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Sample records for adolescents heia study

  1. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  2. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  3. [Study of food characteristics of Uruguayan adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Alfonsina; Pereyra, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the diet of Uruguayan adolescents and demographic aspects that influence it. The data come from the National Survey of Adolescents and Youth in 2008 which worked with 2,943 cases, representative sample of all adolescents in Uruguay. The characteristics of feeding studied were: consumption of fruits and vegetables, soft drinks, fast food, added salt to meals served at the table and meal times shared with a parent. These variables were also studied in aggregate to determine a pattern of eating behavior. It was found that 89% of adolescents did not meet the recommendation of 5 servings of fruits and vegetables a day, 50% consumed daily soft drinks, fast foods ingested 24% 2 or more times per week and 13% added salt at all preparations. We also found that 31% did not share mealtimes with parents daily. By adding the variables studied, we observed that 58% were inadequately fed, and is higher among older adolescents (p < 0.01), who had higher household income (p < 0.05) and those who were not residing in the capital (p < 0.05). It is concluded that feeding adolescents was characterized by inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables, frequent consumption of soft drinks, fast food and adding salt to served meals, which defined it as inadequate. This was mainly observed in older adolescents, better economic situation and residents within the country.. PMID:26817381

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  5. Songs of Despair: A Case Study of Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Allen D.

    This report outlines the extent of the problem of adolescent suicide in the United States, noting that suicide is the third leading cause of death among adolescents in this country and that the rate of suicide by adolescents is expected to continue to increase in the future. It examines one adolescent suicide, using the case study method, to…

  6. Childhood Psychopathology Predicts Adolescence-Onset Offending: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Nicole; Verhulst, Frank; van Marle, Hjalmar; van der Ende, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Moffitt, Caspi, Harrington, and Milne (2002) found in a follow-up study that many of the supposedly adolescence-limited offenders had committed offenses past adolescence. This finding raises the question of whether adulthood starts later or whether there are two distinct delinquency types, adolescence limited and adolescence onset, each with its…

  7. DBT-Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Trichotillomania: An Adolescent Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Stacy Shaw; Kim, Junny

    2012-01-01

    Results and a case study for a DBT-enhanced habit reversal treatment (HRT) for adult trichotillomania (TTM) (Keuthen & Sprich, 2012) is adapted for use with adolescents. Trichotillomania in adolescence is a very important but understudied problem. Onset often occurs in adolescence, and yet very little treatment research exists. DBT-enhanced habit…

  8. Alcohol and Drug Use among "Street" Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina

    Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…

  9. Natural Mentoring Relationships among Adolescent Mothers: A Study of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on natural mentoring relationships between nonparental adults and African American adolescent mothers. Data were collected from 93 adolescent mothers over 5 time points, starting in the adolescent mothers' senior year of high school and ending 5 years after high school. We found that having a natural mentor was related to fewer…

  10. Adolescents in Wilderness Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Attachment Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Olson-Morrison, Debra; Jasperson, Rachael A.

    2011-01-01

    Characterized by acute changes in attachment relationships, adolescence is a time of balancing autonomy and attachment needs. For adolescents in wilderness therapy programs, the setting often challenges their understanding of their own attachment relationships. The current study evaluates the narratives of 13 adolescents in a wilderness therapy…

  11. Adolescent fertility study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Muangman, D

    1980-01-01

    1598 unmarried rural and urban adolescents between 15 and 20 years of age who worked in factories or attended school were interviewed to ascertain their knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding a wide range of issues relating to reproduction. The "school" group were better educated, better off financially, had greater access to information from radio, television, and newspapers, and had higher professional goals than the factory group. Both groups were knowledgeable about family planning and government policy, although the factory group equated it with birth control only. Most believed marriages should be based on love, that ideal family size was 2-3 children, and age of marriage 20-24 years. The school group highly disapproved of premarital intercourse and valued virginity, while only 65% of the factory group agreed. Condoms were more used by the factory group, but a large number of both groups did not know or use contraception. Less than 25% felt that abortion should be permitted except in cases of rape, with 22% of the school group and 33% of the factory group approving of legalizing abortion. Over 50% approved of sex education in the schools. 24% of the school group and 39% of the other group reported having friends with venereal disease, and slightly over 10% of both groups reported having friends who were narcotics addicts. PMID:12278544

  12. Borderline personality disorder: study in adolescence.

    PubMed

    James, A; Berelowitz, M; Vereker, M

    1996-04-01

    The study of the presentation, symptomatology and family characteristics of an exclusively adolescent sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) was undertaken. Twenty-four cases of borderline personality disorder, 20 females, 4 males, identified using chart review and meeting the criteria of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB) and DSM III-R, were matched with psychiatric controls. Adolescents with borderline personality disorder were found to have high rates of affective symptomatology with Axis I diagnosis of major depressive disorder MDD (DSM-III-R), and high rates of interpersonal psychopathology, i.e., manipulation, devaluation, and a pervasive sense of boredom. The latter seem to be characteristic as for adults with borderline personality disorder. The families were particularly angry and volatile. PMID:9117533

  13. A Study of Self-Esteem and Romanticism among Pregnant Adolescents, Adolescent Mothers, and a Control Group in Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Hellen, Cheryl; And Others

    In the United States over one million adolescent girls will become pregnant each year. Adolescent pregnancy often leads to truncated educational attainment and subsequently results in a prolonged cycle of poverty and dependence. This study investigated feelings of self-esteem and romanticism among pregnant adolescents (N=276), adolescent mothers…

  14. Electronic Play, Study, Communication, and Adolescent Achievement, 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' time spent messaging, exploring websites, and studying on the computer increased between 2003 and 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, this study examines how such changes have influenced individual achievement and behavior from childhood to adolescence. Greater communications and…

  15. A qualitative study on adolescence, health and family

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Family is important to both health and adolescence. Adolescence is a time of peak health, but there are some important family based risk factors. The aim of this study was to explore the perspective of adolescent Iranians on issues of family and their health. We used descriptive, qualitative methodology and purposeful sampling and interviews for collecting the data. Forty‐one participants explained their perspectives on health and family. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Analysis revealed three categories of risk factors: a widening generation gap, effective parenting and family financial situation. To have healthy adolescents, both children and parents need more knowledge and better skills about adolescent health and development and about social trends. To understand adolescents in a more realistic way, parents should develop healthy communication to avoid family health problems. PMID:22477907

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the…

  17. Measurement and Design Issues in the Study of Adolescent Sexual Behavior and the Evaluation of Adolescent Sexual Health Behavior Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael; Palacios, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the quality of research and commentary concerning adolescent sexuality and evaluation of both comprehensive sexuality education and abstinence education programs, this article aims to help readers (1) select appropriate measures to study adolescent sexual behavior, (2) develop appropriate study designs to evaluate adolescent sexual…

  18. Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Woodgate, Roberta L.; Safipour, Jalal; Tailor, Ketan

    2015-01-01

    Research examining adolescents' understandings of cancer and cancer risk is limited. Accordingly, we conducted an ethnographic study that sought to extend our limited understanding of Canadian adolescents' perspectives of cancer and cancer prevention including how adolescents conceptualize and understand cancer risk. This article addresses findings specific to adolescents' perspectives of cancer risk. Seventy-five adolescents (11–19 years old) took part in the study. Two individual open-ended interviews were planned for each adolescent with the second interview occurring 4 to 5 weeks after the first interview. The second interview was complemented by the use of photovoice. Four focus groups, composed of the adolescents who took part in the individual interviews, were also conducted. Data analysis involved both thematic and content analysis. Findings revealed that adolescents conceptualized cancer risk in terms of specific risk factors, with lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking, diet/nutrition and physical inactivity) dominating their discourse. Adolescents rationalized risky health behaviours through use of cognitive strategies that included questioning and evaluating risk information, considering the benefits costs of the cancer risk, and downplaying the impact of the cancer risk. Use of these cognitive strategies helped to make cancer risks more acceptable to adolescents. While adolescents felt that cancer could not always be prevented, they did feel it was possible for individuals to delay getting cancer by lowering the impact of cancer risks through making the right choices. Although more research in this area is needed, the findings from this study may help inform cancer prevention and risk communication programmes and policies. PMID:24637456

  19. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  1. Parenting Practices and Adolescent Sexual Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersamin, Melina; Todd, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Grube, Joel W.; Walker, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    The effects of parental attitudes, practices, and television mediation on adolescent sexual behaviors were investigated in a study of adolescent sexuality and media (N = 887). Confirmatory factor analyses supported an eight-factor parenting model with television mediation factors as constructs distinct from general parenting practices. Logistic…

  2. Early Childhood Television Viewing and Adolescent Behavior: The Recontact Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.; Huston, Aletha C.; Schmitt, Kelly L.; Linebarger, Deborah L.; Wright, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Followed up on 570 adolescents studied as preschoolers. Found that preschoolers' viewing of educational television programs was associated with achieving higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, exhibiting greater creativity, and behaving less aggressively as adolescents more consistently for boys than girls. Found…

  3. Coping Strategies among Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olah, Attila

    1995-01-01

    Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…

  4. PREDICTING PATTERNS OF ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because most studies of adolescent alcohol use have focused primarily on the frequency and quantity of consumption, we know little about how adolescent drinking patterns change during the high school years. The purpose of this article is to provide such data, as well as to identify some of the indiv...

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Stress Buffering for Adolescent Problem Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael

    1992-01-01

    In a study of middle adolescents, the interrelationships between stressful events, perceived social support, internalization of problems, and externalization of problems were examined. Social support did not act as a buffer of stress. Stressful events and low family support predicted problem behaviors for adolescent girls. (BC)

  6. Drug Taking Beliefs of Australian Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…

  7. Adolescents' experience with scoliosis surgery: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Rullander, Anna-Clara; Isberg, Stefan; Karling, Mats; Jonsson, Håkan; Lindh, Viveca

    2013-03-01

    This article reports a study of adolescents' narrated experiences of undergoing scoliosis surgery. Six adolescents were interviewed. Open and semistructured questions were asked, and a qualitative content analysis of the text was performed. The results are presented in three main categories followed by subcategories. The three main categories of experience were emotional, physical, and social. The emotional aspects that emerged were fear, nightmares, nervousness, and helplessness. These had a great impact on adolescents' well-being before, during, and after the hospital visit. The physical aspects were mobilization, scars, different hip levels, pain, nausea, appetite, and urinary catheter. These aspects caused much discomfort, mostly during the hospital visit. The social aspects were friends, power, coaching and comfort, and sports. Some of the social aspects had a strong negative impact on the adolescents' well-being mostly after the hospital visit. This study suggests that both before and long after the surgery adolescents have strong emotions that they should be better prepared and helped to manage. To optimize perioperative care an interdisciplinary, a holistic approach must be taken that incorporates the complexity and whole of the adolescent's experiences. The findings of this study suggest that perioperative care of adolescents during scoliosis surgery needs to be optimized. To improve patients' psychologic preparation before surgery pediatric nurses should learn more about the individual patient and make care plans from a holistic perspective. Follow-up after discharge should address emotional, social, and physical aspects of the adolescent's health. PMID:23452527

  8. A Preliminary Study of Functional Connectivity in Comorbid Adolescent Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Gee, Dylan G.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Gabbay, Vilma; Hulvershorn, Leslie; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Bell, Christopher J.; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental changes in brain networks during adolescence highlight the need to examine MDD-related circuitry in teens separately from adults. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study examined functional connectivity in adolescents with MDD (n=12) and healthy adolescents (n=14). Seed-based connectivity analysis revealed that adolescents with MDD have decreased functional connectivity in a subgenual ACC-based neural network that includes the supragenual ACC (BA 32), the right medial frontal cortex (BA 10), the left inferior (BA 47) and superior frontal cortex (BA 22), superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), and the insular cortex (BA 13). These preliminary data suggest that MDD in adolescence is associated with abnormal connectivity within neural circuits that mediate emotion processing. Future research in larger, un-medicated samples will be necessary to confirm this finding. We conclude that hypothesis-driven, seed-based analyses of resting state fMRI data hold promise for advancing our current understanding of abnormal development of neural circuitry in adolescents with MDD. PMID:19446602

  9. The role of parent-adolescent attachment in the glycemic control of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Tziporah; Shields, Cleveland G

    2009-09-01

    This pilot study explored the associations between parent and adolescent reports of adolescent attachment and glycemic control in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that more secure attachment would correlate with more optimal diabetes control. Thirty-one families completed written self-report questionnaires about adolescent attachment, demographic data, and diabetes control. Adolescents and parents reported on their perceptions of adolescents' attachment to mothers and fathers. Mean HbA1c for the sample was 7.6% (SD = 1.14). Mothers' perceptions of adolescents' attachment were significantly correlated with adolescents' hemoglobin A1c (r = -.42, p = .022), indicating that maternal perceptions of more secure attachment was associated with better glycemic control. Neither fathers' perceptions nor adolescents' reports of attachment was significantly correlated with glycemic control. Attachment appears to be associated with glycemic control in this population though the mechanisms are unclear. Mothers' perceptions of attachment had the strongest associations with control, not adolescent reports. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms through which parent reports of adolescent attachment are associated with glycemic control. PMID:19803618

  10. Fear of Negative Evaluation Influences Eye Gaze in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Maddox, Brenna B.; Panneton, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is common among adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this modest-sized pilot study, we examined the relationship between social worries and gaze patterns to static social stimuli in adolescents with ASD (n = 15) and gender-matched adolescents without ASD (control; n = 18). Among cognitively unimpaired adolescents with…

  11. Drug taking beliefs of Australian adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews with 24 students aged 15-17 found that adolescents' beliefs to drug taking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, moral norms, negative affect, and reputation enhancement involved a number a sub-themes that provided an in-depth understanding of the association of these components to intended drug use. The incorporation of these elements in drug education programs could be an effective approach in prevention interventions for adolescent drug use. PMID:24855880

  12. A case study on the communication of older adolescents.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-11-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the perspective of systemic functional linguistics and social psychology (communication accommodation theory) were applied in data analysis. Peer interaction showed fewer questions, fewer challenging moves and the absence of divergent accommodation strategies. In the non-peer interaction, the teacher's higher number of turns, questions and interruptions appeared to influence the opportunity for adolescent contribution to the interactions. Some aspects of language use by each adolescent - mean turn length, use of one-word utterances and sarcasm - were consistent across communication partner and activity. The methodology is suggested to provide a suitable procedure for use in similar research with older adolescents who have traumatic brain injury. PMID:22106894

  13. Mother and adolescent expressed emotion and adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom development: a six-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hale, William W; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-06-01

    In expressed emotion (EE) theory, it is held that high EE household environments enhance adolescent psychopathological distress. However, no longitudinal study has been conducted to examine if either the mother's EE or the adolescent's perception of EE predicts adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom dimensions (an EE effect model) or vice versa (psychopathological effect model) together in one model. To unravel the reciprocal influences of maternal and adolescent perceived EE to adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptom dimensions, we tested two (i.e., one for internalizing and one for externalizing) cross-lagged panel models. In this study, it was found that both internalizing and externalizing symptom dimensions predicted the adolescent's perception of maternal EE as well as the mother's own rated EE criticism over time. The findings of this study should give both researchers and therapists a reason to reevaluate only using the EE effects model assumption in future EE studies. PMID:26419776

  14. Parental socioeconomic position and development of overweight in adolescence: longitudinal study of Danish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An inverse social gradient in overweight among adolescents has been shown in developed countries, but few studies have examined whether weight gain and the development of overweight differs among adolescents from different socioeconomic groups in a longitudinal study. The objective was to identify the possible association between parental socioeconomic position, weight change and the risk of developing overweight among adolescents between the ages 15 to 21. Methods Prospective cohort study conducted in Denmark with baseline examination in 1996 and follow-up questionnaire in 2003 with a mean follow-up time of 6.4 years. A sample of 1,656 adolescents participated in both baseline (mean age 14.8) and follow-up (mean age 21.3). Of these, 1,402 had a body mass index (BMI = weight/height2kg/m2) corresponding to a value below 25 at baseline when adjusted for age and gender according to guidelines from International Obesity Taskforce, and were at risk of developing overweight during the study period. The exposure was parental occupational status. The main outcome measures were change in BMI and development of overweight (from BMI < 25 to BMI > = 25). Results Average BMI increased from 21.3 to 22.7 for girls and from 20.6 to 23.6 in boys during follow-up. An inverse social gradient in overweight was seen for girls at baseline and follow-up and for boys at follow-up. In the full population there was a tendency to an inverse social gradient in the overall increase in BMI for girls, but not for boys. A total of 13.4% developed overweight during the follow-up period. Girls of lower parental socioeconomic position had a higher risk of developing overweight (OR's between 4.72; CI 1.31 to 17.04 and 2.03; CI 1.10-3.74) when compared to girls of high parental socioeconomic position. A tendency for an inverse social gradient in the development of overweight for boys was seen, but it did not meet the significance criteria Conclusions The levels of overweight and obesity

  15. A Psychometric Study of Adolescent Risk Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benthin, Alida; And Others

    1993-01-01

    High school students (n=41) evaluated 30 activities (smoking, drinking, drug use, sex) on perceived risk and benefit. Adolescents who participated in activity perceived risks to be smaller, better known, and more controllable than did nonparticipants. Participants perceived greater benefits relative to risks, greater peer pressure to participate,…

  16. Tattooing behavior in adolescence. A comparison study.

    PubMed

    Farrow, J A; Schwartz, R H; Vanderleeuw, J

    1991-02-01

    We characterize associations with and motivations for tattooing in adolescents through data from a controlled, three-group comparison of adolescents from a substance abuse treatment program, detention center, and private pediatric practice. We surveyed 474 adolescents (12 to 18 years old) with tattoos (12%) and without tattoos (88%). The private pediatric practice was the control site. A 34-item questionnaire was used to profile the three groups and their primary associations with tattooing with respect to race, drug use, school attendance, school grades, parental marital status, family income, tattooing by family members, criminal activity, and involvement with satanic rituals. Tattooing was significantly (P less than .005) associated with all of these variables in the ways described, as was knowledge of its association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. No interventions were made. Tattooing is common in adolescents and is associated with low self-esteem, delinquency, drug abuse, family and peer modeling, and participation in satanic rituals. Addressing the behavior as a health problem is discussed. PMID:1994684

  17. Adolescent Intimacy: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbedour, Salman; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Compared perceptions of intimacy in friendships among Israeli Jewish (IJ) and Israeli Bedouin (IB) adolescents. Results from 288 IJ and 327 IB junior and senior high school students show that intimacy was perceived to reflect a balance between closeness and individuality in close friendships. Closeness and individuality appear to govern all close…

  18. Early Adolescence and Religion: A Status Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farel, Anita M.

    A survey of resources is provided for improving youth programs conducted by religious organizations. After a brief introductory chapter establishing the focus of the document, the second chapter offers an overview of adolescent physical, intellectual, moral, social, emotional, and religious development. In addition, the attitudes of young…

  19. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943

  20. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  1. Relational Factors of Vulnerability and Protection for Adolescent Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study of Portuguese Pregnant and Nonpregnant Adolescents of Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Maria C.; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa

    2005-01-01

    This study explores multiple relational contexts that promote vulnerability and protection against early pregnancy in a potential risk group of Portuguese adolescents. A comparative analysis was made between two groups of female adolescents of low socioeconomic status: pregnant adolescents (n = 57) and adolescents without a history of pregnancy (n…

  2. Study protocol: the Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Puberty is a multifaceted developmental process that begins in late-childhood with a cascade of endocrine changes that ultimately lead to sexual maturation and reproductive capability. The transition through puberty is marked by an increased risk for the onset of a range of health problems, particularly those related to the control of behaviour and emotion. Early onset puberty is associated with a greater risk of cancers of the reproductive tract and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have had methodological limitations and have tended to view puberty as a unitary process, with little distinction between adrenarche, gonadarche and linear growth. The Childhood to Adolescence Transition Study (CATS) aims to prospectively examine associations between the timing and stage of the different hormonally-mediated changes, as well as the onset and course of common health and behavioural problems that emerge in the transition from childhood to adolescence. The initial focus of CATS is on adrenarche, the first hormonal process in the pubertal cascade, which begins for most children at around 8 years of age. Methods/Design CATS is a longitudinal population-based cohort study. All Grade 3 students (8–9 years of age) from a stratified cluster sample of schools in Melbourne, Australia were invited to take part. In total, 1239 students and a parent/guardian were recruited to participate in the study. Measures are repeated annually and comprise student, parent and teacher questionnaires, and student anthropometric measurements. A saliva sample was collected from students at baseline and will be repeated at later waves, with the primary purpose of measuring hormonal indices of adrenarche and gonadarche. Discussion CATS is uniquely placed to capture biological and phenotypic indices of the pubertal process from its earliest manifestations, together with anthropometric measures and assessment of child health and development. The cohort will provide rich detail of

  3. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  4. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  5. Interpersonal Psychotherapy with Pregnant Adolescents: Two Pilot Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lisa; Gur, Merav; Shanok, Arielle; Weissman, Myrna

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the feasibility, acceptability and helpfulness of group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-PA) for depression in pregnant adolescents. Method: Two open clinical trials were conducted of IPT-PA delivered in group format in a New York City public school for pregnant girls. Study 1 tests IPT-PA for management of…

  6. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

  7. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values < 0.001). However, objectively measured sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents. PMID:26378797

  8. Research Knowledge among the Participants in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Silva, Susan; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Waslick, Bruce; Hughes, Carroll W.; Prentice, Ernest D.; May, Diane E.; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    A study examined the extent to which parents and adolescents participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) understood the study. The results concluded that most were well-informed, and also parents were overall better informed than adolescents.

  9. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  10. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  11. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  12. Treatment Compliance of Adolescents after Attempted Suicide: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Craig D.; Cortell, Ranon; Wagner, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates compliance with mental health treatments among suicidal adolescents. Results show that child psychopathology and parental attitudes toward treatment plays an important part in increasing compliance with mental health treatment for adolescent suicide attempters.

  13. The Passive in Adolescents with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Maraci Coelho de Barros Pereira

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows that some individuals with Down syndrome are capable of producing, imitating (repeating) and comprehending passive sentences, even though group studies indicate that this is not the norm. Experimental tests of elicited production, repetition and comprehension of passive and active sentences applied in ten adolescents with Down…

  14. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  15. Female Adolescent Sex Offenders--An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, J.; Bijleveld, C. C. J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of 10 female adolescent sex offenders, aged between 11 and 18 years, is studied. They constitute about one-sixth of all young women who were registered at the prosecutor's office in the Netherlands during the past 10 years. Information was gathered from psychological screenings carried out in relation to the sex offence. Most young women…

  16. Self-Concept of Pregnant Adolescents: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkes, Barbara Halpren; Crocitto, John A.

    1987-01-01

    Used case study approach to assess self-concepts of pregnant adolescents regarding life history, personality traits, and development. Results revealed common themes of historic background and personality traits: no intact families, lack of trust in family members, history of drug and alcohol abuse, permissive sexual attitudes and early sexual…

  17. Gender and Sex Education: A Study of Adolescent Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Measor, Lynda; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Responses of English adolescents to single-sex sex education classes were studied, focusing on about 20 females and about 20 males. There were clear gender differences in student reactions, with boys responding more openly, disruptively, and negatively. The role of cultural prescriptions in their responses is explored. (SLD)

  18. When Adolescents Represent the Third Dimension: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavridou, Fotini; Kakana, Domna

    2005-01-01

    The main focus of this article is the representation of the third dimension. The sample is sixty adolescent 14-year-olds. Our research is concerned with the study of the drawings of the same array of 3D objects in three cases: the representation of 3D objects without the presence of models (through verbal instructions), by observation of physical…

  19. Studying Motivation to Learn during Early Adolescence: A Holistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeser, Robert W.; Galloway, Mollie K.

    This chapter examines how integrating the study of motivation to learn with the issue of identity development during adolescence requires simultaneous attention to patterns of school functioning, peer relationships, and mental health at the level of the individual, and to patterns of developmental supports or risks at the level of the social…

  20. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  1. A Case Study of Adolescent Girls' Speech Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangelisti, Anita L.

    A study was conducted to describe the speech patterns of four adolescent girls. All four subjects were in the same eighth grade class and knew each other. Approximately 19 hours of observational data and 9 hours of interview data were collected. The descriptive framework of D. Hymes (1972), which focuses specifically on settings, participants,…

  2. A Case Study on the Communication of Older Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lauren; Spencer, Elizabeth; Ferguson, Alison

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the communication of two older male adolescents (aged 17 and 19 years) with each other (peer interaction) and with a teacher (non-peer interaction) in three different types of activity (casual conversation, providing/listening to a recount and collaborative problem-solving). Conversation analysis, selected analyses from the…

  3. Child and Adolescent Abuse and Subsequent Victimization: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Cindy L.; Gidycz, Christine A.; Warkentin, Jennifer B.; Loh, Catherine; Weiland, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the possible reciprocal relationship between victimization experiences and psychological functioning by assessing abuse experiences in childhood, adolescence, and during a 2-month follow-up period. Method: At the beginning of the study (Time 1), abuse histories, trauma and depressive symptoms, and interpersonal…

  4. Characterizing Adolescent Prescription Misusers: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schepis, Ty S.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the risk factors associated with the abuse of opiods, stimulants, tranquilizers and other sedatives among adolescents aged between 12 to 17 years and the presence of one more symptoms of a substance use disorder from prescription misuse. Results indicated that poor academic performance; enjoyment of…

  5. Adolescent Ethnolinguistic Stability and Change: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Mary Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Most sociolinguistic studies rely on apparent time, cross-sectional methods to analyze language change. On the basis of apparent time data, sociolinguists have hypothesized that cultural processes of lifespan change create predictable cycles of linguistic behavior in which adolescents lead in the use of vernacular variants and advance sound change…

  6. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Marklund, Birgitta; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil; Ahlstedt, Staffan; Nordström, Gun

    2007-01-01

    Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions, brings about consequences

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, John K.; Willoughby, Teena

    2010-01-01

    Risk taking may be regarded as a normative behavior in adolescence. Risk-taking behaviors may include alcohol, smoking, drug use, delinquency, and acts of aggression. Many studies have explored the relationship between adolescents and risk-taking behavior; however, only a few studies have examined this link in adolescents with learning…

  8. Cultural considerations in theories of adolescent development: a case study from Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ntsayagae, Esther; Sabone, Motshedise; Mogobe, Keitshokile D; Seboni, Naomi M; Sebego, Miriam; Brown, Marie Scott

    2008-01-01

    Western studies of adolescent development are beginning to corporate not only the traditional ideas of nature and nurture, but also contextual factors such as culture, ecology and historical time. This article explores how adolescent development is influenced by both a specific culture (Botswana) and a specific ecological situation (the rampant HIV pandemic in that country). A case study of late adolescents living in this pandemic in Botswana helps broaden our traditional views of adolescent development. PMID:18293223

  9. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  10. Forming ideas about health: A qualitative study of Ontario adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, Valerie; McKerron, Margaret; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period of child development during which one's ideas about health are formed. However, little is known about the different contexts, experiences, and potential other factors that contribute to shaping the health ideas of adolescent populations, particularly when they are not seeking out the information for a particular purpose. In this Ontario-based qualitative study, grounded theory methods were used to explore ways that health knowledge is obtained in adolescents (age 10–16). A purposeful, criterion-based sampling strategy was used, and data were collected through seven focus groups (n=40). Findings indicate that while young people get their ideas about health through both didactic and organic learning contexts, the significant impact of organic learning is often overlooked. Categories of organic learning that emerged include self-reflective experience, the experience of close contacts, casually observing others, and common discourse. This study suggests that one central way that young people get their ideas about health is from living life: from the people they watch, the conversations that they have, and the experiences they live. Findings support the development of effective health promotion messages and also contribute to considering the place of some aspects of organic learning in the development of health-related resources that target adolescent populations. PMID:26015404

  11. [Functional Neuroimaging Pilot Study of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents].

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, Amélie; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Labelle, Réal; Luck, David

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is being increasingly recognized by clinicians working with adolescents, and the reliability and validity of the diagnosis have been established in the adolescent population. Adolescence is known to be a period of high risk for BPD development as most patients identify the onset of their symptoms to be in the adolescent period. As with other mental health disorders, personality disorder, are thought to result from the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Functional neuroimaging studies are reporting an increasing amount of data on abnormal neuronal functions in BPD adult patients. However, no functional neuroimaging studies have been conducted in adolescents with BPD.Objectives This pilot project aims to evaluate the feasibility of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study coupled with clinical and psychological measures in adolescent girls with a diagnosis of BPD. It also aims to identify neuronal regions of interest (ROI) for the study of BPD in adolescent girls.Method Six female adolescents meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD and 6 female adolescents without psychiatric disorder were recruited. Both groups were evaluated for BPD symptoms, depressive symptoms, impulsivity, affective lability, and other potential psychiatric comorbidities. We used fMRI to compare patterns of regional brain activation between these two groups as they viewed 20 positive, 20 negative and 20 neutral emotion-inducing pictures, which were presented in random order.Results Participants were recruited over a period of 22 months. The protocol was well tolerated by participants. Mean age of the BPD group and control group was 15.8 ± 0.9 years-old and 15.5 ± 1.2 years-old respectively. Psychiatric comorbidity and use of medication was common among participants in the BPD group. This group showed higher impulsivity and affective lability scores. For the fMRI task, BPD patients demonstrated greater differences in activation

  12. Self-esteem: a comparative study of adolescents from mainstream and minority religious groups in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Ayub, Nadia

    2013-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the level of self-esteem among religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) by making a comparison with their dominant counterparts (Muslims) in Pakistan. It was hypothesized that adolescents of religious minorities would have lower level of self-esteem than their dominant counterparts. In the present study 320 adolescents participated, in which 160 adolescents belonged to minority religious groups (i.e. 76 Christians and 84 Hindus) and 160 adolescents belonged to dominant religious group i.e. Muslims. To assess self-esteem of the participants, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg in Society and the adolescent self image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1965) was used. One Way Analysis of Variance reveals that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) inclined to have lower self-esteem as compared to their dominant counterpart (Muslim adolescents). PMID:22699828

  13. Relapse and Recurrence Prevention in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Anne D.; Rohde, Paul; Kennard, Betsy D.; Robins, Michele

    2005-01-01

    Relapse and recurrence in adolescent depression are important problems. Much less is known about relapse prevention compared to the acute treatment of depression in adolescents. Based on previous research, theoretical predictions, and clinical experience, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) protocol was designed to determine…

  14. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  15. Fusion or Familialism: A Construct Problem in Studies of Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Judith C.; Prince, Jonathan D.; Velez, Judith

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of intergenerational relationships related to the individuation process as reported by Mexican (N = 2,388) and European American (N = 2,907) adolescents. The primary aim was to examine the construct within theories of adolescent development that emotional separation in parent-adolescent relationships is an inherent…

  16. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  17. Shifts in Attachment Relationships: A Study of Adolescents in Wilderness Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettmann, Joanna E.; Tucker, Anita R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined shifts in adolescents' attachment relationships with parents and peers during a 7-week wilderness therapy program. Ninety-six adolescents, aged 14-17, completed three quantitative measurements evaluating attachment relationships with mother, father and peers pre and post treatment. Adolescents reported improved attachment…

  18. Impact of Comorbid Anxiety in an Effectiveness Study of Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatment for adolescent depression in an effectiveness study of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed adolescents (IPT-A). Method: A randomized clinical trial was conducted from April 1, 1999, through July 31, 2002. Sixty-three depressed adolescents, ages 12 to 18, received either IPT-A…

  19. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  20. A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Outcome Studies with Adolescents: 1978-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Barton J.; Borduin, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews methods and findings of adolescent psychotherapy outcome studies published from 1978 to 1988. Concludes that evaluations of individual psychotherapy with adolescents generally reveal positive short-term outcomes, but long-term outcomes are still to be determined; evaluations of systemic therapies with adolescents often reveal positive…

  1. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  2. Family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy: study of a group of adolescent girls and their families in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Guijarro, S; Naranjo, J; Padilla, M; Gutiérez, R; Lammers, C; Blum, R W

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents the study on the family risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy among adolescent girls and their families in Quito, Ecuador. The study aimed to identify characteristics within the family associated with adolescent pregnancy. A total of 135 female adolescents (aged 12-19 years) and their families were separately interviewed. 47 were pregnant and attending prenatal care at an inner city hospital in Quito, and 88 were nonpregnant students from schools located within the same geographical area. Results showed that when compared to their pregnant peers, more nonpregnant adolescents lived with their biological parents (p 0.002); they showed higher school performance (p 0.001); and more values and religiosity (p 0.0001). Pregnant adolescents reported lower mother-daughter and father-daughter communication (p 0.02), lesser life satisfaction in general, and more school and economic difficulties (p 0.001). Moreover, they were less likely to find support for their problems in or outside the family (p 0.0001) and showed higher levels of depression (68.8%) and sexual abuse (14.9%). Parental education was higher in the families of nonpregnant adolescents and both parents worked to provide financial support for the family. PMID:10447044

  3. The Interplay between Peer Rejection and Acceptance in Preadolescence and Early Adolescence, Serotonin Transporter Gene, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kretschmer, Tina; Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelius; Veenstra, Rene´

    2014-01-01

    Gene-environment studies on adolescents' peer contexts are important for understanding the interplay between biological and social antecedents of adolescent psychopathology. To this end, this study examined the roles of serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and preadolescent and early adolescent peer rejection and acceptance, as well as the…

  4. Engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal mental health intervention study: challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa Dawn; Logsdon, M Cynthia; Derrick, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about recruiting and retaining adolescent mothers in research studies. Investigators who study adolescent mothers have been guided by trial and error, clinical experience, qualitative inquiry, literature of special populations, or the advice of stakeholders. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned in engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal community-based mental health intervention study. Audio-recorded data that describes the circumstances of five adolescent mothers lost to attrition were extracted from a longitudinal mental health intervention study. Adolescent mothers described a chaotic home environment with multiple demands, family conflict, health issues, limited access to a telephone, transportation, financial, and social support. Utilizing a multidisciplinary community advisory group, dedicated telephone, and free electronic media may assist in overcoming modifiable barriers to recruitment and retention of adolescent mothers. Exploring a waiver of informed consent and the engagement of mothers of adolescents in research are indicated. PMID:21355755

  5. Engaging Adolescent Mothers in a Longitudinal Mental Health Intervention Study: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Derrick, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about recruiting and retaining adolescent mothers in research studies. Investigators who study adolescent mothers have been guided by trial and error, clinical experience, qualitative inquiry, literature of special populations or advice of stakeholders. This paper describes the challenges and lessons learned in engaging adolescent mothers in a longitudinal community-based mental health intervention study. Methods Audio-recorded data that describes the circumstances of five adolescent mothers lost to attrition were extracted from a longitudinal mental health intervention study. Results Adolescent mothers described a chaotic home environment with multiple demands, family conflict, health issues, limited access to a telephone, transportation, financial, and social support. Discussion Utilizing a multidisciplinary community advisory group, dedicated telephone, and free electronic media may assist in overcoming modifiable barriers to recruitment and retention of adolescent mothers. Exploring a waiver of informed consent and the engagement of mothers of adolescents in research are indicated. PMID:21355755

  6. The adolescent outcomes of adoption: a 16-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, D M; Lynskey, M; Horwood, L J

    1995-05-01

    The childhood history and adolescent adjustment of children placed in adoptive, biological two parent and single parent families were examined in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children studied to the age of 16 years. This study suggested that children who entered adoptive families were advantaged throughout childhood in a number of areas including childhood experiences, standards of health care, family material conditions, family stability and mother/child interaction. However, the environmental advantages experienced by children who entered adoptive families were not directly reflected in the pattern of adolescent adjustment of this group. In particular, children placed in adoptive families had rates of externalising behaviours (including conduct disorders, juvenile offending and substance use behaviours) that were significantly higher than children reared in biological two parent families but somewhat lower than those of children who entered single parent families at birth. PMID:7650085

  7. Concurrent Trajectories of Change in Adolescent and Maternal Depressive Symptoms in the TORDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Curby, Timothy W.; Renshaw, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Depression has a heightened prevalence in adolescence, with approximately 15 % of adolescents experiencing a major depressive episode by age 18. Depression in adolescence also poses a risk for future distress and impairment. Despite treatment advances, many adolescents relapse after initial remission. Family context may be an important factor in the developmental trajectory of adolescent depression, and thus in enhancing treatment. This study examined concurrent change over time in adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms in the context of the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study. Participants were 334 adolescents (mean age: 16; SD: 1.6; 70 % female, 84 % Caucasian), and their mothers (n = 241). All adolescents were clinically depressed when they entered the study and had received previous selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment. Adolescents received acute treatment for 12 weeks and additional treatment for 12 more weeks. Adolescent depression and suicidal ideation were assessed at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks, while maternal depressive symptoms were assessed at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 weeks. Latent basis growth curve analyses showed a significant correlation over 72 weeks between trajectories of maternal and adolescent depressive symptoms, supporting the hypothesis of concurrent patterns of change in these variables. The trajectories were correlated more strongly in a subsample that included only dyads in which mothers reported at least one depressive symptom at baseline. Results did not show a correlation between trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that adolescent and maternal depressive symptoms change in tandem, and that treatment for adolescent depression can benefit the wider family system. Notably, most mothers in this sample had subclinical depressive symptoms. Future research might explore these trajectories in dyads with more severely depressed mothers

  8. Like Circles on the Water: A Study of Adolescent Identity. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology, No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lena

    This thesis explores the subject of identity development during late adolescence by analyzing research from three studies: "Self-concept and questions of life: Identity development during late adolescence" (Adamson and Lyxell, 1996); "Adolescent identity--a qualitative approach: Self-concept, existential questions and adult contacts" (Adamson and…

  9. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization. PMID:18931906

  10. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents' behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:26990191

  11. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity. PMID:26132259

  12. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B.; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the U.S. has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problems have a negative influence on adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, although these behaviors appear in other cultures, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in countries other than the U.S.. This study contributes to our understanding of personality and parenting factors associated with adolescent problem behaviors using an international sample. Data are from a NIDA-funded study of 884 community-dwelling adolescents in Santiago, Chile (Mean age=14, SD=1.4, 48% females) of mid-to-low socioeconomic status. Results revealed that rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors were both associated with greater levels of adolescent drive but lower levels of parental monitoring and positive parenting by both parents. Adolescents who reported more attention problems were more likely to exhibit driven behavior, more behavioral inhibition, to report lower levels of parental monitoring, and positive parenting by mother and father. Results of interactions revealed that the influences of positive parenting and parental monitoring on adolescent aggressive behaviors varied as a function of the gender of the adolescent. Helping parents build on their parenting skills may result in important reductions in adolescent problem behaviors among U.S. and international adolescents. PMID:23100999

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  14. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability. PMID:25830736

  15. Are Discrepancies in Perceptions of Psychological Control Related to Maladjustment? A Study of Adolescents and Their Parents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaban, E. Helin; Sayil, Melike; Tepe, Yeliz Kindap

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether adolescent-parent discrepancies in the perception of psychological control are associated with adolescent maladjustment. The sample consisted of 552 Turkish adolescents attending high school and their parents. Half of the adolescents had similar scores to their parents, while the remaining half thought…

  16. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. PMID:26792765

  17. Inappropriate eating behavior: a longitudinal study with female adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Cipriani, Flávia Marcele; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the inappropriate eating behaviors (IEB) of female adolescents over a one-year period. Methods: 290 adolescents aged between 11 and 14 years old participated in the three research stages (T1: first four months, T2: second four months and T3: third four months). The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to assess the IEB. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) in the three study periods. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data, adjusted for the scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Brazil Economic Classification Criteria. Results: Girls at T1 showed a higher frequency of IEB compared to T2 (p=0.001) and T3 (p=0.001). The findings also indicated higher values for BMI in T3 in relation to T1 (p=0.04). The other comparisons did not show statistically significant differences. Conclusions: IEB scores of female adolescents declined over one year. PMID:24676195

  18. Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D R; Huston, A C; Schmitt, K L; Linebarger, D L; Wright, J C

    2001-01-01

    In this Monograph, we report the follow-up of 570 adolescents who had been studied as preschoolers in one of two separate investigations of television use. The primary goal of the study was to determine the long-term relations between preschool television viewing and adolescent achievement, behavior, and attitudes. Using a telephone interview and high school transcripts, we assessed adolescent media use; grades in English, science, and math; leisure reading; creativity; aggression; participation in extracurricular activities; use of alcohol and cigarettes; and self-image. In each domain, we tested theories emphasizing the causal role of television content (e.g., social learning, information processing) as contrasted with those theories positing effects of television as a medium, irrespective of content (e.g., time displacement, pacing, interference with language). The results provided much stronger support for content-based hypotheses than for theories emphasizing television as a medium; moreover, the patterns differed for boys and girls. Viewing educational programs as preschoolers was associated with higher grades, reading more books, placing more value on achievement, greater creativity, and less aggression. These associations were more consistent for boys than for girls. By contrast, the girls who were more frequent preschool viewers of violent programs had lower grades than those who were infrequent viewers. These associations held true after taking into account family background, other categories of preschool viewing, and adolescent media use. One hypothesis accounting for the sex differences is that early experiences, such as television viewing, have greater effects when they counteract normative developmental trends and predominant sex-typed socialization influences than when they reinforce them. Adolescents in the study used both television and print media to support ongoing interests. Television content (e.g., entertainment, sports, or world events

  19. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F.; Kotler, Lisa A.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children. PMID:19030122

  20. Laboratory-Based Studies of Eating among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Haynos, Ann F; Kotler, Lisa A; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of pediatric overweight has increased dramatically over the past three decades, likely due to changes in food intake as well as physical activity. Therefore, information examining eating patterns among children and adolescents is needed to illuminate which aspects of eating behavior require modification to prevent and treat pediatric overweight. Because child self-report and parent-report of children's eating habits are often inconsistent and limited by recall and other biases, laboratory-based studies in which food intake is observed and monitored have increased in number. Such studies offer objective and controlled methods of measuring and describing eating behaviors. However, to our knowledge, no publication exists that consolidates, reviews, and provides critical commentary on the literature to date in pediatric samples. In this paper, we review the literature of studies utilizing laboratory methods to examine eating behavior in samples ranging from birth through adolescence. Our review includes all relevant articles retrieved from the PubMed, Medline and PsychInfo search engines. Specifically, we examine meal-feeding studies conducted during the various developmental stages (infancy, preschool, middle childhood, and adolescence), with a focus on methodology. Included in our review are feeding studies related to dietary regulation, exposure and preference, as well as paradigms examining disordered eating patterns and their relationship to body composition. We have structured this review so that both consistent and inconsistent findings are presented by age group, and innovative methods of assessment are discussed in more detail. Following each section, we summarize findings and draw potential conclusions from the available data. We then discuss clinical implications of the research data and suggest directions for the next generation of studies of feeding behavior in children. PMID:19030122

  1. Determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001). The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001) and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004) was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001). Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19-12.70), including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression. PMID:21516283

  2. [Genome-wide association study for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoji; Kou, Ikuyo; Scoliosis, Japan; Matsumoto, Morio; Watanabe, Kota; Ikegawa, Shiro

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis(AIS)is a polygenic disease. Genome-wide association studies(GWASs)have been performed for a lot of polygenic diseases. For AIS, we conducted GWAS and identified the first AIS locus near LBX1. After the discovery, we have extended our study by increasing the numbers of subjects and SNPs. In total, our Japanese GWAS has identified four susceptibility genes. GWASs for AIS have also been performed in the USA and China, which identified one and three susceptibility genes, respectively. Here we review GWASs in Japan and abroad and functional analysis to clarify the pathomechanism of AIS. PMID:27013625

  3. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. PMID:24591119

  4. The Dynamic Interplay among Maternal Empathy, Quality of Mother-Adolescent Relationship, and Adolescent Antisocial Behaviors: New Insights from a Six-Wave Longitudinal Multi-Informant Study

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Moscatelli, Silvia; Van der Graaff, Jolien; Keijsers, Loes; van Lier, Pol; Koot, Hans M.; Rubini, Monica; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents’ behavior is often a matter of concern, given their increased likelihood of enacting antisocial behaviors, which cause disruptions in the social order and are potentially harmful for the adolescents themselves and for the people around them. In this six-wave longitudinal study we sought to examine the interplay among maternal empathy, multiple indicators of mother-adolescent relationship quality (i.e., balanced relatedness, conflict, and support), and adolescent antisocial behaviors rated both by adolescents and their mothers. Participants for the current study were 497 Dutch adolescents (56.9% males) followed from age 13 to 18, and their mothers. A series of cross-lagged panel models revealed reciprocal associations between maternal empathy and mother-adolescent relationship quality and between mother-adolescent relationship quality and adolescent antisocial behaviors. Interestingly, we also found some indirect effects of adolescent antisocial behaviors on maternal empathy mediated by mother-adolescent relationship quality. Overall, this study further highlights a process of reciprocal influences within mother-adolescent dyads. PMID:26990191

  5. Cortical thickness in adolescent marijuana and alcohol users: A three-year prospective study from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Joanna; Squeglia, Lindsay M; Meruelo, Alejandro D; Castro, Norma; Brumback, Ty; Giedd, Jay N; Tapert, Susan F

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest marijuana impacts gray and white matter neural tissue development, however few prospective studies have determined the relationship between cortical thickness and cannabis use spanning adolescence to young adulthood. This study aimed to understand how heavy marijuana use influences cortical thickness trajectories across adolescence. Subjects were adolescents with heavy marijuana use and concomitant alcohol use (MJ+ALC, n=30) and controls (CON, n=38) with limited substance use histories. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and comprehensive substance use assessment at three independent time points. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to look at main effects of group, time, and Group × Time interactions on cortical thickness. MJ+ALC showed thicker cortical estimates across the brain (23 regions), particularly in frontal and parietal lobes (ps<.05). More cumulative marijuana use was associated with increased thickness estimates by 3-year follow-up (ps<.05). Heavy marijuana use during adolescence and into young adulthood may be associated with altered neural tissue development and interference with neuromaturation that can have neurobehavioral consequences. Continued follow-up of adolescent marijuana users will help understand ongoing neural changes that are associated with development of problematic use into adulthood, as well as potential for neural recovery with cessation of use. PMID:25953106

  6. Parental Perceptions of Their Adolescent's Weight Status: The ECHO Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Mary O.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the correlates of parental classification of adolescent weight status. Methods: Measured adolescent weight status was compared to parent self-report perception data (n 374 dyads) using multivariate analyses with interactions to identify characteristics associated with inaccurate parent classification of adolescent weight…

  7. Writing Homer, Reading Riordan: Intertextual Study in Contemporary Adolescent Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Amy

    2011-01-01

    When readers of contemporary adolescent literature are encouraged to participate in conversations about what is considered canonical literature, the literary value of adolescent reading expands past narrowly defined borders. Several recent adolescent novels provide access to the classics and may generate interest among middle school students in…

  8. [Eating disorders in early adolescence--study from the section on young adolescent nutrition in Jerusalem].

    PubMed

    Halevy, N; Halevy, A

    2000-04-01

    Young adolescents were assessed with regard to cognitive, socio-cultural and behavioral components of eating disturbances. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to 5th-8th grade pupils, 280 girls and 251 boys, to assess eating habits, body image, self-confidence, environmental-cultural influences, risk behaviors and socio-economic state. Girls scored consistently higher on all weight-control behaviors. Discontent with own body, and attitudes and behaviors associated with eating disorders, were reported by under-studied populations such as boys and younger girls. Both frequency and severity of weight-control behaviors were associated with "social age." Highly significant differences between scores of 6th and 7th graders indicate that they may be at a time of increased susceptibility. Measuring the influence of the mass media gave inconsistent results. PMID:10883175

  9. Social Media in Adolescent Health Literacy Education: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Carrie KW; Srinivasan, Divya Parthasarathy; Cheng, Brenda SS

    2015-01-01

    Background While health literacy has gained notice on a global stage, the initial focus on seeking associations with medical conditions may have overlooked its impact across generations. Adolescent health literacy, specifically in dentistry, is an underexplored area despite the significance of this formative stage on an individual’s approach to healthy lifestyles and behaviors. Objective The aim is to conduct a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of three major social media outlets - Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube - in supporting adolescents’ oral health literacy (OHL) education. Methods A random sample of 22 adolescents (aged 14-16 years) from an English-medium international school in Hong Kong provided informed consent. Sociodemographic information, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience were collected via a questionnaire. A pre- and post-test of OHL (REALD-30) was administered by two trained, calibrated examiners. Following pre-test, participants were randomly assigned to one of three social media outlets: Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube. Participants received alerts posted daily for 5 consecutive days requiring online accessing of modified and original OHL education materials. One-way ANOVA ( analysis of variance) was used to compare the mean difference between the pre- and the post-test results among the three social media. Results No associations were found between the social media allocated and participants’ sociodemographics, including English language background, social media usage, and dental experience. Of the three social media, significant differences in literacy assessment scores were evident for participants who received oral health education messages via Facebook (P=.02) and YouTube (P=.005). Conclusions Based on the results of the pilot study, Facebook and YouTube may be more efficient media outlets for OHL promotion and education among adolescent school children when compared to Twitter. Further

  10. Adolescent Tobacco and Cannabis Use: Young Adult Outcomes from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study examines the longitudinal associations between adolescent tobacco and cannabis use and young adult functioning. Methods: Data for analysis come from the Ontario Child Health Study (OCHS), a prospective study of child health, psychiatric disorder and adolescent substance use in a general population sample that began in 1983,…

  11. Lithium Treatment of Acute Mania in Adolescents: A Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafantaris, Vivian; Coletti, Daniel J.; Dicker, Robert; Padula, Gina; Pleak, Richard R.; Alvir, Jose Ma. J.; Kane, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: There are no published placebo-controlled studies of any agent in the treatment of acute mania in children or adolescents. This is the first placebo-controlled study of lithium's efficacy in the treatment of acute mania in adolescents. Method: In this discontinuation study, participants received open treatment with lithium at…

  12. Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Kashmiri & Ladakhi Adolescent Girls: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, N. A.; Puja, Javeed Ahamd; Bhat, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the Study Habits and Academic Achievement of Adolescents girls in Jammu and Kashmir. 400 sample subjects were selected randomly from two ethnic groups' viz. Kashmiri and Ladakhi. The investigators used Palsane & Sharma's study habits inventory (PSSHI) to collect data from the field. Certain…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Household Change on African American Adolescents1

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Tracey E.; Rowley, Stephanie; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Vansadia, Preeti; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of household change on adolescent development. We study household composition change and its effect on development, as measured by both internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors, in a sample of urban African American adolescents. Household change was defined based on the movement in or out of the household of one of the two most important adults adolescents named. We found 25% of adolescents reported changes in their household composition over the four years of high school. Youth who experienced change reported more internalizing symptoms and externalizing behavior than youth who did not experience change. Those reporting important people leaving their household had the greatest negative outcomes. PMID:23761941

  14. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  15. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  16. Nutrition and Lifestyle in European Adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study123

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luis A.; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  17. Parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being: a longitudinal study in a Chinese context.

    PubMed

    Shek, D T

    1999-02-01

    In this longitudinal study, the relationships between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being were examined in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents (N = 378). The results indicated that global parenting styles and specific parenting behaviors are concurrently related to hopelessness, life satisfaction, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 1 and Time 2. Longitudinal and prospective analyses (Time 1 predictors of Time 2 criterion variables) suggested that the relations between parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are bidirectional in nature. The results indicated that the strengths of association between perceived parenting characteristics and adolescent psychological well-being are stronger in female than in male adolescents. Relative to maternal parenting characteristics, paternal parenting was found to exert a stronger influence on adolescent psychological well-being. PMID:10063611

  18. Intraindividual variation among pregnant adolescents: a pilot study and conceptual discussion.

    PubMed

    Blinn-Pike, L M; Stenberg, L; Thompson, C

    1994-01-01

    There is little empirical research or theory on intraindividual variation (mood changes) during adolescence, and virtually no research on intraindividual variation during adolescent pregnancy. This pilot study illustrates the need for research on pregnant adolescents' moods and their impact on survey reliability and validity. Fourteen adolescents kept diaries for six consecutive weeks during their pregnancies. The diary entries were analyzed for affective tone, emotional lability, and contextuality. A conceptual discussion is presented that questions the psychometric properties of data gathered using one time, self-report measures with pregnant adolescents because of their fluctuating mood states. Hypotheses are generated for future testing in this area and a call is made for a new area of research on intraindividual tension during adolescent pregnancy. PMID:8036974

  19. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103

  20. Early and Later Maternal-Infant Interactions in Adolescent Mothers: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Judith M.; And Others

    This study examined differences between the positive mother-infant interactions of adolescents and those of young adult mothers, both before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and educational level. The study also investigated factors related to adolescents' early and later maternal-infant interaction patterns. Subjects were 100…

  1. Online Activities of Urban Malaysian Adolescents: Report of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…

  2. School-Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from an Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and…

  3. Effectiveness Study of a CBT-Based Adolescent Coping with Depression Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2014-01-01

    Even though the efficacy of group-based cognitive behavioural interventions is well established both for adolescents diagnosed with major depressive disorders as well as for adolescents with depressive symptoms, in order to prevent further development, there has been a call for effectiveness studies in real world settings. This study investigated…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Depressive Symptomology and Self-Concept in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montague, Marjorie; Enders, Craig; Dietz, Samantha; Dixon, Jennifer; Cavendish, Wendy Morrison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the trajectories of depressive symptomology and self-concept in adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 and to determine whether primary school teacher ratings of adaptive and maladaptive behavior predict self-reported depressive symptoms and self-concept in adolescence. This study is part of an…

  5. Prediction of Postpartum Social Support and Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Cross, Rene; Williams, Beverly; Simpson, Theresa

    2004-01-01

    Many pregnant adolescents remain in school, creating unique challenges for professionals to meet their educational and health needs. In this descriptive pilot study of pregnant adolescents (n = 26), 68% demonstrated symptoms of depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In addition, there was an…

  6. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Demographic and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    n/a; n/a

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study is a multicenter, randomized clinical trial sponsored by the NIMH. This study is designed to evaluate the short- and long-term effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with major depressive disorder: fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, their combination, and, acutely,…

  7. Neurobiology of Decision Making in Depressed Adolescents: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shad, Mujeeb U.; Bidesi, Anup P.; Chen, Li-Ann; Ernst, Monique; Rao, Uma

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite evidence that impaired reward- and risk-related behavior during adolescence can have potentially serious short- and long-term consequences, few studies have investigated the impact of depression on reward-related selection in adolescents. This study examined the relationship between reward-related behavior and prefrontal…

  8. School Transitions among Military Adolescents: A Qualitative Study of Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Sudhinaraset, May; Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The research on highly mobile military adolescents has produced mixed findings. Whereas early descriptive studies reported that adolescents experiencing multiple residential moves exhibited symptoms of what was termed "military family syndrome", more recent quantitative studies have found few negative effects after controlling for prior status.…

  9. Bupropion SR in Adolescents with Comorbid ADHD and Nicotine Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Wang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Bupropion SR has been shown to be effective for the treatment of nicotine dependence in adults. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the feasibility and preliminary tolerability of bupropion SR in adolescents with nicotine dependence. Method: Sixteen adolescents aged 12 to 19 years were enrolled in the study. Eleven of…

  10. A Factor Analytic Study of the Quay-Peterson Scale with Mentally Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A factor analytic study of the Behavior Problem Checklist was conducted on 259 mildly and moderately retarded (MR) adolescents and 306 non-handicapped adolescents. Results were generally in line with previous studies of normal learners. For MR Ss, factors included conduct problems, attention deficit disorders, socialized delinquency, personality…

  11. Brief Substance Abuse Treatment with Urban Adolescents: A Translational Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Posner, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this translational research study was to test a brief, manualized adolescent substance abuse treatment protocol's effects in an urban community setting compared to a sample in an experimental study from which the treatment was first employed. One hundred two adolescents who were treated with a manualized protocol of five sessions of…

  12. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  13. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  14. Pilot Study of Community-Based Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Adolescents with Social Phobia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Susan; Garland, E. Jane

    2005-01-01

    Objective: A pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for adolescents with social phobia, simplified both in terms of time and labor intensity from a previously studied program (Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children and Adolescents) to be more appropriate for a community outpatient psychiatric…

  15. An observational study of co-rumination in adolescent friendships.

    PubMed

    Rose, Amanda J; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Glick, Gary C; Smith, Rhiannon L; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2014-09-01

    Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' tendency to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of co-ruminative conversations. The primary goal of the present study (N = 314 adolescent friend dyads) was to identify microsocial processes that sustain and reinforce problem talk among adolescent co-ruminating friends. Results indicated that co-rumination was characterized by friends responding to each other's statements about problems with engaged statements (e.g., questions, supportive statements) that elicited even more problem talk. Results also indicated that some aspects of co-rumination (i.e., extensively talking about problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, and mutual encouragement of problem talk) were associated with positive friendship adjustment, whereas other aspects (i.e., dwelling on negative affect) were associated with internalizing problems. The present research highlights the utility of attending to microsocial processes in friends' conversations and has implications for intervention. PMID:25069053

  16. [Heidelberger study on psychoanalytic therapy of children and adolescents: methodology].

    PubMed

    Fahrig, H

    1999-11-01

    In the representative studies published so far on the outcome of analytic child psychotherapy (Dührssen 1964; Fonagy and Target 1996) no techniques of treatment were mentioned. The following paper describes in detail the technique of treatment on which the Heidelberg Study "On the Therapeutic Outcome in Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy" is based, as it developed from 1975 to 1993 at the Heidelberg Institute for Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy. Starting from Piaget's findings that the cognitive faculties of a child up to the age of 11 completely differ from those of an adult and taking into consideration the cerebral information processing and "the intellect pervadet sensory" (Schopenhauer) it is demonstrated that children take their intrapsychic and interpersonal conflicts into analytic play therapy or into role play on analogous levels. Protected by a safe distance from being aware of their conflicts they will on the analogous levels understand, work through, partially solve their conflicts and make use of it in reality without conscious recognition. The term "analogous level" is defined and the manifold possibilities of therapeutic intervention on this level are demonstrated. The efficacy of therapeutic treatment on analogous levels is discussed. PMID:10616294

  17. Inhibition control impairments in adolescent smokers: electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Junsen; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Cheng, Jiadong; Li, Yangding; Cai, Chenxi; Bi, Yanzhi; Sha, Shi; Shen, Xiaomin; Zhang, Ben; Xue, Ting; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Lu, Xiaoqi; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Smoking during adolescence may promote nicotine dependence later on in life. Therefore, it is extremely important to study the neural mechanisms of adolescent smokers. As inhibition control is emphasized in several contemporary theoretical models of addiction, in the current study, we focused on the electrophysiological evidence of inhibition control deficits in adolescent smokers. By using relatively homogenous groups of adolescent smokers (n = 18) and matched nonsmokers (n = 18), we employed event-related potentials (ERP) to investigate the N200 and P300 amplitude and latency differences during a Go/NoGo task between the adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, more NoGo response errors, reduced NoGo P300 amplitude, and longer P300 latency were observed in adolescent smokers. Correlation analysis revealed that the NoGo P300 amplitudes were significantly correlated with NoGo errors in both adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Our findings provided direct electrophysiological evidence for inhibitory control impairments in adolescent smokers. It is hoped that our results may enhance understanding of the pathology of inhibitory control in adolescent smokers. PMID:26093534

  18. Neural changes induced by antipsychotic administration in adolescence: A review of studies in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Moe, Aung Aung Kywe; Scott, James G; Burne, Thomas Hj; Eyles, Darryl W

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major remodelling processes in the brain. Use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in adolescents has increased dramatically in the last 20 years; however, our understanding of the neurobiological consequences of APD treatment on the adolescent brain has not kept the same pace and significant concerns have been raised. In this review, we examined currently available preclinical studies of the effects of APDs on the adolescent brain. In animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders, adolescent APD treatment appears to be protective against selected structural, behavioural and neurochemical phenotypes. In "neurodevelopmentally normal" adolescent animals, a range of short- and long-term alterations in behaviour and neurochemistry have been reported. In particular, the adolescent brain appears to be sensitive to long-term locomotor/reward effects of chronic atypical APDs in contrast with the outcomes in adults. Long-lasting changes in dopaminergic, glutamatergic and gamma-amino butyric acid-ergic systems induced by adolescent APD administration have been observed in the nucleus accumbens. A detailed examination of other potential target regions such as striatum, prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area is still required. Through identification of specific neural pathways targeted by adolescent APD treatment, future studies will expand the current knowledge on long-term neural outcomes which are of translational value. PMID:27413140

  19. The Longitudinal Relation between Childhood Autistic Traits and Psychosexual Problems in Early Adolescence: The Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekker, Linda P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; van der Vegt, Esther J. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with autistic traits are considered to be prone to develop psychosexual problems due to their limited social skills and insight. This study investigated the longitudinal relation between autistic traits in childhood (T1; age 10-12 years) and parent-reported psychosexual problems in early adolescence (T2; age 12-15 years). In a general…

  20. Parent Involvement in CBT Treatment of Adolescent Depression: Experiences in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Karen C.; Albano, Anne Marie

    2005-01-01

    The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) alone, fluoxetine alone, and their combination, relative to pill placebo, and the 12-week treatment effects were recently published (TADS Team, 2004). Results showed that treatment that combined CBT with…

  1. Medical device design for adolescent adherence and developmental goals: a case study of a cystic fibrosis physiotherapy device

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Alexandra R; Martin, Jennifer L; Sharples, Sarah; Crowe, John A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates the psychosocial aspects of adolescent medical device use and the impact on adolescent adherence and goals for the transitional years between child and adulthood. Patients and methods Interviews were carried out with 20 adolescents with cystic fibrosis, investigating adolescent medical device use and experiences in relation to their personal and social lives and development through the adolescent years. The qualitative dataset was thematically examined using a content analysis method. Results The results show that adolescent users of medical technologies want their independence and capabilities to be respected. Adolescent adherence to medical device use was associated with short- and long-term motivations, where older adolescents were able to comprehend the longer-term benefits of use against short-term inconvenience more acutely than younger adolescents. It was suggested that medical devices could provide a tool for communication with families and clinicians and could support adolescents as they take responsibility for managing their condition. Themes of “fitting into teenage life” and “use in the community” were associated with adolescents’ needs to form their own identity and have autonomy. Conclusion This study shows that adolescent needs regarding medical device use are complex. It provides evidence to suggest that devices designed inclusively for adolescents may lead to improved adherence and also facilitate transition through the adolescent years and achievement of adolescent goals. PMID:24669187

  2. Sexuality in Adolescents: have we Explored Enough! A Cross-sectional Study to Explore Adolescent Health in a City Slum in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Adolescent health is a relatively new focus area of India’s National health program. However, little evidence is available for the existing problems especially in adolescent slum population. A study was planned to explore the problems of adolescent pertaining to sexuality, physical health, tobacco and alcohol use in slums of Urban Meerut, and create evidence base for informed planning and decision making by the local health authorities. Aims: To study the adolescent health in the slums of Meerut City, India. Settings and Design: Entire slums of Urban Meerut, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Study was done in the slums of Meerut city, in Northern India. WHO 30 cluster sampling technique was used. Thirty slums were selected from the list of all the slums of Meerut, 210 adolescents were selected with 7 adolescents from each slum. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square test. Results: More than one third of the (36.7%) adolescents reported to have a current health problem, however only half of these sought medical help for treatment. Tweleve percent of adolescents reported history of alcohol or tobacoo use. Nine percent adolescents complained of stressful atmosphere at home. About 10% adolescents in the surveyed population gave history of sexual activity, but only one third of them had used condom during their last sexual intercourse. Conclusion: This study reflects the high morbidity and poor treatment seeking behaviour among adolescents in urban slums. A significant proportion of adolescents indulge in high risk sexual behavior, tobacco and alcohol use. There were significant gender differences with regards to treatment seeking behaviour, sexual behaviour, tobacco and alcohol use. The gender nuances must be taken into account while planning interventions for this section of population. PMID:25302222

  3. School-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression: A Benchmarking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Kaplinski, Heather; Gudmundsen, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for adolescent depression delivered in health clinics and counseling centers in four high schools. Outcomes were benchmarked to results from prior efficacy trials. Fifty adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorders were treated by eight doctoral-level psychologists who followed a…

  4. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Satisfaction: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, within a social comparison framework, the causal relationship between adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) and their sexual satisfaction. In addition, we tested which adolescents were most susceptible to a potential influence of SEIM on sexual satisfaction. Between May 2006 and…

  5. School-Related Stress and Depression in Adolescents with and without Learning Disabilities: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurer, D. Paige; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities. A total of 87 students (38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled) from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported…

  6. The Impact of E-Readers on Adolescent Students' Reading Motivation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Roberta Greer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was (a) to describe adolescents' use of the e-readers, (b) to discover if e-readers increase adolescents' intrinsic motivation to read and, if so, why, and (c) to examine the possibility of creating a learner-centered environment for students using e-readers. Five seventh and eighth grade…

  7. A Comparative Study of Adolescent Risk Assessment Instruments: Predictive and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Fred; McKinnon, Lauren; Chattha, H. K.; Meyers, Joanna R.

    2008-01-01

    Promising new adolescent risk assessment tools are being incorporated into clinical practice but currently possess limited evidence of predictive validity regarding their individual and/or combined use in risk assessments. The current study compares three structured adolescent risk instruments, Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory…

  8. Parents' Role in Adolescents' Decision on a College Major: A Weekly Diary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Julia; Kracke, Barbel; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This study examined 39 adolescents during their transition to university. In standardized weekly diaries over several weeks (M=8.13) adolescents reported on engagement in career exploration (in-breadth and in-depth self and environmental exploration), their parents' transition-related involvement (frequency of conversations, support, and…

  9. Multiple Identities and Religious Transmission: A Study among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim Adolescents and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem; Stevens, Gonneke

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between religious group identification and ethnic and national identity among Moroccan-Dutch Muslim adolescents (11-18 years) and their parents (n = 369). Compared to their parents, adolescents showed higher national identification and lower religious and ethnic group identification. However, for adolescents…

  10. "Project ALERT's" Effects on Adolescents' Prodrug Beliefs: A Replication and Extension Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heddy Kovach; Ringwalt, Chris L.; Hanley, Sean; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    This article represents a replication and extension of previous studies of the effects of "Project ALERT", a school-based substance use prevention program, on the prodrug beliefs of adolescents. Specifically, the authors' research examined "Project ALERT's" effects on adolescents' intentions to use substances in the future, beliefs about substance…

  11. Stability of Diagnosis: A 20-Year Retrospective Cohort Study of Israeli Psychiatric Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valevski, Avi; Ratzoni, Gideon; Sever, Jonathan; Apter, Alan; Zalsman, Gil; Shiloh, Roni; Weizman, Abraham; Tyano, Sam

    2001-01-01

    Outcome according to diagnosis and stability of diagnosis were investigated in a follow-back study, with a duration of 15-19 years, of 351 adolescents with various psychiatric disorders hospitalized in a closed psychiatric ward. Findings indicated that transient adolescent psychosis is associated with a relatively good prognosis and should…

  12. Pilot Study: Fluvoxamine Treatment for Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Rubinstein, Maly; Shemesh, Eyal; Miller, Orit; Farbstein, Ilana; Klein, Anat; Weizman, Abraham; Apter, Alan; Yaniv, Isaac

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and benefit of fluvoxamine for the treatment of major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders in children and adolescents with cancer. Method: The study was conducted from 2001 to 2004 at a pediatric hematology-oncology center. Fifteen children and adolescents with cancer were treated with…

  13. Swiss Adolescents' and Adults' Perceptions of Cannabis Use: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…

  14. The Study of Personal Constructs of Death and Fear of Death among Taiwanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching; Chen, Shih-Fen

    2009-01-01

    This study administered an open-ended questionnaire about death and the Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale (MODS) to explore the relationships between personal constructs about death and fears of death among Taiwanese adolescents. The sample included 329 adolescents in junior and senior high school grades 7 to 12. A coding manual was used to…

  15. Characteristics of Patients Visiting the Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic: A 26-Year Study from North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy; Sharan, Pratap; Grover, Sandeep

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the sociodemographic and clinical profile of patients, who presented to the child and adolescent psychiatric services of a tertiary care centre over a 26-year period (1980-2005). Methodology: Data were abstracted retrospectively from detailed work up files of all subjects assessed in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) Clinic…

  16. Keeping Friends Safe: A Prospective Study Examining Early Adolescent's Confidence and Support Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, L.; Chapman, R. L.; Sheehan, M.; Cunningham, L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a continued need to consider ways to prevent early adolescent engagement in a variety of harmful risk-taking behaviours for example, violence, road-related risks and alcohol use. The current prospective study examined adolescents' reports of intervening to try and stop friends' engagement in such behaviours among 207 early adolescents…

  17. Promoting Moral Maturity among Adolescents: An Ethnographic Study of the Israeli Kibbutz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snarey, John

    1987-01-01

    A longitudinal ethnographic study of adolescent moral development in an Israeli kibbutz examined the process by which urban-born adolescents, "adopted" by the kibbutz, and their kibbutz-born peers are socialized into a cohesive group. Kibbutz educators support the development of democratic self-governing peer groups that foster community…

  18. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  19. Acute Time to Response in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher; Emslie, Graham; Silva, Susan; McNulty, Steve; Walkup, John; Curry, John; Reinecke, Mark; Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Feeny, Nora; Casat, Charles; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; May, Diane; Mayes, Taryn; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the time to response for both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: Adolescents (N = 439, ages 12 to 17 years) with major depressive disorder were randomized to fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or pill placebo…

  20. Being Bicultural: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Implicitly and Explicitly Measured Multiethnic Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Amy K.; Patton, Flannery; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how ethnic identities develop in adolescence is currently limited by a reliance on self-report paper-and-pencil measures. This mixed-methods study presents a novel response time measure, the Multiethnic Identities Processing Task (MIPT), to quantify bicultural adolescents' implicit identifications with ethnic and racial identity…

  1. A Study of Self-Esteem in Adopted Non-adopted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Lynn, Betty Jane

    This study tested the hypothesis that adopted adolescents have lower self-esteem than do non-adopted adolescents. Male and female students (N=159) between the ages of 18 and 22 were conveniently sampled from college undergraduate populations. Forty-four of the participants reported adoptive status. Each participant completed the Coopersmith…

  2. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  3. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  4. Factors Associated with Recruitment and Screening in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Diane E.; Hallin, Mary J.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Puumala, Susan E.; Smith, Lynette S.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; March, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine factors associated with eligibility and randomization and consider the efficiency of recruitment methods. Method: Adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were telephone screened (N = 2,804) followed by in-person evaluation (N = 1,088) for the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study. Separate logistic regression models,…

  5. Developmental Trajectories of Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptoms: A 5-Year Prospective Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten; Muris, Peter; Van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the adolescent developmental trajectories of anxiety disorder symptoms from the general population is conducted. Results using individually focused trajectory-based analyses show that the symptoms differed from one another for various adolescent age and sex cohorts.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  7. Therapeutic Alliance in Family Therapy for Adolescents with Epilepsy: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glueckauf, Robert L.; Liss, Heidi J.; McQuillen, Diane E.; Webb, Pat M.; Dairaghi, Jeanne; Carter, Carol B.

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=19) with epilepsy and their families assigned to either issue-specific single-family counseling (IFCM) or to a multi-family psychoeducational group (PG) were studied for problem improvement through therapeutic alliance. While no overall differences were found between IFCM and PG, IFCM adolescents reported significantly stronger…

  8. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for the Development of Depression and Disordered Eating in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreiro, Fatima; Seoane, Gloria; Senra, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that females display higher levels of depressive symptoms and disordered eating than males from adolescence onward. This study examined whether different risk factors and their interaction with sex (moderator effect) prospectively predicted depressive symptoms and disordered eating in adolescents. A total of 415 female…

  9. Predictors and Moderators of Acute Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, John; Rohde, Paul; Simons, Anne; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Kratochvil, Christopher; Reinecke, Mark; Feeny, Norah; Wells, Karen; Pathak, Sanjeev; Weller, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, David; Kennard, Betsy; Robins, Michele; Ginsburg, Golda; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify predictors and moderators of response to acute treatments among depressed adolescents (N = 439) randomly assigned to fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), both fluoxetine and CBT, or clinical management with pill placebo in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS). Method: Potential baseline…

  10. The Development of Prosocial Behavior in Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study from NOLS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Nate; Sibthorp, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Learning transfer and prosocial behavior (PSB) are critical components of many outdoor education programs for adolescents. This study examined the effects of a theoretically grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of general and contextual PSB (also called expedition behavior) among adolescents enrolled on 14-day…

  11. Adolescents with Visual Impairments Who Have Best Friends: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. P.

    1997-01-01

    This pilot study examined the friendships of 22 adolescents with visual impairments. It found that the female participants and the younger adolescents (13- to 15-year olds) had more intimate friendships than did the male or older (16- to 19-years-old) participants. Few participants reported that their visual impairments affected what they did with…

  12. Adolescent Students' Reading during Writing Behaviors and Relationships with Text Quality: An Eyetracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Scott F.; Quinlan, Thomas; Harbaugh, Allen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study employed eyetracking technology to investigate adolescent students' reading processes as they composed and to explore relationships between these reading processes and text quality. A sample of 32 adolescent students composed narrative and expository texts while eyetracking equipment recorded their eye movements. Eye movements upon a…

  13. A Case Study of Korean American Adolescents' Identity Construction through Literacy Practices on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ok, Hyounjin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clearer understanding of current Korean American adolescents under the recognition that their stories are barely told in educational research. Based on the literature that has described identity as a core concept in understanding adolescence and literacy practice as a dominant tool for identity…

  14. The Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Methods and Message at 12 Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, John; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2006-01-01

    Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS) is intended to evaluate the short-term (12 weeks) and longer-term (36 weeks) effectiveness of four treatments for adolescents with DSM-IV major depressive disorder: clinical management with fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy…

  15. Access to and Use of Internet by Adolescents Who Have a Physical Disability: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathouwers, Karen; de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine access to and use of Internet by 97 physically disabled adolescents. Four main objectives were to: (1) explore frequency and nature of Internet use and the role of care givers, (2) compare these results with non-disabled adolescents, (3) explore associations between access to and use of Internet and…

  16. Maturation of EEG Power Spectra in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, Lucy; Kovacevic, Natasa; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Poulsen, Catherine; Martinu, Kristina; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fine-grained development of the EEG power spectra in early adolescence, and the extent to which it is reflected in changes in peak frequency. It also sought to determine whether sex differences in the EEG power spectra reflect differential patterns of maturation. A group of 56 adolescents were tested at age 10 years and…

  17. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  18. Adolescent Sexual Orientation and Suicide Risk: Evidence from a National Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Joyner, Kara

    2001-01-01

    Used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to investigate links between sexual orientation and suicidality. There was a strong link between adolescent sexual orientation and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This relationship was mediated by critical youth suicide risk factors (depression, hopelessness, alcohol abuse,…

  19. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  20. A Qualitative Study of Parental Modeling and Social Support for Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Marcie S.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Griffin, Sarah; Evans, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study obtained qualitative data to assess how parental role modeling and parental social support influence physical activity in underserved (minority, low-income) adolescents. Fifty-two adolescents (22 males, 30 females; ages 10-14 years, 85% African-American) participated in a focus group (6-10 per group, same gender). Focus groups were…

  1. Functioning and Quality of Life in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Rohde, Paul; Silva, Susan; Wells, Karen; Casat, Charles; Waslick, Bruce; Simons, Anne; Reinecke, Mark; Weller, Elizabeth; Kratochvil, Christopher; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Robins, Michele; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Obective: To test whether 12-week treatment of major depression improved the level of functioning, global health, and quality of life of adolescents. Method: The Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study was a multisite, randomized clinical trial of fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  2. The Rural Context of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study of Appalachian Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Rural adolescents are at risk for early initiation and problematic substance use, but to date few studies have examined the rural context of substance use. To better understand substance offers in the rural context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 118, 12- to 19-year-old adolescents (M = 13.68, SD = 1.37) from Appalachian, rural…

  3. Adolescent Gambling Behaviour and Attitudes: A Prevalence Study and Correlates in an Australian Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alun C.; Dowling, Nicki; Thomas, Shane A.; Bond, Lyndal; Patton, George

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that a range of risk factors are associated with adolescent problem gambling. Using a representative sample of 2,788 eighth grade students in Victoria, Australia, the primary aim of this study was to examine the degree to which these risk factors are associated with different levels of adolescent gambling…

  4. Emotional Dynamics in the Development of Early Adolescent Psychopathology: A One-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the role of the level and variability of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness in the development of adolescent-reported anxiety disorder symptoms, depressive symptoms, and aggressive behavior in 452 adolescents (250 male) followed from age 13 to 14. Level and between-day variability of emotions were assessed through…

  5. Educational Computer Use in Leisure Contexts: A Phenomenological Study of Adolescents' Experiences at Internet Cafes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilesiz, Sebnem

    2009-01-01

    Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…

  6. Care-seeking behaviour of adolescents with knee pain: a population-based study among 504 adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Knee pain is common during adolescence. Adolescents and their parents may think that knee pain is benign and self-limiting and therefore avoid seeking medical care. However, long-term prognosis of knee pain is not favourable and treatment seems to offer greater reductions in pain compared to a “wait-and-see” approach. The purpose of this study was to describe the determinants of care-seeking behaviour among adolescents with current knee pain and investigate what types of treatment are initiated. Methods An online questionnaire was forwarded to 2,846 adolescents aged 15–19 in four upper secondary schools. The questionnaire contained questions on age, gender, height, weight, currently painful body regions, frequency of knee pain, health-related quality of life measured by the EuroQol 5-dimensions, sports participation and if they had sought medical care. Adolescents who reported current knee pain at least monthly or more frequently were telephoned. The adolescents were asked about pain duration, onset of knee pain (traumatic or insidious) and if they were currently being treated for their knee pain. Results 504 adolescents currently reported at least monthly knee pain. 59% of these had sought medical care and 18% were currently under medical treatment . A longer pain duration and higher pain severity increased the odds of seeking medical care. Females with traumatic onset of knee pain were more likely to have sought medical care than females with insidious onset of knee pain. Females with traumatic onset of knee pain and increased pain severity were more likely to be undergoing medical treatment. The most frequently reported treatments were the combination of exercises and orthotics (68% of those undergoing medical treatment). Conclusion Females with insidious onset of knee pain do not seek medical care as often as those with traumatic onset and adolescents of both genders with insidious onset are less likely to be under medical treatment. These

  7. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  8. Mind-Body Practices and the Adolescent Brain: Clinical Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Newberg, Andrew B

    2016-01-01

    Background Mind-Body practices constitute a large and diverse group of practices that can substantially affect neurophysiology in both healthy individuals and those with various psychiatric disorders. In spite of the growing literature on the clinical and physiological effects of mind-body practices, very little is known about their impact on central nervous system (CNS) structure and function in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Method This overview highlights findings in a select group of mind-body practices including yoga postures, yoga breathing techniques and meditation practices. Results Mind-body practices offer novel therapeutic approaches for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Findings from these studies provide insights into the design and implementation of neuroimaging studies for adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Clinical neuroimaging studies will be critical in understanding how different practices affect disease pathogenesis and symptomatology in adolescents. Neuroimaging of mind-body practices on adolescents with psychiatric disorders will certainly be an open and exciting area of investigation. PMID:27347478

  9. Objectively determined habitual physical activity in South African adolescents: the PAHL study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited data on objectively determined habitual physical activity (PA) in 16-year old South African adolescents. The purpose of this study was to objectively determine the habitual PA of adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa by race and gender. Methods Adolescents (137 girls, 89 boys) from the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHL study), participated in the present study. Habitual PA was objectively recorded by means of the Actiheart® over a period of 7 days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed. Results Average MVPA for the study sample was 50.9 ± 40.3 minutes/day. Girls were significantly more active than boys expending more time in MVPA (61.13 ± 52.2 minutes/day; p < 0.05) than boys (35.0 ± 32.9 minutes/day). Although white adolescents spent more time in MVPA than black adolescents, there was no significant difference in MVPA between black (47.87 ± 39.6 minutes/day; p = 0.58) and white adolescents (59.5 ± 41.8 minutes/day). Conclusion Physical activity varies by both gender and race in adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa. Objectively determined data from our study indicates that girls habitually spend more time in MVPA per day than boys, and that white adolescents habitually engage in more MVPA than black adolescents. Seeing as the average MVPA per day for the entire study sample falls below the recommended daily average of 60minutes/day, adolescents should be the foremost targets of interventions aimed at enhancing habitual PA. PMID:24885503

  10. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity. PMID:22906183

  11. The Use of Message Framing to Promote Sexual Risk Reduction in Young Adolescents: A Pilot Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Hieftje, Kimberly D.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Duncan, Lindsay R.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have explored the application of message framing to promote health behaviors in adolescents. In this exploratory study, we examined young adolescents' selection of gain- versus loss-framed images and messages when designing an HIV-prevention intervention to promote delayed sexual initiation. Twenty-six adolescents (aged 10-14 years)…

  12. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  13. The Interplay of Early Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms, Aggression and Perceived Parental Rejection: A Four-Year Community Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; VanderValk, Inge; Akse, Joyce; Meeus, Wim

    2008-01-01

    This study of early adolescents from the general population examined the direction of effects adolescents' depressive symptoms, aggression, and perceived parental rejection have on one another in a longitudinal study. Over a four-year period, data were collected yearly from 940 early adolescents (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls) who completed…

  14. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  15. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study).

    PubMed

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ramli, Liyana; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Abdul Mohsein, Nabilla Al-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  16. Dietary Intake among Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country: An Outcome from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team Study (the MyHeARTs Study)

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Majid, Hazreen; Ying, Sim Pei; Su, Tin Tin; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Optimal nutrition is essential for healthy growth during adolescence. This study aims to investigate the baseline nutritional intake of Malaysian adolescents by gender, body mass index, and places of residence, both urban and rural. A cohort study was conducted consisting of 794 adolescents (aged 13-years) attending 15 public secondary schools from the Central (Kuala Lumpur and Selangor) and Northern (Perak) Regions of Peninsular Malaysia. Qualified dietitians conducted a 7-day historical assessment of habitual food intakes. Facilitated by flipcharts and household measurement tools, detailed information on portion sizes and meal contents were recorded. Nutritionist Pro™ Diet Analysis software was also used to analyze the dietary records.The mean age of the adolescents was 12.86 ± 0.33 y; the mean energy intake was 1659.0 ± 329.6 kcal/d. Males had significantly (P < .001) higher energy intake than females (1774.0 ± 369.8 vs 1595.2 ± 320.6 kcal/d); adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and cholesterol (P < .001) compared to adolescents in urban schools (1706.1 ± 377.7 kcal/d and 244.1 ± 100.2 mg/d, respectively). Obese adolescents in rural schools consumed more energy and sugar (1987.6 ± 374.0 kcal/d and 48.9 ± 23.0 g/d) (p-value <0.001).The dietary intake of normal weight versus obese adolescents differs by the location of their school. Thus, the implementation of a structured and tailored intervention is recommended to help minimize this nutritional inequality. PMID:27187889

  17. Estimation of genetic effects on BMI during adolescence in an ethnically diverse cohort: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Graff, M; North, K E; Mohlke, K L; Lange, L A; Luo, J; Harris, K M; Young, K L; Richardson, A S; Lange, E M; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The contribution of genetic variants to body mass index (BMI) during adolescence across multiethnic samples is largely unknown. We selected genetic loci associated with BMI or obesity in European-descent samples and examined them in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Design and Sample: In 5103 European American (EA), 1748 African American (AfA), 1304 Hispanic American (HA) and 439 Asian American (AsA) participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; ages 12–21 years, 47.5% male), we assessed the association between 41 established obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI using additive genetic models, stratified by race/ethnicity, and in a pooled meta-analysis sample. We also compared the magnitude of effect for BMI–SNP associations in EA and AfA adolescents to comparable effect estimates from 11 861 EA and AfA adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ages 45–64 years, 43.2% male). Results: Thirty-five of 41 BMI–SNP associations were directionally consistent with published studies in European populations, 18 achieved nominal significance (P<0.05; effect sizes from 0.19 to 0.71 kg m−2 increase in BMI per effect allele), while 4 (FTO, TMEM18, TFAP2B, MC4R) remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P<0.0015). Of 41 BMI–SNP associations in AfA, HA and AsA adolescents, nine, three and five, respectively, were directionally consistent and nominally significant. In the pooled meta-analysis, 36 of 41 effect estimates were directionally consistent and 21 of 36 were nominally significant. In EA adolescents, BMI effect estimates were larger (P<0.05) for variants near TMEM18, PTER and MC4R and smaller for variants near MTIF3 and NRXN3 compared with EA adults. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obesity susceptibility loci may have a comparatively stronger role during adolescence than during adulthood, with variation across race/ethnic subpopulation. PMID:23168566

  18. Adolescent pregnancy: a study of aborters and non-aborters.

    PubMed

    Kane, F J; Lachenbruch, P A

    1973-10-01

    In a June 1970 through January 1971 study of 99 single girls seeking abortion and 33 single girls choosing to complete the pregnancy, knowledge of and/or access to contraceptives were not the problem. Emotional factors such as guilt over sexual activity, acting-out disorders (rebellious attitude, hippie lifestyle, indifference toward others), or severe reactions to loss of a love relationship contributed to pregnancy in both groups. The girls who became pregnant, especially the ones who chose to complete the pregnancy, viewed pregnancy and motherhood as a source of gratification and self-esteem. Research on motivational factors in adolescent pregnancy is needed to prevent high recidivism. The majority of state abortion laws requiring phychiatric deficiencies for abortions are misguided, since the girls who chose not to abort were more psychiatrically disturbed than the ones who had abortions. PMID:4742821

  19. A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

  20. The Complex Impact of Closeness: Studying Arab Adolescents in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Michal; Essa, Rania

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between language and identity in the Israeli conflictual situation, exploring the perceptions of Israeli Arab adolescents in two different contexts: a mixed city and a homogeneous Arab town. Adolescents in the mixed city, although more exposed to Hebrew and to Jewish culture, develop a stronger sense of "Arab"…

  1. Psychosocial Discomfort and Exercise Frequency: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Tucker, Larry A.

    1994-01-01

    Examined extent to which adolescents (n=1,297) who reported different levels of physical exercise varied with respect to psychosocial discomfort. Results indicated that those who exercised infrequently suffered more from loneliness, shyness, and hopelessness than did adolescents who exercised more frequently. Controlled potential confounding…

  2. A Global Study on the Influence of Neighborhood Contextual Factors on Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Mmari, Kristin; Lantos, Hannah; Blum, Robert; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Sangowawa, Adesola; Yu, Chunyan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study uses data collected as part of the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) study to: 1) compare the perceptions of neighborhood-level factors among adolescents across five different urban sites; 2) examine the associations between factors within the physical and social environments; and 3) examine the influence of neighborhood-level factors on two different health outcomes -- violence victimization in the past 12 months and ever smoked. Methods Across five urban sites (Baltimore, New Delhi, Johannesburg, Ibadan, and Shanghai), 2320 adolescents aged 15-19 years completed a survey using ACASI technology. To recruit adolescents, each site used a respondent-driven sampling method, which consisted of selecting adolescents as ‘seeds’ to serve as the initial contacts for recruiting the entire adolescent sample. All analyses were conducted with Stata 13.1 statistical software, using complex survey design procedures. To examine associations between neighborhood-level factors, as well as among our two outcomes, violence victimization and ever smoked, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Across sites, there was great variability in how adolescents perceived their neighborhoods. Overall, adolescents from Ibadan and Shanghai held the most positive perceptions about their neighborhoods, while adolescents from Baltimore and Johannesburg held the poorest. In New Delhi, despite females having positive perceptions about their safety and sense of social cohesion, they had the highest sense of fear, as well as the poorest perceptions about their physical environment. The study also found that one of the most consistent neighborhood-level factors across sites and outcomes was witnessing community violence, which was significantly associated with smoking among adolescents in New Delhi and Johannesburg, and with violence victimization across nearly every site except Baltimore. No other neighborhood-level factor exerted

  3. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  4. The Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt): a longitudinal study of child and adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Leve, Leslie D; Harold, Gordon T; Chen, Zhiyan; Yang, Xiaodong; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Jie; Ge, Xiaojia

    2013-02-01

    Rates of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents in China are increasing and represent a major public health concern. To investigate the etiology of such problems, including the effects and interplay of genes and environment, the Beijing Twin Study (BeTwiSt) was established. A representative sample of adolescent twins in Beijing (N = 1,387 pairs of adolescent twins, mostly between the ages of 10 and 18 years) was recruited and assessed longitudinally. Data collection included the following: emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, delinquency, drinking, and smoking); family, peer, and school environments; stress; social and academic competence; cognitive traits (e.g., emotion suppression, rumination, and effortful control); and saliva samples for DNA genotyping and sequencing. The combination of quantitative and molecular genetic approaches and the timeliness of the project, with the sample residing in a region with a rapidly changing economic and cultural climate, are particular strengths of this study. Findings from this study are expected to help understanding of the etiological mechanisms underlying child and adolescent normal and abnormal development in regions undergoing substantial social, cultural, and economic changes. PMID:23177327

  5. Adolescent functioning in housing and family contexts: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Margaret C; Shuey, Elizabeth A; Leventhal, Tama

    2016-09-01

    Although adolescents begin to seek autonomy and strive to be out of the home on their own, the housing context remains the primary setting of their daily lives. Using survey and ethnographic data from (e.g., Winston et al., 1999), this study explored quantitatively and qualitatively how two salient aspects of the housing context, physical housing problems and household size, were associated with low-income adolescents' emotional and academic functioning, and how these associations were modified by mother-adolescent relationships (specifically, trust and communication) and gender. Results of cross-lagged hierarchical linear models suggest that adolescents living in homes with more housing problems had more mental health symptoms, whereas living in larger households was associated with higher achievement, but only in the context of lower quality mother-adolescent relationships. Qualitative analyses helped to interpret these results by illuminating potential pathways underlying associations observed in quantitative results. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27513286

  6. Neighborhood income inequality, social capital and emotional distress among adolescents: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vilhjalmsdottir, Arndis; Gardarsdottir, Ragna B; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2016-08-01

    Theory holds that income inequality may harm adolescent mental health by reducing social capital within neighborhood communities. However, research on this topic has been very limited. We use multilevel data on 102 public schools and 5958 adolescents in Iceland (15 and 16 years old) to examine whether income inequality within neighborhoods is associated with emotional distress in adolescents. Moreover, we test whether indicators of social capital, including social trust and embeddedness in neighborhood social networks, mediate this contextual effect. The findings show that neighborhood income inequality positively influences emotional distress of individual adolescents, net of their personal household situations and social relations. However, although the indicators of social capital negatively influence emotional distress, they do not mediate the contextual effect of neighborhood income inequality. The study illustrates the role of economic disparities in adolescent mental health, but calls for more research on the underlying social and social-psychological mechanisms. PMID:27337213

  7. Fear of Negative Evaluation Influences Eye Gaze in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    White, Susan W; Maddox, Brenna B; Panneton, Robin K

    2015-11-01

    Social anxiety is common among adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this modest-sized pilot study, we examined the relationship between social worries and gaze patterns to static social stimuli in adolescents with ASD (n = 15) and gender-matched adolescents without ASD (control; n = 18). Among cognitively unimpaired adolescents with ASD, self-reported fear of negative evaluation predicted greater gaze duration to social threat cues (i.e., faces depicting disgust and anger). By comparison, there was no relationship between self-reported social fears and gaze duration in the controls. These findings call attention to the potential import of the impact of co-occurring psychopathology such as social anxiety, and particularly fear of negative evaluation, on social attention and cognition with adolescents who have ASD. PMID:25578337

  8. The management of autonomy in adolescent diabetes: a case study of triadic medical interaction.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Mara

    2009-03-01

    The transfer of responsibility for diabetes management from parent to child has been seen as a central challenge for the clinical care of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Research is needed to better understand how clinicians, patients, and families handle the delicate balance between parental involvement and adolescent responsibility for diabetes management. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactional processes by which an adolescent's autonomy is facilitated and constrained in a clinical interaction between a nurse practitioner (NP), a 13-year-old diabetes patient, and the patient's mother. Integrating psychological perspectives on adolescent autonomy and responsibility with conversation analytic approaches to participation, I examine participation frameworks and shifting alignments to illuminate the negotiation of adolescent autonomy within a single clinical encounter. The analysis demonstrates that the patient's autonomy is emphasized while identifying problems, yet restricted when considering solutions. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:19228827

  9. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (P<0.05) less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance, running speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  10. Religious/Spiritual coping in adolescents with sickle cell disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Sian; Grossoehme, Daniel; Rosenthal, Susan L; McGrady, Meghan E; Roberts, Yvonne Humenay; Hines, Janelle; Yi, Michael S; Tsevat, Joel

    2009-05-01

    Religious/spiritual (R/S) coping has been associated with health outcomes in chronically ill adults; however, little is known about how adolescents use R/S to cope with a chronic illness such as sickle cell disease (SCD). Using a mixed method approach (quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews), we examined R/S coping, spirituality, and health-related quality of life in 48 adolescents with SCD and 42 parents of adolescents with SCD. Adolescents reported high rates of religious attendance and belief in God, prayed often, and had high levels of spirituality (eg, finding meaning/peace in their lives and deriving comfort from faith). Thirty-five percent of adolescents reported praying once or more a day for symptom management. The most common positive R/S coping strategies used by adolescents were: "Asked forgiveness for my sins" (73% of surveys) and "Sought God's love and care" (73% of surveys). Most parents used R/S coping strategies to cope with their child's illness. R/S coping was not significantly associated with HRQOL (P=NS). R/S coping, particularly prayer, was relevant for adolescents with SCD and their parents. Future studies should assess adolescents' preferences for discussing R/S in the medical setting and whether R/S coping is related to HRQOL in larger samples. PMID:19415008

  11. Adolescent-parent interactions and communication preferences regarding body weight and weight management: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study aimed to canvass the nature of adolescent-parent interactions about weight, particularly overweight, and to explore ideas of how to foster supportive discussions regarding weight, both in the home and with family doctors. Methods A market research company was contracted to recruit and conduct a series of separate focus groups with adolescents and unrelated parents of adolescents from low-middle socio-economic areas in Sydney and a regional centre, Australia. Group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed, and then a qualitative content analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine focus groups were conducted; two were held with girls (n = 13), three with boys (n = 18), and four with parents (20 mothers, 12 fathers). Adolescent and parent descriptions of weight-related interactions could be classified into three distinct approaches: indirect/cautious (i.e. focus on eating or physical activity behaviors without discussing weight specifically); direct/open (i.e. body weight was discussed); and never/rarely discussing the subject. Indirect approaches were described most frequently by both adolescents and parents and were generally preferred over direct approaches. Parents and adolescents were circumspect but generally supportive of the potential role for family doctors to monitor and discuss adolescent weight status. Conclusions These findings have implications for developing acceptable messages for adolescent and family overweight prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:20205918

  12. Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study: Evaluating Safety

    PubMed Central

    Rynn, Moira A.; Walkup, John T.; Compton, Scott N.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Shen, Sa; Kendall, Philip C.; McCracken, James; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Riddle, Mark A.; Keeton, Courtney; Waslick, Bruce; Chrisman, Allan; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs) across four treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the frequency of AEs between children and adolescents. Method Participants ages 7-17 years (M=10.7) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for one or more of the following disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n=139), sertraline (SRT, n=133), combination of both (COMB, n=140), or pill placebo (PBO, n=76). AEs were collected via a standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC). Results There were no differences between the double-blinded conditions (SRT vs. PBO) for total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when compared to CBT (p<.01) and COMB (p<.01). Moreover, those who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years) across all arms (31.7% vs. 23.1%, p<.05). Total PSC scores decreased over time with no significant differences between treatment groups. Conclusion The results support the tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities leading to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years). PMID:25721183

  13. The Impact of Host Family Relations and Length of Stay on Adolescent Identity Expression during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieve, Averil Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships between host family success, social integration, length of stay and acquisition of adolescent language by students on extended international homestay programmes. Degree of adolescent language acquisition and integration is measured by use of two hallmarks of adolescent language: markers of approximation…

  14. Model versus Military Pilot: A Mixed-Methods Study of Adolescents' Attitudes toward Women in Varied Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Sherman, Aurora M.

    2016-01-01

    Using an experimental methodology, the present study investigated adolescents' attitudes toward media images of women in non-appearance-focused (CEO and military pilot) and appearance-focused occupations (model and actor). One hundred adolescent girls and 76 adolescent boys provided ratings of likability, competence, and similarity to self after…

  15. Adolescents' Internalizing and Aggressive Behaviors and Perceptions of Parents' Psychological Control: A Panel Study Examining Direction of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Arne K.; Galambos, Nancy L.; Jansson, S. Mikael

    2007-01-01

    This panel study investigated the directionality of relations between adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychological control and adolescents' self-reported internalizing and aggressive (physical and relational) behaviors. Data were collected from a random, community sample of 530 adolescents ages 12-19 years old at time 1, and again 2…

  16. Adolescents' Use of School-Based Health Clinics for Reproductive Health Services: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Richard A.; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescents' use of school-based health clinics (SBCs) for family planning and sexually transmitted disease (STD)-related services, using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicated that 13 percent received family planning and 8.9 percent received STD-related services from SBCs. Factors affecting the…

  17. Adolescents coping with mood disorder: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meadus, R J

    2007-04-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the phenomenon of coping as experienced by adolescents with a mood disorder. Mood disorders among children and adolescents are more persistent than previously thought and have numerous negative associated features, including further episodes of depression, impaired social, academic and vocational relationships, use of alcohol and other drugs, and an increased risk of suicide. Current literature offered little awareness of how adolescents cope with a mood disorder, as well as their perspective of how such an illness impacts their lives. A substantive theory regarding the process of coping for adolescents with a mood disorder was generated from the data collected from one male and eight female adolescents. Using grounded theory coding procedures, a four-phase coping theory identified by the categories feeling different, cutting off connections, facing the challenge/reconnecting, and learning from the experience was developed. The core category identified in this research was An Unplanned Journey: Coping Through Connections. Implications identified for nursing practice, research and education included greater attention on the prevention of adolescent mood disorder, and the education of adolescents about the development and enhancement of healthy coping skills. PMID:17352785

  18. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back) and nutrition (specific nutrients, broad food groups, diet quality and dietary pattern) of 1424 male and female adolescents at 14 years of age, in Western Australia. Results Back or neck pain were experienced by around half of the adolescents, with females more likely to experience spinal pain. Nutrition differed between sexes and deviated from optimal intakes. Vitamin B12, eggs, cereals and meat consumption were related to spinal pain in sex specific multivariate analyses including primary carer education level and adolescent waist girth and smoking. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that certain aspects of diet may have an association with spinal pain in adolescence. PMID:20587071

  19. Risks and Opportunities: Synthesis of Studies on Adolescence. Forum on Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipke, Michele D., Ed.

    This report constitutes one of the first activities of the Forum on Adolescence, a cross-cutting activity of the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council of the National Academies. Established under the auspices of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, the forum's overarching mission is to synthesize, analyze, and evaluate…

  20. Multilevel Predictors of Smoking Initiation among Adolescents: Findings from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kelvin; Bernat, Debra H.; Klein, Elizabeth G.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Forster, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand how factors at multiple levels of influence impact adolescent smoking initiation. Method Data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort, a population-based cohort, were analyzed. Adolescents were recruited from randomly selected geopolitical units (GPUs) in Minnesota at ages 12 to 13 (n=1,953), and were surveyed every six months (2000–2006) until 18. The association between baseline social factors and smoking initiation was analyzed using logistic regression. Linear regression was used to analyze predictors and age of initiation among smokers (n=603). Results Higher proportion of 15–16 year-olds who smoke at the area-level (GPU) was associated with younger initiation (15.47 vs 15.87, p<.05). Higher proportion of the population employed and higher median household income were associated with older initiation (15.90 vs. 15.56 p<.05). Parent education, living with parents or siblings who smoke, living in homes that allow smoking, and having friends who smoke at baseline were associated with smoking initiation or younger initiation (p<.05). Participants whose parents had less than a high school education were 1.6 times more likely than those with college educated parents to have smoked more than a whole cigarette (CI=1.06, 2.26). Conclusion Factors at multiple levels of influence affect adolescent smoking initiation. Smoking by older age peers and lower SES predicts earlier smoking. PMID:22245269

  1. iPeer2Peer program: a pilot feasibility study in adolescents with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Ahola Kohut, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; Ruskin, Danielle; Forgeron, Paula; Harris, Lauren; van Wyk, Margaret; Luca, Stephanie; Campbell, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Adolescents with chronic pain are often socially isolated, having never met others with chronic pain, and often feel misunderstood by healthy peers. Adolescence is a sensitive period for developing one's sense of self and autonomy, which often occurs in the context of peer relationships. This developmental process is disrupted in adolescents when their chronic pain interferes with their social interactions. Peer mentoring is proposed as a developmentally timely intervention. The aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the iPeer2Peer program. The iPeer2Peer program is a tailored peer mentorship program that provides modeling and reinforcement by peers (trained young adults with chronic pain aged 18-25 years who have learned to successfully manage their pain). This program aimed to enhance self-management of chronic pain in adolescents through 10 Skype video calls over the course of 8 weeks. A pilot randomized controlled trial design using waitlist controls was used in an adolescent chronic pain sample. Twenty-eight adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.6 years (93% female) completed the trial (intervention: n = 12; control n = 16). Three adolescents completed the intervention after completing their participation in the control arm. The iPeer2Peer program was feasible and acceptable, provided the adolescents were given more time to complete all 10 calls. When compared with controls, adolescents who completed the iPeer2Peer program had significant improvement in self-management skills and their coping efforts were more successful. The iPeer2Peer program is a promising peer mentoring intervention that complements standard care for adolescents with chronic pain. PMID:26808145

  2. Deaths due to hanging among adolescents - A 10-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Bhosle, S H; Zanjad, N P; Dake, M D; Godbole, H V

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze various factors associated with death due to hanging among adolescents and to identify the areas of intervention for preventing such deaths. A retrospective study was carried out on 51 cases of adolescent deaths due to hanging, the autopsies of which were conducted by the Department of Forensic Medicine, Dr Shankarrao Chavan Government Medical College, Nanded, Maharashtra State (India), during the period between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010. In the present study, death by hanging among the adolescent age group was most commonly suicidal (96.08%) in nature, and only two (3.92%) cases of deaths due to accidental hanging were observed. Of the total number of suicidal deaths due to hanging among adolescents, the majority (80.39%) were among the older adolescent (15-19 years) age group. Rope and clothing items were commonly used ligature materials for committing suicide by hanging. Females outnumbered male victims (M:F ratio 1:1.13) among adolescents, contrary to the male preponderance observed among victims of the older age group (M:F ratio 1:0.44). Most of the suicidal deaths due to hanging (83.67%) among adolescents were observed at the victims' home. The predisposing and precipitating factors observed were domestic strife, examination-related stress, and physical and psychological illness. PMID:25572082

  3. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  4. Adolescents' perceptions of health from disadvantaged urban communities: findings from the WAVE study.

    PubMed

    Mmari, Kristin; Blum, Robert; Sonenstein, Freya; Marshall, Beth; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Venables, Emily; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ershang; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Sangowawa, Adesola

    2014-03-01

    The Well-being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments (WAVE) is a global study of young people living in disadvantaged urban communities from Baltimore, MD, Johannesburg, South Africa, Shanghai, China, New Delhi, India and Ibadan, Nigeria. WAVE was launched in the summer of 2011 to: 1) explore adolescents' perceived health and their top health challenges; and 2) describe the factors that adolescents perceive to be related to their health and health care utilization. Researchers in each site conducted in-depth interviews among adolescents; community mapping and focus groups among adolescents; a Photovoice methodology, in which adolescents were trained in photography and took photos of the meaning of 'health' in their communities; and key informant interviews among adults who work with young people. A total 529 participants from across the sites were included in the analysis. Findings from the study showed that gender played a large role with regards to what adolescents considered as their top health challenges. Among females, sexual and reproductive health problems were primary health challenges, whereas among males, tobacco, drug, and alcohol consumption was of highest concern, which often resulted into acts of violence. Personal safety was also a top concern among males and females from Baltimore and Johannesburg, and among females in New Delhi and Ibadan. Factors perceived to influence health the most were the physical environment, which was characterized by inadequate sanitation and over-crowded buildings, and the social environment, which varied in influence by gender and site. Regardless of the study site, adolescents did not consider physical health as a top priority and very few felt the need to seek health care services. This study highlights the need to focus on underlying structural and social factors for promoting health and well-being among adolescents in disadvantaged urban environments. PMID:24581070

  5. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments

    PubMed Central

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs. PMID:25364088

  6. Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Chang, Yi-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Fetzer, Susan; Wang, Jung-Der

    2015-04-01

    Reported cases of child maltreatment are increasing in Taiwan. Yet, comprehensive epidemiological characteristics of adolescents' exposure over the wide spectrum of violence are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and magnitude of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents. A population-based study was conducted with 5,276 adolescents aged 12-18 from 35 schools in 17 cities and townships to determine the prevalence of five forms of child maltreatment in Taiwan. A total of 5,236 adolescents completed anonymous, self-report, structured questionnaires. Most adolescents (91%, n=4,788) experienced at least one form of maltreatment with 83% (n=4,347) exposed during the previous year. Violence exposure was the most common type of child maltreatment experienced, followed by psychological abuse, physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse. Adolescents reported an average of 7.4 (SD=5.87) victimizations over their lifetime and 4.8 (SD=4.82) victimizations during the past year. Females reported a higher rate of neglect, while males reported a higher rate of sexual abuse. Most of the sexual abuse perpetrators were known by their victims. Adolescents' victimization and polyvictimization from child maltreatment in Taiwan deserves a review and modification of national control and prevention policies. PMID:25477233

  7. Adolescents from low-income sectors: the challenge of studying in a time of digital environments.

    PubMed

    Linne, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    This paper is about practices and perceptions regarding the study of adolescents from low-income sectors in the City of Buenos Aires. The methodology consisted of 26 in-depth interviews with low-income adolescents and participant observations in twenty cybercafés of the South Area of the City of Buenos Aires. Among the findings, these students highlight that ICTs allow them to handle information in a more agile and entertaining way, more consistent with their daily uses. However, doing research on school content is what students do the least, since adolescents use technology mainly for communicative, social and recreational ends. These adolescents recognise some disadvantages in using ICTs to study: the unreliable information, the difficulty to distinguish which topics related to school content are more appropriate and the disruptive and continuous use of social networks. In this sense, these adolescents tend to have more problems in benefitting from ICTs for academic purposes than other adolescents. While communication and recreational skills tend to be similar, the evaluation of different sources of information and the skill to make complex searches online are usually more strongly developed in adolescents of middle and high-income households. In conclusion, we think it is necessary to take these problems into consideration in the social sciences research of the area and besides when implementing digital literacy programs. PMID:25364088

  8. Chronic pain in adolescence and internalizing mental health disorders: a nationally representative study.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Groenewald, Cornelius B; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Gebert, J Thomas; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain in childhood and adolescence has been shown to heighten the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders in specific samples in adulthood; however, little is known about the association between a wider variety of chronic pains and internalizing mental health disorders. Using nationally representative data, the objectives of this study were to establish prevalence rates of internalizing mental health disorders (anxiety and depressive disorders) among cohorts with or without adolescent chronic pain, and to examine whether chronic pain in adolescence is associated with lifetime history of internalizing mental health disorders reported in adulthood. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) was used (N = 14,790). Individuals who had chronic pain in adolescence subsequently reported higher rates of lifetime anxiety disorders (21.1% vs 12.4%) and depressive disorders (24.5% vs 14.1%) in adulthood as compared with individuals without a history of adolescent chronic pain. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that chronic pain in adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime history of anxiety disorders (odds ratio: 1.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.63, P = 0.005) and depressive disorders (odds ratio: 1.38; confidence interval: 1.16-1.64, P < 0.001) reported in adulthood. Future research is needed to examine neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying these comorbidities. PMID:26901806

  9. Longitudinal Study of Daily Hassles in Adolescents in Arab Muslim Immigrant Families

    PubMed Central

    Templin, Thomas N.; Hough, Edythe S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated which daily hassles (i.e., Parent, School, Peer, Neighborhood, and Resource) were perceived by Arab Muslim immigrant adolescents as most stressful over a three-year time period and according to child's gender and mother's immigration status (i.e., refugee or non refugee). Data were collected at three time points during adolescence and analyzed using doubly multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) with linear and quadratic trends. School and Parent hassles were greater than other hassles at every time point. Main effects of time, immigration status, and father's employment, but not child's gender, were statistically significant. School and Parent hassles increased while Peer and Resource hassles decreased over time. Adolescents with refugee mothers reported greater School and Neighborhood and fewer Parent hassles than those with non refugee mothers. Adolescents with unemployed fathers reported significantly more School and Neighborhood hassles. Study findings identify two at risk subgroups: those adolescents with refugee mothers and/or those adolescents with unemployed fathers; and pinpoint problematic daily hassles. Additional research is needed to explore vicarious trauma effects as a potential underlying reason for the pattern of daily hassles noted in adolescents with refugee mothers. PMID:23430463

  10. The Link between Mother and Adolescent Substance Use: Intergenerational Findings from the British Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L; Greene, Kaylin M; Morgan, Nicole R; Schulenberg, John E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify mother, family, and individual factors associated with adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use using mother and child self-reports. Adolescents aged 12-15 (N=276) and their mothers who were participants in the British Cohort Study (BCS; born 1970) were both surveyed when mothers were 34 years old. Predictors included mother's substance use as well as characteristics of the child (gender, age, conduct problems) and family (social class, two-parent family, parent-adolescent conflict). Outcome variables were adolescent alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Child characteristics were predictive, with older children more likely to engage in all behaviors. After controlling for other predictors, mothers' current drinking frequency and problems (i.e., CAGE 1+) predicted adolescent ever and sometimes/regular drinking; mothers' marijuana use was a marginally significant predictor of adolescent marijuana use. Results suggest that mothers' substance use is an important component of adolescent use, even after accounting for characteristics of the child and the intergenerational family context. PMID:24489608

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and severe disorder that typically onsets in adolescence, but often goes unrecognized. Despite BDD's severity and early onset, treatment outcome research on adolescent BDD is scarce. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold-standard psychosocial treatment for BDD in adults and has shown promise in adolescents. The current study examined the development and testing of a new CBT for adolescents with BDD. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 13 adolescents (mean age 15.23years, range: 13-17) with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in 12-22 weekly individual sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. At posttreatment, BDD and related symptoms (e.g., insight, mood) were significantly improved. Scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD indicated a 50% (intent-to-treat) and 68% (completer) improvement in BDD symptoms. Seventy-five percent of adolescents who started treatment and 100% of completers were considered treatment responders. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. High patient satisfaction ratings and patient feedback indicated that treatment was acceptable. This represents the largest study of a psychosocial treatment for adolescent BDD. PMID:26956653

  12. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  13. Agreement between parents and adolescents on emotional and behavioral problems and its associated factors among Chinese school adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies about informant agreements on adolescents’ emotional and behavioral problems have been conducted in Western countries, but this subject has not been well researched in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of parent–adolescent agreement on adolescents’ problems and its associated factors among school-age adolescents in China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2010. A questionnaire including the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Youth Self-Report (YSR), the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the characteristics of the child (age and gender), parents (parent–adolescent relationship and parental expectations) and family (family structure, negative life events) was distributed to our study population. A total of 2,199 Chinese adolescents (aged 11–18) from 15 public schools in Liaoning Province, who completed the questionnaire, became our final participants. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to assess parent–adolescent agreement, and linear regression analysis was used to explore the associated factors of parent–adolescent discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems. Results The parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was high (mean r = 0.6). The scores of YSR were higher than those of CBCL. Factors that increased informant discrepancies on emotional and behavioral problems were boys, older age, the experience of negative life events, low levels of cohesion and organization, and high levels of conflict in the family. Conclusions A high level of parent–adolescent agreement on emotional and behavioral problems was found. Adolescents reported more problems than their parents did. Family environment is an important factor to be considered when interpreting informant discrepancies on the mental health of Chinese adolescents. PMID:24735388

  14. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  15. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies.

    PubMed

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to changes in brain activity when individuals perform divergent thinking tasks. The findings point to an important role of the prefrontal cortex for generating novelty and complexity. Finally, the potentials and limitations of training creativity in adolescence are described. The findings are interpreted vis-à-vis the dynamic changes that occur during adolescence in brain development and behavioral control processes. PMID:26994726

  16. Cognitive Risk and Protective Factors for Suicidal Ideation: A Two Year Longitudinal Study in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Burke, Taylor A; Connolly, Samantha L; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with heightened risk for both the onset and escalation of suicidal ideation (SI). Given that SI is a potent predictor of suicidal behavior, it is important to develop models of vulnerability for and protection against SI, particularly among young adolescents. This study examined the relative impact of several cognitive vulnerabilities, as well as protective factors, for SI among young adolescents over a 2-year interval encompassing their transition to mid-adolescence. At baseline, 324 adolescents (M = 12.39 years; SD = 0.63; 52.5 % female) completed measures of depressive symptoms, self-referent information processing biases, negative inferential style, and responses to negative affect. Further, the adolescents and their mothers were administered a diagnostic interview to assess current and past depressive disorders and SI. Over follow-up, adolescents and their mothers were administered the diagnostic interview every 12 months and adolescents completed a self-report measure inquiring about SI every 6 months to assess interviewer-rated and self-reported SI. Logistic regressions indicated that preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent (only among girls), rumination in response to negative affect, and a negative inferential style prospectively predicted SI. Additionally, young adolescents' tendency to respond to negative affect with distraction and problem-solving buffered against their risk for exhibiting SI. When these factors were entered simultaneously, preferential endorsement of negative adjectives as self-referent and the use of distraction and problem-solving skills remained the only significant prospective predictors of SI. No previous studies have examined these variables as predictors of SI, thereby highlighting their potential utility in improving the predictive validity of extant models of suicide risk and resilience. PMID:26597963

  17. Qualitative Iranian study of parents' roles in adolescent girls' physical activity habit development.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyyed Vahide; Anoosheh, Monireh; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Ehsani, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Parents are likely to be key influences on children's physical activity behaviors, although it is not clear how. This study was designed to explore parents' roles in Iranian adolescent girls' physical activity habit development. A qualitative study was conducted by means of semistructured one-to-one interviews with 25 participants, including 16 adolescent girls (10-19 years of age), seven mothers, and two fathers. Content analysis was applied. Two main themes emerged as parental role in adolescent girls' physical activity behavior: developing interest in physical activity (making children familiar with physical activity, discovering talents, and role modeling) and providing support to adolescents for physical activity (material and immaterial). This study provided a better understanding of how Iranian parents influence their children's physical activity behavior. This will enable nurses to design more effective family-based interventions. PMID:23302074

  18. Childhood Adversity, Timing of Puberty and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Strong, Carol; Tsai, Meng-Che; Lin, Chung-Ying; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity contributes to depressive symptoms in adolescence, but far less research has focused on an Asian context. This study aims to identify the long-term impact of childhood adversity on adolescents' depressive symptoms and whether this association is moderated by gender and early pubertal timing in Taiwan. Data in this study are from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a longitudinal study that surveyed and followed 4261 junior high school students in year 2001 (at age 13) and three more waves (at ages 15, 17, and 18). Conditional latent growth model results show that having adversity is positively associated with the intercept, but negatively associated with the linear trend of changes of depressive symptoms in adolescence (p < .01). Early pubertal timing is only positively associated with baseline levels for boys (p < .01). Both adversity and early pubertal timing contributes to depressive symptoms when adolescents start junior high school. PMID:26206735

  19. Behavioral predictors of attrition in adolescents participating in a multidisciplinary obesity treatment program: EVASYON study.

    PubMed

    De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment. PMID:26381348

  20. Academic performance, educational aspiration and birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a national longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal educational attainment has been associated with birth outcomes among adult mothers. However, limited research explores whether academic performance and educational aspiration influence birth outcomes among adolescent mothers. Methods Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were used. Adolescent girls whose first pregnancy occurred after Wave I, during their adolescence, and ended with a singleton live birth were included. Adolescents’ grade point average (GPA), experience of ever skipping a grade and ever repeating a grade, and their aspiration to attend college were examined as predictors of birth outcomes (birthweight and gestational age; n = 763). Univariate statistics, bivariate analyses and multivariable models were run stratified on race using survey procedures. Results Among Black adolescents, those who ever skipped a grade had higher offspring’s birthweight. Among non-Black adolescents, ever skipping a grade and higher educational aspiration were associated with higher offspring’s birthweight; ever skipping a grade was also associated with higher gestational age. GPA was not statistically significantly associated with either birth outcome. The addition of smoking during pregnancy and prenatal care visit into the multivariable models did not change these associations. Conclusions Some indicators of higher academic performance and aspiration are associated with better birth outcomes among adolescents. Investing in improving educational opportunities may improve birth outcomes among teenage mothers. PMID:24422664

  1. Quality of life of Portuguese and Spanish adolescents. A comparative study between natives and immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Cristina; Hernando, Ángel; Lemos, Ida; Ayala-Nunes, Lara; Oliva, Cristina Romero; Coronado, Cecilia Montilla

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse differences in quality of life (QOL) between Spanish and Portuguese immigrant and native adolescents. In total, 475 native and immigrant adolescents (52% boys) from Algarve (Portugal) and Huelva (Spain), aged between 12 and 17 years old, were assessed with the KIDSCREEN-52. QOL dimensions were not related to most academic variables, with the exception of number of school failures, Financial Resources and Social Support from Peers. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to examine statistical differences in adolescents QOL. Age differences in QOL levels were not found. Girls reported worse QOL levels on Physical Wellbeing than boys (F = 10.32, p = .001, η2 =.02). Immigrant Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Mood (F = 17.57, p = .000, η2 =.11), and native Portuguese adolescents scored higher on Social Acceptance (F = 4.87, p = .002, η2=.033). Immigrant and native adolescents had similar levels of perceived QOL. Overall, it seems that in both countries, the living contexts for immigrant and native adolescents are fairly homogeneous. PMID:27076012

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06–4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43–6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  3. Motivations and concerns about adolescent tuberculosis vaccine trial participation in rural Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Buregyeya, Esther; Kulane, Asli; Kiguli, Juliet; Musoke, Phillipa; Mayanja, Harriet; Mitchell, Ellen Maeve Hanlon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research is being carried out to develop and test new potentially more effective tuberculosis vaccines. Among the vaccines being developed are those that target adolescents. This study explored the stakeholders’ perceptions about adolescent participation in a hypothetical tuberculosis vaccine trial in Ugandan adolescents. Methods Focus group discussions with adolescents, parents of infants and adolescents, and key informant interviews with community leaders and traditional healers were conducted. Results The majority of the respondents expressed potential willingness to allow their children participate in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. Main motivations for potential participation would be being able to learn about health-related issues. Hesitations included the notion that trial participation would distract the youths from their studies, fear of possible side effects of an investigational product, and potential for being sexually exploited by researchers. In addition, bad experiences from participation in previous research and doubts about the importance of research were mentioned. Suggested ways to motivate participation included: improved clarity on study purpose, risks, benefits and better scheduling of study procedures to minimize disruption to participants’ academic schedules. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that the community is open to potential participation of adolescents in a tuberculosis vaccine trial. However, there is a need to communicate more effectively with the community about the purpose of the trial and its effects, including safety data, in a low-literacy, readily understood format. This raises a challenge to researchers, who cannot know all the potential effects of a trial product before it is tested. PMID:26834929

  4. Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Pregnant Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Arroyo, Dalton; Hidalgo, Luis; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background. Data regarding depression and resilience among adolescents is still lacking. Objective. To assess depressive symptoms and resilience among pregnant adolescents. Method. Depressive symptoms and resilience were assessed using two validated inventories, the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD-10) and the 14-item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (RS), respectively. A case-control approach was used to compare differences between adolescents and adults. Results. A total of 302 pregnant women were enrolled in the study, 151 assigned to each group. Overall, 56.6% of gravids presented total CESD-10 scores 10 or more indicating depressed mood. Despite this, total CESD-10 scores and depressed mood rate did not differ among studied groups. Adolescents did however display lower resilience reflected by lower total RS scores and a higher rate of scores below the calculated median (P < .05). Logistic regression analysis could not establish any risk factor for depressed mood among studied subjects; however, having an adolescent partner (OR, 2.0 CI 95% 1.06-4.0, P = .03) and a preterm delivery (OR, 3.0 CI 95% 1.43-6.55, P = .004) related to a higher risk for lower resilience. Conclusion. In light of the findings of the present study, programs oriented at giving adolescents support before, during, and after pregnancy should be encouraged. PMID:21461335

  5. Self-Referential Processing in Depressed Adolescents: A High-Density ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Randy P.; Stanton, Colin H.; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the alarming increase in the prevalence of depression during adolescence, particularly among female adolescents, the pathophysiology of depression in adolescents remains largely unknown. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide an ideal approach to investigate cognitive-affective processes associated with depression in adolescents, especially in the context of negative self-referential processing biases. In this study, healthy (n = 30) and depressed (n = 22) female adolescents completed a self-referential encoding task while ERP data were recorded. To examine cognitive-affective processes associated with self-referential processing, P1, P2, and late positive potential (LPP) responses to negative and positive words were investigated, and intracortical sources of scalp effects were probed using Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Additionally, we tested whether key cognitive processes (e.g., maladaptive self-view, self-criticism) previously implicated in depression related to ERP components. Relative to healthy female subjects, depressed females endorsed more negative and fewer positive words, and free recalled and recognized fewer positive words. With respect to ERPs, compared to healthy female adolescents, depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words, which was associated with a more maladaptive self-view and self-criticism. In both early and late LPP responses, depressed females showed greater activity following negative versus positive words, whereas healthy females demonstrated the opposite pattern. For both P1 and LPP, LORETA revealed reduced inferior frontal gyrus activity in response to negative words in depressed versus healthy female adolescents. Collectively, these findings suggest that the P1 and LPP reflect biased self-referential processing in female adolescents with depression. Potential treatment implications are discussed. PMID:25643205

  6. The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS).

    PubMed

    Anckarsäter, Henrik; Lundström, Sebastian; Kollberg, Linnea; Kerekes, Nora; Palm, Camilla; Carlström, Eva; Långström, Niklas; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Halldner, Linda; Bölte, Sven; Gillberg, Christopher; Gumpert, Clara; Råstam, Maria; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing longitudinal twin study targeting all twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Since 2004, parents of twins are interviewed regarding the children's somatic and mental health and social environment in connection with their 9th or 12th birthdays (CATSS-9/12). By January 2010, 8,610 parental interviews concerning 17,220 twins had been completed, with an overall response rate of 80%. At age 15 (CATSS-15) and 18 (CATSS-18), twins and parents complete questionnaires that, in addition to assessments of somatic and mental health, include measures of personality development and psychosocial adaptation. Twin pairs in CATSS-9/12 with one or both twins screening positive for autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorders, developmental coordination disorder, learning disorders, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and/or eating problems have been followed with in-depth questionnaires on family, social environment and personality, and subsequently by clinical assessments at age 15 together with randomly selected population controls, including 195 clinically assessed twin pairs from the first 2 year cohorts (CATSS-15/DOGSS). This article describes the cohorts and study groups, data collection, and measures used. Prevalences, distributions, heritability estimates, ages at onset, and sex differences of mental health problems in the CATSS-9/12, that were analyzed and found to be overall comparable to those of other clinical and epidemiological studies. The CATSS study has the potential of answering important questions on the etiology of childhood mental health problems and their role in the development of later adjustment problems. PMID:22506305

  7. Text message reminders to improve outpatient therapy attendance among adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Branson, Christopher E; Clemmey, Philip; Mukherjee, Preetika

    2013-08-01

    High rates of missed appointments and attrition are common barriers to treatment for adolescents attending outpatient mental health treatment. Such figures indicate a need for innovative strategies to engage youth in treatment. The current quasi-experimental pilot study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of text message (TM) appointment reminders to improve attendance in a sample of 48 adolescents attending outpatient therapy. The sample was approximately 46% Latino and 40% African American with an equal number of males and females. Adolescents receiving TM reminders demonstrated significantly higher rates of attendance (65%) than a historical control group (49%) (p < .05). Participants in the TM group received reminders for the majority (88%) of their scheduled sessions with only 4% of reminders not received due to phone-related problems. Additionally, TM reminders received high patient satisfaction ratings. Findings from the present study suggest that TM reminders may be a cost-effective and developmentally appropriate strategy for engaging adolescents in treatment. PMID:23937089

  8. Coping strategies and depression in Puerto Rican adolescents: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Colomba, M V; Santiago, E S; Rosselló, J

    1999-02-01

    The use of inadequate coping strategies in stressful situations results in the development of depression in adolescents. This study identified coping strategies used by Puerto Rican adolescents and evaluated the relationship between coping and depression. Fifty-one adolescents participated in the study. Results indicated that the most frequently used coping strategy was developing positive perceptions about life situations. Significant differences were observed according to the severity of depressive symptoms. Investing in family relationships and developing positive perceptions about life situations seemed to reduce depression. Furthermore, the strategies of investing in family relationships and relieving tension through diversion were the variables with more predictive value for depression. The importance of exploring coping responses within the cultural context of the adolescent is discussed. PMID:15603240

  9. Effects of parenting quality on adolescents' personality resemblance to their parents. The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Langenhof, M Rohaa; Komdeur, Jan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the development of resemblance between 741 adolescents and their biological parents, across six NEO-PI-R personality traits known to be important in psychological problems: anger-hostility, impulsiveness, vulnerability, assertiveness, excitement-seeking, and self-discipline. We modelled the association between perceived parental warmth and rejection at age eleven and personality resemblance to parents at about age sixteen. Parenting experienced during early adolescence was related to the degree and direction in which adolescents resembled their parents five years later in life. Rejection, especially from fathers, significantly predicted a smaller resemblance to both the parents. Girls were more strongly affected by parental quality than boys, and there was some indication that adolescents responded in opposite ways to parenting from mothers and fathers. This study is a first step in uncovering the complex interplay between parenting, gender, and the current generation's ability to develop personality traits independent from the previous generation. PMID:27400032

  10. Fatherhood and the meaning of children: an ethnographic study among Puerto Rican partners of adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This study of the male partners of adolescent mothers was conducted in a small urban city in the northeastern United States where adolescent birth rates remain high despite declining national trends. Despite stated opposition to adolescent birth, one third of the fathers interviewed planned their pregnancies with their partners for more than a year. Because poverty and violence were part of life in the community of these fathers, the experience of having children initiated self-reflection. Men did not value absence from their children's lives, and they recognized their own agency in constructing a fatherless reality for their children. Thus, having children gave men an opportunity to consider alternative possibilities for their lives. This study suggests that despite widespread efforts to prevent teenage pregnancy, children born to adolescent mothers provide the fathers of these children with an affirming and valued component of self-identity. PMID:15010664

  11. Hodgkin's lymphoma in adolescents treated with adult protocols: a report from the German Hodgkin study group.

    PubMed

    Eichenauer, Dennis A; Bredenfeld, Henning; Haverkamp, Heinz; Müller, Horst; Franklin, Jeremy; Fuchs, Michael; Borchmann, Peter; Müller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Eich, Hans T; Müller, Rolf-Peter; Diehl, Volker; Engert, Andreas

    2009-12-20

    PURPOSE The standard of care for adolescent patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is undefined, particularly the choice between pediatric and adult protocols. Thus, we compared risk factors and outcome of adolescents and young adults treated within study protocols of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG). PATIENTS AND METHODS Three thousand seven hundred eighty-five patients treated within the GHSG studies HD4 to HD9 were analyzed; 557 patients were adolescents age 15 to 20 years, and 3,228 patients were young adults age 21 to 45 years. Results Large mediastinal mass and involvement of three or more lymph node areas were more frequent in adolescents (P < .001). The incidence of other risk factors did not differ significantly between age groups. With a median observation time of 81 months for freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and 85 months for overall survival (OS), log-rank test showed no significant differences between age groups regarding FFTF (P = .305) and a superior OS (P = .008) for adolescents. Six-year estimates for FFTF and OS were 80% and 94%, respectively, for adolescents and 80% and 91%, respectively, for young adults. After adjustment for other predictive factors, Cox regression analysis revealed age as a significant predictor for OS (P = .004), with a higher mortality risk for young adults. Secondary malignancies were more common in young adults (P = .037). CONCLUSION Outcome of adolescent and young adult patients treated within GHSG study protocols is comparable. These data suggest that adult treatment protocols exhibit a safe and effective treatment option for adolescent patients with HL. However, longer follow-up, including assessment of late toxicity, is necessary for final conclusions. PMID:19901121

  12. An adolescent vampire cult in rural America: clinical issues and case study.

    PubMed

    Miller, T W; Veltkamp, L J; Kraus, R F; Lane, T; Heister, T

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of cult related activities in rural America are examined. Cults and their attraction to adolescents are addressed as are methods of cult indoctrination and a profile of cult members and their leader. Clinical management along with a rationale for the attraction of some adolescents to cults are discussed. A case study of a vampire cult and the psychopathology identified in the leader of the cult are provided. Import for clinicians is offered. PMID:10080963

  13. A Double-Blind Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Quetiapine and Divalproex for Adolescent Mania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbello, Melissa P.; Kowatch, Robert A.; Adler, Caleb M.; Stanford, Kevin E.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Barzman, Drew H.; Nelson, Erik; Strakowski, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the comparative efficacy of quetiapine and divalproex for the treatment of adolescent mania. Method: Fifty adolescents (ages 12-18 years) with bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, were randomized to quetiapine (400-600 mg/day) or divalproex (serum level 80-120 [micro]g/mL) for 28 days for this double-blind study,…

  14. Early adolescent lumbar intervertebral disc injury: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the case of an adolescent male with lumbar intervertebral disc injury characterized by chronic low back pain (LBP) and antalgia. A 13-year-old boy presented for care with a complaint of chronic LBP and subsequent loss of quality of life. The patient was examined and diagnosed by means of history, clinical testing and use of imaging. He had showed failure in natural history and conservative management relief in both symptomatic and functional improvement, due to injury to the intervertebral joints of his lower lumbar spine. Discogenic LBP in the young adolescent population must be considered, particularly in cases involving even trivial minor trauma, and in those in which LBP becomes chronic. More research is needed regarding long-term implications of such disc injuries in young people, and how to best conservatively manage these patients. A discussion of discogenic LBP pertaining to adolescent disc injury is included. PMID:23621900

  15. A cognitive-behavioural program for adolescents with chronic pain-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette W A; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the feasibility of a cognitive-behavioural training program for adolescents with chronic pain irrespective of pain localisation. A secondary aim was to give an impression of the effect of the program on pain and quality of life. Eight adolescents (14-18 years) with chronic non-organic pain recruited from the general population (and their parents) participated in this pilot study. The intervention included five group meetings alternated with four telephone contacts (during the self-management weeks) over a period of 9 weeks. The training aimed to change pain behaviour through pain education, relaxation strategies, problem-solving techniques, assertiveness training, cognitive restructuring and by stimulating the adolescent's physical activity level. The training further addresses the social context of pain by inviting parents to attend two meetings for the parents only, and by asking the adolescents to bring a peer to one of the meetings. Adolescents and their parents were positive about the program. Adolescents felt they were more in control of their pain and parents valued the support they experienced in helping their children to master the pain. The training was considered to be feasible in daily life. Further, the preliminary data showed an effect on pain and quality of life in the expected direction. The results underline the need for a definitive study with a larger sample size and a random controlled design. PMID:16257616

  16. The cognitive processes underlying affective decision-making predicting adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Koritzky, Gilly; Johnson, C. Anderson; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between three different cognitive processes underlying the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and adolescent smoking behaviors in a longitudinal study. We conducted a longitudinal study of 181 Chinese adolescents in Chengdu City, China. The participants were followed from 10th to 11th grade. When they were in the 10th grade (Time 1), we tested these adolescents' decision-making using the IGT and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess school academic performance and smoking behaviors. The same questionnaires were completed again at the 1-year follow-up (Time 2). The Expectancy-Valence (EV) Model was applied to distill the IGT performance into three different underlying psychological components: (i) a motivational component which indicates the subjective weight the adolescents assign to gains vs. losses; (ii) a learning-rate component which indicates the sensitivity to recent outcomes vs. past experiences; and (iii) a response component which indicates how consistent the adolescents are between learning and responding. The subjective weight to gains vs. losses at Time 1 significantly predicted current smokers and current smoking levels at Time 2, controlling for demographic variables and baseline smoking behaviors. Therefore, by decomposing the IGT into three different psychological components, we found that the motivational process of weight gain vs. losses may serve as a neuropsychological marker to predict adolescent smoking behaviors in a general youth population. PMID:24101911

  17. Predictors of sexual risk behaviour among adolescents from welfare institutions in Malaysia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. Results The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. Conclusion There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended. PMID:25437631

  18. Emotional and Behavioral Problems among School Adolescents with and without Reading Difficulties as Measured by the Youth Self-Report: A One-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wichstrom, Lars; Sund, Anne Mari

    2011-01-01

    In the present study of Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years, adolescents with reading difficulties (RD) were compared with adolescents without RD on emotional and behavioral problems. Of this group, 191 (7.8%) adolescents reported having RD at T[subscript 1]. At both time points, when compared with the non-RD group, those in the RD group had…

  19. Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Auditory Information Processing in Adolescence: A Study on Sex Differences.

    PubMed

    Bakos, Sarolta; Töllner, Thomas; Trinkl, Monika; Landes, Iris; Bartling, Jürgen; Grossheinrich, Nicola; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Greimel, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    To date, little is known about sex differences in the neurophysiological correlates underlying auditory information processing. In the present study, auditory evoked potentials were evoked in typically developing male (n = 15) and female (n = 14) adolescents (13-18 years) during an auditory oddball task. Girls compared to boys displayed lower N100 and P300 amplitudes to targets. Larger N100 amplitudes in adolescent boys might indicate higher neural sensitivity to changes of incoming auditory information. The P300 findings point toward sex differences in auditory working memory and might suggest that adolescent boys might allocate more attentional resources when processing relevant auditory stimuli than adolescent girls. PMID:27379950

  20. Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596

  1. A cytokine study in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gabbay, Vilma; Coffey, Barbara J.; Guttman, Leah E.; Gottlieb, Lev; Katz, Yisrael; Babb, James S.; Hamamoto, Mia M.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Background While immune system dysregulation has been postulated to play a role in Tourette's disorder (TD), most research has focused on the hypothesis of an autoimmune process similar to rheumatic fever. This study examined the potential role of cytokines, modulators of the immune system. We hypothesized that children with TD would have increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1β and IL-6, and decreased IL-2. We also explored whether comorbid obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) had an effect on the cytokine profile of TD patients. Method Thirty-two children and adolescents with TD (27 males, ages 7–18 years), 17 with comorbid OCD (14 males), and 16 healthy comparison subjects (7 males, ages 9–19), were enrolled. Plasma cytokines were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Mann–Whitney and binary logistic regression tests were used to compare the groups. Results Only patients with comorbid OCD (TD+OCD; n = 17) had significantly elevated IL-12 plasma levels compared to controls (2.73 ± 5.12 pg/ml vs. 0.55 ± 0.88 pg/ml, rank statistic = 222.5; p<0.04). IL-2 was significantly higher in the TD+OCD subgroup compared to the non-OCD TD subgroup (0.74 ± 0.29 pg/ml vs. 0.49 ± 0.24 pg/ml, rank statistics = 108.5; p<0.03). There were no other significant cytokine differences between groups. Conclusions Findings suggest a role for IL-12 and IL-2 in TD, and that the TD+OCD subgroup may involve different neuroimmunological functions than the TD−OCD subgroup. Larger studies with medication-free patients should follow. PMID:19427348

  2. A Prospective Study of Marijuana Use Change and Cessation Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Michael S.; Tucker, Joan S.; de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D.; Kennedy, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background With marijuana use increasing among American adolescents, better understanding the factors associated with decreasing use and quitting can help inform cessation efforts. This study evaluates a range of neighborhood, family, peer network, and individual factors as predictors of marijuana use change and non-use over one year, and cessation over six years. Methods Data come from adolescents in Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N=458, one-year sample), or Waves I and III (N=358, six-year sample), and reported using marijuana at least four times in the past month at Wave I. Results Eighteen percent of adolescents stopped using marijuana after six years. Results suggest neighborhood context affects overall use level, whereas neighborhood context and friends were critical to cessation vs. continuation of use. Decreases in use were more likely among adolescents in disadvantaged or less cohesive neighborhoods, or who moved between waves. Non-use after one year was more likely among adolescents who did not move, had fewer marijuana-using friends, and did not exclusively have outside-of-school friends. Cessation at six years was more likely among adolescents in less disadvantaged and more cohesive neighborhoods, and for those with within-school friends. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of both objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics, as well as peer networks, on adolescent marijuana use. Factors associated with decreases in use appear distinct from those that predict quitting, suggesting that continuation versus cessation is linked to peers as well as neighborhood context. Relocated and isolated individuals may face challenges with cessation. PMID:25287324

  3. Adolescent mental health and subsequent parenting: a longitudinal birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Byford, M; Abbott, R A; Maughan, B; Richards, M; Kuh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health problems are associated with a range of adverse outcomes in adulthood but little is known about the effects on adult parenting practices. This study aimed to examine prospective associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and subsequent parenting behaviours in adulthood. Methods The study sample comprised 1110 members from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Prospective data were collected from teacher reports of conduct and emotional problems at age 13 and 15 years and adult outcome measures of parenting included intellectual environment, cognitive stimulation, coercive discipline, parental interest and parental aspiration. Results In regression models adjusted for the confounding effects of social background, cognition and education, adolescent conduct problems predicted coercive parenting behaviours in adulthood. The effects of adolescent emotional problems on the development of coercive discipline practices were explained by covariates. Likewise, the inability of parents who displayed conduct problems in adolescence to provide an intellectually stimulating home environment was fully explained by the adjustment for education. Conclusions Adolescents who exhibit conduct problems are more likely to develop coercive styles of parenting. PMID:24357583

  4. Role of parenting styles in adolescent substance use: results from a Swedish longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, J; Sundell, K; Öjehagen, A; Håkansson, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescent substance use is an area of concern because early substance use is associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes. Parenting style, defined as the general style of parenting, as well as substance-specific parenting practices may influence children's substance use behaviour. The present study aims to probe the impact of parenting style on adolescent substance use. Method A cohort of 1268 adolescents (48% girls), aged 12–13 years at baseline, from 21 junior high schools was assessed in the first semester of junior high school, and then again in the last semester of the 9th grade, 32 months later. Parenting style, operationalised as a fourfold classification of parenting styles, including established risk factors for adolescent substance use, were measured at baseline. Results Neglectful parenting style was associated with worse substance use outcomes across all substances. After adjusting for other proximal risk factors in multivariate analyses, parenting style was found to be unrelated to substance use outcomes with one exception: authoritative parenting style was associated with less frequent drinking. Association with deviant peers, delinquent behaviour, provision of alcohol by parents, and previous use of other substances were associated with substance use outcomes at follow-up. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that parenting style may be less important for adolescent substance use outcomes than what has previously been assumed, and that association with deviant peers and delinquent behaviour may be more important for adolescent substance use outcomes than general parenting style. PMID:26769781

  5. Quality of Life among Ghanaian Adolescents Living with Perinatally Acquired HIV: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Enimil, Anthony; Nugent, Nicole; Amoah, Christian; Norman, Betty; Antwi, Sampson; Ocran, Joseph; Kwara, Awewura; Barker, David H.

    2016-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, increasing numbers of children with perinatally acquired HIV (PAHIV) are living into adolescence. These adolescents face numerous unique challenges such as parent illness/death and years of medication use. Optimizing care for these youth requires an understanding of the factors that contribute to physical health, psychological wellbeing, social relationships, and quality of life. This mixed methods study collected quantitative questionnaire data from 40 Ghanaian adolescents with PAHIV (50% female, 12–19 years old) who received care through an adolescent HIV clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. The study also presents results from qualitative interviews conducted with 20 adolescents. Results from quantitative analyses suggested that a significant number of participants were not virally suppressed (67%) and participants reported barriers to treatment adherence, limited social support, concerns about disclosure and HIV-related stigma, limited resources, and lower than expected quality of life (QOL). Salient themes from the qualitative analyses included limited understanding of how HIV is transmitted, the interplay between food insecurity and treatment adherence and the need for developing safe relationships through which adolescents can discuss their illness without fear of accidental disclosure of their HIV status. PMID:26643735

  6. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12-19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a 'desisting' CP group, an 'intermediate' CP group and a 'stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis-comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)-showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  7. Frontal preparatory neural oscillations associated with cognitive control: A developmental study comparing young adults and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kai; Ghuman, Avniel S; Manoach, Dara S; Jones, Stephanie R; Luna, Beatriz

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that age-related changes in the frontal cortex may underlie developmental improvements in cognitive control. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to identify frontal oscillatory neurodynamics that support age-related improvements in cognitive control during adolescence. We characterized the differences in neural oscillations in adolescents and adults during the preparation to suppress a prepotent saccade (antisaccade trials-AS) compared to preparing to generate a more automatic saccade (prosaccade trials-PS). We found that for adults, AS were associated with increased beta-band (16-38Hz) power in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), enhanced alpha- to low beta-band (10-18Hz) power in the frontal eye field (FEF) that predicted performance, and increased cross-frequency alpha-beta (10-26Hz) amplitude coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF. Developmental comparisons between adults and adolescents revealed similar engagement of DLPFC beta-band power but weaker FEF alpha-band power, and lower cross-frequency coupling between the DLPFC and the FEF in adolescents. These results suggest that lateral prefrontal neural activity associated with cognitive control is adult-like by adolescence; the development of cognitive control from adolescence to adulthood is instead associated with increases in frontal connectivity and strengthening of inhibition signaling for suppressing task-incompatible processes. PMID:27173759

  8. Psychiatric Diagnostic Interviews for Children and Adolescents: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angold, Adrian; Erkanli, Alaattin; Copeland, William; Goodman, Robert; Fisher, Prudence W.; Costello, E. Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare examples of three styles of psychiatric interviews for youth: the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) ("respondent-based"), the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA) ("interviewer-based"), and the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) ("expert judgment"). Method: Roughly equal numbers of…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Religious Identity and Participation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Anna B.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of religious identity during the teenage years, adolescents (N = 477) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds completed questionnaires in the 10th, 11th, and 12th grades (10th grade age: M = 15.81, SD = 0.36). Results indicated that religious identity remained stable across high school whereas religious…

  10. Environmental Awareness: A Comparative Study of German and Russian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Pavlov, Vladimir I.

    1995-01-01

    Assesses the environmental awareness of 610 German and 610 Russian adolescents age 12, 15, and 18 years. In both countries, anxiety, sadness, and anger about environmental destruction were high, but hopelessness was rejected. Levels of environmental awareness were strongest for the youngest participants. (SLD)

  11. Walking Behaviours among Adolescent Girls in Scotland: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Inchley, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The wide ranging physical and mental health benefits of physical activity during adolescence are well established and walking has been identified as one of only two forms of physical activity not to show a significant decrease in participation levels across the primary/secondary years. The aim of this paper is to explore the broader…

  12. Family Planning for Inner-City Adolescent Males: Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a pilot family planning program in an inner-city pediatric practice. Male adolescents were more likely to accept contraceptives if the provider first raised the topic of birth control to them. Identified a desire for anonymity/confidentiality and embarrassment or discomfort as the key reasons for not seeking contraceptives. Emphasizes…

  13. The Linneweil Affair: A Study in Adolescent Vulnerability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isser, Natalie

    1984-01-01

    Details the case of Elizabeth Linneweil, a Jewish child who was persuaded by her guardians to convert to Catholicism. The motives of the emotionally vulnerable adolescent--desire to conform, to please guardians, and to cement social bonding in the community--are discussed. (JAC)

  14. Games Theory, Television and Leisure: An Adolescent Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, L. B.; Thornton D. J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Sutton-Smith's games typologies were applied to television viewing preferences in order to construct a television classification based on Sutton-Smith's three types, and ascertain whether or not 204 adolescents designated as potents, strategists, and fortunists could be distinguished in terms of their games involvement, attitudes to sport, and…

  15. Adolescent Girls' Perceptions of Physical Activity: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Sarah; Biddle, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among adolescent girls are a cause for concern. Examining girls' physical activity perceptions and motivations through in-depth qualitative research allows for greater understanding of the reasons behind their physical activity-related choices. Forty-seven girls aged 14 to 16 years participated in exploratory focus…

  16. Contributions of Anthropology to the Study of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…

  17. Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS): Safety Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham; Kratochvil, Christopher; Vitiello, Benedetto; Silva, Susan; Mayes, Taryn; McNulty, Steven; Weller, Elizabeth; Waslick, Bruce; Casat, Charles; Walkup, John; Pathak, Sanjeev; Rohde, Paul; Posner, Kelly; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the rates of physical, psychiatric, and suicide-related events in adolescents with MDD treated with fluoxetine alone (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), combination treatment (COMB), or placebo (PBO). Method: Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs) collected by spontaneous report, as well as systematic…

  18. An Outcome Study of Anorexia Nervosa in an Adolescent Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Adolescent girls (N=21) treated for anorexia nervosa in a hospital operating a strict refeeding program were examined 3 years after treatment. Outcome was considered good for 10 girls, intermediate for 4 girls, and poor for 5 girls. Found lack of separation from parents at follow-up. Discusses relevance of findings to treatment approach and to…

  19. Career Development Tasks of Mexican American Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullington, Robin L.; Arbona, Consuelo

    2001-01-01

    Interviews of four academically successful Mexican American adolescents found them engaged in age-appropriate career development tasks according to Super's theory. Family and ethnicity influenced their educational and vocational aspirations in terms of awareness of ethnic identity, prejudice, and discrimination; however, they did not perceive…

  20. Psychiatric Problems among Adolescent Southeast Asian Refugees: A Descriptive Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carolyn L.; Westermeyer, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Presenting complaints and problems of 28 Southeast Asian adolescent refugees who were seen by therapists at a U.S. hospital psychiatry department are described. Journal Availability: Subscription Department, The Williams Wilkins Co., 428 East Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202. (SEW)

  1. [Study of mechanisms and factors related to sexual abuse in female children and adolescents

    PubMed

    Drezett, J; Caballero, M; Juliano, Y; Prieto, E T; Marques, J A; Fernandes, C E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of sexual abuse in children and adolescents and its related factors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 617 cases of sexual abuse, assisted between July 1994 and August 1999 at the Womeńs Health Reference Center, divided into two groups: 71 children (age <10 years), and 546 adolescents (age > or =10 and <20 years). The analyzed variables were: sexual crime; embarrassment; presumption of violence; characteristics and number of abusers; the victimacute;s situation at the moment of the crime; and occurrence of physical traumas. Epi Info 6 software was utilized to gather data, and the results were analyzed by the chi-square test. RESULTS: Significant statistic results were found. 90.8% of the adolescents were victims of rape, and 46.5% of the children suffered sexual assault. The presupposed violence (PV) was more frequent in the group of children (63.4%) and a serious threat in the group of adolescents (63.2%). Innocentia consilli was exclusive PV among 100% of children and 59.5% of adolescents. 84.5% of children were molested by identifiable abusers, most frequently family members. Perpetrators were unknown in 72.3% of the cases of adolescent abuse. 42.3% of sexual abuse of children occurred in their homes, and 28.2% at the abusers. Adolescents were approached during daily activities (34.8%) and on their way to work or school (28.4%). Most patients did not have genital or extragenital trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Children suffered sexual assault, perpetrated by a known abuser through presupposed violence in private places. Adolescents were raped by unknown individuals, under serious threat, in nondomestic places. PMID:14647847

  2. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  3. A Preliminary Study of Cytokines in Suicidal and Nonsuicidal Adolescents with Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rachel G.; Guttman, Leah E.; Babb, James S.; Alonso, Carmen M.; Nishawala, Melissa; Katz, Yisrael; Gaite, Marta R.; Gonzalez, Charles J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased systemic cytokine levels, modulators of the immune system, have been repeatedly documented in adult and adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). This preliminary study extends this work to test the role of cytokines in suicidal symptomatology in adolescent MDD. Hypotheses were that acutely suicidal depressed adolescents would have: (1) increased plasma levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β, and (2) a proinflammatory/antiinflammatory cytokine imbalance (indexed by plasma IFN-γ/IL-4), compared to nonsuicidal depressed adolescents and healthy controls. Methods Twelve suicidal adolescents with MDD (7 females [58%]; 5 medication-free/naïve), 18 nonsuicidal adolescents with MDD (12 females [67%]; 8 medication-free/naïve), and 15 controls (8 females [53%]) were enrolled. MDD had to be of at least 6 weeks duration, with a minimum severity score of 40 on the Children's Depression Rating Scale–Revised. Plasma cytokines were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Nonparametric tests were used to compare subject groups. Results Unexpectedly, suicidal adolescents with MDD had significantly decreased plasma TNF-α concentrations compared to nonsuicidal adolescents with MDD (1.33 ± 2.95 pg/mL versus 30.9 ± 110.9 pg/mL; p = 0.03). IFN-γ was increased in both suicidal and nonsuicidal adolescents with MDD compared to controls (2.14 ± 6.22 and 4.20 ± 14.48 versus 0.37 ± 0.64; p < 0.02, p = 0.005). Findings remained evident when controlled for age and gender. Conclusions Our preliminary findings suggest that immune system dysregulation may be associated with suicidal symptomatology in adolescent MDD. These findings should be replicated in larger samples with medication-free adolescents. PMID:19702494

  4. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118. PMID:27088040

  5. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12-17 year-olds and 25-37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli. PMID:27192210

  6. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118. PMID:27088040

  7. An Event-Related Potential Study of Social Information Processing in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    diFilipo, Danielle; Grose-Fifer, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Increased social awareness is a hallmark of adolescence. The primary aim of this event-related potential study was to investigate whether adolescents, in comparison to adults, would show relatively enhanced early neural processing of complex pictures containing socially-relevant information. A secondary aim was to investigate whether there are also gender and age differences in the ways adolescents and adults process social and nonsocial information. We recorded EEGs from 12–17 year-olds and 25–37 year-olds (N = 59) while they viewed pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System. We found age-related amplitude differences in the N1 and the LPP, and gender-related differences in the N2 region for socially-relevant stimuli. Social pictures (featuring mostly young children and adults) elicited larger N1s than nonsocial stimuli in adolescents, but not adults, whereas larger LPPs to social stimuli were seen in adults, but not adolescents. Furthermore, in general, males (regardless of age) showed larger N2s to nonsocial than to social images, but females did not. Our results imply that compared to adults, adolescents show relatively greater initial orientation toward social than toward nonsocial stimuli. PMID:27192210

  8. Vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours across different age groups in Swedish Adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson Do, Ulrica; Edlund, Birgitta; Stenhammar, Christina; Westerling, Ragnar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is lack of evidence on the effects of health-promoting programmes among adolescents. Health behaviour models and studies seldom compare the underlying factors of unhealthy behaviours between different adolescent age groups. The main objective of this study was to investigate factors including sociodemographic parameters that were associated with vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours in different adolescent age groups. Methods: A survey was conducted among 10,590 pupils in the age groups of 13–14, 15–16 and 17–18 years. Structural equation modelling was performed to determine whether health-damaging behaviours (smoking and alcohol consumption) and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours (regular meal habits and physical activity) shared an underlying vulnerability. This method was also used to determine whether gender and socio-economic status were associated with an underlying vulnerability to unhealthy behaviours. Results: The findings gave rise to three models, which may reflect the underlying vulnerability to health-damaging behaviours and non-adoption of health-enhancing behaviours at different ages during adolescence. The four behaviours shared what was interpreted as an underlying vulnerability in the 15–16-year-old age group. In the youngest group, all behaviours except for non-participation in physical activity shared an underlying vulnerability. Similarly, alcohol consumption did not form part of the underlying vulnerability in the oldest group. Lower socio-economic status was associated with an underlying vulnerability in all the age groups; female gender was associated with vulnerability in the youngest adolescents and male gender among the oldest adolescents. Conclusions: These results suggest that intervention studies should investigate the benefits of health-promoting programmes designed to prevent health-damaging behaviours and promote health-enhancing behaviours in

  9. Clustering of substance use and sexual risk behaviour in adolescence: analysis of two cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Haw, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors aimed to examine whether changes in health risk behaviour rates alter the relationships between behaviours during adolescence, by comparing clustering of risk behaviours at different time points. Design Comparison of two cohort studies, the Twenty-07 Study (‘earlier cohort’, surveyed in 1987 and 1990) and the 11-16/16+ Study (‘later cohort’, surveyed 1999 and 2003). Setting Central Clydeside Conurbation around Glasgow City. Participants Young people who participated in the Twenty-07 and 11-16/16+ studies at ages 15 and 18–19. Primary and secondary outcomes measures The authors analysed data on risk behaviours in both early adolescence (started smoking prior to age 14, monthly drinking and ever used illicit drugs at age 15 and sexual intercourse prior to age 16) and late adolescence (age 18–19, current smoking, excessive drinking, ever used illicit drugs and multiple sexual partners) by gender and social class. Results Drinking, illicit drug use and risky sexual behaviour (but not smoking) increased between the earlier and later cohort, especially among girls. The authors found strong associations between substance use and sexual risk behaviour during early and late adolescence, with few differences between cohorts, or by gender or social class. Adjusted ORs for associations between each substance and sexual risk behaviour were around 2.00. The only significant between-cohort difference was a stronger association between female early adolescent smoking and early sexual initiation in the later cohort. Also, relationships between illicit drug use and both early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners in late adolescence were significantly stronger among girls than boys in the later cohort. Conclusions Despite changes in rates, relationships between adolescent risk behaviours remain strong, irrespective of gender and social class. This indicates a need for improved risk behaviour prevention in young people, perhaps through a

  10. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB. PMID:24853789

  11. Measuring adolescents' exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C Y; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents multilevel findings on adolescents' victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization, we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severity of victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, Internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent among children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was revictimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  12. Adolescent Health and High School Dropout: A Prospective Cohort Study of 9000 Norwegian Adolescents (The Young-HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Karin A. A.; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Westin, Steinar; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2013-01-01

    Background High school dropout is of major concern in the western world. Our aims were to estimate the risk of school dropout in adolescents following chronic somatic disease, somatic symptoms, psychological distress, concentration difficulties, insomnia or overweight and to assess to which extent the family contributes to the association between health and school dropout. Methods A population of 8950 school-attending adolescents (13–21 years) rated their health in the Young-HUNT 1 Study (90% response rate) in 1995–1997. High school dropout or completion, was defined with the Norwegian National Education Database in the calendar year the participant turned 24 years old. Parental socioeconomic status was defined by using linkages to the National Education Database, the National Insurance Administration and the HUNT2 Survey. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and risk differences of high school dropout, both in the whole population and among siblings within families differentially exposed to health problems. Results All explored health dimensions were strongly associated with high school dropout. In models adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, the risk differences of school dropout according to health exposures varied between 3.6% (95% CI 1.7 to 5.5) for having ≥1 somatic disease versus none and 11.7% (6.3 to 17.0) for being obese versus normal weight. The results from the analyses comparing differentially exposed siblings, confirmed these results with the exception of weaker associations for somatic diseases and psychological distress. School dropout was strongly clustered within families (family level conditional intraclass correlation 0.42). Conclusions Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status. Although school dropout it strongly related to family-level factors, also siblings with poor health have reduced opportunity to complete high school compared to healthy siblings

  13. Developmental changes in conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships: a four-wave longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years. Adolescents' reported use of positive problem solving increased with mothers, but did not change with fathers. Fathers reported an increase of positive problem solving with adolescents, whereas mothers reported no change. Adolescents' use of conflict engagement was found to temporarily increase with mothers, but showed no change with fathers. Mothers and fathers reported a decrease in conflict engagement with adolescents. Adolescents' use of withdrawal with parents increased, although this increase was temporarily with mothers. Mothers reported no change in withdrawal, whereas fathers' use of withdrawal increased. Generally, we found that both adolescents and their parents changed in their use of conflict resolution from early to middle adolescence. These results show that conflict resolution in parent-adolescent relationships gradually change in favor of a more horizontal relationship. PMID:20177961

  14. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  15. A Case Study Examining the Impact of Adventure Based Counseling on High School Adolescent Self-Esteem, Empathy, and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of Adventure Based Counseling upon high school adolescents. The goals of this study were to (a) explore the effectiveness of ABC Counseling in increasing levels of self-esteem and empathy among adolescents; (b) study the efficacy of ABC counseling in reducing perceived racial discrimination, racist…

  16. Excessive TV viewing and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents. The AVENA cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Excessive television (TV) viewing might play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to examine the independent associations between TV viewing and CVD risk factors in adolescents. Methods A sample of 425 adolescents, aged 13- to 18.5-year-old, was included in this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) A-1, apo B-100, and lipoprotein(a) levels were determined. A composite CVD risk score was computed based on age-, sex-, sexual maturation- and race-standardized triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and glucose. TV viewing was self-reported. Results Two hundred and twenty-five adolescents (53%) who spent >3 hrs/day watching TV were considered as the "high TV viewing" group. Ninety-nine adolescents (23%) from the total sample were classified as overweight according to International age- and sex-specific BMI values. The high TV viewing group had significantly less favorable values of HDL-cholesterol, glucose, apo A1 and CVD score, independent of age, sex, sexual maturation, race and weight status. There was a significant interaction effect of TV viewing × weight status (P = 0.002) on WC, and the negative influence of TV viewing on WC persisted in the overweight group (P = 0.031) but was attenuated in non-overweight adolescents (P > 0.05). Conclusion Excessive TV viewing seems to be related to an unfavorable CVD risk factors profile in adolescence. Reducing TV viewing in overweight adolescents might be beneficial to decrease abdominal body fat. PMID:20500845

  17. Occupational Therapy and Sexual and Reproductive Health Promotion in Adolescence: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Gontijo, Daniela Tavares; de Sena e Vasconcelos, Anna Carolina; Monteiro, Rosana Juliet Silva; Facundes, Vera Lúcia Dutra; Trajano, Maria de Fátima Cordeiro; de Lima, Luciane Soares

    2016-03-01

    Occupational therapy can contribute to sexual and reproductive health through health education. The purpose of this study was to describe an occupational therapy intervention aimed at sexual and reproductive health promotion in adolescents. Fifty-eight adolescents were involved in the study, before, during and after the interventions. Educative activities such as puzzles, storytelling, mime and board games were used, which occupational therapy faculty and students had constructed. The games were employed as mediators for gaining knowledge in sexual and reproductive health. Outcome was measured using a questionnaire, audio recordings and field diaries. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis. The results showed the adolescents' increased knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information immediately after the intervention. The thematic analysis was grouped into three categories: the adolescents' initial expectations regarding the project, reflections on the process experienced during the interventions and use of educational games by occupational therapists. The importance of rapport and dialogue was highlighted in the construction of interventions based on participatory methods. The absence of a longitudinal follow-up is a limitation in this study. Further research is important to systematically assess sexual health promotion strategies in adolescence. PMID:26174484

  18. [Nursing needs of renal transplanted adolescents, a descriptive cross sectional study in a Swiss hospital].

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht, Michael; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Landolt, Markus A

    2009-06-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that the five-year graft survival of adolescents after renal transplantation is significantly lower than in children. This may be due to poor adherence to the post-transplant regime in adolescents. It has been shown that nurses can provide support to renal transplanted adolescents with positive effects on their adherence. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to gain knowledge about important topics of nurses' support to adolescent renal transplant patients. Twenty-seven adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years were interviewed and given a questionnaire based on a focus group discussion. Each of the provided 43 topics was rated on its importance. Results showed that responses corresponding to the judgment "very important" ranged from 20 % to 100 %. Information about illness and therapy was given highest priority, followed by the provision of support services as well as information and the support of planning and managing the personal way of living. These topics can be seen as a set of relevant variables that may be used for focused assessment, and for planning of nursing interventions. With regard to clinical practice it is necessary to develop nursing strategies and patient and family education programs based on the results of this study. PMID:19496030

  19. Creating probabilistic maps of the face network in the adolescent brain: a multicentre functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Tahmasebi, Amir M; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bruehl, Ruediger; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mareckova, Klara; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Paus, Tomáš

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale magnetic resonance (MR) studies of the human brain offer unique opportunities for identifying genetic and environmental factors shaping the human brain. Here, we describe a dataset collected in the context of a multi-centre study of the adolescent brain, namely the IMAGEN Study. We focus on one of the functional paradigms included in the project to probe the brain network underlying processing of ambiguous and angry faces. Using functional MR (fMRI) data collected in 1,110 adolescents, we constructed probabilistic maps of the neural network engaged consistently while viewing the ambiguous or angry faces; 21 brain regions responding to faces with high probability were identified. We were also able to address several methodological issues, including the minimal sample size yielding a stable location of a test region, namely the fusiform face area (FFA), as well as the effect of acquisition site (eight sites) and scanner (four manufacturers) on the location and magnitude of the fMRI response to faces in the FFA. Finally, we provided a comparison between male and female adolescents in terms of the effect sizes of sex differences in brain response to the ambiguous and angry faces in the 21 regions of interest. Overall, we found a stronger neural response to the ambiguous faces in several cortical regions, including the fusiform face area, in female (vs. male) adolescents, and a slightly stronger response to the angry faces in the amygdala of male (vs. female) adolescents. PMID:21416563

  20. Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: results from a large population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Mari; Harvey, Allison G; Linton, Steven J; Askeland, Kristin G; Sivertsen, Børge

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns and academic performance in 16-19 year-old adolescents using registry-based academic grades. A large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, the youth@hordaland-survey, surveyed 7798 adolescents aged 16-19 years (53.5% girls). The survey was linked with objective outcome data on school performance. Self-reported sleep measures provided information on sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep deficit and bedtime differences between weekday and weekend. School performance [grade point average (GPA)] was obtained from official administrative registries. Most sleep parameters were associated with increased risk for poor school performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic information, short sleep duration and sleep deficit were the sleep measures with the highest odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile). Weekday bedtime was associated significantly with GPA, with adolescents going to bed between 22:00 and 23:00 hours having the best GPA. Also, delayed sleep schedule during weekends was associated with poor academic performance. The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for non-attendance at school, but remained significant in the fully adjusted models. In conclusion, the demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and poor academic performance suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents are underperforming at school. Future studies are needed on the association between impaired sleep in adolescence and later functioning in adulthood. PMID:26825591

  1. Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Huybrechts, Inge; Labayen, Idoia; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Palacios, Gonzalo; Breidenassel, Christina; Molnár, Dénes; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Vyncke, Krishna; Sjöström, Michael; Libuda, Lars; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-12-28

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44% boys) aged 12.5-17.5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (β = - 0.189, P< 0.001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (β = - 0.319, P< 0.001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents. PMID:25366323

  2. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood. PMID:24944288

  3. Correlates of dietary energy misreporting among European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Julián-Almárcegui, Cristina; González-Gross, Marcela; Mouratidou, Theodora; Börnhorst, Claudia; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Kersting, Mathilde; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Gottrand, Frederic; Molnár, Dénes; Hallström, Lena; Dallongeville, Jean; Plada, Maria; Roccaldo, Romana; Widhalm, Kurt; Moreno, Luis A; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan; Leclercq, Catherine; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Lioret, Sandrine; Gutin, Bernard; Huybrechts, Inge

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the correlates of dietary energy under-reporting (UR) and over-reporting (OV) in European adolescents. Two self-administered computerised 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity data using accelerometry were collected from 1512 adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years from eight European countries. Objective measurements of height and weight were obtained. BMI was categorised according to Cole/International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off points. Diet-related attitudes were assessed via self-administered questionnaires. Reported energy intake (EI) was compared with predicted total energy expenditure to identify UR and OV using individual physical activity objective measures. Associations between misreporting and covariates were examined by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Among all, 33·3 % of the adolescents were UR and 15·6 % were OV when considering mean EI. Overweight (OR 3·25; 95 % CI 2·01, 5·27) and obese (OR 4·31; 95 % CI 1·92, 9·65) adolescents had higher odds for UR, whereas underweight individuals were more likely to over-report (OR 1·67; 95 % CI 1·01, 2·76). Being content with their own figures (OR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·89) decreased the odds for UR, whereas frequently skipping breakfast (OR 2·14; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·99) was linked with higher odds for UR. Those being worried about gaining weight (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92) were less likely to OV. Weight status and psychosocial weight-related factors were found to be the major correlates of misreporting. Misreporting may reflect socially desirable answers and low ability to report own dietary intakes, but also may reflect real under-eating in an attempt to lose weight or real over-eating to reflect higher intakes due to growth spurts. Factors influencing misreporting should be identified in youths to clarify or better understand diet-disease associations. PMID:26888046

  4. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…

  5. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  7. A Study on Sibling Relationships, Life Satisfaction and Loneliness Level of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soysal, F. Selda Öz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between sibling relationships, life satisfaction, and the loneliness level of adolescents with regard to gender, order of birth, and sibling dyads. The study group consisted of 382 (209 female, 173 male) students in total, who were studying at high schools (regular high school, vocational high…

  8. Inpatient Treatment in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry--A Prospective Study of Health Gain and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jonathan; Jacobs, Brian; Beecham, Jennifer; Dunn, Graham; Kroll, Leo; Tobias, Catherine; Briskman, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inpatient treatment is a complex intervention for the most serious mental health disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. This is the first large-scale study into its effectiveness and costs. Previous studies have been criticised for methodological weaknesses. Methods: A prospective cohort study, including economic evaluation,…

  9. Adolescents' Declining Motivation to Learn Science: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David

    2012-01-01

    This is a mix methods follow-up study in which we reconfirm the findings from an earlier study [Vedder-Weiss & Fortus [2011] "Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2)", 199-216]. The findings indicate that adolescents' declining motivation to learn science, which was found in many previous studies [Galton [2009] "Moving to secondary school:…

  10. Toward an integrative model of doping use: an empirical study with adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Lazuras, Lambros; Barkoukis, Vassileios; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2015-02-01

    The present study assessed adolescent athletes' intentions toward doping by using an integrative theoretical model. Overall, 650 adolescent athletes from team and individual sports completed an anonymous structured questionnaire including demographic information, social desirability, achievement goals, motivational regulations, sportspersonship orientations, social cognitive variables, and anticipated regret. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the integrative model predicted 57.2% of the variance in doping intentions. Social cognitive variables and anticipated regret directly predicted doping intentions. Anticipated regret added 3% incremental variance on top of other predictors. Multiple mediation analyses showed that the effects of achievement goals on intentions were mediated by self-efficacy beliefs, whereas the effects of sportspersonship were mediated by attitudes and anticipated regret. The present study confirmed the dual structure of an integrative model of doping intentions and further highlighted the role of anticipated regret in the study of adolescent doping use. PMID:25730890

  11. Growth changes in infants born of adolescent mothers: Results of a national cohort study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Hsu, Bu-Qing; Wu, Wei-Ya; Kuo, Ching-Pyng; Hwang, Shiow-Li; Lee, Ming-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adolescent pregnancy and childbirth are associated with increased risk and challenges for both mothers and birth outcomes. Objective: To investigate the associations of growth change over time with parenting factors and to compare the differences between children born to adolescent and adult mothers in Taiwan. Materials and Methods: The dataset retrieved from Taiwan birth cohort study (TBCS) was collected by interviews using structured questionnaires, birth certificate and Passport of Well-baby Care of each child. Changes in body weight, body height and head circumference from birth to 18 months, as well as other variables were assessed by statistical analysis. Results: There were 4.13% births born to adolescent mothers in 2005. Higher ratios of breastfeeding and working were found among adult mothers (p<0.001). Significantly higher percentage of adolescent mothers caregave their infants up to 18 months (p<0.001). Children born to adolescent mothers were associated with statistically significant lower body weight (p<0.001), body height (p<0.001) and head circumference (p<0.001) in spite of velocity and slop of growth patterns were similar over time. Breastfeeding did not significantly affected growth rate during the first 6 months. Generalized estimated equation models showed that gender and preterm birth were predictive factors for birth outcomes (both p<0.001) and correlated to changes over time. Conclusion: Adolescent childbearing was associated with preterm birth and lower body weight, body height and head circumference from birth to 18 months. The changes in growth and development among children born to adolescent mothers remain to be followed and evaluated with the TBCS. PMID:25709629

  12. Rash in Psychiatric and Nonpsychiatric Adolescent Patients Receiving Lamotrigine in Korea: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Hee-Jong; Ahn, Joon-Ho; Kim, Kun-Woo; Kim, Yeni; Choi, Sam-Wook; Lee, Kyung-Yeon; Park, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective Lamotrigine is a widely used medication for psychiatric disorders and epilepsy, but the adverse effects of this drug in adolescent Korean patients have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we sought to compare the incidence and impact of lamotrigine-induced skin rashes and different pattern of adverse events in psychiatric and nonpsychiatric adolescent patients. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design, all of the charts were reviewed for adolescents (13 to 20 years old), treated with lamotrigine during the previous 2 years in the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinic and Pediatric Neurologic Clinic of the Ulsan University Hospital in South Korea. Results Of the 102 subjects, 23 patients developed a skin rash. All of these rashes were observed within 7 weeks of the initiation of the lamotrigine therapy. Only one subject developed a serious rash, which was diagnosed as Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Although the psychiatric subjects were administered statistically lower doses of lamotrigine during weeks 1 through 5 and at week 12, the likelihood of developing a rash was not significantly different between the psychiatric and nonpsychiatric patients. Conclusion Careful dose escalation and close observation of side effects for the first 7 weeks of treatment is important. The present study reveals the tolerability of lamotrigine in an adolescent population, although a double-blind, controlled trial is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:22707969

  13. [The mentalizing vocational training - first results from a pilot study with adolescents with learning disabilities].

    PubMed

    Curth, Christian; Kotte, Silja; Taubner, Svenja; Unger, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    In this report first results are presented from a pilot study on the Mentalizing Vocational Training that aims to increase the effectiveness of vocational rehabilitation programs with adolescents diagnosed with learning disabilities. The prevention program was based on the hypothesis that adolescents' difficulties in motivation and relationships are related to deficits in mentalizing. Thus, we created a prevention program that supports an enduring mentalizing social system following Twemlow's and Fonagy's suggestions for peaceful schools. The program consists of four modules: a psychoeducative training for all professionals within the rehabilitation program, an ongoing supervision for two selected teams, two mentalizing training groups for selected adolescents and a weekly intervision group for the research team analyzing the organizational perspective. During the pilot study, mentalization interest and attachment styles were assessed from all adolescents and professionals. Additionally, adolescents' mentalization capacities were assessed using an objective videobased test as well as general intelligence. Results showed that participants had significantly more attachment anxiety and avoidance as well as less interest to think about themselves and others in a complex way. Furthermore, participants achieved very low scores in the mentalization test (comparable to the autistic spectrum) which were independent from general cognitive deficits. On the organizational level, professionals appeared to be conflicted about the changes in management towards more economic efficiency and overwhelmed by participants with traumatic backgrounds. This led to a regression of the whole organization on the teleological mode. PMID:25478753

  14. Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Despina E; Allen, Nicholas B; Simmons, Julian G; Schwartz, Orli; Kim, Jee Hyun; Sheeber, Lisa; Whittle, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The pituitary gland is integral in mediating the stress-response via its role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Pituitary gland volume (PGV) is altered in stress-related psychopathology, and one study to date has shown stress to be associated with age-related PGV change during adolescence. The current study investigated the effects of a number of different types of early life (i.e., childhood and adolescent) stress (including childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and maternal affective behavior) on PGV development from mid- to late adolescence using a longitudinal design. The influence of PGV development on depressive and anxiety symptoms was also investigated. Ninety one (49 male) adolescents took part in mother-child dyadic interaction tasks when they were approximately 12 years old, reported on childhood maltreatment and stressful life events when they were approximately 15 years old, and underwent two waves of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, when they were approximately 16 and 19 years old. Results revealed that childhood maltreatment predicted accelerated PGV development in females, and maternal dysphoric behavior predicted accelerated PGV development in the whole sample. PGV development was not associated with depressive or anxiety symptoms. These results suggest an effect of early life stress on altered HPA axis function across mid- to late adolescence. Further research is required to assess functional implications and whether these changes might be associated with risk for subsequent psychopathology. PMID:25622011

  15. Adolescent Pregnancy and Attained Height among Black South African Girls: Matched-Pair Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Norris, Shane A.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Mehta, Neil K.; Richter, Linda M.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The impact of adolescent pregnancy on offspring birth outcomes has been widely studied, but less is known about its impact on the growth of the young mother herself. Objective To determine the association between adolescent pregnancy and attained height. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Setting Cohort members followed from birth to age 20 y in Soweto, South Africa. Participant From among 840 Black females with sufficient data, we identified 54 matched pairs, in which a girl who became pregnant before the age of 17 years was matched with a girl who did not have a pregnancy by age 20 y. Pairs were matched on age at menarche and height-for-age z scores in the year before the case became pregnant (mean 15.0 y). Main Outcome Measures The two groups were compared with respect to attained height, measured at mean age 18.5 y. Results Mean age at conception was 15.9 years (range: 13.7 to 16.9 y). Mean height at matching was 159.4 cm in the adolescent pregnancy group and 159.3 cm in the comparison group (p = 0.3). Mean attained height was 160.4 cm in the adolescent pregnancy group and 160.3 cm in the comparison group (p = 0.7). Conclusions Among Black females in Soweto, South Africa, adolescent pregnancy was not associated with attained height. PMID:26808552

  16. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  17. Does Social Support Protect against Depression & Psychological Distress? Findings from the RELACHS Study of East London Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatib, Yasmin; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the relationship between social support and psychological distress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The aims of this study were to test whether social support is protective against psychological distress and depressive symptoms in an ethnically diverse population of adolescents and whether differences…

  18. A Qualitative Study of the Perceived Relationship between Media Use and Adolescents' Academic Performance and Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korie, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored media usage among adolescents and its relations to academic performance and aggressive behavior from a qualitative research perspective. This study represents the first of its kind by utilizing a phenomenological methodology to gain insights about lived experiences of adolescents' media use relative to their academic…

  19. An Open-Label Study of Lamotrigine Adjunct or Monotherapy for the Treatment of Adolescents with Bipolar Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Kiki; Saxena, Kirti; Howe, Meghan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The treatment of pediatric bipolar depression has not been well studied. The authors wished to prospectively study the efficacy of lamotrigine as adjunctive or monotherapy in adolescents with bipolar disorder who were experiencing a depressive episode. Method: This was an 8-week open-label trial of lamotrigine with 20 adolescents ages…

  20. Measuring Personality in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Young, J. Kenneth; Beaujean, and A. Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The researchers sought to develop a personality measure from items in Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The study found 13 items from three dimensions of personality (neuroticism, extroversion, and conscientiousness), and then examined the factor structure and internal consistency of each of the three dimensions. Within each personality dimension, the items showed a unidimensional factor structure and internal consistency estimates of the summed similar to scores from NEO Personality Inventories. The results can be used to further examine how child/adolescent personality is related to multiple mental and physical health outcomes in the Add Health database. PMID:21808628

  1. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  2. Interpersonal relationships, coping strategies and problematic internet use in adolescence: an italian study.

    PubMed

    Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola

    2009-01-01

    In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic Internet Use, quality of interpersonal relationships, and cognitive-driven coping strategies. Of the participants, 36.7% are characterized by Problematic Internet Use. This subsample showed poorer interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies compared to the non-problematic subsample. Overall quality of interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies were found to be predictors of the level of Internet Problematic Use. PMID:19592733

  3. Juggling and struggling: a preliminary work-life study of mothers with adolescents who have developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L

    2006-12-01

    A focus group study was conducted to develop an understanding of the experiences of mothers who are trying to balance employment with caring for an adolescent with developmental disabilities. Mothers reported facing considerable difficulties balancing work and caregiving responsibilities because support services rapidly declined when their child reached adolescence. Service cuts were related to the fact that adolescents are expected to be able to care for themselves, despite the fact that for many adolescents with disabilities, this is not possible. The mothers also reported that the preponderance of the responsibility for arranging care for their children was theirs and was not shouldered by their partners. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:17132034

  4. TO WHAT EXTENT CAN ADOLESCENT SUICIDE ATTEMPTS BE ATTRIBUTED TO VIOLENCE EXPOSURE? A POPULATION-BASED STUDY FROM WESTERN CANADA

    PubMed Central

    Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Chen, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents in Canada and globally. The purpose of our study was to calculate what proportion of adolescent suicide attempts could be prevented in the absence of verbal, physical and sexual violence. Using the province-wide 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (N=29,315) we calculated population-attributable fractions for each type of violence, as well as exposure to any violence, separately by gender, among adolescents age 12–19. We found violence victimization is implicated in the majority of suicide attempts. Focusing on violence prevention may be an important strategy for reducing suicide among young people. PMID:26709332

  5. Excellent gamer, excellent driver? The impact of adolescents' video game playing on driving behavior: a two-wave panel study.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the impact of adolescents' playing of racing and drive'em up games on their risky driving behavior. Participants were 354 adolescent boys and girls who took part in a longitudinal panel survey on video game playing and risk taking attitudes, intentions and behaviors. In line with cultivation theory and theory of planned behavior the results showed that (even after controlling for aggression and sensation seeking) video game playing during adolescence succeeded in predicting later risky driving behavior through adolescents' attitudes and intentions to exhibit this behavior in the future. The results suggest that this relationship may in part be explained by the game content. PMID:21094297

  6. Physical fitness among urban and rural Ecuadorian adolescents and its association with blood lipids: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical fitness has been proposed as a marker for health during adolescence. Currently, little is known about physical fitness and its association with blood lipid profile in adolescents from low and middle-income countries. The aim of this study is therefore to assess physical fitness among urban and rural adolescents and its associations with blood lipid profile in a middle-income country. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2008 and April 2009 in 648 Ecuadorian adolescents (52.3% boys), aged 11 to 15 years, attending secondary schools in Cuenca (urban n = 490) and Nabón (rural n = 158). Data collection included anthropometric measures, application of the EUROFIT battery, dietary intake (2-day 24 h recall), socio-demographic characteristics, and blood samples from a subsample (n = 301). The FITNESGRAM standards were used to evaluate fitness. The associations of fitness and residential location with blood lipid profile were assessed by linear and logistic regression after adjusting for confounding factors. Results The majority (59%) of the adolescents exhibited low levels of aerobic capacity as defined by the FITNESSGRAM standards. Urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores in five EUROFIT tests (20 m shuttle, speed shuttle run, plate tapping, sit-up and vertical jump) and significantly most favorable improved plasma lipid profile (triglycerides and HDL) as compared to rural adolescents. There was a weak association between blood lipid profile and physical fitness in both urban and rural adolescents, even after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions Physical fitness, in our sample of Ecuadorian adolescents, was generally poor. Urban adolescents had better physical fitness and blood lipid profiles than rural adolescents. The differences in fitness did not explain those in blood lipid profile between urban and rural adolescents. PMID:24745348

  7. Adolescents Searching for Health Information on the Internet: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Derry, Holly A; Resnick, Paul J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents' access to health information on the Internet is partly a function of their ability to search for and find answers to their health-related questions. Adolescents may have unique health and computer literacy needs. Although many surveys, interviews, and focus groups have been utilized to understand the information-seeking and information-retrieval behavior of adolescents looking for health information online, we were unable to locate observations of individual adolescents that have been conducted in this context. Objective This study was designed to understand how adolescents search for health information using the Internet and what implications this may have on access to health information. Methods A convenience sample of 12 students (age 12-17 years) from 1 middle school and 2 high schools in southeast Michigan were provided with 6 health-related questions and asked to look for answers using the Internet. Researchers recorded 68 specific searches using software that captured screen images as well as synchronized audio recordings. Recordings were reviewed later and specific search techniques and strategies were coded. A qualitative review of the verbal communication was also performed. Results Out of 68 observed searches, 47 (69%) were successful in that the adolescent found a correct and useful answer to the health question. The majority of sites that students attempted to access were retrieved directly from search engine results (77%) or a search engine's recommended links (10%); only a small percentage were directly accessed (5%) or linked from another site (7%). The majority (83%) of followed links from search engine results came from the first 9 results. Incorrect spelling (30 of 132 search terms), number of pages visited within a site (ranging from 1-15), and overall search strategy (eg, using a search engine versus directly accessing a site), were each important determinants of success. Qualitative analysis revealed that participants

  8. A Case-Control Study of Emotion Regulation and School Refusal in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Gullone, Eleonora; Dudley, Amanda; Tonge, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate emotion regulation (ER) strategy use in a sample of 21 clinic-referred children and adolescents (10-14 years old) presenting with school refusal, all of whom were diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Being the first known study to examine ER and school refusal, hypotheses were guided by previous…

  9. Predicting Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents: A Six Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Rory C.; Rasmussen, Susan; Hawton, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the extent to which psychosocial/psychological factors are associated with the prediction of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents. In this study, 737 pupils aged 15-16 years completed a lifestyle and coping survey at time one and 500 were followed up six months later. Six point two percent of the respondents…

  10. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  11. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  12. Victimization among Peruvian Adolescents: Insights into Mental/Emotional Health from the Young Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Cameron E.; Merrill, Ray M.; Vance, David L.; West, Joshua H.; Hall, Parley C.; Crookston, Benjamin T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a global problem among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to explore bully victimization in Peru and to identify potential adverse mental health and social outcomes resulting from bully victimization. Methods: This study analyzed data from an ongoing prospective cohort of children taking part in the…

  13. Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Achievement across an Adolescent Transition: A Longitudinal Study and an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Lisa S.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Dweck, Carol Sorich

    2007-01-01

    Two studies explored the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents' mathematics achievement. In Study 1 with 373 7th graders, the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) predicted an upward trajectory in grades over the two years of junior high school, while a belief that intelligence is fixed (entity theory)…

  14. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale with a Young Adolescent Population: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Glenn A.; Shadish, William R.; Murray, David M.; Kubik, Martha; Lytle, Leslie A.; Birnbaum, Amanda S.

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D) was developed to assess the population prevalence of depression. The CES-D was developed and normed on an adult population. Since the CES-D's publication, various studies have both used and psychometrically assessed the scale for older adolescent populations. However, we found no…

  15. Peer-Directed, Brief Mindfulness Training with Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Samuel J.; Jennings, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study studied the impact of brief mindfulness meditation training with adolescents. Whereas adult mindfulness training programs typically entail weekly 2.5 hour sessions over an eight week period, this program delivered four 50-minute sessions within a three week period. Each session was comprised of two mindfulness exercises delivered…

  16. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  18. Growing Up behind Bars: An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Inmates in a Cottage for Violent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to direct attention inside the walls of a juvenile correctional facility to closely examine the experiences and daily lives of adolescent inmates. The ethnographic data for this study were collected through participant-observation and extended interactions in a cottage for violent male offenders in one state's…

  19. The Interplay between Values and Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benish-Weisman, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Values, or the guiding standards of adolescents' lives, influence which behaviors are considered more justified than others. The relationship between values and social behavior has been established across many studies including the relationship of values and aggression. But only a few studies have examined these relationships among youth.…

  20. Black Male Adolescents Navigating Microaggressions in a Traditionally White Middle School: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henfield, Malik S.

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of qualitative case study analysis, this study offers in-depth understanding of Black male middle school students' perceptions of racial microaggressions. It was found that Black male adolescents, depending on their backgrounds, are aware of different types of microaggressions. Implications for school counselors, teachers, and…

  1. A Multilevel Study of the Role of Environment in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the relationships between county-level characteristics and adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. The study consisted of a hierarchical generalized linear analysis of secondary data from the Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey. Variables on the county level included the percent of adolescents…

  2. Coping Style and Psychological Health among Adolescent Prisoners: A Study of Young and Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, J.L.; Boustead, R.; Ireland, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the role of coping styles as a predictor of poor psychological health among adolescent offenders. It presents the first study to compare young and juvenile offenders. Two hundred and three male offenders took part: 108 young (18-21 years) and 95 juvenile (15-17 years) offenders. All completed the General Health…

  3. A Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Study of Relations between Academic Achievement and Korean Adolescent Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that academic achievement has a significant effect on juvenile delinquency, with the reverse reported as well. This study, therefore, examined the reciprocal causal relationships between academic achievement and juvenile delinquency. Methods: The participants were 3449 Korean adolescents (mean age 13.2 years,…

  4. The Social Maps of Children Approaching Adolescence: Studying the Ecology of Youth Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James; And Others

    This paper reports the first results of a three-year longitudinal study of the social maps of children beginning the transition to adolescence. This exploratory study is guided by Bronfenbrenner's conception of the ecology of human development stressing the importance of a phenomenological orientation to development in the context of ecological…

  5. Empowering Pre-Adolescent Girls: Girls on the Run Experiential Learning Program Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research study examined the extent of long-term participation in Girls on the Run (GOTR), an experiential learning program for pre-adolescent girls, and its effect on healthy living and self-esteem. To explore these relationships, an exploratory, mixed-methods study was conducted, which involved open- and closed-ended surveys and interviews.…

  6. Trait Anger, Anger Expression, and Suicide Attempts among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Stephanie S.; Goldston, David B.; Erkanli, Alaattin; Franklin, Joseph C.; Mayfield, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies of the relationship between anger, anger expression, and suicidal behavior have been largely cross-sectional and have yielded mixed findings. In a prospective, naturalistic study, we examined how trait anger and anger expression influenced the likelihood of suicide attempts among 180 adolescents followed for up to 13.3 years after…

  7. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  8. A Scaling Study by Pair-Wise Comparison Method: Friend Choosing in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özmercan, Esra Eminoglu; Kumandas, Hatice

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify the perception levels of characteristics considered important to choose friends by adolescents from secondary education and to scale them with pair-wise comparison judgements. In this respect, this study was conducted with 100 10th grade students from a state vocational high school located in Marmara region in Turkey.…

  9. Personality, Identity Styles, and Religiosity: An Integrative Study among Late and Middle Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Past research has shown that the way people deal with religion is related to prejudice. Therefore, it is important to study the determinants of individual differences in adolescent religious attitudes. In the present study, it is proposed that both differences in personality and identity formation might determine these religious attitudes.…

  10. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Association between Violent Video Game Play and Aggression among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Adachi, Paul J. C.; Good, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, correlational and experimental studies have found a positive association between violent video game play and aggression. There is less evidence, however, to support a long-term relation between these behaviors. This study examined sustained violent video game play and adolescent aggressive behavior across the high school…

  12. Self-Report Stability of Adolescent Cigarette Use across Ten Years of Panel Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…

  13. Another Beautiful Mind: A Case Study of the Recovery of an Adolescent Male from a TBI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Bonnie Bell; Spencer, Vicky G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a descriptive, explanatory case study of an adolescent male survivor of a traumatic brain injury (TBI). The subject was a 17 year, 6 month old student enrolled in the twelfth grade at a highly selective science and technology governor's high school in the suburbs of a major metropolitan area. This…

  14. Dimensional psychotic experiences in adolescence: Evidence from a taxometric study of a community-based sample.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark J; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2016-07-30

    Psychotic experiences of varying severity levels are common in adolescence. It is not known whether beyond a certain severity in the general population, psychotic experiences represent a categorically distinct phenomena to milder psychotic experiences. We employed taxometric analytic procedures to determine whether psychotic experiences in adolescence are taxonic (i.e. categorical) or dimensional. Six different psychotic experiences were assessed in a community sample of approximately 5000 adolescents. Three taxometric procedures were conducted. Across all procedures, there was no evidence of a taxon (i.e. a separate latent population) underlying psychotic experiences in adolescence. Rather, a dimensional structure was supported. The results support the notion that psychotic experiences are continuously distributed throughout the general population, and there is no clear discontinuity between milder and more severe psychotic experiences. Thus, these findings support the use of dimensional approaches to understanding psychotic experiences in etiological studies. In clinical practice, categorical cut-offs are needed: the present findings show that a 'natural' break point is not present for identifying severe psychotic experiences, and it is likely therefore that other criteria (such as general functioning) might better aid decision-making with regards to identifying individuals with severe psychotic experiences in need of care during adolescence. PMID:27155285

  15. Young adolescents' perceptions, patterns, and contexts of energy drink use. A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Costa, Beth M; Hayley, Alexa; Miller, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Caffeinated energy drinks (EDs) are purported to increase energy and improve performance, but have been associated with adverse health effects and death. EDs are popular among adolescents and young adults, yet little is known about their use among young adolescents. This study explored perceptions, patterns, and contexts of ED use in six focus groups with 40 adolescents aged 12-15 years from two regional Australian schools. A thematic analysis of the data was used to investigate knowledge about ED brands and content, ED use, reasons for ED use, physiological effects, and influences on ED use. Participants were familiar with EDs and most had used them at least once but had limited knowledge of ED ingredients, and some had difficulty differentiating them from soft and sports drinks. EDs were used as an alternative to other drinks, to provide energy, and in social contexts, and their use was associated with short-term physiological symptoms. Parents and advertising influenced participants' perceptions and use of EDs. These findings suggest young adolescents use EDs without knowing what they are drinking and how they are contributing to their personal risk of harm. The advertising, appeal, and use of EDs by adolescents appear to share similarities with alcohol and tobacco. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings, informed by the lessons learned in alcohol research. PMID:24852220

  16. The Role of Attachment Style in Predicting Repetition of Adolescent Self-Harm: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated whether insecure attachment is associated with poorer outcomes at 6-month follow-up in adolescents who self-harm. At baseline the Child Attachment Interview was administered to 52 adolescents (13-17 years) referred to specialist child and adolescent mental health services and with a recent history of self-harm. Participants also completed self-report measures of self-harm, peer attachment, anxiety, and depression and were administered the means end problem-solving task. Self-harm behavior and problem-solving skills were assessed again at 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 14 (27%) were securely attached to their mothers. In the 49 (94%) adolescents followed-up, those with insecure maternal attachment and insecure peer attachment were more likely to have repeated self-harm. In addition, securely attached adolescents showed greater improvement in problem-solving skills. These findings indicate that secure maternal and peer attachments may help recovery from self-harm, possibly by supporting the acquisition of problem-solving skills, and highlights the importance of social connections and attachments for youth with a history of self-harm. PMID:25845416

  17. Exploring Responses to Art in Adolescence: A Behavioral and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Savazzi, Federica; Massaro, Davide; Di Dio, Cinzia; Gallese, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Marchetti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a peculiar age mainly characterized by physical and psychological changes that may affect the perception of one's own and others' body. This perceptual peculiarity may influence the way in which bottom-up and top-down processes interact and, consequently, the perception and evaluation of art. This study is aimed at investigating, by means of the eye-tracking technique, the visual explorative behavior of adolescents while looking at paintings. Sixteen color paintings, categorized as dynamic and static, were presented to twenty adolescents; half of the images represented natural environments and half human individuals; all stimuli were displayed under aesthetic and movement judgment tasks. Participants' ratings revealed that, generally, nature images are explicitly evaluated as more appealing than human images. Eye movement data, on the other hand, showed that the human body exerts a strong power in orienting and attracting visual attention and that, in adolescence, it plays a fundamental role during aesthetic experience. In particular, adolescents seem to approach human-content images by giving priority to elements calling forth movement and action, supporting the embodiment theory of aesthetic perception. PMID:25048813

  18. Residence arrangements and well-being: a study of Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Naevdal, Folkvard; Thuen, Frode

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess any differences in psychosocial problems among adolescents living with both parents, or with their mother or their father. Any benefits of living with a same-sex parent compared to a parent of the opposite sex, was also analysed. A total of 1,686 adolescents aged 14-15 years participated from 29 schools in Hordaland county, including schools in downtown Bergen and more rural areas. The findings revealed significantly more psychosocial problems among the adolescents living with one parent compared to both parents. Significant differences were also observed between adolescents living in mother custody compared to father custody, indicating more problems among the latter group. Furthermore, girls living with their father had significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms, compared to boys in father custody. Similarly, boys living with their father were involved in more stealing behavior than girls in father custody. However, residence arrangement accounted for only a limited proportion of the variance in the adolescents' psychosocial problems, indicating large within-group variance and overlap between the different custody groups. PMID:15535805

  19. Empathy for Pain from Adolescence through Adulthood: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study.

    PubMed

    Mella, Nathalie; Studer, Joseph; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Affective and cognitive empathy are traditionally differentiated, the affective component being concerned with resonating with another's emotional state, whereas the cognitive component reflects regulation of the resulting distress and understanding of another's mental states (see Decety and Jackson, 2004 for a review). Adolescence is a critical period for the development of cognitive control processes necessary to regulate affective processes: it is only in young adulthood that these control processes achieve maturity (Steinberg, 2005). Thus, one should expect adolescents to show greater automatic empathy than young adults. The present study aimed at exploring the neural correlates of affective (automatic) and cognitive empathy for pain from adolescence to young adulthood. With this aim, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 32 participants (aged 11-39) in a task designed to dissociate these components. ERPs results showed an early automatic fronto-central response to pain (that was not modulated by task demand) and a late parietal response to painful stimuli modulated by attention to pain cues. Adolescents exhibited earlier automatic responses to painful situations than young adults did and showed greater activity in the late cognitive component even when viewing neutral stimuli. Results are discussed in the context of the development of regulatory abilities during adolescence. PMID:23189065

  20. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  1. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  2. Empathy for Pain from Adolescence through Adulthood: An Event-Related Brain Potential Study

    PubMed Central

    Mella, Nathalie; Studer, Joseph; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Affective and cognitive empathy are traditionally differentiated, the affective component being concerned with resonating with another’s emotional state, whereas the cognitive component reflects regulation of the resulting distress and understanding of another’s mental states (see Decety and Jackson, 2004 for a review). Adolescence is a critical period for the development of cognitive control processes necessary to regulate affective processes: it is only in young adulthood that these control processes achieve maturity (Steinberg, 2005). Thus, one should expect adolescents to show greater automatic empathy than young adults. The present study aimed at exploring the neural correlates of affective (automatic) and cognitive empathy for pain from adolescence to young adulthood. With this aim, Event Related Potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 32 participants (aged 11–39) in a task designed to dissociate these components. ERPs results showed an early automatic fronto-central response to pain (that was not modulated by task demand) and a late parietal response to painful stimuli modulated by attention to pain cues. Adolescents exhibited earlier automatic responses to painful situations than young adults did and showed greater activity in the late cognitive component even when viewing neutral stimuli. Results are discussed in the context of the development of regulatory abilities during adolescence. PMID:23189065

  3. Sharing and giving across adolescence: an experimental study examining the development of prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Güroğlu, Berna; van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we use economic exchange games to examine the development of prosocial behavior in the form of sharing and giving in social interactions with peers across adolescence. Participants from four age groups (9-, 12-, 15-, and 18-year-olds, total N = 119) played three types of distribution games and the Trust game with four different interaction partners: friends, antagonists, neutral classmates, and anonymous peers. Nine- and 12-year-olds showed similar levels of prosocial behavior to all interaction partners, whereas older adolescents showed increasing differentiation in prosocial behavior depending on the relation with peers, with most prosocial behavior toward friends. The age related increase in non-costly prosocial behavior toward friends was mediated by self-reported perspective-taking skills. Current findings extend existing evidence on the developmental patterns of fairness considerations from childhood into late adolescence. Together, we show that adolescents are increasingly better at incorporating social context into decision-making. Our findings further highlight the role of friendships as a significant social context for the development of prosocial behavior in early adolescence. PMID:24782796

  4. Buddy Study: Partners for better health in adolescents with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Nandagopal, Radha; Nguyen, Tammy T; Abegg, Marisa R; Nagarur, Mahathi; Kaplowitz, Paul; Rother, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether assigning young, healthy and motivated lay volunteer partners (“buddies”) to adolescents with type 2 diabetes improves hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). METHODS: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes were randomized to partnering with a “buddy” or to conventional treatment. During the initial screening visit, which coincided with a routine outpatient diabetes clinic visit, patients with type 2 diabetes underwent a physical examination, detailed medical history, laboratory measurement of HbA1c, and completed two questionnaires (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and Children’s Depression Inventory) to assess their overall quality of life and the presence of depressive symptoms. Patients were then randomized to the intervention (the buddy system) or conventional treatment (standard care). All patients were scheduled to return for follow-up at 3- and 6-mo after their initial visit. HbA1c was determined at all visits (i.e., at screening and at the 3- and 6-mo follow-up visits) and quality of life and depressive symptoms were evaluated at the screening visit and were reassessed at the 6-mo visit. RESULTS: Ten adolescents, recruited from a pool of approximately 200 adolescents, enrolled over a two-year time period, leading to premature termination of the study. In contrast, we easily recruited motivated lay volunteers. We found no change in HbA1c from the initial to the 6-mo visit in either group, yet our small sample size limited systematic assessment of this outcome. Participants repeatedly missed clinic appointments, failed to conduct self-glucose-monitoring and rarely brought their glucometers to clinic visits. Total quality of life scores (72.6 ± 6.06) at screening were similar to previously reported scores in adolescents with type 2 diabetes (75.7 ± 15.0) and lower than scores reported in normal-weight (81.2 ± 0.9), overweight (83.5 ± 1.8), and obese youths without diabetes (78.5 ± 1.8) or in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (80.5 ± 13

  5. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in controlling major symptoms of CD in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and severe CD. Methods: Children and adolescents were eligible for this single-center, open-label study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD and ODD and also were diagnosed with severe CD. The patients were treated with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting at a daily dosage of 0.25 mg or 0.5 mg (depending on their body weight) in 2 divided doses. Results: The study population comprised 21 children and adolescents (17 boys, 4 girls) with a mean (SD) age of 10.8 (3.6) years. The mean (SD) dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks of treatment was 1.27 (0.42) mg/d (range, 0.75–2.0 mg/d). On the basis of the global improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression scale, 16 of 20 patients (80%) were classified as responders. Significant improvements were observed after risperidone treatment in the inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and CD subscales of the Turgay DSM-IV–Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (parent and teacher forms). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous findings and suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of children and adolescents with CD. However, further studies, particularly placebo-controlled and double-blinded, are needed to better define the clinical use

  6. Dietary factors as the major determinants of overweight and obesity among Iranian adolescents. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hatami, Monireh; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Saad, Hazizi Abu; Djazayery, Abolghasem; Chamari, Maryam; Nazari, Mojgan

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the determinants of overweight/obesity in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 1157 adolescents. Weight and height were measured. Information on socio-economic status (SES), dietary intakes, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. Binary and multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to obtain the relationships and odds-ratios, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher among adolescents in low- or high-income families, adolescents whose mothers worked out of home, adolescents whose parents were both overweight, adolescents who watched a lot of TV or had excessive energy intake, adolescents with lower physical activity or lower intake of dietary fibre, those who skipped breakfast ≥ 4 times per week, and those with low and high fat intake. However, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only energy intake was associated with increased odds and vegetables and fibre intake were associated with a reduction in the odds of being overweight (all p<0.05). Adolescents from middle SES showed a lower risk of overweight/obesity than low and high SES due to better dietary intakes and less sedentary behaviours. Therefore, in overweight/obesity prevention programs, adolescents with determined risk factors from families with low and high SES should receive attention. PMID:25068789

  7. Remaining or becoming secure: parental sensitive support predicts attachment continuity from infancy to adolescence in a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2012-09-01

    In a longitudinal study with 125 early adopted adolescents, we examined continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence and the role of parental sensitive support in explaining continuity or discontinuity of attachment. Assessments of maternal sensitive support and infant attachment (Strange Situation Procedure) were completed when infants were 12 months old. When the children were 14 years old, we observed mothers' sensitive support during a conflict discussion. The adolescents' attachment representations were assessed with the Adult Attachment Interview. Mothers of secure adolescents showed significantly more sensitive support during conflicts than did mothers of insecure adolescents. Overall, no continuity of attachment from infancy to adolescence was found. However, maternal sensitive support in early childhood and adolescence predicted continuity of secure attachment from 1 to 14 years, whereas less maternal sensitive support in early childhood but more maternal sensitive support in adolescence predicted children's change from insecurity in infancy to security in adolescence. We conclude that both early and later parental sensitive support are important for continuity of attachment across the first 14 years of life. PMID:22369333

  8. Analogue Study of Peer Influence on Risk-Taking Behavior in Older Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schwartz, Sarah; Fox, Nathan A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study aimed to examine whether adolescents act in a riskier manner in the presence of peers and whether peer presence alone influences risk behavior or if a direct influence process is necessary. Utilizing a behavioral task assessing risk-taking, 183 older adolescents (18–20 year olds) came to the laboratory alone once and then were randomized to one of three conditions: alone, peers present, peers encouraging. An interaction was found such that at baseline there were no significant differences between the three conditions but at the experimental session there was a significant increase in risk task scores particularly for the encouraging condition. These findings challenge proposed models of the interaction between peer influence and risk taking by providing evidence that adolescents take more risks when being encouraged by peers but that the presence of peers on its own does not lead to more risks than when completing the task alone. PMID:24122411

  9. Teacher autonomy support reduces adolescent anxiety and depression: An 18-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chengfu; Li, Xian; Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Grounded in stage-environment fit theory, this study adopts a longitudinal design to examine the contribution of autonomy support from teachers to reducing adolescent anxiety and depression. A total of 236 Chinese adolescents (57.38% females, Mage = 14.34) completed questionnaires on teacher autonomy support, basic psychological needs satisfaction, school engagement, anxiety, and depression in the fall and spring semesters of their 7th and 8th grade years. The results showed that teacher autonomy support in the fall of 7th grade boosted basic psychological needs satisfaction in the spring of 7th grade; this, in turn, increased school engagement in the fall of 8th grade, which subsequently decreased anxiety and depression in the spring of 8th grade. These findings demonstrated the significant effect of teacher autonomy support on reducing adolescent anxiety and depression; furthermore, it highlighted the mediating roles of basic psychological needs satisfaction and school engagement in this relationship. PMID:27042976

  10. Cultural Socialization in Families with Adopted Korean Adolescents: A Mixed-Method, Multi-Informant Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Oh Myo; Reichwald, Reed; Lee, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Transracial, transnational families understand and transmit cultural socialization messages in ways that differ from same-race families. This study explored the ways in which transracial, transnational adoptive families discuss race and ethnicity and how these family discussions compared to self-reports from adoptive parents and adolescents regarding the level of parental engagement in cultural socialization. Of the thirty families with at least one adolescent-aged child (60% female, average age 17.8 years) who was adopted from South Korea, nine families acknowledged racial and ethnic differences, six families rejected racial and ethnic differences, and fifteen families held a discrepancy of views. Parents also reported significantly greater engagement in cultural socialization than adolescents’ reports of parental engagement. However, only adolescent self-reports of parental engagement in cultural socialization matched the qualitative coding of family conversations. PMID:24235782

  11. The Rural Context of Illicit Substance Offers: A Study of Appalachian Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Rural adolescents are at risk for early initiation and problematic substance use, but to date few studies have examined the rural context of substance use. To better understand substance offers in the rural context, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 118, 12-19 year old adolescents (M = 13.68, SD = 1.37) from Appalachian, rural school districts in Pennsylvania and Ohio. Interviews elicited stories about substance offer-response episodes including where offers occurred, who offered substances, and how youth gained access to illicit substances. Findings describe the settings in which substance offers and use occur for these rural adolescents and advance prevention efforts for tailoring health messages to this target population. PMID:25620838

  12. Reward-related attentional biases and adolescent substance use: the TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Ostafin, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Current cognitive-motivational theories of addiction propose that prioritizing appetitive, reward-related information (attentional bias) plays a vital role in the development and maintenance of substance abuse. This study focused on reward-related attentional processes that might be involved in young-adolescent substance use. Participants were young adolescents (N = 682, mean age = 16.14), who completed a motivated game in the format of a spatial orienting task as a behavioral index of appetitive-related attentional processes and a questionnaire to index substance (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) use. Correlational analysis showed a positive relationship between substance use and enhanced attentional engagement, with cues that predicted potential reward and nonpunishment. These results are consistent with the view that adolescents who show a generally enhanced appetitive bias might be at increased risk for developing heavier substance use. PMID:22564203

  13. Text-Messaging-Enhanced HIV Intervention for African American Adolescents: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Judith B.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Boyer, Cherrie; St Lawrence, Janet; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Moore, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We examined the feasibility and acceptability of an HIV prevention intervention for African American adolescents delivered via mobile cell phones and looked at intervention-related changes in beliefs and sexual behaviors. We used a longitudinal one-group comparison design with data collected at three points. Forty adolescents, 13–18 years old, participated in the Becoming a Responsible Teen intervention followed by the delivery of daily multimedia messages for 3 months. The mobile-cell-phone enhanced intervention was feasible and acceptable to the participants. Greater HIV knowledge, improved attitudes toward condoms, and increased perceived HIV risk scores were observed with older adolescents (16–18 years old). Behavior trends showed a decrease in the number of times participants reported engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse over the previous 2 months. Mobile-cell-phone multimedia-text-messaging boosters tested in this study provided preliminary evidence of efficacy of the enhanced HIV prevention intervention for African American youth. PMID:23122907

  14. Insights into Facebook Pages: an early adolescent health research study page targeted at parents.

    PubMed

    Amon, Krestina L; Paxton, Karen; Klineberg, Emily; Riley, Lisa; Hawke, Catherine; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2016-02-01

    Facebook has been used in health research, but there is a lack of literature regarding how Facebook may be used to recruit younger adolescents. A Facebook Page was created for an adolescent cohort study on the effects of puberty hormones on well-being and behaviour in early adolescence. Used as a communication tool with existing participants, it also aimed to alert potential participants to the study. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of the development of the study Facebook Page and present the fan response to the types of posts made on the Page using the Facebook-generated Insights data. Two types of posts were made on the study Facebook Page. The first type was study-related update posts and events. The second was relevant adolescent and family research and current news posts. Observations on the use of and response to the Page were made over 1 year across three phases (phase 1, very low Facebook use; phase 2, high Facebook use; phase 3, low Facebook use). Most Page fans were female (88.6%), with the largest group of fans aged between 35 and 44 years. Study-related update posts with photographs were the most popular. This paper provides a model on which other researchers could base Facebook communication and potential recruitment in the absence of established guidelines. PMID:25781667

  15. Factors Influencing Fast-Food Consumption Among Adolescents in Tehran: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari Majabadi, Hesamedin; Solhi, Mahnaz; Montazeri, Ali; Shojaeizadeh, Davoud; Nejat, Saharnaz; Khalajabadi Farahani, Farideh; Djazayeri, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: The consumption of different types of fast food is increasingly growing in all parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries. Because of the changes and transitions in the lifestyle and dietary habits of people, an increasing number of people from different age groups, particularly adolescents and young adults, are inclined toward consuming fast food. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the factors influencing fast-food consumption among adolescents in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted in 2012 - 2013 in Tehran, the capital of Iran. To achieve the objective of this study, 42 adolescents were enrolled in this study through a purposive sampling method, and the required data was collected via individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. Data collection and analysis were carried out simultaneously, and the collected data was analyzed via a thematic content analysis and using MAXQDA 10 software. Results: In this study after coding the transcribed interviews, the findings were categorized into three main themes as follows: personal views, social factors, and family factors. Each theme included several categories and subcategories, and the coded sentences and phrases were placed under each category and subcategory. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the number of factors promoting fast-food consumption appeared to be more than the inhibiting factors and that the diverse factors at the individual and social level influenced fast-food consumption among adolescents. PMID:27247793

  16. A longitudinal study of narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-08-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity and narrative structure. However, there was no evidence of growth in syntactic complexity or narrative length. Mental age and comprehension skills at Time 1 predicted scores in all 4 areas at Time 3. Expressive language skills added further to the prediction of syntactic complexity and story length. PMID:22861134

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Healthy Eating Behavior in Ecuadorian Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Van Royen, Kathleen; Ochoa-Avilés, Angélica; Penafiel, Daniela; Holdsworth, Michelle; Donoso, Silvana; Maes, Lea; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to identify factors influencing eating behavior of Ecuadorian adolescents - from the perspective of parents, school staff and adolescents - to develop a conceptual framework for adolescents' eating behavior. Study design Twenty focus groups (N = 144 participants) were conducted separately with adolescents aged 11–15 y (n (focus groups)  = 12, N (participants)  = 80), parents (n = 4, N = 32) and school staff (n = 4, N = 32) in rural and urban Ecuador. A semi-structured questioning route was developed based on the ‘Attitude, Social influences and Self-efficacy’ model and the socio-ecological model to assess the relevance of behavioral and environmental factors in low- and middle-income countries. Two researchers independently analyzed verbatim transcripts for emerging themes, using deductive thematic content analysis. Data were analyzed using NVivo 8. Results All groups recognized the importance of eating healthily and key individual factors in Ecuadorian adolescents' food choices were: financial autonomy, food safety perceptions, lack of self-control, habit strength, taste preferences and perceived peer norms. Environmental factors included the poor nutritional quality of food and its easy access at school. In their home and family environment, time and convenience completed the picture as barriers to eating healthily. Participants acknowledged the impact of the changing socio-cultural environment on adolescents' eating patterns. Availability of healthy food at home and financial constraints differed between settings and socio-economic groups. Conclusion Our findings endorse the importance of investigating behavioral and environmental factors that influence and mediate healthy dietary behavior prior to intervention development. Several culture-specific factors emerged that were incorporated into a conceptual framework for developing health promotion interventions in Ecuador. PMID:24489865

  18. The prevalence of audiometric notches in adolescents in Germany: The Ohrkan-study.

    PubMed

    Twardella, Dorothee; Perez-Alvarez, Carmelo; Steffens, Thomas; Bolte, Gabriele; Fromme, Hermann; Verdugo-Raab, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Although there is concern about increasing hearing loss in adolescents caused by leisure noise exposure, prevalence data are scarce. In an US study, about 16-17% of adolescents were affected by audiometric notches. To estimate the prevalence of audiometric notches in adolescents in Germany, baseline data of the cohort study Ohrkan, recruitment during the school years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 were analyzed. All students in grade 9 visiting any school in the city of Regensburg were eligible for participation. Data was collected via standardized questionnaires from students and their parents. In addition, students were asked to visit the University Clinics of Regensburg for ear examination including a tympanogram and the determination of hearing thresholds in air conduction audiometry. The prevalence of audiometric notches was determined in students with normal tympanogram in both ears and complete audiometry data. Audiometric notches were defined according to criteria used to analyse US data. Overall, 2149 students (1158 girls, 991 boys mainly aged 15-16 years) of the 3846 eligible adolescents (56%) participated. Among the 1843 adolescents with complete audiometry and tympanometry data, the prevalence of audiometric notches was 2.4% (95% confidence interval 1.7-3.1%). We could not confirm the high prevalence of audiometric notches as reported in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys for adolescents in the US. Differences in prevalence might be at least partly due to methodical differences in audiometry. Even if empirical evidence is presently ambiguous, it is reasonable to educate young people about the potential risks of high leisure noise exposure. PMID:24231420

  19. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care

  20. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this

  1. Trajectories of adolescent conduct problems in relation to cortical thickness development: a longitudinal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Oostermeijer, S; Whittle, S; Suo, C; Allen, N B; Simmons, J G; Vijayakumar, N; van de Ven, P M; Jansen, L M C; Yücel, M; Popma, A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cross-sectional imaging studies have identified structural abnormalities in prefrontal, temporal and limbic regions related to conduct problems (CPs). However, the relationship between development of such neurobiological deficits and developmental pathways of CPs has remained unclear. The current study investigated distinct trajectories of CP and related trajectories of cortical thickness within a community-based sample of adolescents (n=239), age range 12–19, to address this gap. Three trajectory classes were revealed using latent class growth analyses (LCGAs), comprising a ‘desisting' CP group, an ‘intermediate' CP group and a ‘stable low' CP group. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected with a subgroup of 171 adolescents at three waves throughout adolescence (ages 12, 16 and 19). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis—comparing longitudinal changes in cortical thickness and subcortical volume between CP groups for several regions of interest (ROIs)—showed that these CP groups had differential trajectories of cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dl-PFC), and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and volume of the hippocampus. Adolescents in the desisting CP group showed an attenuation of the typical pattern of cortical thinning as present in the intermediate and stable low CP groups, in addition to an exaggeration of the typical pattern of hippocampal volume increase. These findings suggest that a deviant cortical thickness trajectory was related to a desisting CP pathway across adolescence. Such deviant neurodevelopmental growth trajectories may act as an underlying mechanism for developmental CP pathways, and possibly distinguish desisting antisocial adolescents. PMID:27327256

  2. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  3. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in adolescent pregnancies: The Global Network’s Maternal Newborn Health Registry study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent girls between 15 and 19 years give birth to around 16 million babies each year, around 11% of births worldwide. We sought to determine whether adolescent mothers are at higher risk of maternal and perinatal adverse outcomes compared with mothers aged 20–24 years in a prospective, population-based observational study of newborn outcomes in low resource settings. Methods We undertook a prospective, population-based multi-country research study of all pregnant women in defined geographic areas across 7 sites in six low-middle income countries (Kenya, Zambia, India, Pakistan, Guatemala and Argentina). The study population for this analysis was restricted to women aged 24 years or less, who gave birth to infants of at least 20 weeks’ gestation and 500g or more. We compared adverse pregnancy maternal and perinatal outcomes among pregnant adolescents 15-19 years, <15 years, and adults 20-24 years. Results A total of 269,273 women were enrolled from January 2010 to December 2013. Of all pregnancies 11.9% (32,097/269,273) were in adolescents 15-19 years, while 0.14% (370/269,273) occurred among girls <15 years. Pregnancy among adolescents 15-19 years ranged from 2% in Pakistan to 26% in Argentina, and adolescent pregnancies <15 year were only observed in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. Compared to adults, adolescents did not show increased risk of maternal adverse outcomes. Risks of preterm birth and LBW were significantly higher among both early and older adolescents, with the highest risks observed in the <15 years group. Neonatal and perinatal mortality followed a similar trend in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, with the highest risk in early adolescents, although the differences in this age group were not significant. However, in South Asia the risks of neonatal and perinatal death were not different among adolescents 15-19 years compared to adults. Conclusions This study suggests that pregnancy among adolescents is not associated

  4. Neural networks involved in adolescent reward processing: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Merav H; Jedd, Kelly; Luciana, Monica

    2015-11-15

    Behavioral responses to, and the neural processing of, rewards change dramatically during adolescence and may contribute to observed increases in risk-taking during this developmental period. Functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest differences between adolescents and adults in neural activation during reward processing, but findings are contradictory, and effects have been found in non-predicted directions. The current study uses an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach for quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to: (1) confirm the network of brain regions involved in adolescents' reward processing, (2) identify regions involved in specific stages (anticipation, outcome) and valence (positive, negative) of reward processing, and (3) identify differences in activation likelihood between adolescent and adult reward-related brain activation. Results reveal a subcortical network of brain regions involved in adolescent reward processing similar to that found in adults with major hubs including the ventral and dorsal striatum, insula, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Contrast analyses find that adolescents exhibit greater likelihood of activation in the insula while processing anticipation relative to outcome and greater likelihood of activation in the putamen and amygdala during outcome relative to anticipation. While processing positive compared to negative valence, adolescents show increased likelihood for activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and ventral striatum. Contrasting adolescent reward processing with the existing ALE of adult reward processing reveals increased likelihood for activation in limbic, frontolimbic, and striatal regions in adolescents compared with adults. Unlike adolescents, adults also activate executive control regions of the frontal and parietal lobes. These findings support hypothesized elevations in motivated activity during adolescence. PMID:26254587

  5. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  6. Adapting an evidence-based model to retain adolescent study participants in longitudinal research.

    PubMed

    Davis, Erin; Demby, Hilary; Jenner, Lynne Woodward; Gregory, Alethia; Broussard, Marsha

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining contact with and collecting outcome data from adolescent study participants can present a significant challenge for researchers conducting longitudinal studies. Establishing an organized and effective protocol for participant follow-up is crucial to reduce attrition and maintain high retention rates. This paper describes our methods in using and adapting the evidence-based Engagement, Verification, Maintenance, and Confirmation (EVMC) model to follow up with adolescents 6 and 12 months after implementation of a health program. It extends previous research by focusing on two key modifications to the model: (1) the central role of cell phones and texting to maintain contact with study participants throughout the EVMC process and, (2) use of responsive two-way communication between staff and participants and flexible administration modes and methods in the confirmation phase to ensure that busy teens not only respond to contacts, but also complete data collection. These strategies have resulted in high overall retention rates (87-91%) with adolescent study participants at each follow-up data collection point without the utilization of other, more involved tracking measures. The methods and findings presented may be valuable for other researchers with limited resources planning for or engaged in collecting follow-up outcome data from adolescents enrolled in longitudinal studies. PMID:26539953

  7. An Examination of Emotion Regulation, Temperament, and Parenting Style as Potential Predictors of Adolescent Depression Risk Status: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Jennifer; Gullone, Eleonora; Allen, J. Sabura

    2009-01-01

    Given that depression is a debilitating disorder, it is critical that we advance our understanding about the aetiology of this disorder. This study investigated both traditional (temperament and parenting) and novel (emotion regulation strategy) risk factors associated with adolescent depression. Forty-four adolescents (12-16 years; 64% females)…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Motivation to Change Inventory for Adolescents (Revised)-Icelandic Version: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sif Fridjonsdottir, Helga

    2008-01-01

    A valid and reliable instrument was needed to assess motivation level and impact of a motivational enhancing intervention for adolescents coming for treatment at a detoxification and treatment center in Iceland. This psychometric study explored the Motivation to Change Inventory for Adolescents (Revised)-Icelandic version in that setting.…

  9. An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk Behaviors of Adolescents Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Comparisons and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Kenneth M.; Cutler, Martin M.; Thobro, Patti; Haas, Robin; Powell, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    The study compared psychosocial risk behaviors of adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing with those of their hearing peers in a residential treatment facility. Statistically significant differences emerged between groups. The adolescents who were deaf or hard of hearing demonstrated clinically higher scores than those of their hearing peers…

  10. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  11. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  12. A Treatment Study of Suicidal Adolescent with Personality Disorder or Traits: Mode Deactivation Therapy as Compared to Treatment as Usual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    This treatment research compares Mode Deactivation Therapy(MDT) to Treatment as Usual (TAU) with suicidal adolescents. This treatment research study examines the effects of MDT vs. TAU on adolescents who had co-morbid mental health issues as well as, personality disorders and traits. MDT was shown to be more effective in reducing suicidal thoughts…

  13. Motivation and Social Relations in School Following a CBT Course for Adolescents with Depressive Symptoms: An Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvik, Margit; Idsoe, Thormod; Bru, Edvin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate changes in school functioning, including motivation, intentions to quit school and social relations in school, following an early group based CBT intervention implemented for depressed adolescents. The "Adolescent Coping with Depression Course" (ACDC) is such an early group intervention. The primary…

  14. A Pilot Study of Coping Processes Utilized by African-American Male Adolescents Living in Violent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Elizabeth

    This paper is a preliminary report on a study that explored the ways in which African American male adolescents cope with the interpersonal assaultive violence that takes place in their urban communities. Participants were 27 African American male adolescents, aged 13-19, who live in and/or spend the majority of their non-school hours interacting…

  15. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  16. Comparing among the Experiences of Self-Cutting, Hitting, and Scratching in Chinese Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Jianing; Ma, Congfen; Lin, Min-Pei; Leung, Freedom

    2015-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' experiences associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and compared among the experiences of self-cutting, hitting, and scratching. Participants included 42 Chinese adolescents attending secondary schools. They had at least three NSSI episodes in the preceding year. Information about their experiences of NSSI…

  17. Developmental Changes in Conflict Resolution Styles in Parent-Adolescent Relationships: A Four-Wave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Doorn, Muriel D.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, changes in three conflict resolution styles in parent-adolescent relationships were investigated: positive problem solving, conflict engagement, and withdrawal. Questionnaires about these conflict resolution styles were completed by 314 early adolescents (M = 13.3 years; 50.6% girls) and both parents for four consecutive years.…

  18. Remission and Residual Symptoms after Short-Term Treatment in the Treatment of Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy; Silva, Susan; Vitiello, Benedetto; Curry, John; Kratochvil, Christopher; Simons, Anne; Hughes, Jennifer; Feeny, Norah; Weller, Elizabeth; Sweeney, Michael; Reinecke, Mark; Pathak, Sanjeev; Ginsburg, Golda; Emslie, Graham; March, John

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain remission rates in depressed youth participating in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS), a multisite clinical trial that randomized 439 adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) to a 12-week treatment of fluoxetine (FLX), cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), their combination (COMB), or clinical…

  19. Why Can't We Just Talk about It?: An Observational Study of Parents' and Adolescents' Conversations about Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Tamara D.; Joseph, Andrea; Aldeis, Desiree

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how parents and adolescents talk about sex with each other and how that influences their anxiety and avoidance tendencies. When parents were receptive, informal, and composed during the conversations, their adolescents were less anxious and, in turn, were less avoidant. The child's perception of the parent's communication…

  20. Provision of Reproductive Health Services for Adolescents--Report of a Study in Two Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olukoya, Adepeju A.

    1996-01-01

    Studied adolescent reproductive health services in two Nigerian states. Found that adolescents use health facilities mostly for general health problems. Only 6.1% (south) and 31.8% (north) of cases involved reproductive health, the gap attributable to maternity cases of northern married women. Reproductive health problems such as abortion and…

  1. A Pilot Study of the Development of a Measure Assessing Adolescent Reactions to Parents in the Context of Emotion Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra, Gilbert R.; Olsen, James P.; Buckholdt, Kelly E.; Jobe-Shields, Lisa; Davis, Genevieve L.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a pilot study of the initial development of a self-report measure assessing how adolescents react when parents respond in a helpful manner to their sad emotional experiences. Participants were late adolescents (ages 18-20) attending a large, racially diverse urban university (N = 86; 75% women; 46% racial/ethnic minority). A broad…

  2. Childhood Family Instability and Mental Health Problems during Late Adolescence: A Test of Two Mediation Models--The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Martin P.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether childhood family instability is associated with mental health problems during adolescence through continued family instability and/or through a preadolescent onset of mental health problems. This test use data from a prospective population cohort of 2,230 Dutch adolescents ("M" age = 11.09, "SD" = 0.56 at the initial…

  3. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  4. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  5. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  6. The Effects of Work Intensity on Adolescent Mental Health, Achievement and Behavioral Adjustment: New Evidence from a Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; And Others

    This longitudinal study examined adolescents' mental health, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment in relation to work intensity during high school. Data were collected from approximately 1,000 adolescents during a 4-year period, beginning in the subjects' freshman year of high school. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed…

  7. The Impact of Protective Factors in Desistance from Violent Reoffending: A Study in Three Samples of Adolescent Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodewijks, Henny P. B.; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of protective factors, assessed by means of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), on desistance from violent reoffending in adolescents. Three samples included male adolescents in different stages of the judicial process: pre-trial (n = 111); during residential treatment (n = 66); and after…

  8. Are Body Dissatisfaction, Eating Disturbance, and Body Mass Index Predictors of Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Scott; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, and obesity have been associated cross sectionally with suicidal behavior in adolescents. To determine the extent to which these variables predicted suicidal ideation and attempts, the authors examined these relationships in a longitudinal design. The study population included 2,516 older adolescents and…

  9. A Descriptive Study of the Behavior and Personality Characteristics of Adolescent Runaways Using the Personality Inventory for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohr, Michael E.

    The phenomenon of adolescent runaway behavior is of critical concern to mental health professionals. Conceptualization, prediction, and treatment interventions are of extreme importance. This study sought to build upon prior research by using the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC). Previous research indicated that adolescent running away…

  10. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  11. Loneliness in the Daily Lives of Adolescents: An Experience Sampling Study Examining the Effects of Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Goossens, Luc; Verhagen, Maaike

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine state levels of loneliness in adolescence. Both concurrent associations and temporal dynamics between social contexts and state levels of loneliness were examined. Data were collected from 286 adolescents (M[subscript age] = 14.19 years, 59% girls) by using the Experience Sampling Method. Results…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Adolescents with Impaired Mobility and Their Parents in Greek Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulis, Spyros; Andreou, Yiannoula

    2007-01-01

    This study questions commonly held Greek social policy assumptions that families are the best and only providers of support to children and adolescents with impaired mobility. This is because the experiences of family life by Greek adolescents with such impairments can be characterized by a cycle of over-protection, dependency and social…

  13. The Effect of Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Decision Making in Adolescents Who Self-Harm: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldershaw, Anna; Simic, Mima; Grima, Emanuela; Jollant, Fabrice; Richards, Clair; Taylor, Lucy; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Research shows poor decision making in adolescents who self-harm and a positive correlation between decision-making abilities and duration since last self-harm episode. This exploratory study investigated whether decision making in self-harming adolescents could be improved through treatment with a novel cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). It also…

  14. Pregnant and Parenting Adolescents: A Study of Ethnic Identity, Emotional and Behavioral Functioning, Child Characteristics, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Karin; Renk, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships among the ethnic identity, behavior problems, self-esteem, and social support of 166 ethnically diverse pregnant and parenting adolescents, the majority of whom were African American and Hispanic American, and their infants. Results indicated that pregnant and parenting adolescent females were experiencing…

  15. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Executive Functions in Children and Adolescents: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Cortical Thickness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamnes, Christian K.; Ostby, Ylva; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Westlye, Lars T.; Due-Tonnessen, Paulina; Fjell, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    A range of cognitive abilities improves in childhood and adolescence. It has been proposed that the protracted development of executive functions is related to the relatively late maturation of the prefrontal cortex. However, this has rarely been directly investigated. In this cross-sectional study, 98 healthy children and adolescents (8-19 years…

  16. Role Models of Australian Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study to Inform Programmes Designed to Increase Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Janet A.; Symons, Caroline M.; Pain, Michelle D.; Harvey, Jack T.; Eime, Rochelle M.; Craike, Melinda J.; Payne, Warren R.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the importance attributed to the presence of positive role models in promoting physical activity during adolescence, this study examined role models of adolescent girls and their influence on physical activity. Seven hundred and thirty two girls in Years 7 and 11 from metropolitan and non-metropolitan regions of Victoria, Australia,…

  17. Class Average Score for Teacher Support and Relief of Depression in Adolescents: A Population Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizuta, Akiko; Noda, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Mieko; Tatsumi, Asami; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Factors contributing to the relief of depression among adolescents have not been sufficiently revealed. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of teacher support on depression in adolescent students. Methods: We conducted a self-rating questionnaire survey among 2862 junior high school students and 93 homeroom teachers in…

  18. The Delicate Balance between Parental Protection, Unsupervised Wandering, and Adolescents' Autonomy and Its Relation with Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Ormel, Johan; Veenstra, Rene

    2010-01-01

    In a large sample of early adolescents (T2: N = 1023; M age = 13.51; 55.5% girls), the impact of parental protection and unsupervised wandering on adolescents' antisocial behavior 2.5 years later was tested in this TRAILS study; gender and parental knowledge were controlled for. In addition, the level of biological maturation and having antisocial…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of the Associations among Adolescent Conflict Resolution Styles, Depressive Symptoms, and Romantic Relationship Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Thao; Overbeek, Geertjan; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether adolescents' conflict resolution styles mediated between depressive symptoms and relationship longevity. Data were used from a sample of 80 couples aged 13-19 years old (Mage = 15.48, SD = 1.16). At Time 1 adolescents reported their depressive symptoms and conflict resolution styles. Additionally, time until…

  20. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9%) than for girls (47.5%). The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p < .001 were low economic status and importance of religion. The four most relevant risk factors for binge drinking (p < .001) were life-time prevalence of school absenteeism/truancy, academic failure

  1. Web-Based Assessment of Mental Well-Being in Early Adolescence: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Christoph; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Background The ever-increasing use of the Internet among adolescents represents an emerging opportunity for researchers to gain access to larger samples, which can be queried over several years longitudinally. Among adolescents, young adolescents (ages 11 to 13 years) are of particular interest to clinicians as this is a transitional stage, during which depressive and anxiety symptoms often emerge. However, it remains unclear whether these youngest adolescents can accurately answer questions about their mental well-being using a Web-based platform. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the accuracy of responses obtained from Web-based questionnaires by comparing Web-based with paper-and-pencil versions of depression and anxiety questionnaires. Methods The primary outcome was the score on the depression and anxiety questionnaires under two conditions: (1) paper-and-pencil and (2) Web-based versions. Twenty-eight adolescents (aged 11-13 years, mean age 12.78 years and SD 0.78; 18 females, 64%) were randomly assigned to complete either the paper-and-pencil or the Web-based questionnaire first. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to measure intrarater reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated separately for depression (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI) and anxiety (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale, SCAS) questionnaires. Results On average, it took participants 17 minutes (SD 6) to answer 116 questions online. Intraclass correlation coefficient analysis revealed high intrarater reliability when comparing Web-based with paper-and-pencil responses for both CDI (ICC=.88; P<.001) and the SCAS (ICC=.95; P<.001). According to published criteria, both of these values are in the “almost perfect” category indicating the highest degree of reliability. Conclusions The results of the study show an excellent reliability of Web-based assessment in 11- to 13-year-old children as compared with the standard paper

  2. Dysphoric Adolescents as Young Adults: A Prospective Study of the Psychological Sequelae of Depressed Mood in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gjerde, Per F.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    1998-01-01

    Evaluated the longitudinal implications of age-18 dysphoric mood in 23-year olds using a multidata, multi informant design. Findings indicated that adolescent dysphoric mood was an important predictor of psychological distress in young adults, especially in young adult women, for whom the prospective correlations of adolescent dysphoria were more…

  3. Creating a Future: A Study of Resilience in Suicidal Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everall, Robin D.; Altrows, K. Jessica; Paulson, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    The authors designed this study to understand how adolescents overcome suicidality from the subjective perspective of 13 previously suicidal female participants. A resilience framework was used to conceptualize the process. Data analysis using basic interpretive qualitative inquiry revealed 4 domains of resilience: social processes, emotional…

  4. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  5. Social Disaffection, Friendship Patterns and Adolescent Cigarette Use: The Muscatine Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Marvin D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if adolescent social disaffection with school and family not only would be a significant predictor of cigarette use but also would explain a significant amount of the association with friends who smoke. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  6. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression…

  7. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  8. Family Structure and Problem Behavior of Adolescents and Young Adults: A Growth-Curve Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderValk, Inge; Spruijt, Ed; de Goede, Matijn; Maas, Cora; Meeus, Wim

    2005-01-01

    In the present longitudinal 3-wave study of 1274 adolescents and young adults, aged 12-24 at the 1st wave, it is examined whether youngsters from intact versus postdivorce families show long-term differences in internalizing and externalizing problems. Furthermore, possible differences in the development of this problem behavior between offspring…

  9. Classification of Professional Values Based on Motivational Content: An Exploratory Study on Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallini, Susanna; Bove, Giuseppe; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a multidimensional scaling (MSD) technique to investigate the structural validity of the Work Values Inventory for Adolescents with a sample of Italian students. The MSD results indicated the presence of two underlying orthogonal dimensions: individuality versus sociality and conservation versus exploration. Implications for…

  10. The Developmental Course of Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…

  11. Associations between Teacher Emotional Support and Depressive Symptoms in Australian Adolescents: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G.; Spence, Susan H.; Bjerg, Annie C.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and…

  12. Gender, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2009-01-01

    Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…

  13. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  14. Adolescent Risk Behaviors: Studying Typical and Atypical Individuals via Multidimensional Scaling Profile Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Yang; Ding, Cody

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of problem behavior theory, the purpose of this study was to examine risk behavior profiles of typical and atypical adolescents and the differential outcomes of well-beings for these individuals in the United States. Based on the data from the survey of Health Behavior of School-Aged Children by World Health Organization,…

  15. A Case Study of the Suicide of a Gifted Female Adolescent: Implications for Prediction and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    In this case study focusing on a gifted adolescent female who took her life at the age of 18 using a firearm, the researcher investigated the personal, environmental, and cultural variables that may have contributed to her suicide. Data were collected from interviews, documents, and other artifacts, including a videotape that was a compilation of…

  16. Lab Coats versus Business Suits: A Study of Career Preferences among Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatchenkery, Sruthi; Koizumi, Naoru

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine whether the primary factors motivating the career plans of high-achieving Indian adolescents vary between academic specializations. Particular attention is to be paid to differences between science and business students. Design/methodology/approach: The study surveyed approximately 2,700 secondary school…

  17. A Study of the Interpretive Processes Employed by Selected Adolescent Readers of Three Short Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Jerry Ward

    The major purposes of this study were to describe the responses of adolescent readers to three short stories; to describe the interpretive processes they employed; to identify their reading and interpreting difficulties; and to discover what relationship existed between the readers' stated awareness of an interpretive process and both the…

  18. Sense of Coherence, Hope and Values among Adolescents under Missile Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore measures of spirituality--sense of coherence (SOC), hope and values--among adolescents living in a violent political area and experiencing missile attacks. The three variables represent attributes of spirituality, such as searching for meaning and purpose in life, hope and feelings about the future, as well as values…

  19. A Qualitative Study to Explore How Parental Expectations and Rules Influence Beverage Choices in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Yousey, Lori; Chu, Yen Li; Reicks, Marla

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand parent beverage expectations for early adolescents (EAs) by eating occasion at home and in various settings. Methods: Descriptive study using focus group interviews and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Results: Six focus groups were completed, and 2 were conducted in Spanish. Participants (n =…

  20. Cultural Identity and Acculturation Preferences among South Asian Adolescents in Britain: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lena

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this article is part of a wider research project on the adaptation of South Asians in Britain. It examines and compares the acculturation attitudes and cultural identity of Indian and Pakistani second-generation adolescents Indian (Punjabi Sikh and Gujarati Hindu) and Pakistani (Muslim) in Britain. The research project…

  1. Problematic Situations Associated with Dating Experiences and Relationships among Urban African American Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Terri N.; Erwin, Elizabeth H.; Helms, Sarah W.; Masho, Saba W.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the identification of problem situations associated with adolescent dating experiences and relationships, including those that placed youth at risk for dating violence perpetration or victimization. Interviews were conducted with 44 African American middle and high school students in an urban school system.…

  2. Orofacial Pathologic Lesions in Children and Adolescents: A Clinicopathological Study in Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Ahmadi Sheshdeh, Zahra; Kamali, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oral and maxillofacial lesions vary regarding their clinical presentation in different populations. Until now, oral and maxillofacial lesions in Iranian children and adolescents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the type and distribution of biopsied oral lesions among children and adolescents in Southern Iran. Methods: All the patients referred to the pathology department of Shiraz Faculty of Dentistry from 1991-2009 were enrolled in this retrospective, case-series study. The information regarding the patients’ age, gender as well as the histopathologic type and anatomic location of the biopsied oral lesions in patients under 18 years was collected from patients’ medical documents and were analyzed by SPSS version 11. Findings : Out of 2984 patients, 576 (19.3 %) cases were children and adolescents under 18 years. The most prevalent category was soft tissue lesions (45.5 %). The most common lesion was peripheral giant cell granuloma (15.6%) followed by dentigerous cyst (14.2%) and pyogenic granuloma (11.3%). Gingiva was the most common affected site. Male to female ratio was 1.2. Conclusion: Our results revealed that near 20% of orofacial lesions occur in children and adolescents with rather equal male to female ratio. The majority of lesions were soft tissue diseases with a reactive nature. Unlike other studies we had higher rates of soft tissue lesions. These data can help dentists and surgeons for more accurate management of their patients. PMID:25562025

  3. Gender Differences in and Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…

  4. Consequences of Parenthood in Late Adolescence: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggstrom, Gus W.; Morrison, Peter A.

    The effects of adolescent parenthood upon certain outcome measures reflecting changes in aspirations, attitudes, and well-being were investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972. Analyses were computed for expected educational attainment; self-esteem; locus of control; orientation toward work, family,…

  5. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  6. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross

    2011-01-01

    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  7. Altered White Matter Microstructure in Adolescents with Major Depression: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Kathryn R.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Muetzel, Ryan; Mueller, Bryon A.; Camchong, Jazmin; Houri, Alaa; Kurma, Sanjiv; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white…

  8. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  9. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  10. Creativity Development in Adolescence: Insight from Behavior, Brain, and Training Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a multifaceted construct that recruits different cognitive processes. Here, we summarize studies that show that creativity develops considerably during adolescence with different developmental trajectories for insight, verbal divergent thinking, and visuospatial divergent thinking. Next, these developmental time courses are mapped to…

  11. Family-Based Crisis Intervention with Suicidal Adolescents in the Emergency Room: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharff, Elizabeth A.; Ginnis, Katherine M.; Ross, Abigail M.

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing model of care for psychiatric patients in the emergency room (ER) is evaluation and disposition, with little or no treatment provided. This article describes the results of a pilot study of a family-based crisis intervention (FBCI) for suicidal adolescents and their families in a large, urban pediatric ER. FBCI is an intervention…

  12. A Descriptive Study of Vocal Maturation among Male Adolescent Vocalists and Instrumentalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killian, Janice N.; Wayman, John B.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study was designed to examine middle school adolescent boys' singing voices ( N = 104) comprising volunteers enrolled in band (n = 72) or choir (n = 32). The authors sought to confirm possible earlier voice change, to compare vocal characteristics among frequent (choir) and infrequent (band) singers, and to determine use of…

  13. Prescription Pain Reliever Abuse and Dependence among Adolescents: A Nationally Representative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A.

    2008-01-01

    The study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of adolescents' abuse, sub-threshold dependence, and dependence on prescription pain relievers (PPRs) in a nationally representative sample. Results show dependence on PPRs can take place without abuse and that sub-threshold dependence could have implications for major diagnostic…

  14. The Role of Educational Track in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Transition from comprehensive school to later educational tracks is challenging for many adolescents. The present three-wave longitudinal study conducted in Finland considers this issue from the perspective of school burnout. Background: Transition from comprehensive school to later educational tracks is challenging for many…

  15. A Prospective Study of Extreme Weight Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined changes in extreme weight change attitudes and behaviors (exercise dependence, food supplements, drive for thinness, bulimia) among adolescent boys and girls over a 16 month period. It also investigated the impact of body mass index, puberty, body image, depression and positive affect on these attitudes and behaviors 16 months…

  16. Prenatal Smoking and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Children Studied from Childhood to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Van Lier, Pol A. C.; Timmermans, Maartje; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate whether prenatal smoking was only related to externalizing or both internalizing and externalizing problems in children from childhood to early adolescence. Results indicated that maternal smoking during pregnancy is an accurate predictor of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among children.

  17. The Impact of Adolescents' News and Action Movie Viewing on Risky Driving Behavior: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Traffic crashes remain an important cause of injury and death among young people. The aim of the current study was to examine whether adolescents' viewing of particular television genres predicted later risky driving. Data were collected with a two-wave panel survey (N = 426); structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships…

  18. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  19. The Importance of Emotional Insight in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa: An Adolescent Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupa, Megha; Girimaji, Satish; Muthuswamy, Selvi; Jacob, Preeti; Ravi, Malavika

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a rare but sever psychiatric disorder in adolescence, with chronicity and death being the most feared consequence. Emotional Insight into one's problem is considered a key determinant of success in therapy. The following case study of a 14-year-old client, describes the process of therapy as it unfolded across 45 sessions. An…

  20. The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…

  1. Adolescent Problem Behavior in Navi Mumbai: An Exploratory Study of Psychosocial Risk and Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: A conceptual framework about protective factors (models protection, controls protection, support protection) and risk factors (models risk, opportunity risk, vulnerability risk) was employed to articulate the content of five psychosocial contexts of adolescent life--individual, family, peers, school, and neighborhood--in a study of…

  2. A Study of Firesetting and Animal Cruelty in Children: Family Influences and Adolescent Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Herrera, Veronica M.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate relationships among family risk factors, childhood firesetting and animal cruelty, and adolescent delinquency. Method: In 1990, mothers and children participating in a 10-year prospective study provided information about family risk factors and childhood problem behavior. Subsequent interviews with 86% of the sample in…

  3. On- and Off-Field Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescent Soccer Players: A Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutten, Esther A.; Dekovic, Maja; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo; Hoeksma, Jan B.; Biesta, Gert J. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated to what extent team membership predicts on- and off-field antisocial and prosocial behavior in (pre)adolescent athletes. Effects of team-membership were related to characteristics of the team environment, such as relational support from the coach towards team members, fair play attitude and sociomoral reasoning within the…

  4. Technological Thinking and Practice in the Social Studies: Transcending the Tumultuous Adolescence of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Balyta, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors reflect on the evolving role of technology in the field of social studies and compare the tumultuous adolescence of technology integration with future trends in teaching and learning. The discourse contrasts the past developments with ongoing innovation and efforts to promote the diffusion of emerging applications in the social…

  5. An Attachment Parenting Intervention to Prevent Adolescents' Problem Behaviors: A Pilot Study in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…

  6. Assessment and Treatment of Stereotypic Vocalizations in a Taiwanese Adolescent with Autism: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ya-Ping; Mirenda, Pat; Wang, Hwa-Pey; Chen, Ming-Chung

    2010-01-01

    This case study describes the processes of functional analysis and modality assessment that were utilized to design a communication intervention for an adolescent with autism who engaged in loud and disruptive vocalizations for most of the school day. The functional analysis suggested that the vocalizations served both tangible and escape…

  7. A Study of the Frequency of Self-Mutilation in a Community Sample of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shana; Heath, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Studied the frequency of self-mutilation among adolescents through a literature review, epidemiological data, and screening measure results for 440 students from an urban and a suburban high school. Interviews suggest that 13.9% of students had hurt themselves on purpose at some time, with girls more likely to hurt themselves and cutting the most…

  8. Correlates of Adolescent Pregnancy in La Paz, Bolivia: Findings from a Quantitative-Qualitative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipovsek, Varja; Karim, Ali Mehryar; Gutierrez, Emily Zielinski; Magnani, Robert J.; Gomez, Maria del Carmen Castro

    2002-01-01

    Study explores why some female adolescents in La Paz, Bolivia, become pregnant while others in similar circumstances avoid early pregnancy. Results reveal that girls who had experienced a pregnancy were less likely to have reported affectionate and supportive parents, more likely to have reported fighting in their home, and exhibited lower levels…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse Is Largely Hidden from the Adult Society: An Epidemiological Study of Adolescents' Disclosures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate disclosure rates and disclosure patterns and to examine predictors of non-disclosure in a sample of male and female adolescents with self-reported experiences of sexual abuse. Method: A sample of 4,339 high school seniors (2,324 girls, 2,015 boys) was examined with a questionnaire concerning…

  10. Supplemental Reading Strategy Instruction for Adolescents: A Randomized Trial and Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Almasi, Janice F.; Rintamaa, Margaret; Carter, Janis C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the impact of a yearlong supplemental reading course involving daily instruction in the learning strategies curriculum on lower achieving adolescent students' reading achievement and motivation. Using a multiple-cohort randomized treatment-control group design over 4 years, they compared achievement and…

  11. Acculturation, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…

  12. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  13. Parenting, Peer Orientation, Drug Use, and Antisocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claes, Michel; Lacourse, Eric; Ercolani, Anna-Paula; Pierro, Antonio; Leone, Luigi; Presaghi, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the links between maternal and paternal bonding, parental practices, orientation toward peers, and the prevalence of drug use and antisocial behavior during late adolescence. A model was tested using structural equation modeling in order to verify the robustness of the investigated links across 3…

  14. A Qualitative Study of Educator and Counselor Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding Adolescent Substance Abusers' Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henegar, LaTrica Y.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…

  15. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  16. Syntactic and Discourse Skills in Chinese Adolescent Readers with Dyslexia: A Profiling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; Lo, Jason C. M.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Xiao, Xiaoyun; Chan, David W.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of syntactic and discourse skills to morphological skills, rapid naming, and working memory in Chinese adolescent readers with dyslexia and to examine their cognitive-linguistic profiles. Fifty-two dyslexic readers (mean age, 13;42) from grade 7 to 9 in Hong Kong high schools were compared with 52…

  17. Correlates of Identity Configurations: Three Studies with Adolescent and Emerging Adult Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Scrignaro, Marta; Sica, Luigia Simona; Magrin, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood are two core developmental periods in which individuals can develop a meaningful identity across domains. However, there is a lack of studies exploring correlates of different identity configurations. The purpose of this article was to fill this gap in examining correlates of configurations characterized by…

  18. The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) Minor at New York University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Jess P.; Koplewicz, Harold S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies (CAMS) undergraduate college minor at New York University. Methods: The authors detail the development, structure, and operation of the CAMS minor. They describe the importance of identifying program goals, building coalitions, creating an advisory board, selecting…

  19. Adolescents' Perspectives on the Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…

  20. The Moral Reasoning of Adolescents Gifted in Science: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Pehkonen, Leila

    This study investigated the moral reasoning of 17 Finnish adolescents (ages 14,15) gifted in science. Students completed tests of their scientific and moral reasoning and wrote essays on moral dilemmas in science and everyday life. On the test of moral reasoning, the students' average score was that of the average 18-year-old. On the test of…

  1. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  2. Parental Monitoring, Peer Activities and Alcohol Use: A Study Based on Data on Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergh, Daniel; Hagquist, Curt; Starrin, Bengt

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study investigates the association between two types of social relations during leisure time (to parents and peers) and the frequency of alcohol use among Swedish adolescents, taking possible interaction effects into account. Methods: The data were collected during the 1995-2005 time period by using a questionnaire handed out in the…

  3. Children of the Land: Adversity and Success in Rural America. Studies on Successful Adolescent Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Conger, Rand D.

    Based on the rural life experiences of Iowa children who grew up during the great farm crisis of the 1980s, this book focuses on successful adolescent development and its links to the social resources of families with ties to the land. In 1989, the Iowa Youth and Families Project began a panel study of 451 two-parent families in north central…

  4. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  5. Stages of Change in Physical Activity: A Validation Study in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Philip D.; Martin, Andrew J.; Martinez, Carissa; Marsh, Herbert W.; Jackson, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the validity of a recent stages of change (SoC) measure and algorithm among a sample of late adolescents. MANOVA and structural equation modeling are used to assess the relationship between five SoC groups (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance) and a set of dependent measures including…

  6. Who Seeks Career Counselling? A Prospective Study of Personality and Career Variables among Swiss Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balin, Elif; Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether career adaptability, personality, attitude towards career counselling and some demographic variables predict the help seeking behaviour in career counselling among 330 Swiss adolescents in eighth grade. The results indicated that boys were less likely to seek help and that career related variables and attitude but…

  7. An Empirical Study Examining the Impact of Gambling Advertisements on Adolescent Gambling Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey; Sklar, Alissa; Gupta, Rina; Messerlian, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Based upon a previous qualitative study a questionnaire ascertaining adolescents' awareness of gambling advertisements and their impact upon their behavior was developed and administered to 1,147 youth between the ages of 12 and 19. The findings suggest that almost all youth report being exposed to advertising with many individuals indicating…

  8. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  9. Religious and national group identification in adolescence: a study among three religious groups in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2013-01-01

    Religious group identification is an important but understudied social identity. The present study investigates religious group identification among adolescents of different faiths (Hindu, Muslim, Christian) living in multicultural Mauritius. It further explores how religious and national group identities come together among religious majority and minority adolescents. For three age groups (11 to 19 years, N = 2152) we examined the strength of adolescents' religious and national group identification, the associations between these two identities, and the relationships to global self-esteem. Across age and religious group, participants reported stronger identification with their religious group than with the nation. Identification with both categories declined with age, with the exception of Muslims, whose strong religious identification was found across adolescence. The association between religious and national identification was positive, albeit stronger for the majority group of Hindus and for early adolescents. We examined the manner in which religious and national identities come together using a direct self-identification measure and by combining the separate continuous measures of identification. Four distinct clusters of identification (predominant religious identifiers, dual identifiers, neutrals, and separate individuals) that were differently associated with global self-esteem were found. Dual identifiers reported the highest level of global self-esteem. The clusters of identification did not fully correspond to the findings for the direct self-identification measure. The results are discussed in terms of the meaning of dual identity and the positive manner in which adolescents can manage their multiple identities while taking into account the ideological framework in which those identities are played out. PMID:22822906

  10. Why Missing Data Matter in the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Development: Using the 4-H Study to Understand the Uses of Different Missing Data Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The study of adolescent development rests on methodologically appropriate collection and interpretation of longitudinal data. While all longitudinal studies of adolescent development involve missing data, the methods to treat missingness that have been recommended most often focus on missing data from cross-sectional studies. The problems of…

  11. If Parents Establish a No-Smoking Agreement with Their Offspring, Does This Prevent Adolescents from Smoking? Findings from Three Dutch Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Exter Blokland, Endy A. W.; Engels, Rutger C.; Harakeh, Zeena; Hale, William W., III.; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Data from three studies were used to investigate whether the establishment of a no-smoking agreement is related to lower odds of adolescent smoking. The prevalence of a no-smoking agreement was first explored by using a national sample involving 4,501 Dutch adolescents. Second, data from a longitudinal study among 595 early adolescents and their…

  12. ICQ (I seek you) and adolescents: a quantitative study in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Cheuk, W S; Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2007-02-01

    The Hong Kong Government and the education sector encourage the whole population-from toddlers to senior citizens-to utilize information technology, and many do. Yet there are no studies exploring the patterns of adolescents using ICQ (I seek you) in Asian countries. This study was done in Hong Kong, which has the greatest number of ICQ users. A quantitative approach was adopted by administering self-constructed questionnaires to the students of one high school. One hundred and forty-seven adolescents volunteered to participate. The key findings of the study are (1) most of the adolescents have been using ICQ for 1-4 years; (2) most fit one of two patterns of use: either 2 or 3 days per week, or more than 5 days per week; (3) they spend less than 3 h per day on ICQ; (4) the main reasons for using ICQ are entertainment, relaxation, and socializing; and (5) parents are concerned about possible negative impacts on their children's academic performance because of using ICQ. Two main implications are drawn: proper use of ICQ can minimize parental distress and encourage adolescents to be less sedentary. PMID:17305456

  13. A Study of the Correlation between Computer Games and Adolescent Behavioral Problems

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz; Khezri-Moghadam, Noshiravan; Javanmard, Zeinab; Sarmadi-Ansar, Hassan; Aminaee, Mehran; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Majid; Zivari-Rahman, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, due to developing communicative technologies, computer games and other audio-visual media as social phenomena, are very attractive and have a great effect on children and adolescents. The increasing popularity of these games among children and adolescents results in the public uncertainties about plausible harmful effects of these games. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between computer games and behavioral problems on male guidance school students. Methods This was a descriptive-correlative study on 384 randomly chosen male guidance school students. They were asked to answer the researcher's questionnaire about computer games and Achenbach’s Youth Self-Report (YSR). Findings The Results of this study indicated that there was about 95% direct significant correlation between the amount of playing games among adolescents and anxiety/depression, withdrawn/depression, rule-breaking behaviors, aggression, and social problems. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the amount of computer game usage and physical complaints, thinking problems, and attention problems. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the students’ place of living and their parents’ job, and using computer games. Conclusion Computer games lead to anxiety, depression, withdrawal, rule-breaking behavior, aggression, and social problems in adolescents. PMID:24494157

  14. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  15. Changes in ego and moral development in adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gfellner, B M

    1986-12-01

    A longitudinal study was designed to examine the relation between Loevinger's measure of ego development and moral development as indexed by Rest's Defining Issues Test in a sample of 123 adolescents at 12 to 14 years of age and four years later. Study I assessed differential rates of change and theoretically predicted directions of change in the two developmental functions and gender differences in ego development. Substantial ego stage movement occurred (60 per cent advancement, 40 per cent stability); moral growth was moderate. Girls scored a half ego stage ahead of boys; patterns of directional change were similar. Ego level and moral development related at either fixed point in time, but ego functioning in early adolescence did not predict subsequent moral development. Study II addressed adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles in relation to these social cognitive functions. Parental behaviours that involve loving or support related to higher ego levels; parental demanding associated with lower ego development in early adolescence. Traditional gender-related parent socialization was found among girls and boys with greater ego development. The mediating role of perceived childrearing styles was considered in relation to gender differences in ego development. PMID:3805434

  16. How well do adolescents recall use of mobile telephones? Results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade mobile telephone use has become more widespread among children. Concerns expressed about possible health risks have led to epidemiological studies investigating adverse health outcomes associated with mobile telephone use. Most epidemiological studies have relied on self reported questionnaire responses to determine individual exposure. We sought to validate the accuracy of self reported adolescent mobile telephone use. Methods Participants were recruited from year 7 secondary school students in Melbourne, Australia. Adolescent recall of mobile telephone use was assessed using a self administered questionnaire which asked about number and average duration of calls per week. Validation of self reports was undertaken using Software Modified Phones (SMPs) which logged exposure details such as number and duration of calls. Results A total of 59 adolescents participated (39% boys, 61% girls). Overall a modest but significant rank correlation was found between self and validated number of voice calls (ρ = 0.3, P = 0.04) with a sensitivity of 57% and specificity of 66%. Agreement between SMP measured and self reported duration of calls was poorer (ρ = 0.1, P = 0.37). Participants whose parents belonged to the 4th socioeconomic stratum recalled mobile phone use better than others (ρ = 0.6, P = 0.01). Conclusion Adolescent recall of mobile telephone use was only modestly accurate. Caution is warranted in interpreting results of epidemiological studies investigating health effects of mobile phone use in this age group. PMID:19523193

  17. Family relations, stressful events and internalizing symptoms in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Hess, Adriana Raquel Binsfeld; Teodoro, Maycoln Leoni Martins; Falcke, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how emotional and behavioral problems of parents and children and the characteristics of family relationships can be predictors of internalizing symptoms manifested by children after one year. This was a quantitative research study, of the longitudinal type, with a one year interval between the first and second evaluation. Participants were 139 adolescents, and their parents, with ages ranged from 11 to 16 years (M age = 12.90, SD = 1.07). The instruments used were: a Socio-Demographic Data Sheet, Youth Self-Report of 11 to 18 years old (YSR), Adult Self-Report of 18 to 59 years old (ASR), Familiogram (FG), the Family Climate Inventory (FCI) and Inventory of Stressful Events in Adolescence (ISEA). Results indicated that family relationships did not have a significant explanatory power in relation to internalizing symptoms of the adolescent after a year. Based on this study, it is possible to think that during adolescence, the power of the family to influence becomes more restricted in comparison with social and peer influence. PMID:24230920

  18. Evidence of early neurobiological alternations in adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Ming-Ting; Hsu, Chia-Chuang; Ker, Jhy-Horng

    2004-11-01

    Neuroimaging studies of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have largely been performed in adult populations. The purpose of the current study was to investigate neural correlates of PTSD in adolescents. Specifically, this study investigates whether a differential brain response was present during the visual perception and imaginary recollection of traumatic reminders in adolescents who developed PTSD versus those who did not after experiencing earthquake. Eleven Taiwanese adolescents (age range: 12-14 years) with traumatic experience of earthquake were enrolled. Five subjects fulfilled PTSD criteria, while the other six served as non-PTSD controls. Brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance image (fMRI) during visual perception and imagery recall of earthquake and neutral pictures at 14 months after earthquake. During earthquake imagery (as compared with neutral imagery), PTSD group demonstrated activation in the bilateral visual cortex, bilateral cerebellum and left parahippocampal gyrus, while control group did not. During earthquake perception (as compared with neutral perception), the control group showed activation over anterior cingulate, but the PTSD group did not. Intergroup comparison confirmed above discrepancies was significant. We concluded that neurobiological alternation of PTSD in adolescent was similar to those in adult and might have developed within 14 months after trauma exposure. PMID:15489009

  19. Effects of Attractiveness and Social Status on Dating Desire in Heterosexual Adolescents: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data were used from a sample of 1,913 adolescents aged 13–18. Participants rated the importance of various characteristics of a potential partner and also participated in an experimental vignette study in which dating desire was measured with either low or high attractive potential partners having either a high or low social status. The results showed that boys rated attractiveness as more important than girls, while social status was rated as relatively unimportant by both sexes. In addition, in the experimental vignette study, it was found that attractiveness was the primary factor for boys’ dating desire. Only when a potential partner was attractive, social status became important for boys’ dating desire. For girls, on the other hand, it appeared that both attractiveness and social status of a potential partner were important for their dating desire. Finally, boys and girls who perceived themselves as having a high mate value showed more dating desire toward an attractive potential partner compared to adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low mate value. The present results extend previous research by showing that attractiveness of a potential partner is important to both adolescent boys and girls, but social status does not strongly affect dating desire during this particular age period. PMID:19830538

  20. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    in their lives with varying and varied attempts to master, or cope with, the inevitable change in their existential status. Some try but fail and some fail to try, with resulting despair that can lead those adolescents to believe that suicide is the only choice they have to end their suffering. We described how psychodynamics can influence motivation, relationships, and behaviors, and how these may contribute to an outcome of suicide. Existing psychopathological conditions contribute. These include anxiety, dysthymia, posttraumatic stress disorders, acute reactive disorders, major affective disorders, severe conduct disorders, and psychotic disorders. We considered the possible lethal interplay between psychodynamic and psychopathological factors. This led to the crux of this report, a full discussion of prevention and treatment. The first and most important aspect of suicide prevention is early recognition of the adolescent at risk. It is of high priority to detect and treat those psychiatric disorders accompanied by greatest suicidal risk; depression, conduct disorders, substance abuse disorders, borderline conditions, and schizoaffective disorders. With all adolescents, threats of suicide must be taken seriously. There should be an immediate, complete psychiatric workup preferably before specific treatment begins. If crisis intervention must precede diagnostic study, the workup should not be delayed longer than necessary. Education of health care professionals, educators, families, and peers about warning signs can emphasize early intervention and thereby enable a skilled psychiatrist to assess suicidal thoughts, plans, means, and previous attempts, past and current life stresses, and available family and environmental support. All of this information will lead to a decision regarding hospitalization and treatment for the adolescent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:8721288