on emotional health and stress responsivity. PMID:26638764

  14. Adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Joav; Kandel, Isack; Vardi, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition that can create stress for both adolescents and parents. Adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) go through the same stages as other adolescents, but due to lack of cognitive and behavioral factors they and their parents may find this period particularly challenging. This paper reviews several studies, especially from the United Kingdom, of groups of adolescents with Down syndrome and their controls followed from childhood, through adolescence into adulthood. There are special medical problems for this population that require annual medical examinations and surveillance, but the focus has shifted from health problems to social maturation, developing independence, and transition from school to employment or work activity. Medical transition from a pediatric to family physician provider is mentioned with recommendations as to how that transition can be made as smooth as possible. PMID:15148854

  15. Rorschach Evaluation of Adolescent Bulimics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jane E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Used Rorschach Test to contrast 12 diagnosed female adolescent bulimics with 12 female adolescent controls. Bulimics averaged greater number of aggression responses. Data suggest that adolescent bulimics are more depressed, self-punitive, and negativistic than peers and that they have more disordered thoughts, inaccurate perceptions, and impaired…

  16. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  17. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Readers' contributions include ways to make inservice meetings interesting, a checklist for designing and evaluating learning centers, ways to help low ability readers use public libraries by taping materials, how to encourage college students to attend state council conferences, and comments on misleading findings from the Nelson-Denny Reading…

  18. Uniting adolescent neuroimaging and treatment research: Recommendations in pursuit of improved integration

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Tapert, Susan F.; Molina, Brooke S.G.

    2016-01-01

    Many clinicians who provide mental health treatment find developmental neuroscience discoveries to be exciting. However, the utility of these findings often seem far removed from everyday clinical care. Thus, the goal of this article is to offer a bridge to connect the fields of applied adolescent treatment and developmental neuroscience investigation. An overview of the relevance of developmental neuroscience in adolescent direct practice and a rationale for how and why this integration could benefit adolescent treatment outcomes is provided. Finally, a series of practical suggestions is generated for enhancing collaborative, interdisciplinary work that ultimately advances treatment response for this important clinical population. PMID:26748378

  19. A person-centered approach to adolescent emotion regulation: Associations with psychopathology and parenting.

    PubMed

    Turpyn, Caitlin C; Chaplin, Tara M; Cook, Emily C; Martelli, Alexandra M

    2015-08-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of heightened emotional arousal and still-developing regulatory abilities. Adolescent emotion regulation patterns may be critically involved in adolescents' psychosocial development, but patterns of emotion regulation in youths are not well understood. The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to elucidate patterns of emotion expression, experience, and emotion-related physiological arousal in adolescents. A sample of 198 adolescents and their primary caregivers participated in an emotionally arousing parent-adolescent conflict interaction. Adolescents' observed emotion expressions, emotion experiences, and heart rate (HR) and caregiver parenting behaviors were assessed during and/or after the interaction. Parents reported on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and youths reported on depressive symptoms. The LPA revealed four emotion regulation profiles: a moderate HR and high expression profile, a suppression profile (with low negative emotion expression and high emotion experience), a low reactive profile, and a high reactive profile. The moderate HR and high expression profile was associated with lower conduct disorder symptoms, the suppression profile was related to lower anxiety symptoms, and the high reactive profile was associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms. The high reactive profile and moderate HR and high expression profile were associated with more negative/critical parenting behaviors. Findings suggest that profiles of adolescent emotion regulation can be empirically identified and may be significant risk factors for psychopathology. PMID:25846016

  20. Dynamics of parent-adolescent communication on sexual health and HIV/AIDS in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Lusajo J; Sheon, Nicolas; De Vries, Hein; Kaaya, Sylvia F; Aarø, Leif E

    2014-01-01

    Communication between parents and their adolescent children has been identified as one of the potential protective factors for adolescent sexual health. Qualitative exploration of sexual health communication with adolescents aged 12-15 (N = 114) and a sub-group of the parents (N = 20) was carried out. Four major themes emerged: reasons for parent-adolescent communications, or lack thereof; the focus of parental messages; the moral of the message; and the barriers to communication between parents and adolescents. Findings revealed similarities and discrepancies in views and perceptions between parents and adolescents. Adolescents and parents suggested that some sexual health communication was happening. Parents were reportedly likely to use fear to ensure that their children do not engage in risky sexual activities, while adolescents reported that conversations with their parents were mostly ambiguous and filled with warnings about the dangers of HIV/AIDS. Several communication barriers were reported by parents and adolescents. Parents of adolescents would benefit from HIV/AIDS specific communication skills. PMID:24101099

  1. Adolescent suicide risk screening: the effect of communication about type of follow-up on adolescents' screening responses.

    PubMed

    King, Cheryl A; Hill, Ryan M; Wynne, Henry A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of communication about type of screening follow-up (in-person follow-up vs. no in-person follow-up) on adolescents' responses to a self-report suicide risk screen. Participants were 245 adolescents (131 girls, 114 boys; ages 13-17; 80% White, 21.6% Black, 9.8% American Indian, 2.9% Asian) seeking medical emergency services. They were randomized to a screening follow-up condition. Screening measures assessed primary risk factors for suicidal behavior, including suicidal thoughts, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and aggressive/delinquent behavior. There was no main effect of follow-up condition on adolescents' screening scores; however, significant interactions between follow-up condition and public assistance status were evident. Adolescents whose families received public assistance were less likely to report aggressive-delinquent behavior if assigned to in-person follow-up. Adolescents whose families did not receive public assistance reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation if assigned to in-person follow-up. Findings suggest that response biases impact some adolescents' responses to suicide risk screenings. Because national policy strongly recommends suicide risk screening in emergency settings, and because screening scores are used to make critical decisions regarding risk management and treatment recommendations, findings indicate the importance of improving the reliability and validity of suicide risk screening for adolescents. PMID:22540534

  2. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  3. Functional Reorganizations of Brain Network in Prelingually Deaf Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjing; Li, Jianhong; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; He, Huiguang

    2016-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggested structural or functional brain reorganizations occurred in prelingually deaf subjects. However, little is known about the reorganizations of brain network architectures in prelingually deaf adolescents. The present study aims to investigate alterations of whole-brain functional network using resting-state fMRI and graph theory analysis. We recruited 16 prelingually deaf adolescents (10~18 years) and 16 normal controls matched in age and gender. Brain networks were constructed from mean time courses of 90 regions. Widely distributed network was observed in deaf subjects, with increased connectivity between the limbic system and regions involved in visual and language processing, suggesting reinforcement of the processing for the visual and verbal information in deaf adolescents. Decreased connectivity was detected between the visual regions and language regions possibly due to inferior reading or speaking skills in deaf subjects. Using graph theory analysis, we demonstrated small-worldness property did not change in prelingually deaf adolescents relative to normal controls. However, compared with healthy adolescents, eight regions involved in visual, language, and auditory processing were identified as hubs only present in prelingually deaf adolescents. These findings revealed reorganization of brain functional networks occurred in prelingually deaf adolescents to adapt to deficient auditory input. PMID:26819781

  4. Leisure time computer use and adolescent bone health—findings from the Tromsø Study, Fit Futures: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Anne; Ahmed, Luai Awad; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Grimnes, Guri; Jorde, Rolf; Nilsen, Ole Andreas; Dennison, Elaine; Emaus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Low levels of physical activity may have considerable negative effects on bone health in adolescence, and increasing screen time in place of sporting activity during growth is worrying. This study explored the associations between self-reported screen time at weekends and bone mineral density (BMD). Design In 2010/2011, 1038 (93%) of the region’s first-year upper-secondary school students (15–18 years) attended the Tromsø Study, Fit Futures 1 (FF1). A follow-up survey (FF2) took place in 2012/2013. BMD at total hip, femoral neck and total body was measured as g/cm² by dual X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar prodigy). Lifestyle variables were self-reported, including questions on hours per day spent in front of television/computer during weekends and hours spent on leisure time physical activities. Complete data sets for 388/312 girls and 359/231 boys at FF1/FF2, respectively, were used in analyses. Sex stratified multiple regression analyses were performed. Results Many adolescents balanced 2–4 h screen time with moderate or high physical activity levels. Screen time was positively related to body mass index (BMI) in boys (p=0.002), who spent more time in front of the computer than girls did (p<0.001). In boys, screen time was adversely associated with BMDFF1 at all sites, and these associations remained robust to adjustments for age, puberty, height, BMI, physical activity, vitamin D levels, smoking, alcohol, calcium and carbonated drink consumption (p<0.05). Screen time was also negatively associated with total hip BMDFF2 (p=0.031). In contrast, girls who spent 4–6 h in front of the computer had higher BMD than the reference (<2 h). Conclusions In Norwegian boys, time spent on screen-based sedentary activity was negatively associated with BMD levels; this relationship persisted 2 years later. Such negative associations were not present among girls. Whether this surprising result is explained by biological differences remains unclear

  5. MEMO—A Mobile Phone Depression Prevention Intervention for Adolescents: Development Process and Postprogram Findings on Acceptability From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Merry, Sally; Stasiak, Karolina; McDowell, Heather; Doherty, Iain; Shepherd, Matthew; Dorey, Enid; Parag, Varsha; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Rodgers, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevention of the onset of depression in adolescence may prevent social dysfunction, teenage pregnancy, substance abuse, suicide, and mental health conditions in adulthood. New technologies allow delivery of prevention programs scalable to large and disparate populations. Objective To develop and test the novel mobile phone delivery of a depression prevention intervention for adolescents. We describe the development of the intervention and the results of participants’ self-reported satisfaction with the intervention. Methods The intervention was developed from 15 key messages derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The program was fully automated and delivered in 2 mobile phone messages/day for 9 weeks, with a mixture of text, video, and cartoon messages and a mobile website. Delivery modalities were guided by social cognitive theory and marketing principles. The intervention was compared with an attention control program of the same number and types of messages on different topics. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken in high schools in Auckland, New Zealand, from June 2009 to April 2011. Results A total of 1348 students (13–17 years of age) volunteered to participate at group sessions in schools, and 855 were eventually randomly assigned to groups. Of these, 835 (97.7%) self-completed follow-up questionnaires at postprogram interviews on satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and adherence to the intervention. Over three-quarters of participants viewed at least half of the messages and 90.7% (379/418) in the intervention group reported they would refer the program to a friend. Intervention group participants said the intervention helped them to be more positive (279/418, 66.7%) and to get rid of negative thoughts (210/418, 50.2%)—significantly higher than proportions in the control group. Conclusions Key messages from CBT can be delivered by mobile phone, and young people report that these are helpful. Change in

  6. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  7. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship Between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents’ participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a “double-standard” for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21052800

  8. Adolescents' fear of social consequences of academic success as a function of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Ishiyama, F I; Chabassol, D J

    1985-02-01

    The Fear of Success Consequence Scale (FOSC) was used to assess adolescents' fears of potential social consequences of academic success in three dimensions, i.e., negative social reaction, positive peer reaction, and increased pressure and responsibility for continuous success. Subjects were 360 students in early adolescence (grades 7-9) and mid-adolescence (grades 10-12) in three urban British Columbia areas. Two hypotheses were supported: (1) that fear of academic success is higher among early adolescents than among mid-adolescents; (2) that girls generally have higher fear of academic success than do boys. Significant sex differences were found among early adolescents but not among mid-adolescents. While general sex differences were consistent with Horner's prediction, the findings of lower fear of success consequences among older adolescents than among younger ones, and the absence of significant sex difference among mid-adolescents, were contrary to Horner's prediction. Possible explanations for these findings are considered. Suggestions for further research are mentioned. PMID:24301042

  9. Modulation of meso-limbic reward processing by motivational tendencies in young adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jane E; Zhu, Xun; Lynam, Donald; Kelly, Thomas H

    2016-04-01

    Adolescence is a particularly vulnerable period for the onset of substance use disorders and other psychopathology. Individual variability in motivational tendencies and temperament and significant changes in functional brain organization during adolescence are important factors to consider in the development of substance use and dependence. Recent conceptualizations suggest that sensitivity to reward is heightened in adolescence and that this motivation tendency may precipitate subsequent substance abuse. The present study examined the role of personality traits in mesolimbic neurobehavioral response on a monetary incentive delay (MID) task in young adolescents (11-14years) and emerging adults (18-25years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. As a group, adolescents were not more sensitive to gains than losses compared to adults during either anticipatory and feedback phases; instead, compared to adults they showed less sensitivity to incentive magnitude in mesolimbic circuitry during anticipation and feedback stages. However, personality modulated this response such that adolescents high in impulsivity or low in avoidance tendencies showed greater gain sensitivity and adolescents high in avoidance showed greater loss sensitivity during cue anticipation. In adults, mesolimbic response was modulated by the impulsivity construct such that high-impulsive adults showed reduced magnitude sensitivity during both anticipation and feedback compared to low impulsive adults. The present findings suggest that impulsive personality significantly modulates mesolimbic reward response during both adolescence and adulthood but avoidance and approach tendencies also modulate this response in adolescents. Moreover, personality modulated incentive valence in adolescents but incentive magnitude in adults. Collectively, these findings suggest that mesolimbic reward circuitry function is modulated by somewhat different parameters in adolescence than in adulthood. PMID:26690806

  10. Sexual Orientation and Involvement in Nonviolent and Violent Delinquent Behaviors: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Connolly, Eric J; Schwartz, Joseph A; Boutwell, Brian B; Barnes, J C; Nedelec, Joseph L

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between sexual orientation and nonviolent and violent delinquency across the life course. We analyzed self-reported nonviolent and violent delinquency in a sample of heterosexual males (N = 5220-7023) and females (N = 5984-7875), bisexuals (N = 34-73), gay males (N = 145-189), and lesbians (N = 115-150) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The analyses revealed, in general, that bisexuals were the most delinquent of the sexual orientation categories for both males and females. Additional analyses revealed that heterosexual males reported significantly higher levels of both violent and nonviolent delinquency than gay males, whereas lesbians reported more involvement in nonviolent delinquency and, to a lesser extent, violent delinquency relative to heterosexual females. Analyses also revealed that lesbians reported significantly more delinquent behavior, particularly for nonviolent delinquency, than gay males. Future research should explore the mechanisms that account for these observed patterns and how they can be used to more fully understand the etiology of delinquency. PMID:27056045

  11. Enhanced Functional Activity of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Mediates Adolescent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasanetz, Fernando; Lynch, Diane L.; Friemel, Chris M.; Lassalle, Olivier; Hurst, Dow P.; Steindel, Frauke; Monory, Krisztina; Schäfer, Carola; Miederer, Isabelle; Leweke, F. Markus; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Lutz, Beat; Reggio, Patricia H.; Manzoni, Olivier J.; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by drastic behavioral adaptations and comprises a particularly vulnerable period for the emergence of various psychiatric disorders. Growing evidence reveals that the pathophysiology of these disorders might derive from aberrations of normal neurodevelopmental changes in the adolescent brain. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of adolescent behavior is therefore critical for understanding the origin of psychopathology, but the molecular mechanisms that trigger adolescent behavior are unknown. Here, we hypothesize that the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) may play a critical role in mediating adolescent behavior because enhanced endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to occur transiently during adolescence. To study enhanced CB1R signaling, we introduced a missense mutation (F238L) into the rat Cnr1 gene that encodes for the CB1R. According to our hypothesis, rats with the F238L mutation (Cnr1F238L) should sustain features of adolescent behavior into adulthood. Gain of function of the mutated receptor was demonstrated by in silico modeling and was verified functionally in a series of biochemical and electrophysiological experiments. Mutant rats exhibit an adolescent-like phenotype during adulthood compared with wild-type littermates, with typical high risk/novelty seeking, increased peer interaction, enhanced impulsivity, and augmented reward sensitivity for drug and nondrug reward. Partial inhibition of CB1R activity in Cnr1F238L mutant rats normalized behavior and led to a wild-type phenotype. We conclude that the activity state and functionality of the CB1R is critical for mediating adolescent behavior. These findings implicate the eCB system as an important research target for the neuropathology of adolescent-onset mental health disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We present the first rodent model with a gain-of-function mutation in the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). Adult mutant rats exhibit an adolescent

  12. Does Chronic Unpredictable Stress during Adolescence Affect Spatial Cognition in Adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Chaby, Lauren E.; Sheriff, Michael J.; Hirrlinger, Amy M.; Lim, James; Fetherston, Thomas B.; Braithwaite, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities allow animals to retain and cognitively manipulate information about their spatial environment and are dependent upon neural structures that mature during adolescence. Exposure to stress in adolescence is thought to disrupt neural maturation, possibly compromising cognitive processes later in life. We examined whether exposure to chronic unpredictable stress in adolescence affects spatial ability in late adulthood. We evaluated spatial learning, reference and working memory, as well as long-term retention of visuospatial cues using a radial arm water maze. We found that stress in adolescence decreased the rate of improvement in spatial learning in adulthood. However, we found no overall performance impairments in adult reference memory, working memory, or retention caused by adolescent-stress. Together, these findings suggest that adolescent-stress may alter the strategy used to solve spatial challenges, resulting in performance that is more consistent but is not refined by incorporating available spatial information. Interestingly, we also found that adolescent-stressed rats showed a shorter latency to begin the water maze task when re-exposed to the maze after an overnight delay compared with control rats. This suggests that adolescent exposure to reoccurring stressors may prepare animals for subsequent reoccurring challenges. Overall, our results show that stress in adolescence does not affect all cognitive processes, but may affect cognition in a context-dependent manner. PMID:26580066

  13. The Philosophy of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibleman, James K.

    1969-01-01

    The adolescent goes through various stages of physical and psychological development in the years between puberty and maturity. Finding his rightful place in society and refining his ideas about life are two experiences he undergoes during this period. (CK)

  14. The Sociocultural Context of Mexican-Origin Pregnant Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Teen Pregnancy and Links to Future Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Killoren, Sarah E; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2016-05-01

    Given the negative developmental risks associated with adolescent motherhood, it is important to examine the sociocultural context of adolescent mothers' lives to identify those most at risk for poor outcomes. Our goals were to identify profiles of Mexican-origin pregnant adolescents' cultural orientations and their attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and to investigate how these profiles were linked to adolescents' pregnancy intentions, family resources, and short-term family, educational, and parenting outcomes. With a sample of 205 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers, we identified three profiles based on cultural orientations and attitudes toward teen pregnancy: Bicultural-Moderate Attitudes, Acculturated-Moderate Attitudes, and Enculturated-Low Attitudes. The results indicated that enculturated pregnant adolescents had the least favorable attitudes toward teen pregnancy, and the lowest levels of family income, pregnancy intentions, pregnancy support, and educational expectations compared to acculturated and bicultural pregnant adolescents; acculturated adolescents (with the highest family income and high levels of pregnancy support) had the highest levels of parenting efficacy 10 months postpartum. Our findings suggest that enculturated adolescent mothers (with less positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from educational support programs and enculturated and bicultural adolescent mothers (with moderately positive attitudes toward teen pregnancy) may benefit from programs to increase parenting efficacy. Such targeted interventions may, in turn, reduce the likelihood of adolescent mothers experiencing negative educational and parenting outcomes. PMID:26573862

  15. Understanding Links Between Adolescent Health and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, MARGOT I.

    2009-01-01

    The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents’ health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824

  16. Differences Between Self-Concepts of Mennonite Adolescents and Public School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Michael G.

    The purpose of the study was to find out if there were any significant differences between the self-concepts of Mennonite adolescents and public school adolescents. Twenty-five Mennonite adolescents and twenty-five public school adolescents, all of whom were twelfth-graders, were given a self-description inventory in which they were to answer sets…

  17. Social Risk Factors of Black and White Adolescents' Substance Use: The Differential Role of Siblings and Best Friends.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Zachary R

    2016-07-01

    Efforts to understand peer influence among adolescents have established the robust relationship between having substance using peers and future substance use. Still, research suggests that peer influence affects different types of adolescents in different ways. Black adolescents may be less susceptible to friends compared to white adolescents and possess stronger family-orientation, suggesting that siblings may affect deviance of Black adolescents whereas friends will have a minimal impact. This study used data from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to evaluate the relative strength of best friend and siblings' influence as risk factors for Black and White adolescents' alcohol and cigarette use. Approximately 182 Black sibling pairs (37 % male) and 657 white sibling pairs (46 % male) that ranged in ages from 11 to 19 were in the longitudinal analyses for the current study. The findings demonstrated that sibling and best friends' substance use explained white adolescents' cigarette and alcohol use, whereas Black adolescents' cigarette and alcohol use was predominantly explained by siblings' substance use. Ultimately, the results indicated the nuanced role that two types of peers have in explaining variation in substance use across Black and White adolescents. PMID:27013477

  18. Hospital Emergency Services for Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Geoffrey C.; Klonoff, Harry

    1967-01-01

    The records of visits of children and adolescents to the emergency department of the Vancouver General Hospital were reviewed during the period July 1, 1965, to June 30, 1966, and the diagnostic and disposal data recorded. One-quarter of all visits were made by children and adolescents. Three-quarters of the visits were made for surgical conditions. There were more males than females in both surgical and medical groups, and the peaks in attendance were of those in the early preschool and late adolescent age groups. Three-quarters of the patients were referred to the family doctor and approximately one-sixth were admitted to the hospital. These findings suggested that while prompt medical attention was usually indicated, the majority of problems were not urgent and that the emergency department was becoming a substitute for the office of the family physician. PMID:6023997

  19. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship. PMID:26254219

  20. Correlates of marijuana use in Colombian adolescents: a focus on the impact of the ecological/cultural domain.

    PubMed

    Brook, David W; Brook, Judith S; Rosen, Zohn; Montoya, Ivan

    2002-09-01

    To examine the influence of ecological/cultural factors and family, personality, and peer factors present during early adolescence that influence marijuana use in late adolescence. A community sample of 2,226 Colombian adolescents living in mixed urban-rural communities and their mothers were interviewed in their homes by trained Colombian interviewers, first in 1995-1996 and then again 2 years later. The scales used were based on item intercorrelations and grouped into the following categories: (a) adolescent personality, (b) family traits, (c) peer factors, (d) ecological/cultural variables, and (e) marijuana use. Data were examined using hierarchical regression modeling to determine the relationship between each of the domains and late adolescent marijuana use. The findings supported the family interactional theory of adolescent drug use behavior and found that factors in all of the domains had a direct effect on late adolescent marijuana use as well as indirect effects mediated through the more proximal domains in the model. Of particular interest was the strength of the influence of the ecological/cultural factors, which far exceeded that observed in similar studies done in the United States. Owing to the similarity with findings from studies conducted in the United States, interventions designed domestically could effectively be directly applied to adolescents in Colombia. The findings also suggest that prevention programs designed specifically to target ecological or cultural factors may have the most profound influence for reducing marijuana use in late adolescence. PMID:12225741

  1. An examination of psychopathology and daily impairment in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C; Bunnell, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n = 16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n = 14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group

  2. What do sexually active adolescent females say about relationship issues?

    PubMed

    Bralock, Anita; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

    2009-04-01

    Many sexually active teenagers face risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. The purpose of our study was to gain an understanding about influences on condom use among sexually active adolescents in relationships. Data were collected through semi-structured openended interviews. The findings of this study suggest that many adolescents desired the love of a male partner, and were willing to concede to his request of practicing unprotected sex. Findings support the urgent need for interventions that will promote skill-building techniques to negotiate safer sex behaviors among youth who are most likely to be exposed to STIs through risky behaviors. PMID:19268234

  3. Repeated alcohol administration during adolescence causes changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems and promotes alcohol intake in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Maria; Boix, Jordi; Felipo, Vicente; Guerri, Consuelo

    2009-02-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period which the risk of drug and alcohol abuse increases. Since mesolimbic dopaminergic system undergoes developmental changes during adolescence, and this system is involved in rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, we addressed the hypothesis that ethanol exposure during juvenile/adolescent period over-activates mesolimbic dopaminergic system inducing adaptations which can trigger long-term enduring behavioural effects of alcohol abuse. We treated juvenile/adolescent or adult rats with ethanol (3 g/kg) for two-consecutive days at 48-h intervals over 14-day period. Here we show that intermittent ethanol treatment during the juvenile/adolescence period alters subsequent ethanol intake. In vivo microdialysis demonstrates that ethanol elicits a similar prolonged dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens of both adolescent and adult animals pre-treated with multiple doses of ethanol, although the basal dopamine levels were higher in ethanol-treated adolescents than in adult-treated animals. Repeated ethanol administration also down-regulates the expression of DRD2 and NMDAR2B phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex of adolescent animals, but not of adult rats. Finally, ethanol treatment during adolescence changes the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 in frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum, suggesting chromatin remodelling changes. In summary, our findings demonstrate the sensitivity of adolescent brain to ethanol effects on dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, and suggest that abnormal plasticity in reward-related processes and epigenetic mechanisms could contribute to the vulnerability of adolescents to alcohol addiction. PMID:19077056

  4. Evaluation of a Computerized Contraceptive Decision Aid for Adolescent Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chewning, Betty; Mosena, Pat; Wilson, Dale; Erdman, Harold; Potthoff, Sandra; Murphy, Anita; Kuhnen, Kathleen Kennedy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a computer-based contraceptive decision aid used with adolescent female family planning clinic patients (N=949). Results show improved short-term knowledge of and confidence in oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy. Higher OC knowledge after one year and fewer pregnancies were seen in one group. Findings suggest the usefulness of informatics…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  6. Adolescent Self-Mutilation in a Rural Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stewart W.; Powell, John C.

    1993-01-01

    Examined referral for psychiatric assessment of 17 adolescent self-mutilators attending Accident and Emergency Department for treatment of self-inflicted injuries and their previous attendance at casualty department in 5 years preceding the event. Findings suggest that repeated attendance at casualty department for apparently trivial or no…

  7. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  8. Autos, Alcohol, and Adolescence: Forgotten Concerns and Overlooked Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusbaumer, Michael R.; Zusman, Marty E.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the characteristics of adolescents who ride with a drinking driver but do not drink and drive themselves. Selected socio-demographic characteristics and alcohol related attitudes and behaviors are investigated. Findings suggest riding with a drinking driver may lead to the eventual practice of drinking and driving. (Author)

  9. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  10. Delinquent Behavior, Violent Victimization, and Coping Strategies among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Zina T.; Barber, Asha; Joseph, Ebone'; Dudley, Jocelyn; Howell, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study examines differences in reported problems such as peer victimization, indirect victimization, direct victimization, internal symptoms, and external symptoms among Latino youth exposed to violence. Findings suggest that female adolescents display higher levels of indirect victimization (i.e., witnessing violence) and internal symptoms…

  11. Amygdala and Hippocampus Enlargement during Adolescence in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Wouter; Teluij, Michelle; Buitelaar, Jan; Tendolkar, Indira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The amygdala and hippocampus are key components of the neural system mediating emotion perception and regulation and are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of autism. Although some studies in children with autism suggest that there is an enlargement of amygdala and hippocampal volume, findings in adolescence are sparse.…

  12. Inuit parent perspectives on sexual health communication with adolescent children in Nunavut: “It's kinda hard for me to try to find the words”

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Gwen

    2014-01-01

    Background For Inuit, the family unit has always played a central role in life and in survival. Social changes in Inuit communities have resulted in significant transformations to economic, political and cultural aspects of Inuit society. Where the family unit was once the setting for dialogue on family relations and sexuality, this has largely been replaced by teachings from the medical community and/or the school system. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore Inuit parent perspectives on sharing knowledge with teenage children about sexual health and relationships. Method A qualitative Indigenous knowledge approach was used for this study with a focus on Inuit ways of knowing as described in the Piliriqattigiinniq Community Health Research Partnership Model. Interviews were conducted with 20 individual parents in 3 Nunavut communities in 2011. Parents were asked about whether and how they talk to their children about sexual health and relationships. An analytical approach building on the concept of Iqqaumaqatigiiniq (“all knowing coming into one”), which is similar to “immersion and crystallization,” was used to identify story elements, groupings or themes in the data. The stories shared by parents are honoured, keeping their words intact as often as possible in the presentation of results. Results Parents shared stories of themselves, family members and observations of the community. Fifteen of 17 mothers in the study reported having experienced sexual abuse as children or adolescents. Parents identified the challenges that they have and continue to experience as a result of forced settlement, family displacement and the transition of Inuit society. They expressed a desire to teach their children about sexual health and relationships and identified the need for emotional support to do this in the wake of the trauma they have experienced. Parents highly valued elders and the knowledge they have about family relationships and childrearing

  13. Executive Function and Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lantrip, Crystal; Isquith, Peter K; Koven, Nancy S; Welsh, Kathleen; Roth, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Development of emotion regulation strategy use involves a transition from reliance on suppression during childhood to greater use of reappraisal in adolescence and adulthood-a transition that parallels developmental changes in executive functions. We evaluated the relationship between emotion regulation strategy use and executive functioning in the everyday life of 70 typically developing adolescents who completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Youth and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self-Report. Results indicated that greater reliance on reappraisal was associated with better executive functions, while reliance on suppression was related to poorer executive functions. Findings suggest that adolescents who rely on reappraisal may have more cognitive resources to help them remain attentive and well regulated in their daily lives. On the other hand, if better executive functions facilitate the use of reappraisal, adolescents' ability to regulate their emotions could potentially be enhanced via supports for executive functions. PMID:25650638

  14. A dual process account of adolescent and adult binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Rooke, Sally E; Hine, Donald W

    2011-04-01

    This study adopted a dual process perspective to investigate the relative contributions of implicit and explicit cognitions to predicting binge drinking in adolescents and adults. Two hundred and seventy-two participants (136 teen-parent pairs) completed measures of alcohol memory associations (reflecting implicit cognition), expectancies about potential costs and benefits of alcohol use (reflecting explicit cognition), and self-reported binge drinking. Adolescents had stronger alcohol memory associations and perceived drinking benefits to be more probable than did adults. In turn, higher scores on the memory association and expected benefit measures were both associated with significantly higher levels of binge drinking. Moderation analyses revealed that alcohol memory associations and expected benefits of drinking were stronger predictors of binge drinking for adolescents than for adults. The findings suggest that both implicit and explicit cognitions may play important roles in alcohol use decisions, and these roles may differ for adolescents and adults. PMID:21195555

  15. Does Smoking Intervention Influence Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2009-01-01

    Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking part in a cigarette smoking intervention efficacy study, assessed at baseline and followed up at 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Analyses compared treatment and control groups on days using alcohol and drugs and proportion abstinent from substance use at follow up assessments. Adolescents in the treatment condition reported significantly fewer days of substance use and were somewhat more likely to be abstinent at 3-month follow up. These findings suggest that tobacco focused intervention may enhance SUD treatment outcome. The present study provides further evidence for the value of addressing tobacco use in the context of treatment for adolescent SUD’s. PMID:19042327

  16. Promoting Energy-Balance Behaviors among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents: Overview and Baseline Findings of the Central Texas CATCH Middle School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…

  17. Drug Use in Adolescents: Findings from a District-Wide Census of Junior High School and High School Students in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lillian; And Others

    This study assesses correlates of the use and non-use of illicit drugs and medicinal substances among 6,405 secondary school students in an entire district. Responses to a questionnaire administered to the students were analyzed separately by sex and grade level (7-9 vs. 10-12). Some findings were: (1) about one-third of the high school students…

  18. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  19. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  20. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Atwood, Katharine A; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-08-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai adolescents' substance use and delinquency, through peer deviance, to determine which neighborhood aspects are particularly important. Families (N=420) with adolescents aged 13-14 were randomly selected from 7 districts in Bangkok, Thailand. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents', but not parents', perceptions of greater disorganization were related to increased rates of both minor and serious delinquency. Surprisingly, greater neighborhood cohesion was related to greater minor delinquency. Peer deviance was unrelated to neighborhood variables. Findings can inform prevention strategies for Thai adolescents, as results suggest that neighborhoods are important for adolescent behaviors regardless of culture. Further work should help communities make use of social cohesion to benefit residents. PMID:24465060

  1. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  2. Social determinants of adolescent depression: an examination of racial differences.

    PubMed

    Respress, Brandon N; Morris, Diana L; Gary, Faye A; Lewin, Linda C; Francis, Shelley A

    2013-07-01

    Conventional behavior theories that assert adolescent risk behaviors are determined by peer and parental relationships are being challenged as research begins to consider broader socioenvironmental factors. This study, using data from the Longitudinal Study for Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave II, Public Use Data, and the Social Determinants of Adolescent Risk Behaviors (SDOARB) framework, examines relationships among socioeconomic status (SES), academic performance, perceived peer prejudice, and perceived teacher discrimination as predictors of depressive symptoms among high school adolescents. Overall, the study found that GPA was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms across all three racial groups (Black, White, and Other Minority). Teacher discrimination predicted depressive symptoms among White and Other minority adolescents, but not Black adolescents. These findings suggest the need for interventions within schools for both students and teachers around racial differences in perceptions of prejudice and discrimination. Failure to address overt and covert subtleties of discrimination and prejudice within schools and policies which affect these interpersonal dynamics may have a significant impact on the overall mental wellbeing of adolescents. PMID:23875556

  3. Intercultural Profiles and Adaptation Among Immigrant and Autochthonous Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inguglia, Cristiano; Musso, Pasquale

    2015-02-01

    Few studies examine relationships between intercultural strategies and adaptation among adolescents using a person-oriented approach. Framed from an intercultural psychology perspective, this study used such an approach in order to examine the influence of intercultural profiles, patterns of relationships among variables related to intercultural strategies, on the adaptation of adolescents of both non-dominant and dominant groups. Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents living in Italy and aged from 14 to 18 participated to the study: 127 immigrants from Tunisia (males = 49.61%) and 129 autochthonous (males = 44.19%). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. Using cluster analytic methods to identify profiles, the results showed that immigrant adolescents were divided in two acculturation profiles, ethnic and integrated-national, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem, life satisfaction and sociocultural competence than the former. Also among autochthonous adolescents two acculturation expectation profiles were identified, not-multicultural and multicultural, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than the former. Findings highlight the importance of using multiple indicators in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the acculturation process as well as suggesting implications for the social policies in this field. PMID:27247643

  4. Intercultural Profiles and Adaptation Among Immigrant and Autochthonous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Inguglia, Cristiano; Musso, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Few studies examine relationships between intercultural strategies and adaptation among adolescents using a person-oriented approach. Framed from an intercultural psychology perspective, this study used such an approach in order to examine the influence of intercultural profiles, patterns of relationships among variables related to intercultural strategies, on the adaptation of adolescents of both non-dominant and dominant groups. Two hundred and fifty-six adolescents living in Italy and aged from 14 to 18 participated to the study: 127 immigrants from Tunisia (males = 49.61%) and 129 autochthonous (males = 44.19%). Data were collected through self-report questionnaires. Using cluster analytic methods to identify profiles, the results showed that immigrant adolescents were divided in two acculturation profiles, ethnic and integrated-national, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem, life satisfaction and sociocultural competence than the former. Also among autochthonous adolescents two acculturation expectation profiles were identified, not-multicultural and multicultural, with adolescents belonging to the latter showing higher self-esteem and life satisfaction than the former. Findings highlight the importance of using multiple indicators in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the acculturation process as well as suggesting implications for the social policies in this field. PMID:27247643

  5. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  6. Do the Effects of Early Severe Deprivation on Cognition Persist into Early Adolescence?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Kreppner, Jana; Stevens, Suzanne; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive outcomes at age 11 of 131 Romanian adoptees from institutions were compared with 50 U.K. adopted children. Key findings were of both continuity and change: (1) marked adverse effects persisted at age 11 for many of the children who were over 6 months on arrival; (2) there was some catch-up between ages 6 and 11 for the bottom 15%; (3)…

  7. The effects of single-sex versus coeducational schools on adolescent peer victimization and perpetration.

    PubMed

    Gee, Kevin A; Cho, Rosa Minhyo

    2014-12-01

    Bullying is a growing public health concern for South Korean adolescents. In our quantitative investigation, we analyze the frequency with which Korean adolescents in single-sex versus coeducational schools are targets of or engage in three peer aggressive behaviors (verbal, relational (social exclusion), and physical (including theft)). We use two nationally representative datasets, the 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the 2005 Korea Education Longitudinal Study (KELS), and rely on propensity score matching (PSM). For adolescent girls, we find that being in all-girls schools mitigates both their exposure to and engagement in peer victimization. For adolescent boys, we find that boys in all-boys schools have significantly higher odds of experiencing more frequent verbal and physical attacks versus their counterparts in coeducational schools. Our findings strongly suggest that interventions to mitigate peer victimization and aggression in Korea should consider the gendered schooling contexts in which they are implemented. PMID:25240191

  8. Human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011-2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time. PMID:25912372

  9. Experience with genetic counseling: the adolescent perspective.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Amanda; Shuman, Cheryl; Sappleton, Karen; Kaufman, Miriam; Chitayat, David; Babul-Hirji, Riyana

    2016-06-01

    Adolescence is a complex period of development that involves creating a sense of identity, autonomy, relationships and values. This stage of adjustment can be complicated by having a genetic condition. Genetic counseling can play an important role in providing information and support to this patient population; however, resources and guidelines are currently limited. In order to appropriately establish genetic counseling approaches and resource development, we investigated the experiences and perspectives of adolescents with a genetic condition with respect to their genetic counseling interactions. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents diagnosed with a genetic condition who received genetic counseling between the ages of 12 and 18 years at The Hospital for Sick Children. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using qualitative content analysis, from which three major interrelated themes emerged: 1) understanding the genetic counselor's role; 2) increasing perceived personal control; and 3) adolescent-specific factors influencing adaptation to one's condition. Additionally, a list of suggested tools and strategies for genetic counseling practice were elucidated. Our findings can contribute to the development of an adolescent-focused framework to enhance emerging genetic counseling approaches for this patient population, and can also facilitate the transition process from pediatric to adult care within patient and family-centered contexts. PMID:26573304

  10. Predictors of condom use among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (beta = .67, p <.001), technical skills (beta = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (beta = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  11. Human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescents in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Natasha L; Weiss, Paul; Gargano, Lisa M; Seib, Katherine; Rask, Kimberly J; Morfaw, Christopher; Murray, Dennis; DiClemente, Ralph J; Hughes, James M; Sales, Jessica M

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage for adolescent females and males remains low in the United States. We conducted a 3-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in middle and high schools in eastern Georgia from 2011–2013 to determine the effect of 2 educational interventions used to increase adolescent vaccination coverage for the 4 recommended adolescent vaccines: Tdap, MCV4, HPV and influenza. As part of this RCT, this article focuses on: 1) describing initiation and completion of HPV vaccine series among a diverse population of male and female adolescents; 2) assessing parental attitudes toward HPV vaccine; and 3) examining correlates of HPV vaccine series initiation and completion. Parental attitude score was the strongest predictor of HPV vaccine initiation among adolescents (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.39). Other correlates that significantly predicted HPV series initiation were gender, study year, and intervention arm. Parental attitudes remained a significant predictor of receipt of 3 doses of HPV vaccine along with gender, race, school type and insurance type. This study demonstrates that positive parental attitudes are important predictors of HPV vaccination and critical to increasing coverage rates. Our findings suggest that more research is needed to understand how parental attitudes are developed and evolve over time. PMID:25912372

  12. Predictors of Condom Use Among Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Carmen; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Zhou, Yan; Gallegos, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Mexican adolescents continue to be at increased risk for HIV infection due to inconsistent condom use. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of condom use intentions and condom use among Mexican adolescents who participated in a randomized control trial designed to test a sexual-risk reduction intervention. Data from sexually active adolescents 17 to 21 years (n = 157) of age who were assigned to the control group were analyzed 48 months post intervention. Regression analysis showed that positive attitudes toward condoms, subjective norms, and control beliefs significantly explained intention to use condoms (R2 = .75, p < .001). Attitudes toward condoms (β = .67, p < .001), technical skills (β = .13, p = .01), and condom use self-efficacy (β = .24, p < .001) were significant predictors of condom use intention. Compared to those who inconsistently used condoms, adolescents who used condoms consistently had greater intention to use condoms and greater impulse control. Findings suggest that attitudes and control beliefs should be further explored with Mexican adolescents in order to support consistent condom use. PMID:20949835

  13. Tipping Points in Adolescent Adjustment: Predicting Social Functioning from Adolescents’ Conflict with Parents and Friends

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Dykas, Matthew J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread interest in examining the role of conflict for adolescent development, researchers only rarely have examined adolescents’ experiences of conflict across relationships. The present study examined how adolescents’ experiences of conflict with parents and friends were linked to their social functioning. Adolescents (n = 189) and their mothers and fathers participated in semi-structured discussions about areas of adolescent-parent conflict in the laboratory. In addition, adolescents reported about conflict in their best friendships, and peers reported about adolescents’ social acceptance and behavior in social settings. Parent-adolescent conflict was associated with peer-reported aggression and delinquency, and friendship conflict was associated with delinquency and prosocial behavior. In addition, significant Parent-Adolescent Conflict × Friend-Adolescent Conflict interactions revealed that parent-adolescent conflict was associated with poor social functioning only when conflict with best friends was also high. The findings suggest that consideration of conflict across relationships may yield insight into the specific contexts in which conflict is associated with negative outcomes for adolescents. PMID:22946461

  14. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  15. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2013-01-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  16. Parenting Stress, Social Support, and Depression for Ethnic Minority Adolescent Mothers: Impact on Child Development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cindy Y; Costeines, Jessica; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S

    2014-02-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancies are higher for African American and Latina adolescents compared to their White peers. African American and Latina adolescent mothers also experience more adversities than their White peers, such as higher rates of depression, school dropout, and economic disadvantage. Furthermore, children of adolescent mothers are at higher risk for adverse development. Parenting stress and social support can impact outcomes experienced by adolescent parents and their children. The present study examined the influence of adolescent mothers' parenting stress and perceived social support on maternal depression at baseline (six months after birth), and its impact on infant development one year later (18 months after birth). Participants were 180 adolescent mothers of African American or Latino/Hispanic descent. Results suggest that higher levels of parenting stress and less perceived social support were associated with higher levels of depression in the adolescent mothers at baseline. Higher levels of maternal depression were also associated with more developmental delays in infants one year post-baseline. Additionally, depression mediated the relationship between parenting stress and later child outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of examining parenting factors such as parenting stress, social support, and maternal depression in ethnic minority adolescent parents, and provide valuable information regarding unique risk and protective factors associated with positive maternal outcomes for ethnic minority adolescent parents and healthy development for their children. PMID:24653641

  17. A brief history and some current dimensions of adolescent treatment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Godley, Mark D; White, William L

    2005-01-01

    Resources for the treatment of adolescent substance use disorders have increased over the past century in tandem with the increased visibility and cultural alarm regarding adolescent substance-related problems. The United States now has a multi-branched and growing system of adolescent treatment services that spans public and private sectors and offers services in both specialty and non-specialty service settings. Most adolescents are entering treatment due to alcohol and/or cannabis-related problems (and, to a lesser degree, other illicit drugs), but present with a wide array of co-occurring problems and obstacles to recovery. Multiple levels of specialized care are available but most adolescents being treated via outpatient counseling. The number and methodological rigor of adolescent treatment outcome studies have increased dramatically in recent years. The findings of these studies suggest the need for earlier systems of problem identification and intervention, a model of sustained recovery support for adolescents presenting with high problem severity and complexity, and sustained interventions with the adolescent's post-treatment family and social environment. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century, the treatment of adolescent substance use disorders is itself maturing into a professionalized and science-guided service arena. PMID:15789876

  18. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  19. Interpretation of ambiguity: Differences between children and adolescents with and without an anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Polly; Codd, Jon; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background Theory and treatment of anxiety disorders in young people are commonly based on the premise that interpretation biases found in anxious adults are also found in children and adolescents. Although there is some evidence that this may be the case, studies have not typically taken age into account, which is surprising given the normative changes in cognition that occur throughout childhood. The aim of the current study was to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and interpretation biases differed in children and adolescents. Methods The responses of children (7–10 years) and adolescents (13–16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n=120) were compared on an ambiguous scenarios task. Results Children and adolescents with an anxiety disorder showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and avoidant strategies than non-anxious children and adolescents. However, age significantly moderated the effect of anxiety disorder status on interpretation of ambiguity, in that adolescents with anxiety disorders showed significantly higher levels of threat interpretation and associated negative emotion than non-anxious adolescents, but a similar relationship was not observed among children. Conclusions The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of interpretation biases in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between different developmental periods. For both ages, treatment that targets behavioral avoidance appears warranted. However, while adolescents are likely to benefit from treatment that addresses interpretation biases, there may be limited benefit for children under the age of ten. PMID:26363617

  20. Who Expresses Depressive Affect in Adolescence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Anne C.; And Others

    Statistics suggest that the incidence of depression and suicide increase over the course of adolescence. Other research suggests that many indicators of well-being increase over the course of adolescence as well. This study investigated affective development during adolescence and examined the relationship of gender, normative developmental…

  1. Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: understanding the distress of peer rejection

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Borofsky, Larissa A.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; McNealy, Kristin; Mazziotta, John C.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2009-01-01

    Developmental research has demonstrated the harmful effects of peer rejection during adolescence; however, the neural mechanisms responsible for this salience remain unexplored. In this study, 23 adolescents were excluded during a ball-tossing game in which they believed they were playing with two other adolescents during an fMRI scan; in reality, participants played with a preset computer program. Afterwards, participants reported their exclusion-related distress and rejection sensitivity, and parents reported participants’ interpersonal competence. Similar to findings in adults, during social exclusion adolescents displayed insular activity that was positively related to self-reported distress, and right ventrolateral prefrontal activity that was negatively related to self-reported distress. Findings unique to adolescents indicated that activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subACC) related to greater distress, and that activity in the ventral striatum related to less distress and appeared to play a role in regulating activity in the subACC and other regions involved in emotional distress. Finally, adolescents with higher rejection sensitivity and interpersonal competence scores displayed greater neural evidence of emotional distress, and adolescents with higher interpersonal competence scores also displayed greater neural evidence of regulation, perhaps suggesting that adolescents who are vigilant regarding peer acceptance may be most sensitive to rejection experiences. PMID:19470528

  2. Rethinking the family in the context of care for adolescents living with HIV in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Shabalala, Fortunate; De Lannoy, Ariane; Moyer, Eileen; Reis, Ria

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from 18 months of ethnographic fieldwork in one urban and one rural setting in Swaziland, involving 13 case studies of adolescents living with HIV, in this article we explore the meaning of the family as it applies to Swazi adolescents' everyday life. Our findings suggest that the meaning of the family is constantly evolving and transforming based on changing needs of, and expectations by, adolescents in different contexts and moments of the care continuum. Central to the meaning of the family is a strong desire for belonging - that is, being accepted, welcomed and appreciated. Traditional institutions that used to regulate where children belong still shape adolescents' perceptions, hopes and desires, but may also prevent their realisation. Support groups are important but do not substitute for the familial belongings adolescents living with HIV have lost, and long for. Policymakers, programme managers and health providers working with adolescents living with HIV need to embrace the complexity and dynamism of the meaning of family and base their policies, programmes, standards and guidelines not only on the factual care arrangements that adolescents find themselves in, nor on legal definitions of rights and responsibilities, but also on what adolescents want. PMID:27314906

  3. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Kailyn A L; Case, Julia A C; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-06-30

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents-composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent-30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA), and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  4. The Influence of Age, Health Literacy, and Affluence on Adolescents' Capacity to Consent to Research.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified. PMID:27009303

  5. Family Functioning and Dysfunctional Eating Among Italian Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Gender.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; McPhie, Meghan L; Baumgartner, Emma; Rawana, Jennine S; Pompili, Sara; Baiocco, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of family functioning and dysfunctional eating in a sample of Italian adolescent boys and girls. The second aim was to investigate whether gender moderates the relationship between family functioning and dysfunctional eating. Seven hundred and twenty seven adolescents (500 boys and 227 girls) with ages ranging from 15 to 18 years completed a survey of self-report measures. Findings from hierarchical multiple regression analysis suggested that aspects of family functioning such as flexibility, cohesion, disengagement, enmeshment, rigidity and chaotic were related to dysfunctional eating in adolescents. Additionally the results indicated differences between boys and girls, in particular dysfunctional eating in adolescent boys seemed to be more affected by dimensions of enmeshment and disengagement than dysfunctional eating in girls. This research highlights the important role of various aspects of family functioning in relation to dysfunctional eating in adolescents. PMID:25776344

  6. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rienecke, Renee D; Accurso, Erin C; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  7. Familias Unidas' Crossover Effects on Suicidal Behaviors among Hispanic Adolescents: Results from an Effectiveness Trial.

    PubMed

    Vidot, Denise C; Huang, Shi; Poma, Sofia; Estrada, Yannine; Lee, Tae Kyoung; Prado, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The long-term impact of Familias Unidas on suicidal behaviors among Hispanic 8th graders (N = 746) was examined along with parent-adolescent communication as a moderator of intervention effectiveness. At baseline, 9.2% (95% CI = 7.3%-11.6%) of adolescents reported suicide ideation and 5.7% (95% CI = 4.1%-7.7%) reported a past year suicide attempt. There were no significant intervention effects on suicidal behaviors; however, parent-adolescent communication was a moderator of suicide attempts in the past year, across the intervention (b = -.01, p = .01). Results suggest that Familias Unidas reduces suicidal behaviors among Hispanic adolescents with low levels of parent-adolescent communication despite no suicide-specific intervention content. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27094111

  8. Examining the Quality of Adolescent-Parent Relationships Among Chilean Families

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Michelle; Sanchez, Ninive; Maurizi, Laura K.; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if adolescents reports of warm and harsh parenting practices by their mothers and fathers varied as a function of demographic, youth and their mothers or mother figures’ individual and family characteristics. Data are from 707 community-dwelling adolescents (mean age=14, SD=1.4) and their mothers or mother figures in Santiago, Chile. Having a warmer relationship with both parents was inversely associated with the adolescents’ age and positively associated with adolescents’ family involvement and parental monitoring. Both mothers’ and fathers’ harsh parenting were positively associated with adolescent externalizing behaviors and being male and inversely associated with youth autonomy and family involvement. These findings suggest that net of adolescent developmental emancipation and adolescent behavioral problems, positive relationships with parents, especially fathers, may be nurtured through parental monitoring and creation of an interactive family environment, and can help to foster positive developmental outcomes. PMID:24288437

  9. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86) adolescents were identified. Participants reported on positive and conflictual qualities of their friendships, and their attributions, emotional reactions, and coping strategies in response to hypothetical negative peer events. Results revealed that for overweight adolescents, positive friendship quality was negatively associated with emotion-focused coping, and friendship conflict was positively associated with internal blame attributions, but the associations between these variables were not significant for average weight adolescents. Findings suggest that positive friendships may represent protective factors in the lives of overweight adolescents whereas highly conflictual friendships may increase risk. PMID:20514345

  10. Expressed Emotion, Family Functioning, and Treatment Outcome for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Rienecke, Renee D.; Accurso, Erin C.; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between parental expressed emotion (EE) and treatment outcome among adolescents participating in a treatment study for adolescent anorexia nervosa, as well as its impact on family functioning. One hundred and twenty-one families were assigned to family-based treatment or adolescent-focused therapy. Paternal criticism predicted lesser improvement in eating disorder psychopathology at end of treatment. There was also a significant interaction between maternal hostility and treatment, indicating that adolescents whose mothers displayed hostility had greater increases in percent of expected body weight in adolescent-focused therapy than family-based treatment. In addition, maternal hostility predicted less improvement in general family functioning and family communication at the end of treatment. Findings suggest that maternal and paternal EE may differentially impact treatment outcome and should be directly attended to in clinical settings. Future research is needed to further explore ways in which parental EE can be effectively modified in treatment. PMID:26201083

  11. Early Adolescent Alcohol Use in Context: How Neighborhoods, Parents and Peers Impact Youth

    PubMed Central

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Colder, Craig R.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use; yet, these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use two years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  12. Early adolescent alcohol use in context: how neighborhoods, parents, and peers impact youth.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Elisa M; Colder, Craig R; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawk, Larry W

    2014-05-01

    Developmental-ecological models are useful for integrating risk factors across multiple contexts and conceptualizing mediational pathways for adolescent alcohol use, yet these comprehensive models are rarely tested. This study used a developmental-ecological framework to investigate the influence of neighborhood, family, and peer contexts on alcohol use in early adolescence (N = 387). Results from a multi-informant longitudinal cross-lagged mediation path model suggested that high levels of neighborhood disadvantage were associated with high levels of alcohol use 2 years later via an indirect pathway that included exposure to delinquent peers and adolescent delinquency. Results also indicated that adolescent involvement with delinquent peers and alcohol use led to decrements in parenting, rather than being consequences of poor parenting. Overall, the study supported hypothesized relationships among key microsystems thought to influence adolescent alcohol use, and thus findings underscore the utility of developmental-ecological models of alcohol use. PMID:24621660

  13. Adolescent neurobehavioral characteristics, alcohol sensitivities, and intake: Setting the stage for alcohol use disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations that include not only the hormonal and physiological changes of puberty but also dramatic changes in the brain as well. Similar neural and physiological changes are associated with the transition from immaturity to maturity across a variety of mammalian species, along with a variety of common adolescent-typical behavioral characteristics. Among the neural systems undergoing alterations during adolescence are those that modulate sensitivity to a variety of alcohol effects, potentially increasing the propensity for relatively high levels of adolescent alcohol use, which in turn may set the stage for later alcohol use disorders. This article reviews research on adolescent alcohol sensitivities and suggests possible implications of these findings for the frequent initiation and relatively high levels of alcohol intake seen at this age. PMID:22328900

  14. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents With Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L; Cullen, Kathryn R; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J; Houri, Alaa K; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Test (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs. Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the Executive Attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  15. Executive Attention Impairment in Adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfeldt, Sasha L.; Cullen, Kathryn R.; Han, Georges; Fryza, Brandon J.; Houri, Alaa K.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neural network models that guide neuropsychological assessment practices are increasingly used to explicate depression, though a paucity of work has focused on regulatory systems that are under development in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsystems of attention related to executive functioning including alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks, as well as sustained attention with varying working memory load, in a sample of depressed and well adolescents. Method Neuropsychological functioning in 99 adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 63 adolescent healthy controls (M = 16.6 years old) was assessed on the Attention Network Task (ANT) and the Continuous Performance Test, Identical Pairs (CPT). Results Adolescents with MDD, particularly those who were not medicated, were slower to process conflict (slower reaction time on the executive attention scale of the ANT) compared to controls, particularly for those who were not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. Tentative evidence also suggests that within the MDD group, orienting performance was more impaired in those with a history of comorbid substance use disorder, and alerting was more impaired in those with a history of a suicide attempt. Conclusions Adolescents with depression showed impaired executive attention, although cognitive performance varied across subgroups of patients. These findings highlight the importance of examining neurocognitive correlates associated with features of depression and suggest an avenue for future research to help guide the development of interventions. PMID:26566871

  16. Adolescent Anovulation: Maturational Mechanisms and Implications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adolescents are at high risk for menstrual dysfunction. The diagnosis of anovulatory disorders that may have long-term health consequences is too often delayed. Evidence Acquisition: A review of the literature in English was conducted, and data were summarized and integrated from the author's perspective. Main Findings: Normal adolescent anovulation causes only minor menstrual cycle irregularity: most cycles range from 21–45 days, even in the first postmenarcheal year, 90% by the fourth year. Approximately half of symptomatic menstrual irregularity is due to neuroendocrine immaturity, and half is associated with increased androgen levels. The former is manifest as aluteal or short/deficient luteal phase cycles and usually resolves spontaneously. The latter seems related to polycystic ovary syndrome because adolescent androgen levels are associated with adult androgens and ovulatory dysfunction, but data are sparse. Obesity causes hyperandrogenemia and, via unclear mechanisms, seems to suppress LH; it may mimic polycystic ovary syndrome. The role of pubertal insulin resistance in physiological adolescent anovulation is unclear. High-sensitivity gonadotropin and steroid assays, the latter by specialty laboratories, are necessary for accurate diagnosis of pubertal disorders. Polycystic ovaries are a normal ultrasonographic finding in young women and are associated with nearly 2-fold increased anti-Müllerian hormone levels. Oral contraceptives are generally the first-line treatment for ongoing menstrual dysfunction, and the effects of treatment are similar among preparations. Conclusions: Menstrual cycle duration persistently outside 21–45 days in adolescents is unusual, and persistence ≥ 1 year suggests that disordered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function be considered. Research is needed on the mechanisms and prognosis of adolescent anovulation. PMID:23913942

  17. To Dance with the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Uses metaphor of the dance to suggest reciprocity, harmony, and a mutual exchange of leadership as key components of adolescent-adult relationships. Suggests that adolescents have high expectations of adult's character and competencies; therefore, teachers should elicit the highest values and behaviors from their students. (KDFB)

  18. Comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviours between young haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    González, L M; Peiró-Velert, C; Devís-Devís, J; Valencia-Peris, A; Pérez-Gimeno, E; Pérez-Alenda, S; Querol, F

    2011-07-01

    In recent studies, adolescent haemophilia A patients and healthy adolescents have been encouraged to participate in physical activity (PA) based on its many established health benefits. However, none of the studies to date has used objective measures of PA and sedentary behaviour. The aims of the current study included: (i) to determine the amount and intensity of habitual PA among haemophilia A and healthy adolescents, and in haemophilia A patients with and without bleeding episodes in the previous year, and (ii) to identify the type and determine the time spent in sedentary activities in which both groups participate to obtain a broadened view of their daily activities. A total of 41 adolescent haemophiliacs and 25 healthy adolescents, between the ages of 8 and 18 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. A triaxial accelerometer was used to measure PA and the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire to assess sedentary behaviours among members of both groups. Adolescent haemophilia A patients showed a higher daily mean time engaged in light, moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PAs relative to their healthy counterparts (P < 0.001). Patients who had experienced bleeding episodes during the previous year also spent more time participating in vigorous PAs than healthy adolescents (P = 0.002). With regard to sedentary behaviours, healthy adolescents spent more time listening to music than haemophilia A adolescents (P = 0.003), whereas haemophilia A adolescents spent more time watching TV (P < 0.001) and playing videogames (P = 0.003) than healthy counterparts. Findings suggest that increased participation in moderate intensity PAs and reduced sedentary behaviours should be recommended among adolescents with haemophilia A. PMID:21299746

  19. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  20. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  1. Treatment of Adolescent Eating Disorders: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lock, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective Although eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders that usually onset during adolescence, few evidence-based treatments for this age group have been identified. A critical review of treatments used for Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and related conditions (EDNOS) is provided that summarizes the rationale for the treatments, evidence of effectiveness available, and outcomes. Method Critical review of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Results There are only seven published RCTs of psychotherapy for AN in adolescents with a total of 480 subjects. There are only two published RCTs for outpatient psychotherapy for adolescent BN with a total of 165 subjects. There are no published RCTs examining medications for adolescent AN or BN. For adolescent AN, Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the treatment with the most evidence supporting its use. Three RCTs suggest that FBT is superior to individual therapy at the end of treatment; however, at follow-up differences between individual and family approaches are generally reduced. For adolescent BN, one study found no differences between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and FBT at the end of treatment or follow-up, while the other found FBT superior to individual therapy. Conclusions Although the evidence remains limited, FBT appears to be the first line treatment for adolescent AN. There is little evidence to support a specific treatment for adolescent BN. There is a need for additional studies of treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders. New treatments studies may build on current evidence as well as examine new approaches based on novel findings in the neurosciences about cognitive and emotional processes in eating disorders. PMID:21532979

  2. Health care professionals and adolescent vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Zimet, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    In their recently published research study, Gargano et al. found that a physician's recommendation and parental health beliefs had significant effects on adolescent vaccination rates and on parental intentions to vaccinate. This research replicates the findings of a number of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-focused research studies, but explores new territory by focusing on all recommended adolescent vaccines: meningococcal-conjugate (MCV4), HPV, influenza, and tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines. Although Gargano et al.'s study is relatively small in scale and focuses on only one county in Georgia, their results are consistent with many other research reports, suggesting that their findings are robust and replicable. Most published intervention studies have targeted parents and young adults, with little focus on health care professionals. However, given the centrality of physician recommendation in adolescent vaccination, as shown by Gargano et al., it is clear that the time has come to develop and evaluate interventions that help physicians and other health care professionals to more effectively implement strong and routine recommendations for all adolescent platform vaccines. PMID:25483506

  3. Associations of maternal weight gain in pregnancy with offspring cognition in childhood and adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Lawlor, Debbie A; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail

    2013-03-01

    An association of gestational weight gain (GWG) with offspring cognition has been postulated. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a United Kingdom prospective cohort (1990 through the present) with a median of 10 maternal weight measurements in pregnancy. These were used to allocate participants to 2009 Institute of Medicine weight-gain categories and in random effect linear spline models. Outcomes were School Entry Assessment score (age, 4 years; n = 5,832), standardized intelligence quotient assessed by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (age, 8 years; n = 5,191), and school final-examination results (age, 16 years; n = 7,339). Offspring of women who gained less weight than recommended had a 0.075 standard deviation lower mean School Entry Assessment score (95% confidence interval: -0.127, -0.023) and were less likely to achieve adequate final-examination results (odds ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.99) compared with offspring of women who gained as recommended. GWG in early pregnancy (defined as 0-18 weeks on the basis of a knot point at 18 weeks) and midpregnancy (defined as 18-28 weeks on the basis of knot points at 18 and 28 weeks) was positively associated with School Entry Assessment score and intelligence quotient. GWG in late pregnancy (defined as 28 weeks onward on the basis of a knot point at 28 weeks) was positively associated with offspring intelligence quotient and with increased odds of offspring achieving adequate final-examination results in mothers who were overweight prepregnancy. Findings support small positive associations between GWG and offspring cognitive development, which may have lasting effects on educational attainment up to age 16 years. PMID:23388581

  4. Identity styles, positive youth development, and civic engagement in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Erentaitė, Rasa; Zukauskienė, Rita

    2014-11-01

    Identity formation is a core developmental task of adolescence. Adolescents can rely on different social-cognitive styles to seek, process, and encode self-relevant information: information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant identity styles. The reliance on different styles might impact adolescents' adjustment and their active involvement in the society. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adolescents with different identity styles report differences in positive youth development (analyzed with the Five Cs-Competence, Confidence, Character, Connection, and Caring-model) and in various forms of civic engagement (i.e., involvement in school self-government activities, volunteering activities, youth political organizations, and youth non-political organizations). The participants were 1,633 (54.1 % female) 14-19 year old adolescents (M age = 16.56, SD age = 1.22). The findings indicated that adolescents with different identity styles differed significantly on all the Five Cs and on two (i.e., involvement in volunteering activities and in youth non-political organizations) forms of civic engagement. Briefly, adolescents with an information-oriented style reported high levels of both the Five Cs and civic engagement; participants with a normative style reported moderate to high scores on the Five Cs but low rates of civic engagement; diffuse-avoidant respondents scored low both on the Five Cs and on civic engagement. These findings suggest that the information-oriented style, contrary to the diffuse-avoidant one, has beneficial effects for both the individual and the community, while the normative style has quite beneficial effects for the individual but not for his/her community. Concluding, adolescents with different identity styles display meaningful differences in positive youth development and in rates of civic engagement. PMID:24488126

  5. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  6. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Haynie, Dana L

    2011-10-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter's classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners' drinking, friends' drinking, and friends-of-partners' drinking to daters' own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners' drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one's own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  7. DANGEROUS LIAISONS? DATING AND DRINKING DIFFUSION IN ADOLESCENT PEER NETWORKS*

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Haynie, Dana L.

    2014-01-01

    The onset and escalation of alcohol consumption and romantic relationships are hallmarks of adolescence, yet only recently have these domains jointly been the focus of sociological inquiry. We extend this literature by connecting alcohol use, dating and peers to understand the diffusion of drinking behavior in school-based friendship networks. Drawing on Granovetter’s classic concept of weak ties, we argue that adolescent romantic partners are likely to be network bridges, or liaisons, connecting daters to new peer contexts which, in turn, promote changes in individual drinking behaviors and allow these behaviors to spread across peer networks. Using longitudinal data of 459 couples from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate Actor-Partner Interdependence Models and identify the unique contributions of partners’ drinking, friends’ drinking, and friends-of-partners’ drinking to daters’ own future binge drinking and drinking frequency. Findings support the liaison hypothesis and suggest that friends-of-partners’ drinking have net associations with adolescent drinking patterns. Moreover, the coefficient for friends-of-partners drinking is larger than the coefficient for one’s own peers and generally immune to prior selection. Our findings suggest that romantic relationships are important mechanisms for understanding the diffusion of emergent problem behaviors in adolescent peer networks. PMID:25328162

  8. Graffiti and adolescent personality.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B

    1977-01-01

    Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development. PMID:868627

  9. [Adolescence and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Kjellberg, G

    2006-03-22

    Different pathological states occurring during adolescence, such as anorexia, bulimia and suicidal attempts are seen as possible manifestations of psychological defence mechanisms against the anxiety-provoking bodily changes of puberty and the necessary psychological transformations inherent to adolescence and sexual maturation. The changes of object of desire and some sexual risk behaviours are illustrated by clinical vignettes. Music is suggested to play a role in the mobilisation of emotions, bodily sensations and in the construction of an imaginary world and thus to be a factor--a part from biological and psycho-social ones--influencing the sexual behaviour of adolescents. Some communication techniques are suggested enabling access to adolescents on sexual matters - a domain of increasing public health importance. PMID:16615726

  10. Parental management of peer relationships and early adolescents' social skills.

    PubMed

    Mounts, Nina S

    2011-04-01

    Despite a growing body of research on parental management of peer relationships, little is known about the relationship between parental management of peers and early adolescents' social skills or the precursors to parental management of peer relationships. The goals of this short-term longitudinal investigation were to examine the relationship between parental management of peers (consulting and guiding), conflict about peers, and adolescents' social skills (cooperation, assertion, responsibility, empathy, and self-control) and to examine potential precursors (goals of improving peer relationships and beliefs about authority over peer relationships) to parental management of peer relationships. A predominantly White sample (71%) of 75 seventh-graders (57% female) and their primary caregivers participated in the 9-month investigation. Caregivers completed questionnaires regarding goals of improving their adolescents' peer relationships, beliefs about parental authority over peer relationships, parental management of peers, and adolescents' social skills. Adolescents completed questionnaires regarding their social skills. Path analyses suggest that a greater number of caregivers' goals of improving peer relationships and higher beliefs about parental authority over peers were related to higher levels of consulting, guiding, and conflict about peers. Higher levels of conflict about peers in conjunction with higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of assertion and responsibility in peer relationships over time. When parents reported having a greater number of goals of improving peer relationships, adolescents reported higher levels of cooperation, assertion, empathy, and self control over time. Findings suggest that caregivers' goals and beliefs are important in predicting parental management of peer relationships and adolescents' social skills over time, and that conflict about peers undermines caregivers' efforts to be positively involved in

  11. The Development of Ego Defenses in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levit, David B.

    1993-01-01

    A model for developmental transitions in defense use in adolescence based on an integration of psychoanalytic views of adolescence and J. Loevinger's theory of ego development was tested with 31 male and 35 female adolescents. Results support some hypothesized developmental transitions and not others. Implications of findings are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Adolescent sexuality: the gender gap.

    PubMed

    Moreau-Gruet, F; Ferron, C; Jeannin, A; Dubois-Arber, F

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine gender differences as regards adolescent sexuality, in order to improve the adjustment of prevention programmes to boys' and girls' specific needs. Data were collected as part of the Swiss Multicentric Adolescent Survey on Health. Anonymous questionnaires were distributed in school classes among a national representative sample of about 9,300 adolescents (15 to 20 years old). About 45% of the total sample reported a previous sexual experience. Differences between boys and girls were identified by means of bivariate and multivariate analyses. A higher proportion of Swiss girls report intra-family discussions about sexuality, having had a previous sexual experience, having sexual intercourse regularly, having had only one partner, and using contraception regularly. A higher proportion of Swiss boys report positive attitudes towards condoms and using condoms regularly. Variables independently associated with the occurrence of first sexual intercourse before 15 years old also show gender differences, notably as regards health behaviours and social adjustment. The findings suggest that prevention programmes should emphasize, among boys, responsibility in contraception and the need for protection in situations of multipartnership, and among girls, a positive attitude towards condom use and an increased familiarity with condoms presented both in a perspective of contraception and prevention of STDs. PMID:8993715

  13. Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age = 14.6, SD = 0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

  14. Intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers and a comparison group of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M Cynthia; Usui, Wayne; Pinto-Foltz, Melissa; Rakestraw, Vivian Leffler

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to determine the efficacy of the theory of reasoned action in predicting intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (n = 64) and a comparison group of adolescent girls (n = 65) and (b) to explore the role of empirically suggested variables (e.g., social support and current symptoms of depression) in increasing the explanatory power of the model. Findings between the two groups differed. Subjective norms, but not attitude, was a significant predictor of intention to seek depression treatment in adolescent mothers (F = 4.82, P = .00; R(2) = .14). In the comparison group of adolescent girls, both attitude and subjective norms predicted intention to seek depression treatment (F = 8.56, P = .00, R(2) = .22). The addition of depressive symptoms and social support increased the explanatory power of the model in the comparison group of adolescent girls (R(2) change = 0.10, P = .02) but resulted in the deletion of subjective norms from the regression equation. Implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:19216987

  15. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  16. Family and Individual Predictors of Late Adolescents' Romantic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Marchand, Jennifer F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied parent-adolescent conflict and late adolescents' attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms as predictors of late adolescents' romantic relationships. Findings based on questionnaire responses of 256 college students highlight the differential roles of familial and individual attributes in female and male adolescents' romantic relationship…

  17. Continuity, Stability, and Change in Daily Emotional Experience across Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed W.; Moneta, Giovanni; Richards, Maryse H.; Wilson, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined change in 220 adolescents' daily range of emotional states between early and late adolescence. Findings showed that emotional states became less positive across early adolescence; this downward change in average emotions ceased in grade 10. The greatest relative instability was during early adolescence; stability…

  18. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  19. Individual and social risk factors related to overt victimization in a sample of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cava, Maria Jesus; Musitu, Gonzalo; Murgui, Sergio

    2007-08-01

    This study analyzes the role of adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, sociometric status, and perceptions of family and classroom environment on overt vicitimization by peers in a sample of 1319 Spanish adolescents (48% boys and 52% girls), ages 11 to 16 years (M=13.7, SD=1.5). The findings from structural equation modeling suggest that adolescents' self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status had a significant direct effect on overt victimization by peers, and adolescents' perceptions of family and classroom environment had a significant indirect effect on peer overt victimization mediated by self-esteem, loneliness, and sociometric status. The findings are discussed with the consideration of these variables as individual and social risk factors for overt victimization by peers. PMID:17958136

  20. Boredom Prone or Nothing to Do? Distinguishing Between State and Trait Leisure Boredom and its Association with Substance Use in South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Weybright, Elizabeth H.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Ram, Nilam; Smith, Edward A.; Wegner, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Reducing adolescent substance use is important in South Africa, a developing nation with increasing adolescent substance use, lack of leisure/recreation opportunities, and high rates of adolescent discretionary time. Previous research suggests leisure boredom and adolescent substance use co-occur in this setting. Using longitudinal data from 2,580 SA adolescents as they progressed from the 8th to 11th grade, the current study disentangles the associations of trait and state leisure boredom with substance use, and examines how ability to restructure boring situations moderates those associations. On average, individuals with higher trait boredom used more substances, and on occasions when state boredom was high, the prototypical adolescent used more substances. Although restructuring did not moderate these associations, greater ability was associated with lower substance use independent of leisure boredom. Findings illustrated the importance of considering how trait and state aspects of leisure may contribute to adolescents’ risk behavior and addressed through preventive intervention. PMID:26085700

  1. Handbook of Adolescent Literacy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenbury, Leila, Ed.; Bomer, Randy, Ed.; Smagorinsky, Peter, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The first comprehensive research handbook of its kind, this volume showcases innovative approaches to understanding adolescent literacy learning in a variety of settings. Distinguished contributors examine how well adolescents are served by current instructional practices and highlight ways to translate research findings more effectively into…

  2. Diabetes as Experienced by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meldman, Linda S.

    1987-01-01

    Explored adolescents' perspective of their diabetic management by interviewing 12 adolescent counselors-in-training at a diabetic youth camp. Interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method; themes were further grouped into three categories: psychosocial, developmental, and clinical. A striking finding throughout the data was the…

  3. Counselor Response to Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Summarizes major research findings on adolescent suicide, presents a suicide chronology developed by Hawton (1986), and provides a selected list of references. Discusses five goals for counselor intervention with students at risk for suicide and explains how school personnel can work to prevent adolescent suicide. (NB)

  4. Increasing vegetable consumption in adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that diets rich in vegetables may protect against many chronic diseases and overweight. Despite these benefits, consumption in children and adolescents is well below recommended levels. Finding methods to increase vegetable consumption in adolescents is important. Our objec...

  5. Possible sertraline-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Fang; Huang, Jin-Wen; Shan, Si-Yang; Ding, Jia-Hong; Lai, Jian-Bo; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sertraline has been considered to be a relatively safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for adolescents for a long time. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with depression who experienced extrapyramidal-like effects, for example, facial spasm, upper limb dystonia, akathisia, and other disturbed behaviors, while being treated with sertraline 200 mg per day. His movement symptoms were significantly alleviated after the discontinuation of sertraline and the administration of scopolamine. This finding indicates that albeit infrequent, sertraline may cause severe extrapyramidal symptoms in adolescent patients, suggesting that clinicians should be alert to the neurological side effects of sertraline in young patients. PMID:27226717

  6. Possible sertraline-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lian-fang; Huang, Jin-wen; Shan, Si-yang; Ding, Jia-hong; Lai, Jian-bo; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-hua

    2016-01-01

    Sertraline has been considered to be a relatively safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for adolescents for a long time. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with depression who experienced extrapyramidal-like effects, for example, facial spasm, upper limb dystonia, akathisia, and other disturbed behaviors, while being treated with sertraline 200 mg per day. His movement symptoms were significantly alleviated after the discontinuation of sertraline and the administration of scopolamine. This finding indicates that albeit infrequent, sertraline may cause severe extrapyramidal symptoms in adolescent patients, suggesting that clinicians should be alert to the neurological side effects of sertraline in young patients. PMID:27226717

  7. Gender Nonconformity, Sexual Orientation, and Dutch Adolescents' Relationship with Peers.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny; Sandfort, Theo

    2015-07-01

    Same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity have both been shown to negatively affect the relationships of adolescents with their peers. It is not clear, though, whether same-sex attracted adolescents are more likely to have negative peer relationships because they are same-sex attracted or because they are more likely to be gender nonconforming. It is also possible that both stressors affect peer relationships independently or amplify each other in their impact. We explored these questions in a sample of 486 Dutch adolescents (M age = 14.02 years). We found that same-sex attraction and gender nonconformity both had an independent effect and that gender nonconformity moderated, but not mediated, the associations between same-sex attraction and peer relationships at school. Same-sex attraction was more strongly associated with poorer relationships with peers in adolescents who were more gender nonconforming. These findings indicate the importance of including gender nonconformity in the understanding of same-sex attracted adolescents' relationships and suggest that in order to improve same-sex attracted adolescents' social position at school, acceptance of gender diversity should be promoted as well. PMID:25548066

  8. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  9. Extinction during memory reconsolidation blocks recovery of fear in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D C; Casey, B J

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of intensified emotional experiences, during which anxiety and stress-related disorders peak. The most effective behavioral therapies for treating these disorders share exposure-based techniques as a core component. Exposure-based therapies build on the principles of fear extinction learning and involve desensitizing the individual to cues that trigger anxiety. Yet, recent evidence shows an adolescent-specific diminished capacity to extinguish fear responses, suggesting that adolescents may respond less well to exposure-based therapies than other age groups. Here we demonstrate an alternative method for blocking the recall of fear memories in adolescents, building on principles of memory reconsolidation in adults. During memory reconsolidation, a memory that is recalled becomes labile during which time it can be updated. Prior research has shown that extinction training during memory reconsolidation attenuates the recovery of fear memory in human adults and in rodents. Using this method, we show attenuation of fear memory in adolescent humans. These findings have significant implications for treating one of the most vulnerable populations to anxiety and stress related disorders - adolescents - by optimizing exposure therapy based on principles of memory reconsolidation. PMID:25749583

  10. Milk Consumption during Adolescence Decreases Alcohol Drinking in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Early of onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose(S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5%E when it was combined with 10%S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10%E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10%E when it was combined with 10%S, and milk significantly reduced 10%E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5%S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism. PMID:19698741

  11. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-03-01

    Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research. PMID:23645343

  12. Gender, Contraceptive Attitudes, and Condom Use in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: A Dyadic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Kreager, Derek A.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2014-01-01

    Although sexual risk behavior occurs in a dyadic context, most studies of adolescent sexual behavior focus on individuals. This study uses couple data (N = 488 couples) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine how partners’ contraceptive attitudes correlate over time and whether male or female partners’ attitudes are better predictors of condom use. Net of their own prior attitudes, partners’ prior attitudes predicted both male and female adolescents’ Wave 2 attitudes. This association was stronger for female than for male adolescents, suggesting that female attitudes were influenced more by males’ prior attitudes than vice versa. When entered together, only male adolescents’ attitudes predicted dyadic condom use. Findings suggest that male partners may have greater influence on adolescent contraceptive decisions, and that prevention programs should emphasize the relational context of sexual behavior. PMID:25750492

  13. The role of parental warmth and hostility on adolescents' prosocial behavior toward multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Nielson, Matthew G; Day, Randal D

    2016-04-01

    The current study examined the influence that parental warmth/support and verbal hostility had on adolescents' prosocial behavior toward multiple targets (stranger, friend, family) using multiple reporters (self, parent, observations). Data were taken from Times 2 and 3 of a longitudinal project and included 500 adolescents and their parents (M age of child at Time 2 = 12.34). Structural equation models suggested that mother warmth was associated with prosocial behavior toward family, while father warmth was associated with prosocial behavior toward friends. Findings also suggested that adolescents' prosocial behavior was more consistently influenced by father hostility than it was by father warmth. Finally, observational reports of father hostility were associated with adolescent prosocial behavior more consistently than self- or child-reported parenting. The discussion focuses on the importance of considering target of prosocial behavior, the differences between mothers and fathers, and the role of self-reports compared to observations. PMID:26414417

  14. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity During Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of adolescents (N=765, mean baseline age 11.8 years, 54% female). SR and SP were assessed using a laboratory task. Across three annual assessments, SR increased, and rapid escalation was associated with increases in substance use. SP declined and was unrelated to substance use. Findings support contemporary views of adolescent brain development, and suggest that early adolescent substance use is motivated by approach responses to reward, rather than failure to avoid potential aversive consequences. PMID:23772169

  15. Trajectories of Reinforcement Sensitivity During Adolescence and Risk for Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Hawk, Larry W; Lengua, Liliana J; Wiezcorek, William; Eiden, Rina Das; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-06-01

    Developmental neuroscience models suggest that changes in responsiveness to incentives contribute to increases in adolescent risk behavior, including substance use. Trajectories of sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) were examined and tested as predictors of escalation of early substance use in a community sample of adolescents (N=765, mean baseline age 11.8 years, 54% female). SR and SP were assessed using a laboratory task. Across three annual assessments, SR increased, and rapid escalation was associated with increases in substance use. SP declined and was unrelated to substance use. Findings support contemporary views of adolescent brain development, and suggest that early adolescent substance use is motivated by approach responses to reward, rather than failure to avoid potential aversive consequences. PMID:23772169

  16. Role of Dopamine 2 Receptor in Impaired Drug-Cue Extinction in Adolescent Rats.

    PubMed

    Zbukvic, Isabel C; Ganella, Despina E; Perry, Christina J; Madsen, Heather B; Bye, Christopher R; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent drug users display resistance to treatment such as cue exposure therapy (CET), as well as increased liability to relapse. The basis of CET is extinction learning, which involves dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This system undergoes dramatic alterations during adolescence. Therefore, we investigated extinction of a cocaine-associated cue in adolescent and adult rats. While cocaine self-administration and lever-alone extinction were not different between the two ages, we observed that cue extinction reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adult but not adolescent rats. Infusion of the selective dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like agonist quinpirole into the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the mPFC prior to cue extinction significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adolescents. This effect was replicated by acute systemic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (Abilify), a partial D2R-like agonist. These data suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to relapse due to a deficit in cue extinction learning, and highlight the significance of D2R signaling in the IL for cue extinction during adolescence. These findings inspire new tactics for improving adolescent CET, with aripiprazole representing an exciting potential pharmacological adjunct for behavioral therapy. PMID:26946126

  17. Substance Use and Delinquency among Adolescents with Childhood ADHD: The Protective Role of Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Christine A. P.; Cheong, JeeWon; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Pelham, William E.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Belendiuk, Katharine A.; Pedersen, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Several domains of parenting have been identified as important for adolescent well-being. Whether these same domains are equally beneficial for adolescents with ADHD histories remains an empirical and clinically important question. This study examined whether parental knowledge of their teen’s activities and whereabouts, consistency, support, and parent-adolescent conflict are associated with substance use and delinquency similarly for adolescents with and without a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. A sample of 242 adolescents, 142 diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and prospectively followed into adolescence, and 100 without ADHD in childhood, were the focus of study. The relations between adolescent-reported outcomes (i.e. substance use and delinquency) and parenting behaviors were tested using latent variable modeling to determine both the effects of general (common) and specific (unique) parenting behaviors for participants with and without a history of ADHD. Adolescents’ report of parental knowledge was a significant correlate of delinquency and substance use above and beyond other parenting variables and the variance in common across the parenting variables. More knowledge was associated with less delinquency and substance use for all participants, but parental knowledge was more strongly associated with alcohol use for adolescents with versus without childhood ADHD. These correlational findings suggest that, despite the increased difficulty of parenting youths with ADHD histories, actions taken by parents and youth to increase parental awareness may provide some protection against behavioral transgressions known to be elevated in this population. PMID:22329747

  18. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

    PubMed

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents. PMID:26456410

  19. Vaccination coverage among adolescents and risk factors associated with incomplete immunization.

    PubMed

    Sakou, Irine-Ikbale; Tsitsika, Artemis K; Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Tzavela, Eleni C; Greydanus, Donald E; Tsolia, Maria N

    2011-11-01

    The compliance with vaccination recommendations in adolescence has not been well documented in Greece. The aims of the present study were to estimate the vaccination coverage in a sample of adolescents and to identify risk factors associated with incomplete immunization. Α total of 1,005 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years who were outpatient visitors at an Adolescent Health Unit were included in this study. Participation required parental presence and consent and presentation of the official Child Health Booklet, from which immunizations were transcribed. The highest coverage rates were observed for childhood immunizations: poliomyelitis and hepatitis B (both 96%), measles/mumps/rubella (MMR; 93.1%), and meningitidis C (MenC; 83.4%). By contrast, lower rates were shown for the booster dose of tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis (39.6%), for hepatitis A (HAV; 59.1%), for the varicella vaccine (13.8% among adolescents without disease history), and among girls for the human papillomavirus vaccine (11.9%). We found a significant association between age and series completion for MMR, MenC, and HAV, with lower uptake among older adolescents . Overall, 22.7% of study participants were fully vaccinated according to criteria employed. In particular, non-urban residents, non-nationals, and females had lower likelihood of being fully vaccinated. In conclusion, our findings suggest suboptimal vaccination coverage among our sample's adolescents, mandating that every effort should be made to increase uptake, particularly among the geographically dispersed and the culturally diverse and female adolescents. PMID:21465121

  20. Reduced Nucleus Accumbens Reactivity and Adolescent Depression following Early-life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G.; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common outcome for those having experienced early life stress (ELS). For those individuals, depression typically increases during adolescence and appears to endure into adulthood, suggesting alterations in the development of brain systems involved in depression. Developmentally, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a limbic structure associated with reward learning and motivation, typically undergoes dramatic functional change during adolescence; therefore, age-related changes in NAcc function may underlie increases in depression in adolescence following ELS. The current study examined the effects of ELS in 38 previously institutionalized children and adolescents in comparison to a group of 31 youth without a history of ELS. Consistent with previous research, the findings showed that depression was higher in adolescents than children with a history of ELS. Additionally, fMRI results showed atypical NAcc development, where the ELS group did not show a typical increase in NAcc reactivity during adolescence. Consequently, the ELS group showed NAcc hypoactivation during adolescence, and lower NAcc reactivity was correlated with higher depression scores. The results have important implications for understanding how ELS may influence increases in depression via neural development during the transition to adolescence and highlight the importance of identifying at-risk individuals in childhood, a potential critical period for depression-targeted intervention. PMID:23262241

  1. Validation and Diagnostic Efficiency of the Mini-SPIN in Spanish-Speaking Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lopez, LuisJoaquín; Moore, Harry T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is one of the most common mental disorders in adolescence. Many validated psychometric tools are available to diagnose individuals with SAD efficaciously. However, there is a demand for shortened self-report instruments that identify adolescents at risk of developing SAD. We validate the Mini-SPIN and its diagnostic efficiency in overcoming this problem in Spanish-speaking adolescents in Spain. Methods The psychometric properties of the 3-item Mini-SPIN scale for adolescents were assessed in a community (study 1) and clinical sample (study 2). Results Study 1 consisted of 573 adolescents, and found the Mini-SPIN to have appropriate internal consistency and high construct validity. Study 2 consisted of 354 adolescents (147 participants diagnosed with SAD and 207 healthy controls). Data revealed that the Mini-SPIN has good internal consistency, high construct validity and adequate diagnostic efficiency. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the Mini-SPIN has good psychometric properties on clinical and healthy control adolescents and general population, which indicates that it can be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. Cut-off scores are provided. PMID:26317695

  2. An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Colich, Natalie L.; Rudie, Jeffrey D.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2011-01-01

    Peer rejection is particularly pervasive among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, how adolescents with ASD differ from typically developing adolescents in their responses to peer rejection is poorly understood. The goal of the current investigation was to examine neural responses to peer exclusion among adolescents with ASD compared to typically developing adolescents. Nineteen adolescents with ASD and 17 typically developing controls underwent fMRI as they were ostensibly excluded by peers during an online game called Cyberball. Afterwards, participants reported their distress about the exclusion. Compared to typically developing adolescents, those with ASD displayed less activity in regions previously linked with the distressing aspect of peer exclusion, including the subgenual anterior cingulate and anterior insula, as well as less activity in regions previously linked with the regulation of distress responses during peer exclusion, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Interestingly, however, both groups self-reported equivalent levels of distress. This suggests that adolescents with ASD may engage in differential processing of social experiences at the neural level, but be equally aware of, and concerned about, peer rejection. Overall, these findings contribute new insights about how this population may differentially experience negative social events in their daily lives. PMID:22318914

  3. Adolescent Brain Maturation and Smoking: What We Know and Where We’re Headed

    PubMed Central

    Lydon, David M.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Child, Amanda; Geier, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Smoking initiation often occurs during adolescence. This paper reviews and synthesizes adolescent development and nicotine dependence literatures to provide an account of adolescent smoking from onset to compulsive use. We extend neurobiological models of adolescent risk-taking, that focus on the interplay between incentive processing and cognitive control brain systems, through incorporating psychosocial and contextual factors specific to smoking, to suggest that adolescents are more vulnerable than adults to cigarette use generally, but that individual differences exist placing some adolescents at increased risk for smoking. Upon smoking, adolescents are more likely to continue smoking due to the increased positive effects induced by nicotine during this period. Continued use during adolescence, may be best understood as reflecting drug-related changes to neural systems underlying incentive processing and cognitive control, resulting in decision-making that is biased towards continued smoking. Persistent changes following nicotine exposure that may underlie continued dependence are described. We highlight ways that interventions may benefit from a consideration of cognitive-neuroscience findings. PMID:25025658

  4. Parental attachment style: examination of links with parent secure base provision and adolescent secure base use.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research. PMID:24897927

  5. Birthing experience of adolescents at the Ottawa General Hospital Perinatal Centre.

    PubMed Central

    Lena, S M; Marko, E; Nimrod, C; Merritt, L; Poirier, G; Shein, E

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences of prenatal care, prenatal classes and birthing among adolescents. DESIGN: Anonymous self-report questionnaire survey. SETTING: Ottawa General Hospital Perinatal Centre. PATIENTS: A total of 100 adolescents (aged less than 20 years) and 100 control subjects (aged over 19 years) who gave birth at the Perinatal Centre from June 1989 to August 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prenatal experiences, attendance at prenatal classes, experiences in labour and delivery, postpartum care. RESULTS: Only 26% of the adolescent patients sought prenatal care in the first trimester, and only 27% attended prenatal classes, as compared with 87% and 91% of the control subjects (p < 0.001). Most of the adolescents felt uncomfortable in the same waiting room as adult women. During labour and delivery 50% of the adolescents had their mothers with them for support, whereas 83% of the adults had their husbands with them (p < 0.001). Over half (59%) of the adolescents stated that they were not prepared for labour and delivery, as compared with 26% of the adults (p < 0.001). Of the adolescents 85% opted to care for their babies after birth. CONCLUSION: Pregnant adolescents do not avail themselves adequately of the medical and psychosocial services available to them through the health care system. Our findings suggest features of prenatal clinics that would make them attractive and accessible to such patients. PMID:8324689

  6. Adolescents’ Views Regarding Uses of Social Networking Websites and Text Messaging for Adolescent Sexual Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Selkie, Ellen M.; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescents frequently report barriers to obtaining sexual health education. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine adolescents’ views regarding how new technologies could be used for sexual health education. Methods Focus groups were conducted with a purposeful sample of adolescents between 14 and 19 years old. Facilitators asked participants for their views regarding use of social networking web sites (SNSs) and text messaging for sexual health education. Tape-recorded data was transcribed; transcripts were manually evaluated then discussed to determine thematic consensus. Results A total of 29 adolescents participated in 5 focus groups. Participants were 65.5% female. Three themes emerged from our data. First, adolescents preferred sexual health education resources that are accessible. Second, adolescents preferred online resources that are trustworthy. Third, adolescents discussed preference for “safe” resources. Discussion Adolescents were enthusiastic and insightful regarding technology for enhancing sexual health education. The themes that influence adolescents’ preferences in sexual health education using technology are similar to barriers that exist in other aspects of adolescent health communication. Translation to Health Education Practice Findings suggest ways in which health organizations can understand adolescents’ views and concerns about how their interactions with professionals take place regarding sexual health. PMID:22229150

  7. Role of Dopamine 2 Receptor in Impaired Drug-Cue Extinction in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zbukvic, Isabel C.; Ganella, Despina E.; Perry, Christina J.; Madsen, Heather B.; Bye, Christopher R.; Lawrence, Andrew J.; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent drug users display resistance to treatment such as cue exposure therapy (CET), as well as increased liability to relapse. The basis of CET is extinction learning, which involves dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This system undergoes dramatic alterations during adolescence. Therefore, we investigated extinction of a cocaine-associated cue in adolescent and adult rats. While cocaine self-administration and lever-alone extinction were not different between the two ages, we observed that cue extinction reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adult but not adolescent rats. Infusion of the selective dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like agonist quinpirole into the infralimbic cortex (IL) of the mPFC prior to cue extinction significantly reduced cue-induced reinstatement in adolescents. This effect was replicated by acute systemic treatment with the atypical antipsychotic aripiprazole (Abilify), a partial D2R-like agonist. These data suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to relapse due to a deficit in cue extinction learning, and highlight the significance of D2R signaling in the IL for cue extinction during adolescence. These findings inspire new tactics for improving adolescent CET, with aripiprazole representing an exciting potential pharmacological adjunct for behavioral therapy. PMID:26946126

  8. Pharmacological and psychosocial treatments for adolescents with ADHD: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Margaret H; Kuriyan, Aparajita B; Evans, Steven W; Waxmonsky, James G; Smith, Bradley H

    2014-04-01

    Smith, Waschbusch, Willoughby, and Evans (2000) reviewed a small treatment literature on ADHD in adolescents and concluded that methylphenidate stimulant medication was a well-established treatment and behavior therapy (BT) demonstrated preliminary efficacy. This review extends and updates the findings of the prior one based on the previous 15years of research. Studies published since 1999 were identified and coded using standard criteria and effect sizes were calculated where appropriate. Highlights of the last 15years of research include an expansion of pharmacological treatment options and developmentally appropriate psychosocial treatment packages for adolescents with ADHD. Additionally, nonstimulant medications (e.g., atomoxetine) are now approved for the treatment of ADHD in adolescence. The review concludes that medication and BT produce a similar range of therapeutic effects on the symptoms of adolescents with ADHD. However, results suggest that BT may produce greater overall benefits on measures of impairment. There was no evidence that cognitive enhancement trainings, such as working memory training or neurofeedback improved the functioning of adolescents with ADHD. Whether to use medication, BT, or their combination to treat an adolescent with ADHD is complicated and we provide evidence-informed guidelines for treatment selection. The reviewed evidence does not support current American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry professional guidelines, which state that stimulant medication is the preferred treatment for adolescents with ADHD. Recommendations for assessment, practice guidelines, and future research are discussed. PMID:24632046

  9. Parent-child acculturation profiles as predictors of Chinese American adolescents' academic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Chen, Qi; Shen, Yishan; Hou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Acculturation plays a critical role in the adjustment of Asian Americans, as a large proportion of them are immigrants in the US. However, little is known about how acculturation influences Asian American adolescents' academic trajectories over time. Using a longitudinal sample of 444 Chinese American families (54% female children), the current study explored the effect of mothers', fathers', and adolescents' individual acculturation profiles and parent-child acculturation dissonance on adolescents' academic trajectories from 8th to 12th grade. Academic performance was measured by grade point average (GPA), and by standardized test scores in English language arts (ELA) and Math every year. Latent growth modeling analyses showed that adolescents with a Chinese-oriented father showed faster decline in GPA, and Chinese-oriented adolescents had lower initial ELA scores. Adolescents whose parents had American-oriented acculturation profiles tended to have lower initial Math scores. These results suggest that Chinese and American profiles may be disadvantageous for certain aspects of academic performance, and bicultural adolescents and/or adolescents with bicultural parents are best positioned to achieve across multiple domains. In terms of the role of parent-child acculturation dissonance on academic trajectories, the current study highlighted the importance of distinguishing among different types of dissonance. Adolescents who were more Chinese-oriented than their parents tended to have the lowest initial ELA scores, and adolescents experiencing more normative acculturation dissonance (i.e., who were more American-oriented than their parents) had the highest initial ELA scores. No effects of parent-child acculturation dissonance were observed for GPAs or standardized Math scores. Altogether, the current findings add nuances to the current understanding of acculturation and adolescent adjustment. PMID:24820295

  10. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  11. The Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory Profiles of Depressed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Marion F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated personality styles, concerns, and behaviors of depressed adolescents using Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory (MAPI). Data from 332 high school students on Beck Depression Inventory and MAPI were reduced to 2 factors accounting for 65.1 percent of total variance, the first suggesting socially withdrawn, overtly recognizable…

  12. Adolescent and Parent Perceptions of Media Influence on Adolescent Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner-Wilson, Ronald Jay; Fitzharris, Jennifer Lynn; Morrissey, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that television and other media influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. Much of the research in this area is based on surveys in which adolescents are asked to rank the relative importance of a fixed set of factors such as parents, peers, and media. We reviewed data from focus groups conducted with adolescents…

  13. The role of the kynurenine pathway in suicidality in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Kailyn A. L.; Case, Julia A. C.; Khan, Omar; Ricart, Thomas; Hanna, Amira; Alonso, Carmen M.; Gabbay, Vilma

    2015-01-01

    The neuroimmunological kynurenine pathway (KP) has been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults and adolescents, most recently in suicidality in adults. The KP is initiated by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which degrades tryptophan (TRP) into kynurenine (KYN) en route to neurotoxins. Here, we examined the KP in 20 suicidal depressed adolescents—composed of past attempters and those who expressed active suicidal intent—30 non-suicidal depressed youth, and 22 healthy controls (HC). Plasma levels of TRP, KYN, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, and KYN/TRP (index of IDO) were assessed. Suicidal adolescents showed decreased TRP and elevated KYN/TRP compared to both non-suicidal depressed adolescents and HC. Findings became more significantly pronounced when excluding medicated participants, wherein there was also a significant positive correlation between KYN/TRP and suicidality. Finally, although depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt differed from acutely suicidal adolescents with respect to disease severity, anhedonia, and suicidality, the groups did not differ in KP measures. Our findings suggest a possible specific role of the KP in suicidality in depressed adolescents, while illustrating the clinical phenomenon that depressed adolescents with a history of suicide attempt are similar to acutely suicidal youth and are at increased risk for completion of suicide. PMID:25865484

  14. Misperception and accurate perception of close friend substance use in early adolescence: Developmental and intervention implications.

    PubMed

    Scalco, Matthew D; Meisel, Samuel N; Colder, Craig R

    2016-05-01

    Misperceptions of peer substance use (SU) are believed to be a robust correlate of adolescent SU; however, perceived peer SU is biased in the direction of an adolescent's own SU raising questions about the validity of perceived peer SU (social norms; Henry, Kobus, & Schoeny, 2011). In addition, social norm theories emphasize inaccurate perceptions of peer SU while other theories emphasize actual peer behavior and selection of friends as motivators of adolescent SU. Furthermore, no theories consider the role of accurate perceptions, suggesting the need to more carefully consider the coevolution of perceived peer norms, actual peer behavior, and adolescent SU. To do this, we modeled the latent structure of accurate and inaccurate perceptions of peer SU while including an adolescent's own SU using latent class analysis and tested the natural evolution of the classes using latent transition analysis. The design included 3 annual assessments of peer and perceptions of peer SU and 6 assessments of adolescent SU (N = 765; age = 10-13 at Wave 1; female = 53%). Latent class analysis findings largely replicated Henry et al. (2011), suggesting that misperceptions of peer SU were biased by an adolescent's own SU. We also found 3 distinct pathways to a high risk class that predicted high levels of later adolescent SU, 2 in which adolescent and perceived peer SU preceded peer SU (age = 10-12 and 12-14) and another in which peer SU preceded adolescent SU and perceptions of peer SU (age = 12-14). Implications for peer influence theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214169

  15. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  16. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  17. Ethnic Variations in Prevalence of High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Asian and Pacific Islander Adolescents in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Kameoka, Velma A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined ethnic variations in high-risk sexual behaviors among Asian and Pacific Islander (API) adolescents in comparison with White adolescents. Methods. We obtained data from the 2003 Hawaii Youth Risk Behavior Survey on 4953 students in grades 9 through 12. We conducted χ2 and logistic regression analyses on these data to examine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiian, and White adolescents. Results. We found significant ethnic variation in prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among API adolescents. Relative to White adolescents, Native Hawaiian adolescents were most likely to engage in lifetime sexual intercourse, recent sexual intercourse, and sexual initiation before age 13 years; Japanese adolescents were least likely to engage in these behaviors. Filipino adolescents were least likely to use substances before last sexual intercourse and condoms during last sexual intercourse. Conclusions. Our findings suggest divergent patterns of risk among API ethnic groups, underscoring the heterogeneity of API subgroups and emphasizing the need for health disparities research on disaggregated API ethnic groups. The findings of such research should be used to design ethnically relevant interventions aimed at mitigating the negative health consequences of high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:19106424

  18. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  19. The Development of a Motivational Interviewing Intervention to Promote Medication Adherence among Inner-City, African-American Adolescents with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Bilderback, Andrew; Rand, Cynthia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To develop and assess the feasibility of a motivational interviewing (MI) based asthma self-management program for inner-city, African-American, adolescents with asthma. Methods 37 African-American adolescents (age 10-15 years) recently seen in an inner-city emergency department for asthma and prescribed an asthma controller medication participated in the newly developed program consisting of 5 home visits. Adolescents and their caregivers completed phone-based surveys before and after the intervention. Results 95% of the adolescents completed all 5 sessions; 89% of caregivers and 76% of adolescents believed other families would benefit from the intervention. Caregivers were more likely to report 100% adherence post-intervention compared to pre-intervention and reported a trend for adolescents taking greater responsibility for their asthma. There were no pre-post differences in adolescent-reported medication adherence, but adolescents did reported increased motivation and readiness to adhere to treatment. Caregivers and adolescents each reported statistically significant increases in their asthma quality of life. Conclusions The findings from this pilot study suggest that MI is a feasible and promising approach for increasing medication adherence among inner-city adolescents with asthma and is worthy of further evaluation in a randomized trial. PMID:20371158

  20. Adolescents' perceptions of sexual coercion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Birungi, Ruth; Nabembezi, Dennis; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele; Bull, Sheana

    2011-12-01

    In Uganda, HIV prevalence remains high with young people at higher risk of infection than adults. Much is known about the sexual risk factors for HIV transmission among youths, including sexual encounters that are coerced. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the barriers to preventing sexual coercion and what strategies may overcome those barriers with adolescents. We conducted three focus group discussions with adolescents in an urban area in Uganda to understand their perceptions of sexual coercion, and to identify, from their point of view, how coercion can be addressed. Data were collected to inform the development of an Internet-based programme for young people, tailored to their HIV-information, motivation and behavioural-skills needs. The findings suggest that the participants perceived adults' coercion of young people as common. The secondary school participants also expressed confusion over what exactly constituted coercion. They acknowledged that young people lack skills to avoid coerced sex and felt it would be critical to give youths information on the circumstances in which coercion may occur and its links to HIV risk. Finally, the youths wanted specific skills and to be empowered to avoid sexual coercion and to report rape. The findings suggest that adolescents are open to discussions about this topic and they support the call for greater integration of coercion-reduction strategies in HIV-prevention programmes targeted at their age group. PMID:25865380

  1. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrition (specific nutrients, broad food groups, diet quality and dietary pattern) of 1424 male and female adolescents at 14 years of age, in Western Australia. Results Back or neck pain were experienced by around half of the adolescents, with females more likely to experience spinal pain. Nutrition differed between sexes and deviated from optimal intakes. Vitamin B12, eggs, cereals and meat consumption were related to spinal pain in sex specific multivariate analyses including primary carer education level and adolescent waist girth and smoking. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that certain aspects of diet may have an association with spinal pain in adolescence. PMID:20587071

  2. The biopsychosocial model of stress in adolescence: self-awareness of performance versus stress reactivity.

    PubMed

    Rith-Najarian, Leslie R; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-03-01

    Extensive research among adults supports the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat, which describes relationships among stress appraisals, physiological stress reactivity, and performance; however, no previous studies have examined these relationships in adolescents. Perceptions of stressors as well as physiological reactivity to stress increase during adolescence, highlighting the importance of understanding the relationships among stress appraisals, physiological reactivity, and performance during this developmental period. In this study, 79 adolescent participants reported on stress appraisals before and after a Trier Social Stress Test in which they performed a speech task. Physiological stress reactivity was defined by changes in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance from a baseline rest period to the speech task, and performance on the speech was coded using an objective rating system. We observed in adolescents only two relationships found in past adult research on the BPS model variables: (1) pre-task stress appraisal predicted post-task stress appraisal and (2) performance predicted post-task stress appraisal. Physiological reactivity during the speech was unrelated to pre- and post-task stress appraisals and to performance. We conclude that the lack of association between post-task stress appraisal and physiological stress reactivity suggests that adolescents might have low self-awareness of physiological emotional arousal. Our findings further suggest that adolescent stress appraisals are based largely on their performance during stressful situations. Developmental implications of this potential lack of awareness of one's physiological and emotional state during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24491123

  3. The biopsychosocial model of stress in adolescence: self-awareness of performance versus stress reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Rith-Najarian, Leslie R.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive research among adults supports the biopsychosocial (BPS) model of challenge and threat, which describes relationships among stress appraisals, physiological stress reactivity, and performance; however, no previous studies have examined these relationships in adolescents. Perceptions of stressors as well as physiological reactivity to stress increase during adolescence, highlighting the importance of understanding the relationships among stress appraisals, physiological reactivity, and performance during this developmental period. In this study, 79 adolescent participants reported on stress appraisals before and after a Trier Social Stress Test in which they performed a speech task. Physiological stress reactivity was defined by changes in cardiac output and total peripheral resistance from a baseline rest period to the speech task, and performance on the speech was coded using an objective rating system. We observed in adolescents only two relationships found in past adult research on the BPS model variables: (1) pre-task stress appraisal predicted post-task stress appraisal and (2) performance predicted post-task stress appraisal. Physiological reactivity during the speech was unrelated to pre- and post-task stress appraisals and to performance. We conclude that the lack of association between post-task stress appraisal and physiological stress reactivity suggests that adolescents might have low self-awareness of physiological emotional arousal. Our findings further suggest that adolescent stress appraisals are based largely on their performance during stressful situations. Developmental implications of this potential lack of awareness of one’s physiological and emotional state during adolescence are discussed. PMID:24491123

  4. Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families. PMID:25615441

  5. The association between negative attention biases and symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susannah E.; Lau, Jennifer Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a vulnerable time for the onset of depression. Recent evidence from adult studies suggests not only that negative attention biases are correlated with symptoms of depression, but that reducing negative attention biases through training can in turn reduce symptomology. The role and plasticity of attention biases in adolescent depression, however, remains unclear. This study examines the association between symptoms of depression and attention biases, and whether such biases are modifiable, in a community sample of adolescents. We report data from 105 adolescents aged 13–17 who completed a dot-probe measure of attention bias before and after a single session of visual search-based cognitive bias modification training. This is the first study to find a significant association between negative attention biases and increased symptoms of depression in a community sample of adolescents. Contrary to expectations, we were unable to manipulate attention biases using a previously successful cognitive bias modification task. There were no significant effects of the training on positive affect and only modest effects of the training, identified in post-hoc analyses, were observed on negative affect. Our data replicate those from the adult literature, which suggest that adolescent depression is a disorder associated with negative attention biases, although we were unable to modify attention biases in our study. We identify numerous parameters of our methodology which may explain these null training effects, and which could be addressed in future cognitive bias modification studies of adolescent depression. PMID:26539335

  6. Hippocampal cell fate regulation by chronic cocaine during periods of adolescent vulnerability: Consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence on behavioral despair in adulthood.

    PubMed

    García-Cabrerizo, R; Keller, B; García-Fuster, M J

    2015-09-24

    Given that adolescence represents a critical moment for shaping adult behavior and may predispose to disease vulnerability later in life, the aim of this study was to find a vulnerable period during adolescence in which hippocampal cell fate regulation was altered by cocaine exposure, and to evaluate the long-term consequences of a cocaine experience during adolescence in affecting hippocampal plasticity and behavioral despair in adulthood. Study I: Male rats were treated with cocaine (15mg/kg, i.p.) or saline for 7 consecutive days during adolescence (early post-natal day (PND) 33-39, mid PND 40-46, late PND 47-53). Hippocampal plasticity (i.e., cell fate regulation, cell genesis) was evaluated 24h after the last treatment dose during the course of adolescence (PND 40, PND 47, PND 54). Study II: The consequences of cocaine exposure during adolescence (PND 33-39 or PND 33-46; 7 or 14days) were measured in adulthood at the behavioral (i.e., forced swim test, PND 62-63) and molecular (hippocampal cell markers, PND 64) levels. Chronic cocaine during early adolescence dysregulated FADD forms only in the hippocampus (HC), as compared to other brain regions, and during mid adolescence, impaired cell proliferation (Ki-67) and increased PARP-1 cleavage (a cell death maker) in the HC. Interestingly, chronic cocaine exposure during adolescence did not alter the time adult rats spent immobile in the forced swim test. These results suggest that this paradigm of chronic cocaine administration during adolescence did not contribute to the later manifestation of behavioral despair (i.e., one pro-depressive symptom) as measured by the forced swim test in adulthood. PMID:26215918

  7. Re/Mediating Adolescent Literacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, John, Ed.; Luke, Allan, Ed.

    Suggesting that teaching in New Times requires that educators read and re/mediate the social relations, the cultural knowledges, and the relationships of power between adolescents and their social, biological, and semiotic universes, this collection of essays offers new ways of seeing and talking about adolescents and their literacies. Most of the…

  8. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  9. Multiple Dimensions of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Ann H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses what the Jacksonville (Florida) community is doing for teens to prevent pregnancy, help pregnant adolescents, and help adolescent parents. Discusses whether these activities are sufficient and effective. Suggests specific ways to improve programs and indicates that there are many factors to consider when attempting to deter teen…

  10. Evaluating Experiences in Adolescent Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebhardt-Seele, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that in developing Erdkinder, Montessori programs for adolescents, practitioners should use Montessori's principles of scientific pedagogy to establish methods for evaluating existing adolescent experiments. Suggests ways to apply criterion of normalization, and that "healing of deviations" comes from observing aspects like inner harmony…

  11. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia

    2011-01-01

    Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…

  12. Contraception and the Adolescent Diabetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennoy, Ilene

    1989-01-01

    Data from a study of 11 teenage diabetics suggests that pregnancy among adolescent diabetics is more frequent than among the general population, at a time when diabetic control is poor because of psychosocial factors associated with adolescence. Current recommendations regarding contraception for diabetic women, focusing on barrier methods, are…

  13. At-Risk/Problematic Shopping and Gambling in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Yip, Sarah W; Mei, Songli; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of both pathological gambling (PG) and problem shopping (PS) have been reported among adolescents, and each is associated with a range of other negative health/functioning measures. However, relationships between PS and PG, particularly during adolescence, are not well understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between different levels of problem-gambling severity and health/functioning characteristics, gambling-related social experiences, gambling behaviors and motivations among adolescents with and without at-risk/problematic shopping (ARPS). Survey data from Connecticut high school students (n = 2,100) were analyzed using bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling. Although at-risk/problematic gambling (ARPG) was not increased among adolescents with ARPS, adolescents with ARPG (vs non-gamblers) were more likely to report having experienced a growing tension or anxiety that could only be relieved by shopping and missing other obligations due to shopping. In comparison to the non-ARPS group, a smaller proportion of respondents in the ARPS group reported paid part-time employment, whereas a greater proportion of respondents reported excessive gambling by peers and feeling concerned over the gambling of a close family member. In general, similar associations between problem-gambling severity and measures of health/functioning and gambling-related behaviors and motivations were observed across ARPS and non-ARPS adolescents. However, associations were weaker among ARPS adolescents for several variables: engagement in extracurricular activities, alcohol and caffeine use and gambling for financial reasons. These findings suggest a complex relationship between problem-gambling severity and ARPS. They highlight the importance of considering co-occurring risk behaviors such as ARPS when treating adolescents with at-risk/problem gambling. PMID:25117852

  14. Drug use among adolescent mothers: profile of risk.

    PubMed

    Amaro, H; Zuckerman, B; Cabral, H

    1989-07-01

    Adolescent pregnancy and adolescent drug use are important clinical and public health problems. Yet, few studies have systematically investigated the patterns of substance use among pregnant and parenting adolescents. Because adverse outcomes are not found uniformly for all adolescent mothers, use of illicit drugs may be a key factor in determining which mothers and their infants will have poor outcomes. In this study, the patterns of drug use are described and differences in the demographic and psychosocial profile among 253 pregnant adolescents are investigated. Results obtained from interviews and urine assay for marijuana and cocaine indicate that lifetime use was 84% for alcohol, 62% for marijuana, and 23% for cocaine, whereas use in the past year was 40% for marijuana and 17% for cocaine. Compared with nonusers, pregnant adolescent drug users were more likely to be North American black, have a history of elective abortion and venereal disease, report more negative life events and violence during pregnancy, and receive more support from the father of the baby who was more likely to use marijuana and cocaine (P less than .01). Furthermore, according to logistic regression analysis results after controlling for age and ethnicity, adolescents who used illicit substances in the past year were three times more likely to have a male partner who used marijuana or cocaine and were two times more likely to have a history of venereal disease compared with nonusers. The findings suggest that drug use, whether as a mechanism or a marker, is associated with social and medical characteristics that are likely to contribute to negative outcomes among adolescent mothers and their infants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2740164

  15. Mortality salience and positive affect influence adolescents' attitudes toward peers with physical disabilities: terror management and broaden and build theories.

    PubMed

    Taubman-Ben-Ari, Orit; Eherenfreund-Hager, Ahinoam; Findler, Liora

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenagers with and without physical disabilities, and their social acceptance, were examined from the perspective of terror management theory and the broaden and build theory. Participants (n = 390, aged 13-17) were divided into 3 experimental conditions: positive emotions, mortality salience, and control. Then, they were shown either a picture depicting an adolescent sitting on a regular chair or in a wheelchair and were asked to assess the characteristics of the person in the picture and their willingness to be in his or her company. The findings suggest that both types of manipulations enhanced the personality assessment and social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities compared to adolescents without disabilities and compared to the control condition. Girls reported more favorable attitudes toward another adolescent than boys did. The study indicates that seemingly contradictory manipulations may lead to social acceptance of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:24501847

  16. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  17. Risk Factors for Distress in the Adolescent Children of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Drug-Abusing Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Brook, Judith S.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Castro, Felipe G.; Tiburcio, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to previous research on parental drug abuse, the present study examined comorbid drug addiction and HIV infection in the father as related to his adolescent child’s psychological distress. Individual structured interviews were administered to 505 HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug-abusing fathers and one of their children, aged 12–20. Structural equation modeling tested an hypothesized model linking paternal latent variables, ecological factors, and adolescent substance use to adolescent distress. Results demonstrated a direct pathway between paternal and adolescent distress, as well as an indirect pathway; namely, paternal distress was linked with paternal teaching of coping skills to the child, which in turn was related to adolescent substance use and, ultimately, to the adolescent’s distress. There was also an association between paternal drug addiction/HIV and adolescent distress, which was mediated by both ecological factors and adolescent substance use. Findings suggest an increased risk for distress in the adolescent children of fathers with comorbid drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, which may be further complicated by paternal distress. Results suggest several opportunities for prevention and treatment programs for the children of drug-abusing fathers. PMID:18278619

  18. Attempted and completed suicide in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Spirito, Anthony; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2006-01-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescence, and medically serious suicide attempts occur in approximately 3% of adolescents. This review examines a number of risk factors that contribute to suicidal behavior. A prior suicide attempt is one of the best predictors of both a repeat attempt and eventual completed suicide. Depression, disruptive behavior disorders, and substance-use disorders also place adolescents at high risk for suicidal behavior, with comorbidity further increasing risk. Research on families indicates that suicidal behavior is transmitted through families. Groups at high risk for suicidal behavior include gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, incarcerated adolescents, and homeless/runaway teens. Although abnormalities in the serotonergic system have not been consistently linked to suicidal behavior, genetic and neurobiologic studies suggest that impulsive aggression may be the mechanism through which decreased serotonergic activity is related to suicidal behavior. Findings from prevention and intervention studies are modest and indicate the need for substantially more theory-driven treatment research. PMID:17716070

  19. Parental resolution and the adolescent's health and adjustment: The case of adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Alon; Wiseman, Hadas

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the association between parents' resolution of their adolescent child's diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and the health and mental adjustment of the adolescents themselves. Parents of 75 adolescents with type 1 diabetes were interviewed using the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview. Parents and adolescents completed questionnaires regarding the child's physical health, self-management of the disease, and behavioral and emotional problems. Physicians reported adolescents' HbA1c levels. Results showed that adolescents whose fathers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited better diabetes self-management and adolescents whose mothers were resolved with the diagnosis exhibited fewer internalizing and externalizing problems. The findings highlight the different role of mothers and fathers in the treatment of adolescents with diabetes and provide a basis for clinical intervention that focuses not only on adolescent health, but also on parental state of mind regarding the resolution with the disease. PMID:26684497

  20. Emotional variability in mother-adolescent conflict interactions and internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents: dyadic and individual processes.

    PubMed

    Van der Giessen, Daniëlle; Hollenstein, Tom; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Emotional variability reflects the ability to flexibly switch among a broad range of positive and negative emotions from moment-to-moment during interactions. Emotional variability during mother-adolescent conflict interactions is considered to be important for healthy socio-emotional functioning of mothers and adolescents. The current observational study examined whether dyadic emotional variability, maternal emotional variability, and adolescent emotional variability during conflict interactions in early adolescence predicted mothers' and adolescents' internalizing problems five years later. We used data from 92 mother-adolescent dyads (Mage T1 = 13.05; 65.20 % boys) who were videotaped at T1 while discussing a conflict. Emotional variability was derived from these conflict interactions and it was observed for mother-adolescent dyads, mothers and adolescents separately. Mothers and adolescents also completed questionnaires in early adolescence (T1) and five years later in late adolescence (T6) on mothers' internalizing problems, and adolescents' anxiety and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that less dyadic emotional variability in early adolescence predicted relative increases in mothers' internalizing problems, adolescents' depressive symptoms, and adolescents' anxiety symptoms from early to late adolescence. Less maternal emotional variability only predicted relative increases in adolescents' anxiety symptoms over time. The emotional valence (e.g., types of emotions expressed) of conflict interactions did not moderate the results. Taken together, findings highlighted the importance of considering limited emotional variability during conflict interactions in the development, prevention, and treatment of internalizing problems of mothers and adolescents. PMID:25070359

  1. Longitudinal maturation of auditory cortical function during adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fitzroy, Ahren B.; Krizman, Jennifer; Tierney, Adam; Agouridou, Manto; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) changes substantially in amplitude and latency from childhood to adulthood, suggesting that these aspects of the CAEP continue to mature through adolescence. However, no study to date has longitudinally followed maturation of these CAEP measures through this developmental period. Additionally, no study has examined the trial-to-trial variability of the CAEP during adolescence. Therefore, we longitudinally tracked changes in the latency, amplitude, and variability of the P1, N1, P2, and N2 components of the CAEP in 68 adolescents from age 14 years to age 17 years. Latency decreased for N1 and N2, and did not change for P1 or P2. Amplitude decreased for P1 and N2, increased for N1, and did not change for P2. Variability decreased with age for all CAEP components. These findings provide longitudinal support for the view that the human auditory system continues to mature through adolescence. Continued auditory system maturation through adolescence suggests that CAEP neural generators remain plastic during this age range and potentially amenable to experience-based enhancement or deprivation. PMID:26539092

  2. Stability and change of social goals in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Trucco, Elisa M; Wright, Aidan G C; Colder, Craig R

    2014-10-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of continuity and change in social goals using the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) model across adolescence (ages 11-16). Five complementary definitions of stability were examined: structural, rank-order, absolute, individual, and ipsative. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of early adolescent problem behavior. Social goals were assessed during each wave, with data collection occurring at three annual intervals (Wave 1, ages 10-12). A community sample of adolescents (N = 387) was recruited. Adolescents were evenly split on gender, and a majority (82.7%) was White. Results suggest a modest increase in stability across social goals, yet significant interindividual heterogeneity. Although levels of Agentic and Communal factors increase over time, these patterns were driven by decreases in the Submissive and Separate octants. This offers evidence for the utility of examining lower-order facets of interpersonal dispositions, as it provides a nuanced picture of adolescent personality development. Furthermore, findings suggest that change and continuity in social goals may both be relevant in this developmental period. The difficulty is accounting for trait stability as well as change, and the IPC model may be particularly useful for meeting this challenge. PMID:23998889

  3. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... as depression, psychosis, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Bipolar Disorder. Additionally, some adolescents who engage in self-injury ... Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Bipolar Disorder In Children And Teens If you find Facts ...

  4. Skin Diseases and the Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Marjorie

    1970-01-01

    Discusses such concerns as acne, syphilis, drug abuse, and tatoos. Indicates need for physician not only to treat skin diseases but to help adolescents to accept themselves and find constructive directions. (CJ)

  5. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  6. Attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents concerning condom advertisements on television.

    PubMed

    Buchta, R M

    1989-05-01

    The major television networks have considered airing condom advertisements. A Louis-Harris poll entitled "Attitudes About Television, Sex and Contraceptive Advertising" conducted in early 1987 concluded that at least 60% of adult Americans were in favor of such advertisements. To better understand the attitudes of adolescents and parents of adolescents in a private practice setting toward contraceptive advertisement on television, the present study was performed. Between March and June 1987, 108 parents of adolescents, 100 adolescent females, and 90 adolescent males filled out a questionnaire asking their opinions of such advertisements. Eighty-three percent of the parents, 89% of adolescent females, and 92% of adolescent males approved of such advertisements. The data suggest that a majority of adults and adolescents approve of condom advertisements on television. The use of the media to take advantage of the present opportunity to educate and promote birth control and disease prevention to our adolescent population may be beneficial. PMID:2715096

  7. Social integration and the mental health of Black adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Theda; Joe, Sean; Shields, Joseph; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2014-01-01

    The influence of family, school, and religious social contexts on the mental health of Black adolescents has been understudied. This study used Durkheim’s Social Integration Theory to examine these associations in a nationally representative sample of 1,170 Black adolescents, ages 13-17. Mental health was represented by positive and negative psychosocial well-being indicators. Results showed that adolescents’ integration into family and school were related to better mental health. Additionally, commitment to religious involvement positively influenced mental health. Although the direct effect of religious involvement was inversely related to mental health, mediation analyses revealed a positive influence through religious commitment. Findings suggest a greater emphasis on all three social contexts when designing strategies to improve the mental health of Black adolescents. PMID:24815855

  8. Adolescent experience predicts longevity: evidence from historical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Falconi, A; Gemmill, A; Dahl, R E; Catalano, R

    2014-06-01

    Human development reportedly includes critical and sensitive periods during which environmental stressors can affect traits that persist throughout life. Controversy remains over which of these periods provides an opportunity for such stressors to affect health and longevity. The elaboration of reproductive biology and its behavioral sequelae during adolescence suggests such a sensitive period, particularly among males. We test the hypothesis that life expectancy at age 20 among males exposed to life-threatening stressors during early adolescence will fall below that among other males. We apply time-series methods to cohort mortality data in France between 1816 and 1919, England and Wales between 1841 and 1919, and Sweden between 1861 and 1919. Our results indicate an inverse association between cohort death rates at ages 10-14 and cohort life expectancy at age 20. Our findings imply that better-informed and more strategic management of the stressors encountered by early adolescents may improve population health. PMID:24901655

  9. Suicidal ideation in adolescents: an explanatory model using LISREL.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Han, Kuemsun; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kim, Han Kyeom; Kang, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Ji-Won; Cheon, Suk-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2010-03-01

    Suicidal ideation has been reported to be a major factor in attempted and completed suicides. The purpose of this study is to test a structural model to explain adolescent suicidal ideation. Specifically tested is the relationship between the predictor variables of trait anger, anger suppression, entrapment, psychosomatic symptoms, depression, and resilience and the dependent variable of suicidal ideation. Data are collected from a convenience sample of 11,393 students from 36 middle schools and 23 high schools in Korea. Trait anger, entrapment, psychosomatic symptoms, depression, and resilience have a direct effect on suicidal ideation whereas anger suppression shows a significant indirect effect on adolescent suicidal ideation. The predictor variables account for 39% of the variance in suicidal ideation. The study findings suggest that future programs for prevention or alleviation of adolescents' suicidal ideation need to use interventions that facilitate their resilience and reduce their anger, entrapment feeling, psychosomatic symptoms, and depression. PMID:20040734

  10. Reduced autobiographical memory specificity in bereaved Afghan adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neshat Doost, Hamid Taher; Yule, William; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Rezvani, Sayed Rohollah; Dyregrov, Atle; Jobson, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bereavement (father death due to war in Afghanistan) on autobiographical memory specificity in Afghan adolescents living in Iran. Participants consisted of bereaved (n=70) and non-bereaved (n=33) Afghan adolescents. The measures included Farsi versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test, Mood and Feeling Questionnaire, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Impact of Event Scale. Results indicated that the bereaved group retrieved a significantly lower proportion of specific memories and a significantly greater proportion of extended and categoric memories than the non-bereaved group. Additionally, depression symptoms and reduced autobiographical memory specificity were significantly correlated. These findings suggest that bereaved adolescents have impaired autobiographical memory specificity. PMID:23889469

  11. Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shochat, Tamar; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Tzischinsky, Orna

    2014-02-01

    During adolescence, changes in sleep patterns due to biological and environmental factors are well documented. Later bedtimes and inadequate sleep, i.e., short and disrupted sleep patterns, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have become increasingly common. Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep plays a crucial role in healthy adolescent development. This review systematically explores descriptive evidence, based on prospective and cross sectional investigations, indicating that inadequate sleep is associated with negative outcomes in several areas of health and functioning, including somatic and psychosocial health, school performance and risk taking behavior. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing the underpinnings of these associations and for developing and implementing interventions designed to achieve healthier and more balanced sleep patterns in the adolescent population. PMID:23806891

  12. Physiological evidence consistent with reduced neuroplasticity in human adolescents born preterm.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Julia B; Riley, Alysha M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Rothwell, John C; McAllister, Suzanne M; Smith, Ashleigh E; Clow, Angela; Kennaway, David J; Ridding, Michael C

    2012-11-14

    Preterm-born children commonly experience motor, cognitive, and learning difficulties that may be accompanied by altered brain microstructure, connectivity, and neurochemistry. However, the mechanisms linking the altered neurophysiology with the behavioral outcomes are unknown. Here we provide the first physiological evidence that human adolescents born preterm at or before 37 weeks of completed gestation have a significantly reduced capacity for cortical neuroplasticity, the key overall mechanism underlying learning and memory. We examined motor cortex neuroplasticity in three groups of adolescents who were born after gestations of ≤32 completed weeks (early preterm), 33-37 weeks (late preterm), and 38-41 weeks (term) using a noninvasive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation technique to induce long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity. Compared with term-born adolescents, both early and late preterm adolescents had reduced LTD-like neuroplasticity in response to brain stimulation that was also associated with low salivary cortisol levels. We also compared neuroplasticity in term-born adolescents with that in term-born young adults, finding that the motor cortex retains a relatively enhanced neuroplastic capacity in adolescence. These findings provide a possible mechanistic link between the altered brain physiology of preterm birth and the subsequent associated behavioral deficits, particularly in learning and memory. They also suggest that altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function due to preterm birth may be a significant modulator of this altered neuroplasticity. This latter finding may offer options in the development of possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23152623

  13. The role of gender, values, and culture in adolescent bystanders' strategies.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Anni; Tulviste, Tiia

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescent bystanders' strategies for intervening in the bullying-like situation and their gender, values, and cultural origin. The sample consisted of 682 Estonian and Russian-Estonian adolescents (M age = 13.02 years). They were shown a video of a bullying-like situation with a non-intervening adult bystander and asked to describe what they would do if they, instead of the adult, witnessed that situation. Only 10% said that they would not intervene. Girls were more likely than boys to suggest multiple actions. Adolescents who valued conformity were less likely to propose using physical aggression. Doing nothing was less likely suggested by those who placed more importance on conformity and less on power. Estonian adolescents were more likely than their Russian-Estonian peers to suggest finding out what is going on, and less likely to say that they would do nothing. The findings suggest that although most adolescents express willingness to help the victim, they might not actually know how to intervene. PMID:24919991

  14. Thai female adolescents' perceptions of dating violence.

    PubMed

    Thongpriwan, Vipavee; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2009-10-01

    We explored how Thai female adolescents describe the meaning and context of dating violence. Twenty-four students, aged 15-17, were purposively recruited from a secondary school in Bangkok for individually audio-taped interviews. The interviews lasted 45- 70 minutes. ATLAS ti 5.2 was selected for content analysis. Five themes emerged, including characteristics of adolescent romantic relationships, influences on adolescent romantic relationships, perceptions of dating violence, cycle of dating-violence experiences, and influences on adolescents' perceptions of dating violence. The findings indicate a foundation for developing culturally sensitive programs for dating-violence prevention among Thai adolescents. PMID:19742362

  15. Immune system dysregulation in adolescent major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Klein, Rachel G.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Babb, James S.; Nishawala, Melissa; De Jesus, Georgette; Hirsch, Glenn S.; Hottinger-Blanc, Pauline M.Z.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence suggests that immune system dysregulation is associated with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in adults. This study extends this work to adolescent MDD to examine the hypotheses of immune system dysregulation in adolescents with MDD, as manifested by significantly: (i) elevated plasma levels of cytokines (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-1β, and IL-4); and (ii) Th1/Th2 cytokine imbalance shifted toward Th1 as indexed by increased IFN-γ/IL-4. Method Thirty adolescents with MDD (19 females; 13 medication-free/naïve; ages 12–19) of at least 6 weeks duration and a minimum severity score of 40 on the Children’s Depression Rating Scale—Revised, and 15 healthy comparisons (8 females), group-matched for age, were enrolled. Plasma cytokines were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann–Whitney test was used to compare subjects with MDD and controls. Results Adolescents with MDD had significantly elevated plasma IFN-γ levels (3.38 ± 11.8 pg/ml versus 0.37 ± 0.64 pg/ml; p<0.003), and IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio (16.6 ± 56.5 versus 1.76 ± 2.28; p = 0.007). A trend for IL-6 to be elevated in the MDD group was also observed (1.52 ± 2.88 pg/ml versus 0.49 ± 0.90 pg/ml; p=0.09). Importantly, findings remained evident when medicated subjects were excluded. Conclusions Findings suggest that immune system dysregulation may be associated with adolescent MDD, with an imbalance of Th1/Th2 shifted toward Th1, as documented in adult MDD. Larger studies with medication-free adolescents should follow. PMID:18790541

  16. Adolescent Drinking and Adolescent Stress: A Domain-Specific Relationship in Northern Irish Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael Thomas; Cole, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested an association between heightened levels of stress among adolescents and reduced levels of mental, physical and emotional well-being. This study sought to examine the relationship between 10 domains of adolescent stress and self-reported drinking behaviour. A total of 610 adolescents, aged 12-16 years old, were…

  17. Processes linking parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness and adolescent substance use: Monitoring and self-control

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher; Longo, Gregory S.; McCullough, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that religiousness is related negatively to adolescent substance use; yet, we know little about how such protective effects might occur. The current study examined whether parents’ and adolescents’ religiousness are associated positively with parental, religious, and self-monitoring, which in turn are related to higher self-control, thereby related to lower adolescent substance use. Participants were 220 adolescents (45% female) who were interviewed at ages 10–16 and again 2.4 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that higher adolescents’ religiousness at Time 1 was related to lower substance use at Time 2 indirectly through religious monitoring, self-monitoring, and self-control. Higher parents’ religiousness at Time 1 was associated with higher parental monitoring at Time 2, which in turn was related to lower adolescent substance use at Time 2 directly and indirectly through higher adolescent self-control. The results illustrate that adolescents with high awareness of being monitored by God are likely to show high self-control abilities and, consequently, low substance use. The findings further suggest that adolescents’ religiousness as well as their religious environments (e.g., familial context) can facilitate desirable developmental outcomes. PMID:23975353

  18. Adolescents and Destructive Themes in Rock Music: A Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wass, Hannelore; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Administered questionnaire to 120 adolescent offenders in detention centers to study rock music preferences and views of themes advocating homicide, suicide, and satanic practices (HSSR). Found that HSSR fans were more likely to be white, school dropouts, and spend more time listening to music. Findings suggest relationship between preference for…

  19. Parent and Self-Ratings of Executive Function in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Deanna M.; Turkstra, Lyn S.; Wulfeck, Beverly B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is accumulating evidence that adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) have impairments in domains beyond formal language that may affect academic and social outcomes. The findings of previous studies as well as parent reports of behavioural concerns suggest that they lag behind peers in functions such as…

  20. Sexual Abuse as a Precursor to Prostitution and Victimization among Adolescent and Adult Homeless Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.

    1991-01-01

    Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…