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Sample records for adolescents met criteria

  1. ICMJE authorship criteria are not met in a substantial proportion of manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica

    PubMed Central

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Mlinarić, Ana; Antončić, Dragana; Horvat, Martina; Omazić, Jelena; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to investigate if: (a) authors of Biochemia Medica meet authorship criteria given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), (b) authorship violations are more frequent in submissions containing some type of scientific misconduct. Materials and methods Self-reported authorship contributions regarding the three ICMJE criteria were analysed for all submissions to Biochemia Medica (February 2013-April 2015) which were forwarded to peer-review. To test the differences in frequencies we used Chi-squared test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results 186 manuscripts were authored by 804 authors. All ICMJE criteria were met by 487/804 (61%) authors. The first and the last author met all the criteria more frequently than those authors in between (P < 0.001). The degree to which ICMJE criteria was met for the first author did not differ between manuscripts authored by only one author and those authored by >1 author (P = 0.859). In 9% of the manuscripts ICMJE criteria were not met by a single author. Authors of the 171/186 manuscripts declared that all persons qualify for authorship but only 49% of them satisfied all ICMJE criteria. Authors have failed to acknowledge contributors in 88/186 (47%) manuscripts; instead these contributors have been listed as authors without fulfilling ICMJE criteria. Authorship violation was not more common in 42 manuscripts with some type of scientific misconduct (P = 0.135). Conclusion Large proportion of authors of the manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica do not fulfil ICMJE criteria. Violation of authorship criteria is not more common for manuscripts with some type of scientific misconduct. PMID:26526700

  2. Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bernhard M; Huemer, Julia; Rabl, Ulrich; Boubela, Roland N; Kalcher, Klaudius; Berger, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Jia, Tianye; Lathrop, Mark; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Bartova, Lucie; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Sitte, Harald H; Steiner, Hans; Friedrich, Max H; Kasper, Siegfried; Perkmann, Thomas; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Haslacher, Helmuth; Esterbauer, Harald; Moser, Ewald; Schumann, Gunter; Pezawas, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Prefrontal dopamine levels are relatively increased in adolescence compared to adulthood. Genetic variation of COMT (COMT Val158Met) results in lower enzymatic activity and higher dopamine availability in Met carriers. Given the dramatic changes of synaptic dopamine during adolescence, it has been suggested that effects of COMT Val158Met genotypes might have oppositional effects in adolescents and adults. The present study aims to identify such oppositional COMT Val158Met effects in adolescents and adults in prefrontal brain networks at rest. Resting state functional connectivity data were collected from cross-sectional and multicenter study sites involving 106 healthy young adults (mean age 24 ± 2.6 years), gender matched to 106 randomly chosen 14-year-olds. We selected the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) as seed due to its important role as nexus of the executive control and default mode network. We observed a significant age-dependent reversal of COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity between amPFC and ventrolateral as well as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus. Val homozygous adults exhibited increased and adolescents decreased connectivity compared to Met homozygotes for all reported regions. Network analyses underscored the importance of the parahippocampal gyrus as mediator of observed effects. Results of this study demonstrate that adolescent and adult resting state networks are dose-dependently and diametrically affected by COMT genotypes following a hypothetical model of dopamine function that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. This study might provide cues for the understanding of disease onset or dopaminergic treatment mechanisms in major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  3. Developing criteria for pediatric/adolescent bariatric surgery programs.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Marc; Kramer, Robert E; Fullmer, Michelle A; Polfuss, Michele; Porter, Renee; Ward-Begnoche, Wendy; Getzoff, Elizabeth A; Dreyer, Meredith; Stolzman, Stacy; Reichard, Kirk W

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of morbid obesity in adolescents is rising at an alarming rate. Comorbidities known to predispose to cardiovascular disease are increasingly being diagnosed in these children. Bariatric surgery has become an acceptable treatment alternative for morbidly obese adults, and criteria have been developed to establish center-of-excellence designation for adult bariatric surgery programs. Evidence suggests that bariatric surgical procedures are being performed with increasing numbers in adolescents. We have examined and compiled the current expert recommendations for guidelines and criteria that are needed to deliver safe and effective bariatric surgical care to adolescents.

  4. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Three Different Diagnostic Criteria among Low Earning Nomadic Kazakhs in the Far Northwest of China: New Cut-Off Points of Waist Circumference to Diagnose MetS and Its Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Heng; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Ma, Rulin; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Xu, Shangzhi; Li, Shugang; Yan, Yizhong; Mu, Lati; Rui, Dongsheng; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has aroused wide public concern, most studies on MetS tend to examine urban and high income settings, and few studies cover nomadic areas and low earning populations. This research aims to investigate the prevalence of MetS and explore the cut-off point of waist circumference in a nomadic minority typical of low income populations in the remote northwest region of China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3900 Kazakh adults aged 18–84 years from 2009–2010. Three widely used criteria (ATP III\\IDF\\JIS) were employed to estimate the prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs to compare them with other populations. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to explore the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 13.8%, 20.9%, and 24.8% based on the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in women and increased with age. Except for reduced HDL-cholesterol, the risk of other components of MetS increased with waist circumference enlargement. The cut-off point of waist circumference in screening at least two other components of MetS was 88 cm in men (Sensitivity = 61.1%, Specificity = 62.1%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.54) and 83 cm in women (Sensitivity = 60.0%, Specificity = 59.6%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.57). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs is higher than the national level of China and falls in between the Euro-American and Asia levels, as their cut-off points of waist circumference differ from that recommended for Chinese. We suggest a cost-effective strategy to screen for MetS and prevent cardiovascular disease using new cut-off points of waist circumference in low earning nomadic Kazakhs. PMID:26901035

  5. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  6. Ecstasy abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults: applicability and reliability of DSM-IV criteria.

    PubMed

    Cottler, Linda B.; Womack, Sharon B.; Compton, Wilson M.; Ben-Abdallah, Arbi

    2001-12-01

    As part of an ongoing National Institute on Drug Abuse study on the reliability of DSM substance use disorders, 173 adolescents and young adults have been interviewed to date with the CIDI-Substance Abuse Module (SAM) to determine use and abuse of and dependence on 'club drugs' and other substances. Respondents are recruited from a substance abuse program, high school ads, college dorm flyers, the internet and chain referral. Retest interviews after 5 days determined the reliability of responses. Ecstasy use was reported by 52 respondents (30%); of these users 52% were female and 23% were non-white. Nearly all users (94%) reported recent Ecstasy use. Among Ecstasy users, 'continuing to use despite knowledge of physical or psychological harm' was the most prevalent dependence criterion (63%), with excellent retest agreement (kappa = 0.66). Withdrawal (59%) and tolerance (35%) were also commonly reported dependence criteria. Hazardous use was the most commonly reported abuse symptom. Most surprising were the rates of Ecstasy use disorders: 43% met DSM-IV criteria for dependence; 34% met criteria for abuse; only 23% met neither. This is the first effort to assess the reliability of Ecstasy abuse and dependence, and the first to determine abuse and dependence using criteria specific to Ecstasy. The importance of additional studies and the relevance of such work to DSM-V are discussed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain function in adolescents: role for early alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Dinu-Biringer, R; Lourdusamy, A; Tzschoppe, J; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Millenet, S; Bach, C; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A L W; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Frouin, V; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Rietschel, M; Schumann, G; Flor, H

    2015-03-01

    Changes in reward processing have been identified as one important pathogenetic mechanism in alcohol addiction. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (rs6265/Val66Met) modulates the central nervous system activity of neurotransmitters involved in reward processing such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. It was identified as crucial for alcohol consumption in healthy adults and, in rats, specifically related to the function in the striatum, a region that is commonly involved in reward processing. However, studies in humans on the association of BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain functions and its role for alcohol consumption, a significant predictor of later alcohol addiction, are missing. Based on an intermediate phenotype approach, we assessed the early orientation toward alcohol and alcohol consumption in 530 healthy adolescents that underwent a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a significantly lower response in the putamen to reward anticipation in adolescent Met carriers with high versus low levels of alcohol consumption. During reward feedback, Met carriers with low putamen reactivity were significantly more likely to orient toward alcohol and to drink alcohol 2 years later. This study indicates a possible effect of BDNF Val66Met on alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adolescence. PMID:25650137

  8. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Interacts with Maternal Parenting Influencing Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Zhi; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Belsky, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Although depressive symptoms are common during adolescence, little research has examined gene-environment interaction on youth depression. This study chose the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, tested the interaction between a functional polymorphism resulting amino acid substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) in the proBDNF protein at codon 66 (Val66Met), and maternal parenting on youth depressive symptoms in a sample of 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (aged 11-17, M = 13.6, 51.3 % females). Participants reported their depressive symptoms and perceived maternal parenting. Results indicated the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of maternal warmth-reasoning, but not harshness-hostility, on youth depressive symptoms. Confirmatory model evaluation indicated that the interaction effect involving warmth-reasoning conformed to the differential-susceptibility rather than diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Thus, Val carriers experienced less depressive symptoms than Met homozygotes when mothering was more positive but more symptoms when mothering was less positive. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis of youth depressive symptoms and shed light on the importance of examining the gene-environment interaction from a developmental perspective.

  9. DEVELOPMENTAL TRAJECTORIES OF CRITERIA OF NICOTINE DEPENDENCE IN ADOLESCENCE*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mei-Chen; Muthén, Bengt; Shaffran, Christine C.; Griesler, Pamela; Kandel, Denise B.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the nature and predictors of developmental trajectories of symptoms of DSM-IV nicotine dependence in adolescence following smoking initiation. Data are from a longitudinal cohort of 324 new smokers from grades 6 to 10 in the Chicago Public Schools, interviewed 5 times at 6 month intervals. Monthly data on DSM-IV symptoms of nicotine dependence were available for 36 months. Growth mixture modeling was applied to the monthly histories to identify trajectories of DSM-IV criteria of nicotine dependence. A four-class solution best fitted the data: No DSM criterion (47.7%); Early onset/Chronic course (19.8%); Early onset/Remission (17.3%); Late onset (15.2%). Blunt use prior to cigarette use was associated with the three symptomatic trajectories. Conduct disorder and prior heavy smoking were associated with Class 2 (Chronic). Conduct disorder differentiated Class 2 from Class 4 (Late onset), while pleasant initial sensitivity to the first tobacco experience was associated with Classes 2 and 3 (Remit) and differentiated Class 2 from Class 4. Novelty seeking characterized Class 3. Parental dependence differentiated chronicity (Class 2) from remission (Class 3) among those who developed symptoms early. Being Hispanic reduced membership in Classes 3 and 4, and being male for Class 3. The data highlight the importance of parental nicotine dependence as a risk factor for early and sustained nicotine dependence by the offspring, pleasant initial sensitivity and conduct disorder for early onset of dependence, and blunt use prior to smoking for all trajectories. The factors important for onset of dependence are not necessarily the same as those for sustained course. PMID:18602225

  10. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  11. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  12. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  13. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  14. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  15. Comparison of three criteria for overweight and obesity classification in brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the nutritional status of adolescents using three criteria for nutritional status classification (Conde & Monteiro, International Obesity Task Force - IOTF and Word Health Organization - WHO), to analyze the correlation between these three criteria as for the overweight proportion, and to investigate whether factors associated with overweight and obesity differ among the three criteria. Methods Demographic (gender, age, geographic area) and anthropometric (body weight, height) variables were measured in 33.728 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years. The following criteria were investigated: IOTF (2000); Conde & Monteiro (2006); and WHO (2007). Results The overall overweight prevalence was 20.6% for the Conde & Monteiro criteria; 15.3% for the IOTF criteria and 20.1% for the WHO criteria. Both for boys and girls, the estimated overweight prevalence using the Conde & Monteiro and WHO criteria were higher than that using the IOTF criteria. Higher concordance was found between the Conde & Monteiro (2006) and WHO (2007) criteria for all age groups. Regarding associated factors, similar associations were found for the three criteria for higher BMI classification: being male, 11–12 and 13–14 years of age and living in the Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. Conclusion The criteria for BMI classification estimate overweight prevalence in a different way, and the criteria proposed by Conde & Monteiro resulted in higher prevalence in both sexes. Higher concordance between the Conde & Monteiro and WHO criteria was found for all age groups. The groups most vulnerable to showing overweight and obesity for the three criteria for BMI classification were males, age 11–12 and 13–14 years, and living in the Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions of Brazil. Overweight and obesity are considered a public health problem prevalent among adolescents in Brazil, regardless of the criteria adopted. PMID:23294869

  16. COMT Val(158)Met and 5HTTLPR functional loci interact to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence: results from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C A; Byrnes, G B; Anney, R J L; Collins, V; Hemphill, S A; Williamson, R; Patton, G C

    2007-10-01

    We investigated whether a composite genetic factor, based on the combined actions of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) (Val(158)Met) and serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) (Long-Short) functional loci, has a greater capacity to predict persistence of anxiety across adolescence than either locus in isolation. Analyses were performed on DNA collected from 962 young Australians participating in an eight-wave longitudinal study of mental health and well-being (Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study). When the effects of each locus were examined separately, small dose-response reductions in the odds of reporting persisting generalized (free-floating) anxiety across adolescence were observed for the COMT Met(158) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-0.95, P = 0.004] and 5HTTLPR Short alleles (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.79-0.99, P = 0.033). There was no evidence for a dose-response interaction effect between loci. However, there was a double-recessive interaction effect in which the odds of reporting persisting generalized anxiety were more than twofold reduced (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.29-0.70, P < 0.001) among carriers homozygous for both the COMT Met(158) and the 5HTTLPR Short alleles (Met(158)Met + Short-Short) compared with the remaining cohort. The double-recessive effect remained after multivariate adjustment for a range of psychosocial predictors of anxiety. Exploratory stratified analyses suggested that genetic protection may be more pronounced under conditions of high stress (insecure attachments and sexual abuse), although strata differences did not reach statistical significance. By describing the interaction between genetic loci, it may be possible to describe composite genetic factors that have a more substantial impact on psychosocial development than individual loci alone, and in doing so, enhance understanding of the contribution of constitutional processes in mental health outcomes. PMID:17504250

  17. BDNF-Val66Met variant and adolescent stress interact to promote susceptibility to anorexic behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Madra, M; Zeltser, L M

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets for anorexia nervosa (AN) because current medications do not impact eating behaviors that drive AN's high mortality rate. A major obstacle to developing new treatments is the lack of animal models that recapitulate the pattern of disease onset typically observed in human populations. Here we describe a translational mouse model to study interactions between genetic, psychological and biological risk factors that promote anorexic behavior. We combined several factors that are consistently associated with increased risk of AN—adolescent females, genetic predisposition to anxiety imposed by the BDNF-Val66Met gene variant, social isolation stress and caloric restriction (CR). Approximately 40% of the mice with all of these risk factors will exhibit severe self-imposed dietary restriction, sometimes to the point of death. We systematically varied the risk factors outlined above to explore how they interact to influence anorexic behavior. We found that the Val66Met genotype markedly increases the likelihood and severity of abnormal feeding behavior triggered by CR, but only when CR is imposed in the peri-pubertal period. Incidence of anorexic behavior in our model is dependent on juvenile exposure to social stress and can be extinguished by adolescent handling, but is discordant from anxiety-like behavior. Thus, this study characterized gene × environment interactions during adolescence that could be the underlying driver of abnormal eating behavior in certain AN patients, and represents a promising system to identify possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27045846

  18. Attenuated psychotic and basic symptom characteristics in adolescents with ultra-high risk criteria for psychosis, other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and early-onset psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lo Cascio, Nella; Saba, Riccardo; Hauser, Marta; Vernal, Ditte Lammers; Al-Jadiri, Aseel; Borenstein, Yehonatan; Sheridan, Eva M; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano; Fiori Nastro, Paolo; Girardi, Paolo; Gebhardt, Eva; Kane, John M; Auther, Andrea; Carrión, Ricardo E; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke; Correll, Christoph U

    2016-10-01

    While attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and basic symptoms (BS) are the main current predictors of psychosis in adults, studies in adolescents are scarce. Thus, we (1) described the prevalence and severity of positive, negative, disorganization, general, and basic symptoms in adolescent patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR), with other non-psychotic psychiatric disorders (PC) and with early-onset psychosis (EOP); and (2) investigated BS criteria in relation to UHR criteria. Sixty-nine 12-18-year-old adolescents (15.3 ± 1.7 years, female = 58.0 %, UHR = 22, PC = 27, EOP = 20) were assessed with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes (SIPS) and the schizophrenia proneness instrument-child and youth version (SPI-CY). Despite similar current and past 12-month global functioning, both UHR and EOP had significantly higher SIPS total and subscale scores compared to PC, with moderate-large effect sizes. Expectedly, UHR had significantly lower SIPS positive symptom scores than EOP, but similar SIPS negative, disorganized, and general symptom scores. Compared to PC, both EOP and UHR had more severe basic thought and perception disturbances, and significantly more often met cognitive disturbances criteria (EOP = 50.0 %, UHR = 40.9 %, PC = 14.8 %). Compared to UHR, both EOP and PC significantly less often met cognitive-perceptive BS criteria (EOP = 35.0 %, UHR = 68.2 %, PC = 25.9 %). BS were significantly more prevalent in both EOP and UHR than PC, and UHR were similar to EOP in symptom domains. Given the uncertain outcome of adolescents at clinical high-risk of psychosis, future research is needed to determine whether the combined assessment of early subjective disturbances with observable APS can improve the accuracy of psychosis prediction.

  19. Relationship between the COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met Polymorphisms, Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Experiences in an Adolescent General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Hugh; Kelleher, Ian; Flannery, Padraig; Clarke, Mary C.; Lynch, Fionnuala; Harley, Michelle; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Morris, Derek W.; Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychotic experiences occur at a much greater prevalence in the population than psychotic disorders. There has been little research to date, however, on genetic risk for this extended psychosis phenotype. We examined whether COMT or BDNF genotypes were associated with psychotic experiences or interacted with childhood trauma in predicting psychotic experiences. Method Psychiatric interviews and genotyping for COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met were carried out on two population-based samples of 237 individuals aged 11-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine for main effects by genotype and childhood trauma, controlling for important covariates. This was then compared to a model with a term for interaction between genotype and childhood trauma. Where a possible interaction was detected, this was further explored in stratified analyses. Results While childhood trauma showed a borderline association with psychotic experiences, COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met genotypes were not directly associated with psychotic experiences in the population. Testing for gene x environment interaction was borderline significant in the case of COMT-Val158Met with individuals with the COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype, who had been exposed to childhood trauma borderline significantly more likely to report psychotic experiences than those with Val-Met or Met-Met genotypes. There was no similar interaction by BDNF-Val66Met genotype. Conclusion The COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype may be a genetic moderator of risk for psychotic experiences in individuals exposed to childhood traumatic experiences. PMID:24224001

  20. Prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder: review of diagnostic validation by Robins and Guze criteria.

    PubMed

    Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenology of pediatric bipolar disorder is a controversial topic in the field of child psychiatry. The first National Institute of Mental Health-funded study in the field, Phenomenology and Course of Pediatric Bipolar Disorders, selected a conservative phenotype for credibility in a contentious field. To address the problems of differentiation of mania from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of the ubiquitous manifestation of irritability across child psychiatry diagnoses, a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP) was defined by DSM-IV bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed phase) with elation and/or grandiosity as one criterion. This criterion avoided diagnosing mania by symptoms that overlapped with those of ADHD (e.g., hyperactivity, distractibility) and ensured that subjects had at least 1 of the cardinal symptoms of mania (i.e., elation or grandiosity). This definition was analogous to the requirement that DSM-IV major depressive disorder include at least 1 of the cardinal symptoms of depression (i.e., sad mood or anhedonia). Subjects were 93 children with a mean +/- SD age of 10.9 +/- 2.6 years. Validation of the phenotype was shown according to Robins and Guze criteria: unique symptoms that did not overlap with those of ADHD, stability of the diagnosis (did not become ADHD or other disorders on follow-up) as shown by a 4-year prospective longitudinal study, significantly higher familial aggregation of bipolar disorder in relatives of PEA-BP versus ADHD and healthy control probands, and family-based linkage disequilibrium of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66 allele in PEA-BP probands. Furthermore, PEA-BP resembled the most severe adult bipolar disorder, manifested by a chronic, ultradian-cycling, mixed manic, psychotic course. A conservatively defined child mania phenotype met the Robins and Guze criteria for establishing diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness. Continuities between PEA-BP and

  1. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.705 What criteria... Annual Assessment Waiver, we must determine that our irrigation facilities are not capable of delivering adequate irrigation water to your farm unit. Inadequate water supply due to natural conditions or...

  2. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.705 What criteria... Annual Assessment Waiver, we must determine that our irrigation facilities are not capable of delivering adequate irrigation water to your farm unit. Inadequate water supply due to natural conditions or...

  3. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.705 What criteria... Annual Assessment Waiver, we must determine that our irrigation facilities are not capable of delivering adequate irrigation water to your farm unit. Inadequate water supply due to natural conditions or...

  4. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.705 What criteria... Annual Assessment Waiver, we must determine that our irrigation facilities are not capable of delivering adequate irrigation water to your farm unit. Inadequate water supply due to natural conditions or...

  5. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.705 What criteria... Annual Assessment Waiver, we must determine that our irrigation facilities are not capable of delivering adequate irrigation water to your farm unit. Inadequate water supply due to natural conditions or...

  6. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase "Val[superscript 158]Met" Genotype, Parenting Practices and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Testing the Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Treutlein, Jens; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, first evidence has been reported for a gene-parenting interaction (G x E) with regard to adolescent alcohol use. The present investigation set out to extend this research using the catechol-O-methyltransferase ("COMT") "Val[superscript 158]Met" polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor. Moreover, the current study…

  7. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  8. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed.

  9. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  10. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for the DSM-5 of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Female Adolescents: Diagnostic and Clinical Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is included as conditions for further study in the DSM-5. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the proposed diagnostic criteria and the diagnostic and clinical correlates for the validity of a diagnostic entity. The authors investigated the characteristics of NSSI disorder and the proposed diagnostic criteria. A sample of 73 female inpatient adolescents and 37 nonclinical adolescents (aged 13 to 19 years) was recruited. Patients were classified into 4 groups (adolescents with NSSI disorder, adolescents with NSSI without impairment/distress, clinical controls without NSSI, and nonclinical controls). Adolescents were compared on self-reported psychopathology and diagnostic cooccurrences. Results indicate that adolescents with NSSI disorder have a higher level of impairment than adolescents with other mental disorders without NSSI. Most common comorbid diagnoses were major depression, social phobia, and PTSD. There was some overlap of adolescents with NSSI disorder and suicidal behaviour and borderline personality disorder, but there were also important differences. Results further suggest that the proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for NSSI are useful and necessary. In conclusion, NSSI is a highly impairing disorder characterized by high comorbidity with various disorders, providing further evidence that NSSI should be a distinct diagnostic entity. PMID:24236273

  11. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach.

  12. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach. PMID:25826043

  13. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Gray Matter Volume in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Fukui, Kento; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Yokota, Susumu; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    The Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with psychiatric disorders and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in adults. However, the relationship between BDNF and rGMV in children has not been clarified. In this 3-year cross-sectional/longitudinal (2 time points) study, we investigated the effects of BDNF genotypes on rGMV in 185 healthy Japanese children aged 5.7–18.4 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses. We found that the volume of the right cuneus in Met homozygotes (Met/Met) was greater than in Val homozygotes (Val/Val) in both exams, and the left insula and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex volumes were greater in Val homozygotes versus Met homozygotes in Exam l. In addition, Met homozygous subjects exhibited higher processing speed in intelligence indices than Val homozygotes and Val/Met heterozygotes at both time points. Longitudinal analysis showed that the left temporoparietal junction volume of Val/Met heterozygotes increased more substantially over the 3-year study period than in Val homozygotes, and age-related changes were observed for the Val/Met genotype. Our findings suggest that the presence of 2 Met alleles may have a positive effect on rGMV at the developmental stages analyzed in this study. PMID:26830347

  14. Identifying genetic predictors of depression risk: 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms are associated with rumination and co-rumination in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey B.; McGeary, John E.; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite research supporting moderate heritability of depression, efforts to replicate candidate gene associations to depression have yielded inconsistent results. We tested whether Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR exhibit utility as genetic markers of depression risk, testing for replicable associations to cognitive and interpersonal endophenotypes of depression (rumination and co-rumination), and further exploring developmental and sex moderation. Method: In Study I, 228 youth (ages 8–14) of mothers with or without a history of MDD during the child's lifetime were recruited from the community. Replication tests were carried out in Study II, a sample of 87 youth with similar recruitment. Results: In Study I, the Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with rumination in adolescents, but not children, such that adolescents homozygous for the Val allele reported higher rumination levels. Further, a cumulative genetic score (CGS) (Val66Val and 5-HTTLPR) predicted higher levels of co-rumination, specifically among adolescent girls. Both genetic associations maintained significance after covarying for current depressive symptomology, and the other endophenotype. Finally, both genetic associations exhibited similar effect sizes in Study II, although results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Results replicate a previously reported association between the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val allele and rumination in adolescents, and provide preliminary support for a CGS predictive of co-rumination in adolescent girls. The current study indicates that candidate genes may demonstrate utility as consistent genetic markers of depression risk when focused on specific phenotypes, and supports the need to explore potential differential effects of developmental stage and sex. However, given the small sample sizes and possibility of chance findings, these results should be interpreted with caution pending replication. PMID:24312122

  15. Core and Peripheral Criteria of Video Game Addiction in the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16–74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach. PMID:25826043

  16. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies.

  17. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents According to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    In both adults and children, metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been attributed to risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. This descriptive study aimed to compare the prevalence of MetS and diagnostic components according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 2330 Korean adolescents (10–18 years), using data from the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey-V. The NCEP-ATP III and IDF were used to diagnose MetS and yielded prevalence rates of 5.7% and 2.1%, respectively, with no sex-related differences. The most frequent MetS diagnostic components according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria were high triglyceride levels (21.2%) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (13.6%), respectively; approximately 50.1% and 33.1% of adolescents had at least one MetS diagnostic component according to the respective criteria. Both overweight/obese male and female adolescents exhibited significantly increased prevalence rates of MetS and related diagnostic components, compared to normal-weight adolescents. In conclusion, the prevalence rates of MetS and diagnostic components differ according to the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria. Henceforth, efforts are needed to establish diagnostic criteria for Korean adolescents. PMID:27706073

  18. [Nutritional status of adolescents in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, assessed by national and international criteria].

    PubMed

    Costa, Andréa Suzana Vieira; Chein, Maria Bethânia da Costa; Tonial, Sueli Rosina; Gama, Mônica Elinor Alves; Martins, Maylla Luanna Barbosa; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; da Silva, Diego Salvador Muniz; Cruz, Paulo Roberto Silva; Brito, Luciane Maria Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to compare national and international criteria for assessing the nutritional status of adolescents. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the period from July 2007 to January 2008 with a representative sample comprised of 1256 adolescents from the state of Maranhão. Body mass index (BMI) for age and gender was used to diagnose underweight, normal weight and overweight, using the criteria proposed by Conde and Monteiro and the World Health Organization (WHO). Chi-square, McNemar concordance and Spearman correlation tests were applied. According to the criteria of Conde and Monteiro and the WHO, there were significant differences among the boys with respect to low weight and obesity. It was observed that there was no significant divergence between the two criteria, and a significant positive correlation (0.011) between the two criteria was detected. With this analysis it can be seen that there are many divergences between the criteria used, therefore the best option and the advantage of using one or the other cannot be singled out. However, it should be stressed that the national criterion can also be used more, since there are no significant differences with the criteria advocated by the Ministry of Health of the WHO.

  19. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  20. Association of ghrelin with cardiometabolic risk factors in Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shafiee, Gita; Qorbani, Mostafa; Azizi-Soleiman, Fatemeh; Djalalinia, Shirin; Esmaeil Motlagh, Mohammad; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ahadi, Zeinab; Safari, Omid; Safiri, Saeid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Current evidence suggests that ghrelin could contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but limited experience exists in adolescents. This study aims to explore the association of ghrelin levels with the MetS components among Iranian adolescents. Methods: In this case-control study, 32 adolescents with MetS and 148 healthy controls were selected randomly from the childhood and Adolescence Surveillance and Prevention of Adult Non communicable disease (CASPIAN-III) study. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for children and adolescents. Anthropometric measures (including body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC] and waist to height ratio [WHtR]), blood pressure (BP) and biochemical data (including fasting blood sugar [FBS], triglyceride [TG], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC] and gerlin) were measured. Results: Total ghrelin level was significantly higher in students without MetS compared to those with MetS (748.89 ± 85.04 vs. 728.72 ± 90.36 [pg/mL]; P < 0.001). Significant negative correlations were seen between ghrelin levels and BMI, WC, WHtR, TG, and TC. Ghrelin had also relatively strong inverse correlations with FBS (r = −0.59, P< 0.001), LDL-C (r = −0.56, P < 0.001), and positive correlation with HDL-C (r = 0.60, P < 0.001). Compared with the children with MetS, in those without MetS, ghrelin was significantly associated with HDL-C and LDL-C. A decreasing trend was observed in the mean ghrelin level across increasing number of MetS components (P for trend <0.001). Conclusion: We observed a relationship between ghrelin concentration and MetS components in adolescents. PMID:27777695

  1. The Interacting Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Depression Is Not an Artifact of Gene-Environment Correlation: Evidence from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the…

  2. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  3. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population. All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1–18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population. Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1–V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r′ wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed. These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  4. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  5. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  6. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  7. The relationships among caregiver and adolescent identity status, identity distress and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Rachel E; Berman, Steven L

    2012-10-01

    The present study addresses the relationships of caregiver identity status on their adolescent children's identity distress and psychological symptom severity among a sample of adolescents (age 12-19) in treatment at a community mental health center (N = 60 caregiver-child dyads). A significant proportion of caregivers (10%) and their adolescent children (21.7%) met DSM-IV criteria for Identity Problem. Caregiver identity commitment, significantly predicted adolescent identity distress over and above the adolescents' identity variables, while caregiver identity exploration significantly predicted adolescent psychological symptom severity. These findings and implications are discussed in further detail.

  8. A Comparison of Various DSM Criteria for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.

    In recent years the pace has been accelerating by which changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) systems are made. Revisions occur before extensive empirical knowledge can be drawn upon to guide these changes. For substance use disorders, the criteria have undergone changes from DSM-III to DSM-III-R, and from…

  9. Should Adolescents Go "Back" to the Basics?: A Review of Teaching Word Reading Skills to Middle and High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Schisler, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to explore the effectiveness of teaching basic reading skills to adolescents. Studies that were published in the past 20 years from 1986 to 2006 were selected and reviewed on the basis of specific criteria for inclusion. Results indicated that there were 23 studies that met the criteria. Findings revealed that…

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents: Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycle 1 (2007-2009) and Cycle 2 (2009-2011)

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, M.; de Groh, M.; Loukine, L.; Prud’homme, D.; Dubois, L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We investigated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its risk factors, and the influence of socioeconomic status, in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Canadian Health Measures Survey cycle 1 (2007–2009) and cycle 2 (2009–2011) respondents aged 10 to 18 years who provided fasting blood samples were included (n  =  1228). The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) consensus definition for children and adolescents (10–15 years) and worldwide adult definition (≥ 16 years) were used to diagnose MetS. Prevalence of MetS and its risk factors were calculated and differences by socioeconomic status were examined using χ2 tests. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 2.1%. One-third (37.7%) of participants had at least one risk factor, with the most prevalent being abdominal obesity (21.6%), low HDL-C (19.1%) and elevated triglyceride levels (7.9%). This combination of abdominal obesity, low HDL-C and elevated triglyceride levels accounted for 61.5% of MetS cases. Participants from households with the highest income adequacy and educational attainment levels had the lowest prevalence of one or more MetS risk factors, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C. Conclusion: The prevalence of MetS (2.1%) was lower than previously reported in Canada (3.5%) and the USA (4.2%–9.2%), potentially due to the strict application of the IDF criteria for studying MetS. One-third of Canadian children and adolescents have at least one risk factor for MetS. Given that the risk for MetS increases with age, these prevalence estimates, coupled with a national obesity prevalence of almost 10% among youth, point to a growing risk of MetS and other chronic diseases for Canadian youth. PMID:26878492

  11. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  12. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  13. Reciprocity in Adolescent and Caregiver Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Slesnick, Natasha; Carmona, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, with assessments every six months, the reciprocity in violent behaviors (verbal and physical) was investigated in a sample of 161 adolescents, who met the criteria for substance or alcohol abuse or dependence, and their caregivers, who participated in a clinical trial for family treatment for adolescent substance abuse. Using observed variables in a structural equation model with panel data, there was very little stability in violent behaviors across time from the perspectives of both the adolescents and caregivers. Evidence for violence reciprocity between adolescent and caregiver was demonstrated toward the end of the study period. The results are discussed in the context of previous literature about adolescent-to-parent violence. PMID:25684856

  14. The cutoff values of indirect indices for measuring insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Sang Hoo; Kim, Yoojin; Im, Minji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR) among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups. Methods Data from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10–18 years) were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007–2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used. Indirect measures of IR were homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index. The cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were obtained from the receiver operation characteristic curves. Results According to the MetS criteria of de Ferranti el al., Cook et al., and the International Diabetes Federation, the prevalence rates in males and females were 13.9% and 12.3%, 4.6% and 3.6%, and 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. Uses these 3 criteria, the cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were 2.94 and 8.41, 3.29 and 8.38, and 3.54 and 8.66, respectively. The cutoff values using each of the 3 criteria approximately corresponds to the 50th–75th, 75th, and 75th–90th percentiles of normal HOMA-IR and TyG index levels. Conclusion This study describes the prevalence rates of MetS in Korean children and adolescents, an index of IR, and the cutoff values for MetS with the aim of detecting high-risk groups. The usefulness of these criteria needs to be verified by further evaluation. PMID:27777906

  15. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Adolescents Analysis of Risk by 2004 National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Staging Criteria

    PubMed Central

    McNiece, Karen L.; Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Samuels, Joshua; Bell, Cynthia; Garcia, Kathleen; Poffenbarger, Timothy; Sorof, Jonathan M.; Portman, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    The National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents recently recommended staging hypertension (HTN) in children and adolescents based on blood pressure severity. The use of blood pressure staging and its corresponding therapeutic approach was examined in this pooled analysis assessing the risk for end-organ damage, specifically left ventricular hypertrophy among hypertensive adolescents stratified by working group criteria. Newly diagnosed hypertensive adolescents and normotensive control subjects similar in age, race/ethnicity, gender, and body mass index completed casual and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements, M-mode echocardiography, and fasting serum laboratories. Hypertensive subjects had higher insulin and cholesterol but similar glucose levels as compared with control subjects. Among subjects with stage 1 HTN by casual blood pressure, 34% had white-coat HTN as opposed to 15% of stage 2 hypertensive subjects. Of the subjects with normal casual measurements, 20% had HTN by ambulatory monitoring. Subjects with stage 2 HTN by casual measurement alone (odds ratio: 4.13; 95% CI: 1.04 to 16.48) and after 24-hour ambulatory confirmation (odds ratio: 7.23; 95% CI: 1.28 to 40.68) had increased odds for left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, the risk for left ventricular hypertrophy was similar for subjects with masked and confirmed stage 1 HTN, whereas subjects with white-coat HTN had a risk comparable to normotensive subjects. Thus, recommendations that adolescents with stage 2 HTN by casual measurements alone receive medication initially along with therapeutic lifestyle counseling are reasonable, though ambulatory blood pressure monitoring remains a valuable tool for evaluating children with stage 2 HTN, because >10% have white-coat HTN. PMID:17592068

  16. Pertussis Prevalence in Korean Adolescents and Adults with Persistent Cough.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Ju Sang

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of pertussis in Korean adolescents and adults with persistent cough. Study population was adolescents (aged 11-20 yr) and adults (≥ 21 yr old) who showed persistent cough of 1-8 weeks' duration. Pertussis was diagnosed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. A total of 310 subjects participated in this study, and 76 cases (24.5%) met the criteria for laboratory-confirmed pertussis. The majority of the pertussis cases (66/76) were confirmed by serology, while 3 cases (1.0%) were diagnosed with culture, and 10 cases (3.2%) were detected with PCR. Of the 76 subjects diagnosed with pertussis, 20/86 cases were adolescents and 56/224 cases were adults. Neither adolescents nor adults received adolescent-adult booster against pertussis within the previous 5 yr. Pertussis can be a primary cause of persistent cough in Korean adolescents and adults.

  17. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6-59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5-13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2-16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components.

  18. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  19. Helping Clinicians Prevent Pregnancy among Sexually Active Adolescents: U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emily M

    2015-08-01

    The United States has made substantial progress in reducing teenage birth rates in recent decades, but rates remain high. Teen pregnancy can increase the risk of poor health outcomes and lead to decreased educational attainment, increased poverty, and welfare use, as well as increased cost to taxpayers. One of the most effective ways to prevent teenage pregnancy is through the use of effective birth control methods. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has made the prevention of teenage pregnancy 1 of its 10 winnable battles. The CDC has released 2 evidence-based clinical guideline documents regarding contraceptive use for adolescents and adults. The first guideline, US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, helps clinicians recognize when a contraceptive method may not be safe to use for a particular adolescent but also when not to withhold a contraceptive method that is safe to use. The second document, US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, provides guidance for how to use contraceptive methods safely and effectively once they are deemed safe. Health care providers are encouraged to use these documents to provide safe and effective contraceptive care to patients seeking family planning, including adolescents.

  20. Rational Emotive Therapy with Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Nelson, J. Ron; Gutkin, Terry B.; Saunders, Anita; Galloway, Ann; Shwery, Craig S.

    2004-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the available research on rational emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) with children and adolescents. Meta-analytic procedures were applied to 19 studies that met inclusion criteria. The overall mean weighted effect of REBT was positive and significant. Weighted z[r] effect sizes were also computed for five…

  1. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  2. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  3. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  4. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs.

  5. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

  6. MET ONE 831

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Met One 831 sensor measures particulate matter (PM) by counting and sizing individual particles using scattered laser light. The unit then converts the count data to mass measurements in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). The Met One 831 counts particles in four different PM...

  7. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  8. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  9. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  10. An Open Trial of Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT) for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Timko, C. Alix; Zucker, Nancy L.; Herbert, James D.; Rodriguez, Daniel; Merwin, Rhonda M.

    2016-01-01

    Family based-treatments have the most empirical support in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa; yet, a significant percentage of adolescents and their families do not respond to manualized family based treatment (FBT). The aim of this open trial was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of an innovative family-based approach to the treatment of anorexia: Acceptance-based Separated Family Treatment (ASFT). Treatment was grounded in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), delivered in a separated format, and included an ACT-informed skills program. Adolescents (ages 12–18) with anorexia or sub-threshold anorexia and their families received 20 treatment sessions over 24 weeks. Outcome indices included eating disorder symptomatology reported by the parent and adolescent, percentage of expected body weight achieved, and changes in psychological acceptance/avoidance. Half of the adolescents (48.0%) met criteria for full remission at the end of treatment, 29.8% met criteria for partial remission, and 21.3% did not improve. Overall, adolescents had a significant reduction in eating disorder symptoms and reached expected body weight. Treatment resulted in changes in psychological acceptance in the expected direction for both parents and adolescents. This open trial provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of ASFT for adolescents with anorexia. Directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25898341

  11. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  12. Interventions to Improve the Literacy Functioning of Adolescents with Emotional and/or Behavior Disorders: A Review of the Literature between 1965 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Harper, John

    2008-01-01

    This review examines interventions intended to improve the literacy functioning of adolescent students with emotional and/or behavior disorders. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria and included a variety of interventions designed to affect a variety of literacy areas, including spelling, writing, and reading fluency. Findings from these…

  13. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie Sarno; Bunford, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano ( 2008 ) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2007 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. Our review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press ) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we conclude that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management, and behavioral peer interventions are well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  14. Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents: diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts.

    PubMed

    Nock, Matthew K; Joiner, Thomas E; Gordon, Kathryn H; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2006-09-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent behavioral problem, yet many fundamental aspects of NSSI remain unknown. This case series study reports on the diagnostic correlates of adolescents with a recent history of NSSI and examines the relation between NSSI and suicide attempts. Data are from clinical interviews with 89 adolescents admitted to an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit who engaged in NSSI in the previous 12 months. Results revealed that 87.6% of adolescents engaging in NSSI met criteria for a DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (M=3.0, S.D.=2.2, range=0 to 8 diagnoses), including externalizing (62.9%), internalizing (51.7%), and substance use (59.6%) disorders. Most adolescents assessed also met criteria for an Axis II personality disorder (67.3%). Overall, 70% of adolescents engaging in NSSI reported a lifetime suicide attempt and 55% reported multiple attempts. Characteristics of NSSI associated with making suicide attempts included a longer history of NSSI, use of a greater number of methods, and absence of physical pain during NSSI. These findings demonstrate the diagnostic heterogeneity of adolescents engaging in NSSI, highlight the significant overlap between NSSI and suicide attempts, and provide a point of departure for future research aimed at elucidating the relations between non-suicidal and suicidal self-injury.

  15. Diagnosis and subtypes of adolescent antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Jones, Meredith; Westen, Drew

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the application of the Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) diagnosis to adolescents and investigated the possibility of subtypes of APD adolescents. As part of a broader study of adolescent personality in clinically-referred patients, experienced clinicians provided personality data on a randomly selected patient in their care using the SWAP-II-A personality pathology instrument. Three hundred thirteen adolescents met adult DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for APD. To characterize adolescents with the disorder, we aggregated the data to identify the items most descriptive and distinctive of APD adolescents relative to other teenagers in the sample (N = 950). Q-factor analysis identified five personality subtypes: psychopathic-like, socially withdrawn, impulsive-histrionic, emotionally dysregulated, and attentionally dysregulated. The five subtypes differed in predictable ways on a set of external criteria related to global adaptive functioning, childhood family environment, and family history of psychiatric illness. Both the APD diagnosis and the empirically derived APD subtypes provided incremental validity over and above the DSM-IV disruptive behavior disorders in predicting global adaptive functioning, number of arrests, early-onset severe externalizing pathology, and quality of peer relationships. Although preliminary, these results provide support for the use of both APD and personality-based subtyping systems in adolescents.

  16. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  17. [Histamine intolerance - are the criteria of an adverse reaction met?].

    PubMed

    Reese, Imke

    2016-06-01

    Searching the internet for an explaination of recurring symptoms, many people come across the so-called histamine intolerance disorder. Also many practitioners like to diagnose this disorder without making sure that reproducibility, a prerequisite for an adverse reaction, is present. Consequently, presumably affected persons are often advised to follow a low-histamine diet. Depending on the source of information, these diets often avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on patient quality of life. While most persons benefit from such a diet in the beginning - this might be due to the change in dietary habits or the expectation of symptom improvement by dieting - in the long run the expected loss of symptoms will not happen. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release is responsible for reactions. The role of ingested histamine is discussed controversially. However, it is more than obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance.If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergologists and nutritionists/dieticians. PMID:27177895

  18. Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodological problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N=2,000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others’ safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions Whereas most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities. PMID:24580551

  19. MET expression and copy number heterogeneity in nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (nsNSCLC)

    PubMed Central

    Taus, Álvaro; Pijuan, Lara; Arumí, Miriam; Lorenzo, Marta; Menéndez, Silvia; Cañadas, Israel; Albanell, Joan; Serrano, Sergio; Espinet, Blanca; Salido, Marta; Arriola, Edurne

    2015-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess MET intratumoral heterogeneity and its potential impact on biomarker-based patient selection as well as potential surrogate biomarkers of MET activation. Methods Our study included 120 patients with non-squamous Non-small-cell Lung Cancer (nsNSCLC), of which 47 were incorporated in tissue microarrays (TMA). Four morphologically distinct tumor areas were selected to assess MET heterogeneity. MET positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was defined as an above-median H-score and by +2/+3 staining intensity in >50% of tumor cells (Metmab criteria). MET FISH positivity was defined by MET/CEP7 ratio ≥ 2.0 and/or MET ≥ 5.0. MET staining pattern (cytoplasmic vs. membranous) and mesenchymal markers were investigated as surrogates of MET activation. Results Median MET H-score was 140 (range 0–400) and 47.8% of patients were MET positive by Metmab criteria. Eight cases (6.8%) were MET FISH positive and showed higher H-scores (p = 0.021). MET positivity by IHC changed in up to 40% of cases among different tumor areas, and MET amplification in 25–50%. Cytoplasmic MET staining and positivity for vimentin predicted poor survival (p = 0.042 and 0.047, respectively). Conclusions MET status is highly heterogeneous among different nsNSCLC tumor areas, hindering adequate patient selection for MET-targeted therapies. MET cytoplasmic staining and vimentin might represent surrogate markers for MET activation. PMID:26041880

  20. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02–8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01–7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01–6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  1. Mediating effects of dietary intake on associations of TV viewing, body mass index and metabolic syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, S. A.; Lacy, K. E.; Dunstan, D. W.; Carson, V.; Salmon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Evidence suggests that TV viewing is associated with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. However, it is unclear whether dietary intake mediates these relationships. Methods A cross‐sectional analysis was conducted in adolescents (12–19 years) participating in the 2003–2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMI z scores (zBMI) (n = 3,161) and MetS (n = 1,379) were calculated using age‐ and sex‐specific criteria for adolescents. TV viewing (h/day) was measured via a self‐reported questionnaire, and dietary intake was assessed using two 24‐h recalls. Using the MacKinnon method, a series of mediation analyses were conducted examining five dietary mediators (total energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, discretionary snacks, sugar‐sweetened beverages and diet quality) of the relationships between TV viewing and zBMI and MetS. Results Small positive relationships were observed between TV viewing and zBMI (β = 0.99, p < 0.001) and TV viewing and MetS (OR = 1.18, p = 0.046). No dietary element appeared to mediate the relationship between TV viewing and zBMI. However, sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake partially mediated the relationship between TV viewing and MetS, explaining 8.7% and 4.1% of the relationship, respectively. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of the relationships between TV viewing, dietary intake and cardiometabolic health outcomes, and that TV viewing should remain a target for interventions. PMID:27708839

  2. Mediating effects of dietary intake on associations of TV viewing, body mass index and metabolic syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, S. A.; Lacy, K. E.; Dunstan, D. W.; Carson, V.; Salmon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Evidence suggests that TV viewing is associated with body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents. However, it is unclear whether dietary intake mediates these relationships. Methods A cross‐sectional analysis was conducted in adolescents (12–19 years) participating in the 2003–2006 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. BMI z scores (zBMI) (n = 3,161) and MetS (n = 1,379) were calculated using age‐ and sex‐specific criteria for adolescents. TV viewing (h/day) was measured via a self‐reported questionnaire, and dietary intake was assessed using two 24‐h recalls. Using the MacKinnon method, a series of mediation analyses were conducted examining five dietary mediators (total energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, discretionary snacks, sugar‐sweetened beverages and diet quality) of the relationships between TV viewing and zBMI and MetS. Results Small positive relationships were observed between TV viewing and zBMI (β = 0.99, p < 0.001) and TV viewing and MetS (OR = 1.18, p = 0.046). No dietary element appeared to mediate the relationship between TV viewing and zBMI. However, sugar‐sweetened beverage consumption and fruit and vegetable intake partially mediated the relationship between TV viewing and MetS, explaining 8.7% and 4.1% of the relationship, respectively. Conclusions These findings highlight the complexity of the relationships between TV viewing, dietary intake and cardiometabolic health outcomes, and that TV viewing should remain a target for interventions.

  3. Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood: Acceptability and Clinical Utility of the World Health Organization’s Proposed ICD-11 Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Beek, Titia F.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouman, Walter P.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; Elaut, Els; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992). Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10) with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners) and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium) and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of ‘Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood’ (GIAA). A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium) (1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both healthcare providers and (partners/relatives of) transgender people. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Most participants were in favor of the proposed diagnostic term of ‘Gender Incongruence’ and thought that this was an improvement on the ICD-10 diagnostic term of ‘Transsexualism’. Placement in a separate chapter dealing with Sexual- and Gender-related Health or as a Z-code was preferred by many and only a small number of participants stated that this diagnosis should be excluded from the ICD-11. In the UK, most transgender participants thought there should be a diagnosis related to being trans. However, if it were to be removed from the chapter on “psychiatric disorders”, many transgender respondents indicated that they would prefer it to be removed from the ICD in its entirety. There were no large differences between the responses of the transgender participants (or their partners and relatives) and HCPs. HCPs were generally positive about the GIAA diagnosis; most thought the diagnosis was clearly

  4. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  5. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  6. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review the extant literature on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (10–19 years old) of both sexes. Design. The search was carried out using Medline and Scopus considering articles published from the establishment of the databanks until June 7, 2012. Data on the prevalence of children being overweight and obese from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) website was also reviewed. Only original articles and one National Health Report were considered. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results. Twenty-five of these studies were nationally representative, and ten countries were represented only by regional data. Conclusions. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents worldwide is high, and obesity is higher among boys. The IOTF criterion is the most frequently used method to classify adolescents as overweighed or obese in public health research. PMID:24555142

  7. Consulting for substance abuse: mental disorders among adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, S; Tengström, A; Bylin, S; Göranson, M; Hagen, L; Janson, M; Larsson, A; Lundgren-Andersson, C; Lundmark, C; Norell, E; Pedersen, H

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted outside of Scandinavia indicate that most adolescents with substance misuse problems suffer from co-morbid mental disorders. The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents seeking help for substance misuse problems in a large Swedish city. Parents' mental health was also examined. The sample included 97 girls with their 90 mothers and 52 fathers, and 81 boys with their 72 mothers and 37 fathers. The adolescents completed a diagnostic interview, either the Kiddie-SADs or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) depending on their age. Their parents underwent diagnostic interviews with the SCID. Ninety per cent of the girls and 81% of the boys met criteria for at least one disorder other than substance misuse, and on average, they suffered from three other disorders, most of which had onset before substance misuse began. Almost 80% of the mothers and 67% of the fathers met criteria for at least one mental disorder other than alcohol and drug-related disorders. The findings concur with those reported from studies conducted in North America. The results suggest that in Sweden mental disorders are not being identified and effectively treated among some children and young adolescents who subsequently abuse alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Adolescents who consult for substance abuse problems require assessments and treatment by mental health professionals.

  8. The Cool Teens CD-ROM for anxiety disorders in adolescents : a pilot case series.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, M J; Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M; Lyneham, H J; Schniering, C A; Hudson, J L

    2009-02-01

    Five adolescents received a multimedia CD-ROM containing a self-help treatment program for young people with an anxiety disorder. Participants used the 8-module Cool Teens CD-ROM over a 12-week period on a home computer. Every 2 weeks, they received a brief telephone call from a clinical psychologist to monitor symptoms and progress and to discuss any problems with understanding content or implementing techniques. Based on structured interviews, two participants (40%) no longer met diagnostic criteria (self-report ADIS) for at least one clinical anxiety disorder immediately following treatment and these same participants no longer met diagnostic criteria for any clinical anxiety disorder at 3-month follow-up. Two other participants failed to make gains based on diagnostic criteria, but showed improvement in anxiety symptoms for one main fear. Participants were generally satisfied with the multimedia content, the modules, and the delivery format of the program.

  9. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Provide nationally representative data on the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among African American and Caribbean black adolescents in the United States. Method Data on nonfatal suicidal behavior among 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 years are from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent, a nationally representative household survey of adults with an attached adolescent sample conducted between February 2001 and June 2003. Results Nationwide black adolescents reported having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5% for suicidal ideation and 2.7% for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt was 3.2% and 1.4%, respectively. Among all respondents, 4% of black American adolescents and 7% of female subjects were projected to attempt suicide by age 17 years. African American adolescents were approximately five times more likely than Caribbean black adolescents to attempt suicide. Almost half of the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent respondents who reported a suicide attempt had never met criteria for any of the DSM-IV disorders by the time of their attempts. Conclusions Clinicians should be trained to screen for suicidal behavior, even among those without DSM-IV disorders, when treating black adolescents, particularly female subjects. In addition, preventive efforts should consider ethnic differences in suicide risk and targeting nonclinical settings. PMID:19182692

  10. Invasive treatments for complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Zernikow, Boris; Wager, Julia; Brehmer, Hannah; Hirschfeld, Gerrit; Maier, Christoph

    2015-03-01

    This review aimed to synthesize the current evidence on the effectiveness of invasive treatments for complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents. Studies on children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome that evaluated the effects of invasive treatment were identified in PubMed (search March 2013). Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. Articles reported on a total of 173 children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome. Generally, many studies lack methodological quality. The invasive treatments applied most often were singular sympathetic blocks, followed by epidural catheters and continuous sympathetic blocks. Rarely, spinal cord stimulation and pain-directed surgeries were reported. An individual patient frequently received more than one invasive procedure. Concerning outcome, for approximately all patients, an improvement in pain and functional disability was reported. However, these outcomes were seldom assessed with validated tools. In conclusion, the evidence level for invasive therapies in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome in children and adolescents is weak.

  11. Fragmentation Chemistry of [Met-Gly]•+, [Gly-Met]•+, and [Met-Met]•+ Radical Cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Justin Kai-Chi; Lo, Seydina; Zhao, Junfang; Siu, K. W. Michael; Hopkinson, Alan C.

    2013-04-01

    Radical cations [Met-Gly]•+, [Gly-Met]•+, and [Met-Met]•+ have been generated through collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [CuII(CH3CN)2(peptide)]•2+ complexes. Their fragmentation patterns and dissociation mechanisms have been studied both experimentally and theoretically using density functional theory at the UB3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. The captodative structure, in which the radical is located at the α-carbon of the N-terminal residue and the proton is on the amide oxygen, is the lowest energy structure on each potential energy surface. The canonical structure, with the charge and spin both located on the sulfur, and the distonic ion with the proton on the terminal amino group, and the radical on the α-carbon of the C-terminal residue have similar energies. Interconversion between the canonical structures and the captodative isomers is facile and occurs prior to fragmentation. However, isomerization to produce the distonic structure is energetically less favorable and cannot compete with dissociation except in the case of [Gly-Met]•+. Charge-driven dissociations result in formation of [ b n - H]•+ and a 1 ions. Radical-driven dissociation leads to the loss of the side chain of methionine as CH3-S-CH = CH2 producing α-glycyl radicals from both [Gly-Met]•+ and [Met-Met]•+. For [Met-Met]•+, loss of the side chain occurs at the C-terminal as shown by both labeling experiments and computations. The product, the distonic ion of [Met-Gly]•+, NH3 +CH(CH2CH2SCH3)CONHCH•COOH dissociates by loss of CH3S•. The isomeric distonic ion NH3 +CH2CONHC•(CH2CH2SCH3)COOH is accessible directly from the canonical [Gly-Met]•+ ion. A fragmentation pathway that characterizes this ion (and the distonic ion of [Met-Met]•+) is homolytic fission of the Cβ-Cγ bond to lose CH3SCH2 •.

  12. LCLS Heavy Met Outgassing Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    A Heavy Met that is 95% tungsten, 3% nickel and 2% iron and sintered to 100% density and is Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible is proposed for use as the X-ray slit in the Front End Enclosure and the Fixed Mask for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The Heavy Met was tested in the LLNL Vacuum Sciences and Engineering Lab (VSEL) to determine its outgassing rate and its overall compatibility with the vacuum requirements for LCLS.

  13. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence Among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WU, LI-TZY; PILOWSKY, DANIEL J.; SCHLENGER, WILLIAM E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with progression to inhalant abuse and dependence. Results Inhalant use was common among the studied adolescents. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 0.4% met DSM-IV inhalant abuse or dependence criteria in the past year. Inhalant abuse and dependence affected adolescents regardless of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. The progression from inhalant use to abuse or dependence was related to early first use, use of multiple inhalants, and weekly inhalant use. Adolescents with inhalant use disorders reported coexisting multiple drug abuse and dependence, mental health treatment, and delinquent behaviors. Conclusions Adolescents with an inhalant use disorder may represent a subgroup of highly troubled youths with multiple vulnerabilities. Because early use is associated with progression to abuse and dependence, prevention programs should target elementary school–age children. PMID:15381887

  14. Adolescents' Clothing Purchase Motivations, Information Sources, and Store Selection Criteria: A Comparison of Male/Female and Impulse/Nonimpulse Shoppers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen-Yu, Jessie H.; Seock, Yoo-Kyoung

    2002-01-01

    Male (n=69) and female (n=68) adolescents spent similar amounts on clothing with similar conformity, sexual attractiveness, and recognition motivations. Females shopped significantly more often and were more influenced by friends and magazines. There were significant differences between impulse buyers and others in shopping frequency, expenditure,…

  15. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  16. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie; Bunford, Miss Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano (2008) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Method We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2008 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. The review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. Results We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we concluded that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management and behavioral peer interventions were well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). Conclusions The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  17. 15 CFR 768.6 - Criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria. 768.6 Section 768.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY... must be met before BIS can recommend a positive determination to the Secretary. The criteria...

  18. [Maturity criteria in youth jurisprudence--on the problem of paragraphs 1, 3 and 105 of the youth penal code from the viewpoint of adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Freisleder, F J

    1989-04-01

    The youth psychiatrist is regularly asked to assess the maturity of juvenile offenders. The criteria are laid down by German criminal legislation. The present articles deals with the individual factors that enable such assessment, especially if the offender is between 18 and 20 years of age.

  19. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Status in Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo-Romero, Eneida; Dominguez-Garcia, Ma Victoria; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Camarillo-Romero, Maria del Socorro; Talavera-Piña, Juan; Huitron-Bravo, Gerardo; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) improves endothelial dysfunction and may benefit patients with MetS. Aims. To evaluate the effect of a physical activity (PA) program on markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in adolescents with (MetS). Methods. We carried out a cohort study of 38 adolescents with and without MetS (18 females and 20 males). All participants completed a 3-month PA program. All variables of the MetS as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress tests were evaluated. Results. Females with and without MetS showed significant differences for almost all components of the MetS, whereas males were significantly different in half of the components. After the PA program, components of the MetS were not different from baseline values except for HDL-C levels. Some baseline endothelial dysfunction markers were significantly different among adolescents with and without MetS; however, after the PA program, most of these markers significantly improved in subjects with and without MetS. Conclusion. PA improves the markers of endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with MetS although other changes in the components of the MetS were not observed. Perhaps the benefits of PA on all components of MetS would appear after a PA program with a longer duration. PMID:22888450

  20. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  1. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology: patterns among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Deters, Pamela B; Novins, Douglas K; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Jan

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors examined the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma symptomatology among a sample of 89 American Indian adolescents in a residential substance abuse treatment program. These youths reported an average of 4.1 lifetime traumas, with threat of injury and witnessing injury being most common; molestation, rape, and sexual attack were least common. Approximately 10% of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for full PTSD, and about 14% met the criteria for subthreshold PTSD. Molestation (including rape and sexual attack), experiencing 6 or more traumas, and a diagnosis of abuse of or dependence on stimulants were significantly associated with PTSD. Findings indicated that trauma was a pervasive phenomenon among this population, with sexual traumas being particularly stigmatizing, resulting in high rates of posttraumatic symptomatology, specifically PTSD.

  2. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  3. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  4. Acutely Suicidal Adolescents Who Engage in Bullying Behavior: 1-Year Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; Horwitz, Adam; Berona, Johnny; Jiang, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Prospective longitudinal research is needed to examine associations between bullying behaviors and trajectories of suicidal ideation and behavior and overall functional impairment. The specific aims of the present study are to: (1) characterize differences in baseline functioning between acutely suicidal adolescents who are classified into bullying perpetrator and non-bully groups and (2) examine the 1-year trajectories of these two groups of adolescents. Method Participants were 433 psychiatrically hospitalized suicidal adolescents (72% female), ages 13 to 17 years. Participants reported suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety, substance use, adaptive functioning, and bullying behavior. Six items from the Youth Self-Report were used to classify adolescents into bullying perpetrator (n = 54) and non-bully (n = 379) groups. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Results At hospitalization, adolescents in the bully group reported significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation, substance use, and functional impairment. Suicidal ideation differences remitted at six weeks. The elevated functional impairment of the bullying perpetrator group persisted across the 12-month period. Conclusion Adolescents who met bullying perpetrator group criteria were characterized by more severe suicidal ideation and higher levels of proximal risk factors for suicide. Bullying behavior was not stable over time but was associated with elevated suicide risk when present. These findings highlight the importance of specifically assessing for and targeting bullying behavior at multiple time points when treating suicidal adolescents. PMID:23790201

  5. Clinical Assessment of Adolescents Involved in Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Satanism as destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification and that may seduce adolescents who feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. Explores psychosocial needs of adolescents that are met by participation in Satanic worship. Includes method for determining adolescents' level of involvement and assessment…

  6. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  7. Anorexia nervosa and gender dysphoria in two adolescents.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jennifer; Pindiprolu, Bharadwaj; Findlay, Sheri; Johnson, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Little has been published about the co-occurrence of gender dysphoria (GD) and eating disorders (ED) in adults, with no cases described in the adolescent population. The emphasis on body shape in both conditions suggests that there may be some overlap in symptomatology. We report two adolescent cases initially diagnosed with anorexia nervosa who later met criteria for GD. The drive for thinness for the 16-year-old male was associated with a wish to achieve a feminine physique whereas there was an emphasis for stunted breast growth and a desire for muscularity in the 13-year-old female. Complexities in presentation, evolution of symptoms over time, and the treatment of the two cases are discussed. Clinicians should inquire about sexual issues in the presentation of ED and should monitor for symptoms of GD, not only at initial presentation, but throughout treatment, especially as weight gain progresses.

  8. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  9. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  10. Sleep, stress, neurocognitive profile and health-related quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Juliana; Dos Santos, Flávia Heloísa; Terreri, Maria Teresa R. A.; Fraga, Melissa Mariti; Silva, Simone Guerra; Hilário, Maria Odete E.; Len, Claudio A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of sleep, stress, and depression, as well as health-related quality of life, and to assess the neurocognitive profiles in a sample of adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated regarding their levels of sleep and stress, as well as quality of life, and underwent neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: The sample groups consisted predominantly of females (84%), and the socioeconomic status did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the occurrence of depressive symptoms was similar between the two groups; specifically, 26% of the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain patients and 30% of the control subjects had scores indicative of depression. Teenagers in the group with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain reported poorer quality of life and sleep scores than those in the control group. Regarding stress, patients had worse scores than the control group; whereas 79% of the adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain met the criteria for a diagnosis of stress, only 35% of the adolescents in the control group met the criteria. In both groups, we observed scores that classified adolescents as being in the resistance phase (intermediate) and exhaustion phase (pathological) of distress. However, the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain group more frequently reported symptomatic complaints of physical and emotional distress. The neurocognitive assessment showed no significant impairments in either group. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did not exhibit cognitive impairments. However, adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did experience intermediate to advanced psychological distress and lower health-related quality of life, which may increase their risk of cognitive dysfunction in the future. PMID:23070339

  11. Exploring the Proposed DSM-5 Criteria in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Azin; Perry, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The proposed DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) depart substantially from the previous DSM-IV criteria. In this file review study of 131 children aged 2-12, previously diagnosed with either Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), 63% met the new DSM-5 ASD criteria, including 81%…

  12. A systematic review of self-medication practices among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Agarwal, Anoop Kumar; Khan, Nelofer

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to systematically review the global trends and factors influencing self-medication (SM) among adolescents. Databases (Medline/Pubmed, Ingenta, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Proquest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for peer-reviewed research published between January 2000 and December 2013 on SM among adolescents aged 13-18 years. Articles were scrutinized for country of origin, sample size, recall period, prevalence rates and associations, influencing factors, medicines used, self-medicated health complaints, sources of drug information, recommendation and procurement, knowledge about medicines, and adverse drug reactions. One hundred and sixty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. SM prevalence ranged from 2% to 92% in different countries. The most frequently self-medicated over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines were analgesics and antibiotics, respectively. Headache, allergies, and fever were the most common self-medicated health complaints reported. Misuse of both over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines reflected a risky trend. Female gender, older age, maternal education, and familial practices were associated with SM among adolescents. The primary sources of drug information, recommendation, and procurement included pharmacists, parents, and friends. High-risk practices such as diversion of prescription medicines and utilization of previous prescriptions were also reported. Most studies revealed gaps in drug knowledge, although adolescents self-rated it as satisfactory. However, few adverse drug reactions were reported, probably because of lack of awareness about the potential harmful effects of medicines. Recommendations for "responsible SM" have been made to minimize the adverse effects of SM. Understanding the links between various factors promoting SM can be helpful in deriving strategies aimed at reducing drug-related health risks among adolescents. Moreover, these will aid in creating awareness

  13. Solving CASMI 2013 with MetFrag, MetFusion and MOLGEN-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Schymanski, Emma L; Gerlich, Michael; Ruttkies, Christoph; Neumann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The second Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification (CASMI) contest took place in 2013. A joint team from the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB) participated in CASMI 2013 with an automatic workflow-style entry. MOLGEN-MS/MS was used for Category 1, molecular formula calculation, restricted by the information given for each challenge. MetFrag and MetFusion were used for Category 2, structure identification, retrieving candidates from the compound databases KEGG, PubChem and ChemSpider and joining these lists pre-submission. The results from Category 1 were used to guide whether formula or exact mass searches were performed for Category 2. The Category 2 results were impressive considering the database size and automated regime used, although these could not compete with the manual approach of the contest winner. The Category 1 results were affected by large m/z and ppm values in the challenge data, where strategies beyond pure enumeration from other participants were more successful. However, the combination used for the CASMI 2013 entries was extremely useful for developing decision-making criteria for automatic, high throughput general unknown (non-target) identification and for future contests.

  14. The paucity of minimal change disease in adolescents with primary nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baqi, N; Singh, A; Balachandra, S; Ahmad, H; Nicastri, A; Kytinski, S; Homel, P; Tejani, A

    1998-02-01

    Data are sparse regarding the histological lesions associated with the primary nephrotic syndrome in adolescents. To our knowledge there are only two published articles that have specifically addressed the histopathological lesions that typify idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in the adolescent population. We reviewed our experience from the last 14 years of children between the ages of 12 and 18 years who were referred to our center for the evaluation of the nephrotic syndrome. A total of 29 adolescents met the inclusion criteria for this review. All patients were biopsied prior to the initiation of treatment. The sex ratio consisted of 52% males and 48% females and the racial breakdown was largely African-American, with 83% black adolescents, 7% Hispanic, and 10% Caucasian patients. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS), the predominant lesion of children at an early age, was noted in only 20% of patients. The majority of patients (55.2%) had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS); 7% had IgM nephropathy and 3.5% had diffuse mesangial hypercellularity. Only 7% of biopsied adolescents had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Our results indicate that the most common lesion in this predominantly African-American patient population is FSGS, with only a small number showing MCNS. Thus, in our experience derived from a racially mixed population, adolescents with the nephrotic syndrome are less likely to have MCNS than younger children.

  15. Psychological Treatments for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Schwartzkopff, Laura; Deppe, Julia; Steil, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analyses of the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence are restricted to specific trauma, selected interventions, and methodologically rigorous studies. This large meta-analysis quantifies the effects of psychological treatments for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 13,040 articles; 135 studies with 150 treatment conditions (N = 9562 participants) met the inclusion criteria (psychological interventions with children and/or adolescents with PTSD symptoms that report quantitative measures of symptom change). The mean effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from large to small, depending on the control condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) yielded the highest ESs. Age and caretaker involvement were identified as moderators. CBT, especially when conducted in individual treatment with the inclusion of parents, is a highly effective treatment for trauma symptoms. Psychological treatments need to be modified to address younger patients' specific needs.

  16. Longitudinal association between frequency of substance use and quality of life among adolescents receiving a brief outpatient intervention.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F; Yang, Chongming

    2009-09-01

    Recognition of the broad consequences of adolescent substance abuse has led to increased emphasis on balancing traditional measures of treatment effectiveness, such as frequency of substance use, with measures of patient functioning and quality of life (QOL). This study evaluated the longitudinal association between frequency of use and QOL among adolescent substance abusers receiving a brief outpatient intervention. Participants were 106 adolescents, aged 13 to 21 years, who met criteria for substance abuse or dependence and completed 4 assessments over a 12 month period. Results of a parallel-process latent growth curve model indicated a moderate longitudinal association, such that reduced frequency of use was associated with QOL improvement. Elaboration of the temporal ordering of this association via a cross-lagged panel model revealed that frequency of substance use predicted subsequent QOL, but that QOL did not predict subsequent frequency of use. Implications pertaining to the assessment of comprehensive outcomes and the setting of treatment expectations are discussed.

  17. MET expression during prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Esther I.; van der Steen, Berdine; Hoogland, A. Marije; Sleddens, Hein F.B.M.; Looijenga, Leendert H.J.; van Leenders, Geert J.L.H.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor MET are under investigation for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) metastasis. Analysis of MET protein expression and genetic alterations might contribute to therapeutic stratification of prostate cancer patients. Our objective was to investigate MET on protein, DNA and RNA level in clinical prostate cancer at various stages of progression. Expression of MET was analyzed in hormone-naive primary prostate cancers (N=481), lymph node (N=40) and bone (N=8) metastases, as well as HRPC (N=54) and bone metastases (N=15). MET protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (D1C2 C-terminal antibody). MET mRNA levels and MET DNA copy numbers were determined by in situ hybridization. None of the hormone-naive primary prostate cancer or lymph node metastases demonstrated MET protein or mRNA expression. In contrast, MET protein was expressed in 12/52 (23%) evaluable HRPC resections. RNA in situ demonstrated cytoplasmic signals in 14/54 (26%) of the HRPC patients, and was associated with MET protein expression (p=0.025, χ2), in absence of MET amplification or polysomy. MET protein expression was present in 7/8 (88%) hormone-naive and 10/15 (67%) HRPC bone metastases, without association of HRPC (p=0.37; χ2), with MET polysomy in 8/13 (61%) evaluable cases. In conclusion, MET was almost exclusively expressed in HRPC and prostate cancer bone metastasis, but was not related to MET amplification or polysomy. Evaluation of MET status could be relevant for therapeutic stratification of late stage prostate cancer. PMID:27105539

  18. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  19. THE INCREMENTAL VALIDITY OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER RELATIVE TO MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER FOR SUICIDAL IDEATION AND DELIBERATE SELF-HARM IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Green, Kelly L.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Venta, Amanda; Zanarini, Mary C.; Pettit, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between suicide-related behaviors and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) in adolescent samples. The current study investigated the incremental validity of BPD relative to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) for suicide-related behaviors in a psychiatric sample of adolescents at the cross-sectional level of analysis. The sample included N = 156 consecutive admissions (55.1% female; M age = 15.47; SD = 1.41), to the adolescent treatment program of an inpatient treatment facility. Of the sample 19.2% (n = 30) met criteria for BPD on the Child Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder and 39.1% (n = 61) met criteria for MDD on the Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children–IV. Results showed that BPD conferred additional risk for suicidal ideation and deliberate self-harm. Our findings support the clinical impression that BPD should be evaluated in inpatient samples of adolescents either through intake interviews or more structured assessments. PMID:23281677

  20. Repetition, Power Imbalance, and Intentionality: Do These Criteria Conform to Teenagers' Perception of Bullying? A Role-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The criteria that researchers use to classify aggressive behaviour as bullying are "repetition", "power imbalance", and "intent to hurt". However, studies that have analyzed adolescents' perceptions of bullying find that most adolescents do not simultaneously consider these three criteria. This paper examines adolescents' perceptions of bullying…

  1. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  2. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  3. Moderators of Brief Motivation-Enhancing Treatments for Alcohol-Positive Adolescents Presenting to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Jones, Richard N; Hernandez, Lynn; Graves, Hannah R; Spirito, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    A 2011 randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of two brief motivation-enhancing therapy (MET) models among alcohol-positive adolescents in an urban emergency department: adolescent MET-only versus MET + Family Check-Up (FCU), a parent MET model. Results indicated that among the 97 adolescents completing the 3-month assessment, both conditions were associated with reduced drinking and MET+FCU was associated with lower rates of high volume drinking than adolescent MET-only. The goal of this study was to identify predictors and moderators of high volume drinking in the original trial. Seven candidate variables were evaluated as moderators across three domains: demographic characteristics, psychological factors, and socio-contextual factors. Analyses of covariance models identified one significant predictor and one significant moderator of outcome. Older adolescents had significantly worse drinking outcomes than younger adolescents regardless of MET condition. Adolescents whose parents screened positive for problematic alcohol use at baseline had significantly worse drinking outcomes in the MET+FCU condition than the MET-only condition. Results indicate that alcohol-positive adolescents presenting to the emergency department may respond better to MET models if they are under the age of 16. Involving parents who have problematic alcohol use in a parent-focused MET may have negative effects on adolescent high volume drinking. PMID:27568507

  4. Autism-Associated Promoter Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rudie, J. D.; Hernandez, L. M.; Brown, J. A.; Beck-Pancer, D.; Colich, N. L.; Gorrindo, P.; Thompson, P. M.; Geschwind, D. H.; Bookheimer, S. Y.; Levitt, P.; Dapretto, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY As genes that confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are identified, a crucial next step is to determine how these risk factors impact brain structure and function and contribute to disorder heterogeneity. With three converging lines of evidence, we show that a common, functional ASD risk variant in the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (MET) gene is a potent modulator of key social brain circuitry in children and adolescents with and without ASD. MET risk genotype predicted atypical fMRI activation and deactivation patterns to social stimuli (i.e., emotional faces), as well as reduced functional and structural connectivity in temporo-parietal regions known to have high MET expression, particularly within the default mode network. Notably, these effects were more pronounced in individuals with ASD. These findings highlight how genetic stratification may reduce heterogeneity and help elucidate the biological basis of complex neuropsychiatric disorders such as ASD. PMID:22958829

  5. 75 FR 1007 - MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... COMMISSION MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application December 30, 2009. AGENCY.... Summary of Application: MetLife Capital Trust V (the ``Trust'') and MetLife, Inc. (``MetLife'') request an... and pursuant to a Declaration of Trust that MetLife signed as sponsor. As sponsor, MetLife...

  6. A Review of Familial Correlates of Child and Adolescent Obesity: What has the 21st Century Taught us so Far?

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background With the rising prevalence rates of child and adolescent obesity over the last several decades it is important to examine the extant research in order to inform future research. Objective The aim of this paper is to review and critique research investigating familial correlates of child and adolescent obesity in the last decade. Methods A literature review was conducted between March 2008 and December 2008. Studies published after 2000 that assessed familial associations with child and adolescent obesity in the parental, family functioning, and sibling domains were included in the review. A total of 81 studies met inclusionary criteria. Results The majority of studies focused on the parental domain. Substantial evidence indicates an association between authoritative parenting style and child/adolescent lower BMI, healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Also, research on family meals has consistently shown an association between the frequency of family meals and child/adolescent lower BMI and healthy dietary intake. Conclusion To date, there is preliminary evidence that suggests that familial factors are associated with child and adolescent obesity, dietary intake, physical activity and weight control behaviors, but the majority of the evidence is cross-sectional and there are limitations with the research. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20306760

  7. Summary of the evidence file demonstrating completion of the NIF Project Completion Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C. A.

    2014-12-04

    This document summarizes the results of performance verification tests on NIF that demonstrate it has met its performance-related Project Completion Criteria (PCC). It includes measurements made on NIF with the NIF diagnostics, the calibration of these diagnostics and the supporting analyses that verify the NIF performance criteria have been met.

  8. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  9. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. PMID:27338965

  10. Redefining design criteria for Pu-238 gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S.V.

    1998-12-31

    Enclosures for confinement of special nuclear materials (SNM) have evolved into the design of gloveboxes. During the early stages of glovebox technology, established practices and process operation requirements defined design criteria. Proven boxes that performed and met or exceeded process requirements in one group or area, often could not be duplicated in other areas or processes, and till achieve the same success. Changes in materials, fabrication and installation methods often only met immediate design criteria. Standardization of design criteria took a big step during creation of ``Special-Nuclear Materials R and D Laboratory Project, Glovebox standards``. The standards defined design criteria for every type of process equipment in its most general form. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) then and now has had great success with Pu-238 processing. However with ever changing Environment Safety and Health (ES and H) requirements and Ta-55 Facility Configuration Management, current design criteria are forced to explore alternative methods of glovebox design fabrication and installation. Pu-238 fuel processing operations in the Power Source Technologies Group have pushed the limitations of current design criteria. More than half of Pu-238 gloveboxes are being retrofitted or replaced to perform the specific fuel process operations. Pu-238 glovebox design criteria are headed toward process designed single use glovebox and supporting line gloveboxes. Gloveboxes that will house equipment and processes will support TA-55 Pu-238 fuel processing needs into the next century and extend glovebox expected design life.

  11. Classroom-based functional and adjunctive assessments: proactive approaches to intervention selection for adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ervin, R A; DuPaul, G J; Kern, L; Friman, P C

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the utility of classroom-based functional and adjunctive assessments of problem behaviors for 2 adolescents who met diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). For children with ADHD-ODD, environmental classroom variables, when systematically manipulated by teachers, were related to the occurrence and nonoccurrence of problem behaviors. Classroom interventions derived from information that was obtained during functional and adjunctive assessments and from subsequent analyses resulted in substantial reductions in problem behaviors. Teacher and student consumer satisfaction ratings indicated that the interventions were effective and feasible in the classroom setting. PMID:9532751

  12. Classroom-based functional and adjunctive assessments: proactive approaches to intervention selection for adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ervin, R A; DuPaul, G J; Kern, L; Friman, P C

    1998-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the utility of classroom-based functional and adjunctive assessments of problem behaviors for 2 adolescents who met diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). For children with ADHD-ODD, environmental classroom variables, when systematically manipulated by teachers, were related to the occurrence and nonoccurrence of problem behaviors. Classroom interventions derived from information that was obtained during functional and adjunctive assessments and from subsequent analyses resulted in substantial reductions in problem behaviors. Teacher and student consumer satisfaction ratings indicated that the interventions were effective and feasible in the classroom setting.

  13. The Association Between Built Environment Attributes and Physical Activity in East Asian Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Chan, Edwin Shih-Yen

    2016-04-01

    Asian adolescents living in Australia and England were found to be less active than their Western peers. We aimed to systematically examine evidence of the associations between attributes of the built environment and physical activity in adolescents dwelling in East Asian countries. A total of 10 electronic databases for relevant observational studies without time limit were searched. Five studies met the eligibility criteria, which involved a total of 43 817 schoolchildren aged 11 to 17 years. The majority of the built environment attributes measured was significantly associated with reported physical activity. Difficult access to public facilities was associated with physical inactivity. Inconsistent finding of the association between residential density and physical activity was found. Further studies comparing participants from different Asian countries using a longitudinal design with an appropriate period of follow-up and both objective and reported measures of built environment attributes and physical activity are needed.

  14. [Nursing in palliative care to children and adolescents with cancer: integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Thailly Faria; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2010-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care is a challenge for nursing because it requires emotional balance and knowledge about its specific features. This study is an integrative literature review that aims to identify nursing actions in palliative care for children and adolescents with cancer, considering peculiarities of the disease and dying process. The review was performed by searching for articles indexed in Biblioteca Virtual da Adolescência (Adolec), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and PubMed databases from January 2004 till May 2009. From 29 references found, six met inclusion criteria. Results show teamwork, home care, pain management, dialogue, family support and particularities of childhood cancer fundamental tools for nursing in palliative care. The complexity of care in this situation requires solidarity, compassion, support and relieving suffering. PMID:21805890

  15. [Nursing in palliative care to children and adolescents with cancer: integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Thailly Faria; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2010-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care is a challenge for nursing because it requires emotional balance and knowledge about its specific features. This study is an integrative literature review that aims to identify nursing actions in palliative care for children and adolescents with cancer, considering peculiarities of the disease and dying process. The review was performed by searching for articles indexed in Biblioteca Virtual da Adolescência (Adolec), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and PubMed databases from January 2004 till May 2009. From 29 references found, six met inclusion criteria. Results show teamwork, home care, pain management, dialogue, family support and particularities of childhood cancer fundamental tools for nursing in palliative care. The complexity of care in this situation requires solidarity, compassion, support and relieving suffering.

  16. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Mikito; Otsuki, Sho; Fujimori, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yuya; Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor, c-MET (MET), play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells. Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or small-molecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells. These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC. PMID:26600931

  17. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  18. What makes a life event traumatic for a child? The predictive values of DSM-Criteria A1 and A2

    PubMed Central

    Verlinden, Eva; Schippers, Mirjam; Van Meijel, Els P. M.; Beer, Renée; Opmeer, Brent C.; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-Criteria A1 and A2 for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been discussed extensively, with several studies in adults or adolescents supporting the removal of Criterion A2. However, solid research in children is missing. Objective This study evaluated the DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 in predicting posttraumatic stress in children. Method A sample of 588 Dutch school children, aged 8–18 years, completed a self-report questionnaire to determine if they met Criteria A1 and/or A2. Their posttraumatic stress response was assessed using the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale. Results The contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children is of greater importance than the contribution of Criterion A1. Children who met Criterion A2 reported significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress and were nine times more likely to develop probable PTSD than children who did not meet Criterion A2. When Criterion A1 was met, a child was only two times more likely to develop probable PTSD as compared with those where Criterion A1 was not met. Furthermore, the low sensitivity of Criterion A1 suggests that children may regularly develop severe posttraumatic stress in the absence of Criterion A1. The remarkably high negative predictive value of Criterion A2 indicates that if a child does not have a subjective reaction during an event that it is unlikely that he or she will develop PTSD. Conclusions In contrast to most adult studies, the findings of this study emphasize the significant contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children and raise fundamental questions about the value of the current Criterion A1. PMID:23977424

  19. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  20. Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1994-01-01

    Satanism is a destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification to its practitioners. Unfortunately, some adolescents are seduced by these promises, often because they feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. This article explores the psychosocial needs of adolescents that are often met by participation in Satanic worship. Gratification of these needs, when met, may make leaving the cult a difficult and lengthy process. Included is a method for determining the adolescents' level of involvement and an assessment strategy for the therapeutic evaluation process. A brief overview of clinical intervention is also discussed.

  1. Predictive value of ceruloplasmin for metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Riovalle, Jacqueline; Sinausía, Laura; Carmen Valenza, Maríe; Perona, Javier S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is precisely defined and the cardiovascular risk associated with the clustering of its components has been demonstrated in adults. However, data on children and adolescents are still scarce, in part, because of difficulties in transposing the definition from adults. The identification of risk factors for the development of MetS at an early age is essential for prevention purposes with low-grade inflammation acting as a determinant for the association among the MetS components. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the MetS with systemic markers of inflammation and ceruloplasmin in a population of adolescents. The present is a cross-sectional study whose sample population consisted of 976 adolescents, 13.2 ± 1.2 years of age. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was determined by a solid-phase chemiluminiscent immunometric assay. Ceruloplasmin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. MetS adolescents exhibited higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and ceruloplasmin compared to non-MetS individuals. TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP showed strong correlations with the MetS components and insulin resistance but not relevant predictive values according to ROC curves (AUC values 0.544- 0.555). In contrast, ceruloplasmin only showed significant correlations in non-Mets individuals, but exhibited a very high predictive value (AUC=0.941, P < 0.001). The determination of serum ceruloplasmin in adolescents might be a useful tool to identify patients with the highest risk of future cardiovascular disease.

  2. Predictive value of ceruloplasmin for metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Riovalle, Jacqueline; Sinausía, Laura; Carmen Valenza, Maríe; Perona, Javier S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is precisely defined and the cardiovascular risk associated with the clustering of its components has been demonstrated in adults. However, data on children and adolescents are still scarce, in part, because of difficulties in transposing the definition from adults. The identification of risk factors for the development of MetS at an early age is essential for prevention purposes with low-grade inflammation acting as a determinant for the association among the MetS components. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the MetS with systemic markers of inflammation and ceruloplasmin in a population of adolescents. The present is a cross-sectional study whose sample population consisted of 976 adolescents, 13.2 ± 1.2 years of age. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was determined by a solid-phase chemiluminiscent immunometric assay. Ceruloplasmin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. MetS adolescents exhibited higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and ceruloplasmin compared to non-MetS individuals. TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP showed strong correlations with the MetS components and insulin resistance but not relevant predictive values according to ROC curves (AUC values 0.544- 0.555). In contrast, ceruloplasmin only showed significant correlations in non-Mets individuals, but exhibited a very high predictive value (AUC=0.941, P < 0.001). The determination of serum ceruloplasmin in adolescents might be a useful tool to identify patients with the highest risk of future cardiovascular disease. PMID:27083758

  3. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time.

  4. Overweight and obese adolescents: what turns them off physical activity?

    PubMed

    Stankov, Ivana; Olds, Timothy; Cargo, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of qualitative studies was undertaken to understand the barriers to physical activity experienced by adolescents who were overweight or obese. From a search of electronic databases and 'grey' literature, published between 1950 and 2009, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Bronfenbrenner's model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesising barriers to physical activity. Two reviewers appraised study quality. Miles and Huberman's cross-case analysis was integrated with thematic networking to synthesize the individual, interpersonal and environmental level barriers for boys and girls of different ethnicities and socioeconomic status, across school settings and generalised context. Thirty-five barriers were identified, 13 of which occurred in physical activity situations in the school setting, 18 were not linked to a specific setting, and the remainder were common across both contexts. The fact that these barriers emerged from studies that focused on topics such as victimisation and mental health is particularly poignant and reflects the potentially pervasive influence of adolescent's excessive weight not only in relation to physical activity situations but other aspects of their lives. Furthermore, socioeconomic status and ethnicity was poorly considered, with only one study linking these participant characteristics to quotations and discussing the potential implications. At present, there are few qualitative studies with sufficiently thick description or interpretive validity that provide insight into this vulnerable group of adolescents, and give them a voice to influence policy and practice.

  5. International Pediatric Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Response Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, John T.; Guillerman, R. Paul; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Pinkerton, C. Ross; Rosolen, Angelo; Patte, Catherine; Reiter, Alfred; Cairo, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Response criteria are well established for adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A revised set of response criteria in adults with NHL was recently published. However, NHL in children and adolescents involves different histologies, primary sites of disease, patterns of metastatic spread, approaches to therapy, and responses to treatment compared with adult NHL. However, there are no standardized response criteria specific to pediatric NHL. Therefore, we developed international standardized methods for assessing response to therapy in children and adolescents with NHL. Methods An international multidisciplinary group of pediatric oncologists, pathologists, biologists, and radiologists convened during and after the Third and Fourth International Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult NHL Symposia to review existing response and outcome data, develop methods for response evaluation that reflect incorporation of more sensitive technologies currently in use, and incorporate primary and metastatic sites of disease for the evaluation of therapeutic response in children and adolescents with NHL. Results Using the current adult NHL response criteria as a starting point, international pediatric NHL response criteria were developed incorporating both contemporary diagnostic imaging and pathology techniques, including novel molecular and flow cytometric technologies used for the determination of minimal residual disease. Conclusion Use of the international pediatric NHL response criteria in children and adolescents receiving therapy for NHL incorporates data obtained from new and more sensitive technologies that are now being widely used for disease evaluation, providing a standardized means for reporting treatment response. PMID:25940725

  6. Valacyclovir treatment of chronic fatigue in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents with fatigue, low motivation, diminished mood, and reduced activity, all symptoms having extensive diagnostic overlaps with depression. Studies have linked chronic viral infections with CFS, and antiviral therapy has effectively treated CFS in adult patients. In a retrospective case series, 15 adolescents and preteens referred to the author for treatment-resistant depression or mood disorder were evaluated and found to have met the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS. While a subset (4/15) had been diagnosed in the past with CFS, the majority had a current diagnosis of depression or a mood disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV Text Revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for depression were not met in all patients, although 3 cases of mood disorder not otherwise specified (MD-NOS) and 1 case of Tourette syndrome (TS) plus MD-NOS were diagnosed. Baseline scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were below the cutoff for depression in all but 1 patient. Baseline self-assessment scales for CFS or fatigue were obtained and sleep was evaluated with sleep logs. All patients were treated subsequently with valacyclovir, with 93% having a positive response. At the end of treatment, scores on fatigue self-assessment scales improved significantly (P < .001). Vigor subscale scores also improved significantly (P < .001). Some patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Although not every patient was tested, available laboratory testing revealed increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and decreased human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) antibody titers in all patients who responded to valacyclovir. This article discusses the significance of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms. The study's data support an intriguing hypothesis that a portion of treatment-resistant depression in fact may be undiagnosed CFS or other chronic viral infection.

  7. Valacyclovir treatment of chronic fatigue in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents with fatigue, low motivation, diminished mood, and reduced activity, all symptoms having extensive diagnostic overlaps with depression. Studies have linked chronic viral infections with CFS, and antiviral therapy has effectively treated CFS in adult patients. In a retrospective case series, 15 adolescents and preteens referred to the author for treatment-resistant depression or mood disorder were evaluated and found to have met the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS. While a subset (4/15) had been diagnosed in the past with CFS, the majority had a current diagnosis of depression or a mood disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV Text Revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for depression were not met in all patients, although 3 cases of mood disorder not otherwise specified (MD-NOS) and 1 case of Tourette syndrome (TS) plus MD-NOS were diagnosed. Baseline scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were below the cutoff for depression in all but 1 patient. Baseline self-assessment scales for CFS or fatigue were obtained and sleep was evaluated with sleep logs. All patients were treated subsequently with valacyclovir, with 93% having a positive response. At the end of treatment, scores on fatigue self-assessment scales improved significantly (P < .001). Vigor subscale scores also improved significantly (P < .001). Some patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Although not every patient was tested, available laboratory testing revealed increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and decreased human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) antibody titers in all patients who responded to valacyclovir. This article discusses the significance of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms. The study's data support an intriguing hypothesis that a portion of treatment-resistant depression in fact may be undiagnosed CFS or other chronic viral infection. PMID:24445302

  8. Met1-linked ubiquitination in immune signalling

    PubMed Central

    Fiil, Berthe K; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    N-terminal methionine-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub), or linear ubiquitin, has emerged as a central post-translational modification in innate immune signalling. The molecular machinery that assembles, senses and, more recently, disassembles Met1-Ub has been identified, and technical advances have enabled the identification of physiological substrates for Met1-Ub in response to activation of innate immune receptors. These discoveries have significantly advanced our understanding of how nondegradative ubiquitin modifications control proinflammatory responses mediated by nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. In this review, we discuss the current data on Met1-Ub function and regulation, and point to some of the questions that still remain unanswered. PMID:25060092

  9. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  10. A systematic review of the contribution of qualitative research to the study of quality of life in children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    McEwan, M J; Espie, Colin A; Metcalfe, Julie

    2004-01-01

    A sizeable literature focusing on QOL in children and adolescents with epilepsy has been produced over the last few years. However, relatively little emphasis has been placed on defining these issues from direct exploration of children's and adolescents' views. Qualitative methodologies are proposed in this review as an appropriate means of eliciting such information. This review systematically investigated the extent to which studies of QOL in children and adolescents with epilepsy have used recognised qualitative methodology. Articles for inclusion were identified by searching the term 'epilepsy', combined with 'adolescent(s) and/or child(ren)' and 'psychosocial and/or quality of life'. Selected articles were reviewed and rated using CASP Guidelines for qualitative research by two independent raters. Seventeen studies were retrieved through literature search. Of these six used some form of qualitative methodology either individually or combined with quantitative methods. However, only one study met quality criteria for selection in this systematic review. A summary of both selected and excluded studies is presented and methodological limitations discussed. Recommendations for appropriate methodology for investigation of QOL issues in children and adolescents are given.

  11. COMPREHENSIVE ADOLESCENT HEALTH PROGRAMS THAT INCLUDE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert Wm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics and evidence of comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs encompassing sexual and reproductive and other health services, educational and social support. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on CAH programs (1998-2013). Only programs with experimental, quasi-experimental or pre-post evaluations were included. Two independent reviewers screened 36,119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. Data was synthesised into descriptive characteristics; quality was assessed by evidence level (rigorous, strong, modest). Results Data was extracted on 46 programs (181 studies) of which 19 programs were defined as comprehensive; 9 were excluded due to insufficient evaluations. Ten CAH programs met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia and Mexico. Few programs (N=3) displayed rigorous evidence, 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. All programs with rigorous/strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Common elements of these programs included: long-term commitment to adolescents, interpersonal connections, community mobilization, and skill-building elements. Conclusion The long term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven due to insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  12. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  13. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful. PMID:24761264

  14. Patterns and predictors of adolescent academic achievement and performance in a sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, L Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn age = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education services, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. PMID:21722025

  15. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The main idea behind the MetNet landing vehicles is to use a state-of-the-art inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized and more mass and volume resources are spared for the science payload. The vehicle decelerates its entry speed using the inflatable structure and final landing sequence includes a cone headed body penetrating the Martian soil. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - Pressure device (MetBaro): mass 100g, measurement range 0..1015 hPa. - Humidity device (MetHumi): mass 15g, measurement range 0..100%RH. - Temperature sensors (MetTemp): mass 2g each, measurement range -110C..+30C. Optical devices: - Panoramic camera (PanCam): mass 100g, FOV 4 lenses mounted at 90 deg - Solar irradiance sensor (MetSIS) with optical wireless system (OWLS) for data transfer: mass 115g (MetSIS) and 7g (OWLS module), wavelength range 190..1100nm. MetSIS equipped with 28 optical detectors, two temperature sensors and two solar incidence angle detectors. - Dust sensor (DS): mass 42g, resolution: 10 particles / cm3. Composition and structure device: - Magnetometer (MOURA): mass 80g, measurement range: ±30uT. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of

  16. Iron nutrition in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mesías, Marta; Seiquer, Isabel; Navarro, M Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing adequate iron bioavailability to favor element utilization and thus be sufficient for needs at this stage of life. Currently, many adolescents consume monotonous and unbalanced diets which may limit mineral intake and/or bioavailability, leading to iron deficiency and, consequently, to ferropenic anemia, a nutritional deficit of worldwide prevalence. Iron deficiency, apart from provoking important physiological repercussions, can adversely affect adolescents' cognitive ability and behavior. Accordingly, promoting the consumption of a varied, adjusted, and balanced diet by adolescents will facilitate iron utilization, benefiting their health both at present and in adulthood. This review discusses how physiological changes during adolescence can cause iron requirements to increase. Consequently, it is important that diet should contribute an appropriate amount of this mineral and, moreover, with an adequate bioavailability to satisfy needs during this special period of life.

  17. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  18. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  19. The Relationship between Executive Function and Obesity in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Kaela R. S.; Po'e, Eli K.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between the development of executive function (EF) and obesity in children and adolescents. We reviewed 1,065 unique abstracts: 31 from PubMed, 87 from Google Scholar, 16 from Science Direct, and 931 from PsycINFO. Of those abstracts, 28 met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. From the articles reviewed, an additional 3 articles were added from article references (N = 31). Twenty-three studies pertained to EF (2 also studied the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices (OFCs); 6 also studied cognitive function), five studied the relationship between obesity and prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices, and three evaluated cognitive function and obesity. Inhibitory control was most often studied in both childhood (76.9%) and adolescent (72.7%) studies, and obese children performed significantly worse (P < 0.05) than healthy weight controls on various tasks measuring this EF domain. Although 27.3% of adolescent studies measured mental flexibility, no childhood studies examined this EF domain. Adolescents with higher BMI had a strong association with neurostructural deficits evident in the OFC. Future research should be longitudinal and use a uniform method of EF measurement to better establish causality between EF and obesity and consequently direct future intervention strategies. PMID:23533726

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use in inner-city adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Deborah S; Rasmusson, Ann M; Anyan, Walter; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Billingslea, Eileen M; Cromwell, Polly F; Southwick, Steven M

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of nicotine, marijuana, and alcohol use as well as patterns of problematic substance use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in inner-city adolescent girls. One hundred four adolescents who obtained medical care at a hospital-based adolescent clinic were systematically surveyed for trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and substance use. A subset (N = 54, 52%) of girls completed a semistructured psychiatric diagnostic interview (K-SADS-PL) to ascertain timing of PTSD symptoms relative to substance use. Compared with traumatized girls without PTSD, girls with full and partial PTSD were significantly more likely to use nicotine, marijuana, and/or alcohol on a regular basis. Fifteen girls met criteria for both PTSD and a substance-use disorder. For 80% of these girls, the age of onset of PTSD was either before or concurrent with the onset of their substance-use disorder. Inner-city adolescent girls with PTSD exhibit problematic substance use and may be at high risk of developing a comorbid substance-use disorder.

  1. Traumatic events and post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, B D; Morakinyo, J J; Gureje, O

    2011-03-01

    Little empirical data exist on the rates of exposure to traumatic events and its sequelae especially in adolescents. This study was designed to determine the lifetime prevalence of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria. A sample of 786 boys and girls from 10 senior secondary schools located within Ibadan were interviewed using an adapted version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (KSADS) to ascertain the prevalence of exposure to traumatic events and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Irrespective of gender, more than 40% reported lifetime exposure to at least one traumatic event. Commonly reported events were: receiving news of sudden injury, death or illness in a close family member or friend, being a victim or witness to a violent crime and physical abuse. About 2.4% of the sample met diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Female sex, exposure to more than one traumatic event, and sexual abuse were associated with increased risk for PTSD. The results of this study highlights the substantial risk for experiencing serious traumatic events by adolescents within the community, and a need for professionals involved in the care of adolescents to be more vigilant in screening for trauma related distress.

  2. Chronic Insomnia and Its Negative Consequences for Health and Functioning of Adolescents: A 12-Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine R.; Duong, Hao T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To estimate prevalence and chronicity of insomnia and the impact of chronic insomnia on health and functioning of adolescents. Methods Data were collected from 4175 youths 11–17 at baseline and 3134 a year later sampled from managed care groups in a large metropolitan area. Insomnia was assessed by youth reported DSM-IV symptom criteria. Outcomes are three measures of somatic health, three measures of mental health, two measures of substance use, three measures of interpersonal problems, and three of daily activities. Results Over one-fourth reported one or more symptoms of insomnia at baseline and about 5% met diagnostic criteria for insomnia. Almost 46% of those who reported 1 or more symptoms of insomnia in Wave 1 continued to be cases at Wave 2 and 24% met DSM-IV symptom criteria for chronic insomnia (cases in Wave 1 were also cases in Wave 2). Multivariate analyses found chronic insomnia increased subsequent risk for somatic health problems, interpersonal problems, psychological problems, and daily activities. Significant odds (p<.05) ranged from 1.6 to 5.6 for poor outcomes. These results are the first reported on chronic insomnia among youths and corroborate, using prospective data, previous findings on correlates of disturbed sleep based on cross-sectional studies. Conclusions Insomnia is both common and chronic among adolescents. The data indicate that the burden of insomnia is comparable to that of other psychiatric disorders such as mood, anxiety, disruptive and substance use disorders. Chronic insomnia severely impacts future health and functioning of youths. Those with chronic insomnia are more likely to seek medical care. These data suggest primary care settings might provide a venue for screening and early intervention for adolescent insomnia. PMID:18295138

  3. Intermittent Explosive Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Context Epidemiologic studies of adults show that DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is a highly prevalent and seriously impairing disorder. Although retrospective reports in these studies suggest that IED typically begins in childhood, no previous epidemiologic research has directly examined the prevalence or correlates of IED among youth. Objective To present epidemiologic data on the prevalence and correlates of IED among US adolescents in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Design United States survey of adolescent (age, 13–17 years) DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavior, and substance disorders. Setting Dual-frame household-school samples. Participants A total of 6483 adolescents (interviews) and parents (questionnaires). Main Outcome Measures The DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Results Nearly two-thirds of adolescents (63.3%) reported lifetime anger attacks that involved destroying property, threatening violence, or engaging in violence. Of these, 7.8% met DSM-IV/CIDI criteria for lifetime IED. Intermittent explosive disorder had an early age at onset (mean age, 12.0 years) and was highly persistent, as indicated by 80.1% of lifetime cases (6.2% of all respondents) meeting 12-month criteria for IED. Injuries related to IED requiring medical attention reportedly occurred 52.5 times per 100 lifetime cases. In addition, IED was significantly comorbid with a wide range of DSM-IV/CIDI mood, anxiety, and substance disorders, with 63.9% of lifetime cases meeting criteria for another such disorder. Although more than one-third (37.8%) of adolescents with 12-month IED received treatment for emotional problems in the year before the interview, only 6.5% of respondents with 12-month IED were treated specifically for anger. Conclusions Intermittent explosive disorder is a highly prevalent, persistent, and seriously impairing adolescent mental

  4. Cervicitis in Adolescents: Do Clinicians Understand Diagnosis and Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Bailey, Sarabeth L.; Hensel, Devon J.; Scurlock, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervicitis is widespread, but no studies have examined cervicitis in accordance with established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Study objectives were to describe adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis within an adolescent population and to compare factors associated with adherence to guidelines in a primary care setting and the Emergency Department. Methods Data were collected as part of a retrospective chart review of evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of STI in adolescent women in an outpatient setting. Participant charts were eligible for review if they were 12–21 years of age and were given an ICD-9 and chart diagnosis of cervicitis. Two primary outcome variables: meeting cervicitis guidelines and correct treatment among those meeting cervicitis guidelines (no/yes) were utilized; the study controlled for age, race, venue, past infection with chlamydia or gonorrhea. Results Subjects (n = 365) were examined for the primary outcome variables and 75.1% (274/365) met at least one criterion for cervicitis. Of these, 166 (60.9%: 166/274) subjects were found to meet criteria for cervicitis alone, versus subjects meeting criteria for both cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (39.4%: 108/274). The majority, 89.3%, (326/365) were treated for both chlamydia and gonorrhea, but only 64.7% (211/326) were treated correctly for both infections. Conclusions Our findings suggest that knowledge deficits exist in diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis in adolescent patients and in differentiating between cervicitis and PID. Educational tools, simulated patient exercises, and order sets may be warranted for quality improvement to allow for improved care of this at risk sexually active population. PMID:21872515

  5. Quality of life among children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis 1: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Merker, Vanessa L; Park, Elyse R; Plotkin, Scott R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to identify, within a systematic review, aspects of quality of life (QoL) that are adversely affected in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis (NF), and to report predictors of quality of life in this population. Published reports of original research were included if they described QoL in children and/or adolescents with NF, and met methodological quality according to a list of predefined criteria. Seven studies conducted between 2006 and 2013 met inclusion criteria. All seven studies examined patients with NF1 and reported that these patients have lower general QoL compared to population norms. Parents' proxy ratings of QoL were generally lower than children's self-report ratings. By parent proxy, familial NF1 was a strong protective factor for QoL, while the opposite was found by child report. By parent proxy, male sex was significantly associated with lower scores on the parental time impact of QoL. Skin-related QoL was only slightly altered in this population, vision-specific QoL was impacted only in patients with vision loss. The majority of findings regarding predictors of QoL in children with NF1 were weak, due to a lack of studies, heterogeneity of samples, and heterogeneity of measurements/predictors assessed. Future studies should examine more comprehensively the psychosocial factors affecting the NF population, especially in young patients with NF2 and schwannomatosis, who have been neglected in prior research. The use of consistent QoL measures is preferred to allow better comparison among studies and conditions. Interventions, including comprehensive mind-body treatments, are warranted to address impaired QoL in children and adolescents with NF1.

  6. MetBaro - Pressure Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetBaro is the pressure instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Barocap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetBaro is a capacitic type of sensing device where capasitor plates are moved by ambient pressure. MetBaro device consists of two pressure transducers including a total of 6 Barocap® sensor heads of high-stability and high-resolution types. The long-term stability of MetBaro is in order of 20…50 µBar and resolution a few µBar. MetBaro is small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs about 50g without wires and controlling FPGA, and consumes 15 mW of power. A similar device has successfully flown in Phoenix mission, where it performed months of measurements on Martian ground. Another device is also part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS instrument (to be launched in 2011).

  7. MetHumi - Humidity Instrument for Mars MetNet Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Leinonen, J.; Mäkinen, T.

    2009-04-01

    THE METNET MISSION FOCUSED ON THE Martian atmospheric science is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called the MetNet Lander (MNL). The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. MetHumi is the humidity instrument of MetNet Lander designed to work on Martian surface. It is based on Humicap® technology developed by Vaisala, Inc. MetHumi is a capacitic type of sensing device where an active polymer film changes capacitance as function of relative humidity. One MetHumi device package consists of one humidity transducer including three Humicap® sensor heads, an accurate temperature sensor head (Thermocap® by Vaisala, Inc.) and constant reference channels. MetHumi is very small, lightweighed and has low power consumption. It weighs only about 15 g without wires, and consumes 15 mW of power. MetHumi can make meaningful relative humidity measurements in range of 0 - 100%RH down to -70°C ambient temperature, but it survives even -135°C ambient temperature. Similar device is part of the Mars Science Laboratory REMS -instrument (to be launched 2011).

  8. The effectiveness of hypnosis for reducing procedure-related pain in children and adolescents: a comprehensive methodological review.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Michelle C; Milling, Leonard S

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive, methodologically informed review of studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis for reducing procedure-related pain in children and adolescents is provided. To be included in the review, studies were required to use a between-subjects or mixed model design in which hypnosis was compared with a control condition or an alternative intervention in reducing the procedure-related pain of patients younger than age 19. An exhaustive search identified 13 studies satisfying these criteria. Hypnosis was consistently found to be more effective than control conditions in alleviating discomfort associated with bone marrow aspirations, lumbar punctures, voiding cystourethograms, the Nuss procedure, and post-surgical pain. Furthermore, hypnosis was as at least as effective as distraction. Three hypnotic interventions met criteria as a possibly efficacious empirically supported therapy for reducing post-surgical or lumbar puncture pain. Several other hypnotic interventions would have achieved the status of a possibly efficacious therapy had studies used a treatment manual. PMID:19255840

  9. [Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence].

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence The present study sought to clarify the potential relationship between critical life events and pathological internet use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the framework of a European school-based study (SEYLE) which included a representative sample of 1,444 students from the Rhein-Neckar catchment area. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) was used to assess pathological internet use, whereas a combination of the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) and Life Events Checklist (LCE) was administered to assess critical life events over the period of the last six months. Statistical models were adjusted for the presence of psychopathological distress using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 4.8 % of the participating students reported pathological internet use, 14.5 % met criteria for risky Internet use. Overall, adolescents with risky or pathological internet use recalled more critical life events, particularly within the context of interpersonal relationships and academic performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychopathological distress, results showed that an unexpected decrease in academic performance as well as the termination of a romantic relationship, both were significantly associated with pathological internet use. Adolescents with pathological internet use reported significantly more frequent interpersonal problems and an unexpected decrease of academic performance. Based on the cross-sectional nature of the investigation, causality of the association cannot be established. However, results point towards potential risk factors (academic performance, termination of relationships) which may guide the identification of adolescents with risky or pathological internet use in child- and adolescent psychiatry. PMID:27595809

  10. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  11. Social functioning and peer relationships in children and adolescents with chronic pain: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Forgeron, Paula A; King, Sara; Stinson, Jennifer N; McGrath, Patrick J; MacDonald, Amanda J; Chambers, Christine T

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Peer relationships during childhood and adolescence are acknowledged to be negatively impacted by chronic pain; however, to date there has been no synthesis of this literature. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review existing literature describing the social functioning and peer relationships in children and adolescents with recurrent or continuous chronic pain. METHODS: Articles on peer relationship factors studied in samples of children and adolescents with chronic pain published in English or French were identified using EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Two independent reviewers performed initial screenings using study titles and abstracts, and reviewed each eligible article in full. RESULTS: Of 1740 published papers yielded by the search, 42 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Nine studies had peer relationship investigation as the primary purpose of the study; the remaining 33 examined peer relationships as part of a broader study. A range of specific and more general measures was used to examine peer relationships. Across studies, children and adolescents with chronic pain were reported to have fewer friends, be subjected to more peer victimization, and were viewed as more isolated and less likeable than healthy peers. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents with chronic pain have peer relationship deficiencies. However, the majority of studies to date measure peer relationships as part of a broader study and, thus, little attention has been paid specifically to peer relationships in this group. Additional research examining the quality of peer relationships of children and adolescents with chronic pain, as well as development of measures specifically designed to assess these relationships, is needed. PMID:20195556

  12. Prevalence of asthma among Chinese adolescents living in Canada and in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Yu; Wong, Gary W.K.; Chen, Yu-Zhi; Ferguson, Alexander C.; Greene, Justina M.; Ma, Yu; Zhong, Nan-Shan; Lai, Christopher K.W.; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies of the prevalence of asthma among migrating populations may help in identifying environmental risk factors. Methods We analyzed data from Vancouver, Canada, and from Guangzhou, Beijing and Hong Kong, China, collected during phase 3 of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. We subdivided the Vancouver adolescents according to whether they were Chinese immigrants to Canada, Canadian-born Chinese or Canadian-born non-Chinese. We compared the prevalence of asthma and wheezing among Chinese adolescents born in Canada, Chinese adolescents who had immigrated to Canada and Chinese adolescents living in China. Results Of 7794 Chinese adolescents who met the inclusion criteria, 3058 were from Guangzhou, 2824 were from Beijing, and 1912 were from Hong Kong. Of 2235 adolescents in Vancouver, Canada, 475 were Chinese immigrants, 617 were Canadian-born Chinese, and 1143 were Canadian-born non-Chinese. The prevalence of current wheezing among boys ranged from 5.9% in Guangzhou to 11.2% in Canadian-born Chinese adolescents. For girls, the range was 4.3% in Guangzhou to 9.8% in Canadian-born Chinese adolescents. The prevalence of ever having had asthma ranged from 6.6% to 16.6% for boys and from 2.9% to 15.0% for girls. Prevalence gradients persisted after adjustment for other environmental variables (odds ratios for ever having had asthma among Canadian-born Chinese compared with native Chinese in Guangzhou: 2.72 [95% confidence interval 1.75–4.23] for boys and 5.50 [95% confidence interval 3.21–9.44] for girls; p < 0.001 for both). Among Chinese adolescents living in Vancouver, the prevalence of ever wheezing increased with duration of residence, from 14.5% among those living in Canada for less than 7 years to 20.9% among those living their entire life in Canada. The same pattern was observed for the prevalence of ever having had asthma, from 7.7% to 15.9%. Interpretation Asthma symptoms in Chinese adolescents were lowest among

  13. What can be learned from adolescent time diary research.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Eithne; McKay, Elizabeth Anne

    2015-03-01

    Time use is increasingly being recognized as a determinant and indicator of adolescent well-being internationally. Three existing literature reviews of time-use research with children and adolescents have identified time-use diaries as the preferred data collection method. Furthermore, they have encouraged researchers to examine multidimensional patterns of overall time use in large-sample whole child populations to better understand the health, well-being, and quality of life of children and young people. However, these three existing reviews differ in the time frames covered; the age ranges targeted; the categories of time use examined; and the time-use data collection and analysis methods used. This study aimed to map the extent and nature of time diary studies with well adolescents (aged 10-19 years) and the use of person-centered data analysis of overall time use as a multidimensional unit. Finally, it explores whether and how the included studies analyzed the relationship between time use and health, well-being, and quality of life. A scoping review method was employed using Arksey and O'Malley's five-step framework. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies were secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-level time-use or lifestyle survey data. One-third of studies (n = 11) captured data representing 24 hours of the day. Two studies (6%) used person-centered analyses, while six studies (18%) empirically examined time use in relation to health and well-being. No studies examined adolescent 24-hour time use and quality of life. Adolescent time-use researchers are encouraged to be explicit in identifying the stage of adolescence to which their studies relate; capture 24-hour time-use data; analyze overall activity patterns as multidimensional units using person-centered methods; and use robust, reliable, valid, sensitive, and age-appropriate instruments to empirically examine time use and health, well-being, and quality of life

  14. Weldability of AerMet 100

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, D.D.; Hoffman, D.E.; Westrich, C.N.

    1991-01-01

    Several test welds were made on AerMet 100 alloy. Both electron beam and pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam welding processes were used to make the welds. All welds were satisfactory, with no cracking or porosity noted in weld cross-sections. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Clinicopathological Significance and Diagnostic Accuracy of c-MET Expression by Immunohistochemistry in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Kang, Guhyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to elucidate the clinicopathological significance and diagnostic accuracy of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for determining the mesenchymal epidermal transition (c-MET) expression in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Materials and Methods The present meta-analysis investigated the correlation between c-MET expression as determined by IHC and the clinicopathological parameters in 8,395 GC patients from 37 studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria. In addition, a concordance analysis was performed between c-MET expression as determined by IHC and c-MET amplification, and the diagnostic test accuracy was reviewed. Results The estimated rate of c-MET overexpression was 0.403 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.327~0.484) and it was significantly correlated with male patients, poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, higher TNM stage, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity in IHC analysis. There was a significant correlation between c-MET expression and worse overall survival rate (hazard ratio, 1.588; 95% CI, 1.266~1.992). The concordance rates between c-MET expression and c-MET amplification were 0.967 (95% CI, 0.916~0.987) and 0.270 (95% CI, 0.173~0.395) for cases with non-overexpressed and overexpressed c-MET, respectively. In the diagnostic test accuracy review, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.56 (95% CI, 0.50~0.63) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.77~0.81), respectively. Conclusions The c-MET overexpression as determined by IHC was significantly correlated with aggressive tumor behavior and positive IHC status for HER2 in patients with GC. In addition, the c-MET expression status could be useful in the screening of c-MET amplification in patients with GC. PMID:27752391

  16. Rebound Effects Caused by Withdrawal of MET Kinase Inhibitor Are Quenched by a MET Therapeutic Antibody.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Emanuela; Ducano, Nadia; Lupo, Barbara; Vigna, Elisa; Avanzato, Daniele; Perera, Timothy; Trusolino, Livio; Lanzetti, Letizia; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2016-09-01

    MET oncogene amplification is emerging as a major mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-directed therapy in lung and colorectal cancers. Furthermore, MET amplification predicts responsiveness to MET inhibitors currently in clinical trials. Among the anti-MET drugs available, ATP-competitive small-molecule kinase inhibitors abrogate receptor autophosphorylation and downstream activation of ERK1/2 and AKT, resulting in cell-cycle arrest. However, this antiproliferative effect allows persistence of a pool of cancer cells that are quiescent but alive. Once the inhibition is removed, rebound activation of MET-driven cell proliferative pathways and tumor growth may occur, an adverse event observed frequently in clinical settings after drug discontinuation. Here we show that inhibitor withdrawal prompts receptor phosphorylation to levels higher than those displayed at steady-state and generates a rebound effect pushing quiescent cancer cells back into the cell cycle, both in vitro and in experimental tumor models in vivo Mechanistically, we found that inhibitor treatment blocks MET endocytosis, causing a local increase in the number of receptors at the plasma membrane. Upon inhibitor washout, the receptor is readily rephosphorylated. The initial phosphorylation is not only increased but also prolonged in duration due to downmodulation of a phosphatase-mediated MET-negative feedback loop, which accompanies receptor internalization. Notably, treatment with a MET therapeutic antibody that induces proteolytic cleavage of the receptor at the cell surface substantially prevents this rebound effect, providing a rationale to combine or alternate these mechanistically different types of MET-targeted therapy. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5019-29. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27364553

  17. US adolescents' friendship networks and health risk behaviors: a systematic review of studies using social network analysis and Add Health data.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.

  18. [Symptoms of DSM IV borderline personality disorder in a nonclinical population of adolescents: study of a series of 35 patients].

    PubMed

    Chabrol, H; Chouicha, K; Montovany, A; Callahan, S

    2001-01-01

    1,363 high school students were solicited to complete a personality disorder questionnaire and were encouraged to continue in the study by signing up for interviews with Master's level psychology students. 107 students (7.8%, 34 males, 73 females, mean age = 16.7 +/- 1.8) manifested themselves for the interview and were assessed by using structured diagnostic interviews for borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder (DIB-R, Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines; MINI, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The interviews were audiotaped. Interrater reliability was determined by independent ratings of 12 borderline subjects and 12 non-borderline subjects (kappa: 0.795). The distribution of the 107 subjects based on the number of DSM IV borderline personality disorder criteria indicated a gradual dispersion suggesting a continuum from normality to borderline personality disorder: 8% of the subjects met none of the criteria; 16% met one criterion; 17% met two; 12.5%, three; 13.7%, four; 8.4%, five; 5.6%, six; 9.3%, seven; 4.6%, eight; 4.6%, nine. Thirty-five of these 107 subjects (32.7%, 6 males, 29 females, mean age = 16.7 +/- 1.7) received a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder according to DSM IV criteria. The most frequent symptoms were paranoid ideation or dissociative symptoms (97.1%), affective instability (88.6%), inappropriate, intense anger (85.6%), suicidal gestures or automutilation (82.9%), followed by frantic efforts to avoid abandonment (77%), impulsivity (65.7%), unstable and intense relationships (62.9%), identity disturbance (60%), and emptiness (57.1%). The comparison between borderline and non-borderline subjects showed that all borderline personality disorder criteria discriminated significantly between the two groups. The high incidence of paranoid ideation (97.1%) and dissociative experiences (65.7%) in the borderline group suggests the pertinence of criterion 9 in the diagnosis of borderline

  19. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Roumimper, Hailey; Oberfield, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial heterogeneous disorder affecting 6% to 10% of reproductive-age women. The use of criteria developed for adult women is problematic for the adolescent girl because the clinical features associated with PCOS are normal pubertal events. The recent consensus statement on PCOS in adolescents stated that hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea need to persist for at least 2 years to consider the diagnosis of PCOS. Although insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and obesity are often associated with PCOS, these features are not considered valid diagnostic criteria. Recent genomewide association studies implicate genetic loci involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:27241968

  20. Structural and Functional Imaging Studies in Chronic Cannabis Users: A Systematic Review of Adolescent and Adult Findings

    PubMed Central

    Batalla, Albert; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Yücel, Murat; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Crippa, Jose Alexandre; Nogué, Santiago; Torrens, Marta; Pujol, Jesús; Farré, Magí; Martin-Santos, Rocio

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing concern about cannabis use, the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, has led to a significant increase in the number of human studies using neuroimaging techniques to determine the effect of cannabis on brain structure and function. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence of the impact of chronic cannabis use on brain structure and function in adults and adolescents. Methods Papers published until August 2012 were included from EMBASE, Medline, PubMed and LILACS databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. Only neuroimaging studies involving chronic cannabis users with a matched control group were considered. Results One hundred and forty-two studies were identified, of which 43 met the established criteria. Eight studies were in adolescent population. Neuroimaging studies provide evidence of morphological brain alterations in both population groups, particularly in the medial temporal and frontal cortices, as well as the cerebellum. These effects may be related to the amount of cannabis exposure. Functional neuroimaging studies suggest different patterns of resting global and brain activity during the performance of several cognitive tasks both in adolescents and adults, which may indicate compensatory effects in response to chronic cannabis exposure. Limitations However, the results pointed out methodological limitations of the work conducted to date and considerable heterogeneity in the findings. Conclusion Chronic cannabis use may alter brain structure and function in adult and adolescent population. Further studies should consider the use of convergent methodology, prospective large samples involving adolescent to adulthood subjects, and data-sharing initiatives. PMID:23390554

  1. Prevalence of DSM-IV intermittent explosive disorder in Black adolescents: Findings from the National Survey of American Life, Adolescent Supplement.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Diane Graves; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Faison, Nakesha; Sweetman, Julie A; Abelson, Jamie M; Jackson, James S

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of (4th ed.; ) intermittent explosive disorder (IED) in adolescents, and no information is currently available regarding the relationship between race/ethnicity and IED among Black youth in the United States. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Adolescent Version), we estimated the prevalence, severity, and disability of IED in a national, probability sample of African American and Caribbean Black youth (ages 13-17) from the National Survey of American Life, Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face surveys of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth were conducted between 2001 and 2003. We calculated lifetime and 12-month diagnoses of IED using diagnostic algorithms based on and assessed IED disability using a modified Sheehan Disability Scale. Overall findings indicated lifetime and 12-month IED prevalence rates of 9.2% and 7.0%, respectively. Lifetime prevalence rates of IED were 9.0% for African American and 12.4% for Caribbean Black teens. Within the past 12 months, 6.7% of African American and 11.5% of Caribbean Black adolescents met diagnostic criteria for IED. Lifetime and 12-month IED were associated with anxiety disorders. In addition, few teens with lifetime IED received any treatment. Findings are consistent with recent evidence that intermittent explosive disorder may be more common than previously considered, especially among adolescents. Significant acts of aggression and impairment are associated with IED, and low treatment rates indicate that more research on this disorder and intervention options is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078052

  2. Smart Polymeric Nanocarriers of Met-enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Roza; Trzebicka, Barbara; Dworak, Andrzej; Otulakowski, Lukasz; Kosowski, Dominik; Hertlein, Justyna; Haladjova, Emi; Rangelov, Stanislav; Szweda, Dawid

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a novel approach to polymeric nanocarriers of the therapeutic peptide met-enkephalin based on the aggregation of thermoresponsive polymers. Thermoresponsive bioconjugate poly((di(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate)-ran-(oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) is synthesized by AGET ATRP using modified met-enkephalin as a macroinitiator. The abrupt heating of bioconjugate water solution leads to the self-assembly of bioconjugate chains and the formation of mesoglobules of controlled sizes. Mesoglobules formed by bioconjugates are stabilized by coating with cross-linked two-layer shell via nucleated radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide using a degradable cross-linker. The targeting peptide RGD, containing the fluorescence marker carboxyfluorescein, is linked to a nanocarrier during the formation of the outer shell layer. In the presence of glutathione, the whole shell is completely degradable and the met-enkephalin conjugate is released. It is anticipated that precisely engineered nanoparticles protecting their cargo will emerge as the next-generation platform for cancer therapy and many other biomedical applications. PMID:27409457

  3. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.

  4. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Early Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Clinical Anxiety: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009), was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Method Thirty-three adolescents (11–15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and post-treatment/post-waitlist. Results In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators’ ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. Conclusions The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed. PMID:25526831

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009) was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Thirty-three adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and posttreatment/postwaitlist. In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators' ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed.

  6. Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009) was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Thirty-three adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and posttreatment/postwaitlist. In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators' ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed. PMID:25526831

  7. Truncated RAF kinases drive resistance to MET inhibition in MET-addicted cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Consalvo; Picco, Gabriele; Martelli, Maria Luisa; Trisolini, Elena; Bucci, Enrico; Perera, Timothy; Isella, Claudio; Medico, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Constitutively active receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are known oncogenic drivers and provide valuable therapeutic targets in many cancer types. However, clinical efficacy of RTK inhibitors is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. To identify genes conferring resistance to inhibition of the MET RTK, we conducted a forward genetics screen in the GTL-16 gastric cancer cell line, carrying MET amplification and exquisitely sensitive to MET inhibition. Cells were transduced with three different retroviral cDNA expression libraries and selected for growth in the presence of the MET inhibitor PHA-665752. Selected cells displayed robust and reproducible enrichment of library-derived cDNAs encoding truncated forms of RAF1 and BRAF proteins, whose silencing reversed the resistant phenotype. Transduction of naïve GTL-16 cells with truncated, but not full length, RAF1 and BRAF conferred in vitro and in vivo resistance to MET inhibitors, which could be reversed by MEK inhibition. Induction of resistance by truncated RAFs was confirmed in other MET-addicted cell lines, and further extended to EGFR-addicted cells. These data show that truncated RAF1 and BRAF proteins, recently described as products of genomic rearrangements in gastric cancer and other malignancies, have the ability to render neoplastic cells resistant to RTK-targeted therapy. PMID:25473895

  8. Assessment of night eating syndrome among late adolescents.

    PubMed

    Suri, S; Pradhan, R

    2010-01-01

    With the increase in the trend of social networking, celebrations, over a couple of decades weather in the hostel or at home. Snacking has become an important aspect of activity. Today teen prefer snacks more than a proper meal. Skipping of meal and nibbling in between meal is a common practice. The main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) are missed and total proportions of calories are consumed from the snacks eaten. Hence, this disordered eating behavior when continued may further lead to development of serious syndrome i.e., night eating syndrome. A purposive random sample comprising 188 males and 192 females (N=380), adolescents (18-22 years) were selected including hostlers and day scholars. The subjects were administered with self-organized questionnaire so to analyze the pattern of NES among them. Out of total 380 respondents, the numbers of hostlers were 211 and day scholars 169, while boys were 188 and girls were 192 in number. Results indicated that nearly half the percentage of adolescents snacked at night, out of which very few respondents met the criteria of NES, in which the number of hostlers were quite more than the day scholars, i.e.,76.3%.

  9. Overweight and obese adolescents: what turns them off physical activity?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of qualitative studies was undertaken to understand the barriers to physical activity experienced by adolescents who were overweight or obese. From a search of electronic databases and ‘grey’ literature, published between 1950 and 2009, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Bronfenbrenner’s model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesising barriers to physical activity. Two reviewers appraised study quality. Miles and Huberman’s cross-case analysis was integrated with thematic networking to synthesize the individual, interpersonal and environmental level barriers for boys and girls of different ethnicities and socioeconomic status, across school settings and generalised context. Thirty-five barriers were identified, 13 of which occurred in physical activity situations in the school setting, 18 were not linked to a specific setting, and the remainder were common across both contexts. The fact that these barriers emerged from studies that focused on topics such as victimisation and mental health is particularly poignant and reflects the potentially pervasive influence of adolescent’s excessive weight not only in relation to physical activity situations but other aspects of their lives. Furthermore, socioeconomic status and ethnicity was poorly considered, with only one study linking these participant characteristics to quotations and discussing the potential implications. At present, there are few qualitative studies with sufficiently thick description or interpretive validity that provide insight into this vulnerable group of adolescents, and give them a voice to influence policy and practice. PMID:22554016

  10. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12–16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1–2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5–1.6 and 1.9–4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week), long screen time (≥3 h/day) and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5–7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1–4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2–229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%–95.6% and 16.9%–60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3–17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI

  11. Association of Parental Overweight and Cardiometabolic Diseases and Pediatric Adiposity and Lifestyle Factors with Cardiovascular Risk Factor Clustering in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Ying; Lin, Wei-Ting; Tsai, Sharon; Hung, Yu-Chan; Wu, Pei-Wen; Yang, Yu-Cheng; Chan, Te-Fu; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Weng, Yao-Lin; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chia-Tsuan; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors or their precursors are observed in childhood and may continue into adulthood. We investigated the effects of parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric lifestyle factors on the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents, and examined the mediating and modifying effects of pediatric adiposity on these associations. Representative adolescents (n = 2727; age, 12-16 years) were randomly recruited through multistage stratified sampling from 36 schools in Southern Taiwan. Adolescent and parent surveys were conducted in schools and participant homes, respectively. Their demographic factors, diet patterns, and physical, anthropometric, and clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Adolescents with 1-2 and ≥3 risk components for pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) were defined as potential MetS (pot-MetS) and MetS, respectively. Adolescents whose parents were overweight/obese, or with diabetes and hypertension had a higher prevalence ratio of pot-MetS and MetS (1.5-1.6 and 1.9-4.2-fold, respectively). Low physical activity (<952.4 MET·min/week), long screen time (≥3 h/day) and high sugar-sweetened beverage intake (>500 mL/day) were associated with a 3.3- (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.5-7.3), 2.2- (95% CI = 1.1-4.4), and 26.9-fold (95% CI = 3.2-229.0) odds ratio (OR) of MetS, respectively. Pediatric body mass index (BMI) accounted for 18.8%-95.6% and 16.9%-60.3% increased prevalence ratios of these parental and pediatric risk factors for MetS. The OR of pot-MetS + MetS for sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was multiplicatively enhanced among adolescents with overweight/obesity (combined OR, 8.6-fold (95% CI = 4.3-17.3); p for multiplicative interaction, 0.009). The results suggest that parental overweight and cardiometabolic diseases and pediatric sedentary and high sugar-intake lifestyles correlate with the development of adolescent MetS, and an elevated child BMI explains a part of these

  12. Advances in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Botzet, Andria M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents has been a public health problem for decades. Although some substance use may be developmentally routine, a concerning number of adolescents meet criteria for a substance use disorder and could greatly benefit from a quality treatment experience. However, parents and health care providers want evidence of the efficacy of adolescent-specific treatment programs. This review summarizes four factors surrounding the efficacy of current adolescent treatment programs: 1) adolescent-specific treatment services; 2) the variety of therapeutic modalities; 3) relapse and recovery rates; and 4) the need for evidence-based, quality assessments and research. Current adolescent treatment efforts are summarized, and the recent literature regarding the efficacy of adolescent treatment and recovery rates is discussed. PMID:21701838

  13. Frequency, Comorbidity, and Psychosocial Impairment of Depressive Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Conradt, Judith; Petermann, Franz

    2000-01-01

    Estimated the frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of depressive disorders from survey of 1,035 German 12- to 17-year-olds. Found that 17.9 percent met the lifetime criteria for depressive disorders, according to DSM-IV criteria; criteria were higher in females than in males. Rates for all disorders increased with age, with…

  14. Harmonizing DTI measurements across scanners to examine the development of white matter microstructure in 803 adolescents of the NCANDA study.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Chu, Weiwei; Kwon, Dongjin; Nichols, B Nolan; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Brumback, Ty; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; De Bellis, Michael D; Voyvodic, James T; Clark, Duncan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-04-15

    Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development

  15. Evidence for Optimism: Behavior Therapies and Motivational Interviewing in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The level of empirical support of the interventions was evaluated using established guidelines to determine if the interventions could be considered “well-established,” “probably efficacious,” or “promising.” The review determined that behavior therapies were “probably efficacious,” and motivational interviewing interventions easily met the criteria for “promising.” Due to small sample sizes, combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies marginally met the criteria for “promising.” The findings from this review underscore the value of individual and group behavior therapies and motivational interviewing in helping reduce mild to serious AOD use among adolescents. PMID:20682219

  16. Genetic susceptibility to family environment: BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR influence depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Elizabeth D; Hammen, Constance L; Najman, Jake M; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    Functional genetic polymorphisms associated with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HTTLPR) have demonstrated associations with depression in interaction with environmental stressors. In light of evidence for biological connections between BDNF and serotonin, it is prudent to consider genetic epistasis between variants in these genes in the development of depressive symptoms. The current study examined the effects of val66met, 5-HTTLPR, and family environment quality on youth depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample oversampled for maternal depression history. A differential susceptibility model was tested, comparing the effects of family environment on depression scores across different levels of a cumulative plasticity genotype, defined as presence of both, either, or neither plasticity alleles (defined here as val66met Met and 5-HTTLPR 'S'). Cumulative plasticity genotype interacted with family environment quality to predict depression among males and females at age 15. After age 15, however, the interaction of cumulative plasticity genotype and early family environment quality was only predictive of depression among females. Results supported a differential susceptibility model at age 15, such that plasticity allele presence was associated with more or less depressive symptoms depending on valence of the family environment, and a diathesis-stress model of gene-environment interaction after age 15. These findings, although preliminary because of the small sample size, support prior results indicating interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR, val66met, and environmental stress, and suggest that family environment may have a stronger influence on genetically susceptible women than men.

  17. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children & adolescents with autism: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Tordjman, Sylvie; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria specifed for this review. All the double-blind, controlled, randomized, clinical trials examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for treating children and adolescents with autism were included. Results: From the 93 titles identified, 26 were irrelevant and 58 were evaluated for more details. Only five articles met the inclusive criteria. The evidence from precise randomized double blind clinical trials of aripiprazole for the treatment of autism in children and adolescents was convincing enough to recommend aripiprazole. Adverse effects were not very common and were usually mild. Interpretation & conclusions: Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for treating irritability in autism. However, further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required. PMID:26458342

  18. Phoenix `07 MET Pressure sensor: Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Mäkelä, M.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The Phoenix '07 Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region 25.5.2008. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. The seminal questions for the Phoenix mission are: (1) can the Martian arctic support life, (2) what is the history of water at the landing site, and (3) how is the Martian climate affected by polar dynamics. These translate into practical science goals and tasks of characterizing the surface, analyzing samples of the soil and ice, and to observing and monitoring the atmospheric conditions and phenomena. Meteorology experiment (MET) onboard the Phoenix '07 lander will provide the first surface based observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind in the Martian polar region above the polar circle. The MET instrument also includes a lidar for detecting dust and ice particles in the air column above the lander. Pressure observations are crucial for the success of the MET experiment. The Martian atmosphere goes through a large scale atmospheric pressure cycle due to the annual condensation and sublimation of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. Pressure also exhibits short period variations associated with dust storms, tides and other atmospheric events. A series of pressure measurements can hence tell us about the large scale state and dynamics of the atmosphere. The shorter time scale phenomena are also important in contributing to our understanding of mixing and transport of heat, dust and water vapour. The pressure observations are performed by a FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on micro machined Barocap capacitic pressure sensor heads manufactured by Vaisala Inc. Similar instruments have been used in several earlier missions (Mars-96, Mars Polar Lander, Beagle-2 and Huygens), Phoenix being the first successful landing on Mars. A similar instrument is included also in the Mars Science Laboratory '09 rover. Pressure sensor technology

  19. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study aims to characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method The study included 58 females from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. Thirty-four (M=19.97 years old) met DSM criteria for ADHD in childhood, while the remaining 24 (M=19.83 years old) did not. Self- and parent-reports of psychopathology, delinquency, interpersonal relationships, academic achievement, job performance, and substance use were collected. Results The findings suggest that girls with ADHD experience difficulties in late adolescence and young adulthood, such as more conflict with their mothers, being involved in fewer romantic relationships, and experiencing more depressive symptoms than comparison women. However, differences did not emerge in all domains, such as job performance, substance use, and self-reported ADHD symptomatology. Conclusion The findings of this study add to the literature on the negative late adolescent and young adult outcomes associated with childhood ADHD in females. PMID:20562386

  20. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in bereaved children and adolescents: factor structure and correlates.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Spuij, Mariken

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the factor structure and correlates of posttraumatic stress-disorder (PTSD) symptoms among children and adolescents confronted with the death of a loved one. Three hundred thirty-two bereaved children and adolescents (aged 8-18; 56.9 % girls) who all received some form of psychosocial support after their loss, completed self-report measures of PTSD, together with measures tapping demographic and loss-related variables, depression, prolonged grief, and functional impairment. Parent-rated indices of impairment were also collected. We first evaluated the fit of six alternative models of the factor structure of PTSD symptoms, using confirmatory factor analyses. Outcomes showed that the 4-factor numbing model from King et al. (Psychological Assessment 10, 90-96, 1998), with distinct factors of reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal fit the data best. Of all participants, 51.5 % met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. PTSD-status and scores on the PTSD factors varied as a function of age and gender, but were unrelated to other demographic and loss-related variables. PTSD-status and scores on the PTSD factors were significantly associated symptom-levels of depression, prolonged grief, and functional impairment. Findings complement prior evidence that the DSM-IV model of the factor structure of PTSD symptoms may not represent the best conceptualization of these symptoms and highlight the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents seeking help after bereavement.

  1. Met-enkephalin levels during PTCA-induced myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Tonnarini, G; Giancaspro, G; Pizzuto, F; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P; Vincentelli, G M; Alegiani, F; Negri, M

    2001-07-01

    Met-enkephalin (Met-enk) has been demonstrated to modulate myocardial-ischemia mechanisms via the opioid receptors, but no studies are now available on Met-enk levels in the coronary circulation. In this experience Met-enk levels were evaluated in aortic root and in coronary sinus at baseline (T0), during PTCA induced transient ischemia (T1) and during reperfusion (T2). No significant differences were found at any time. Thus, it appears that there is no Met-enk extraction from the coronary circulation during provoked myocardial ischemia and no Met-enk release from the ischemic heart. PMID:11445249

  2. ARM mobile facility surface meteorology (MET) handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M. T.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-min statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and rainrate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime, or programmatic needs. In addition, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in Section 3.

  3. The relationship between family functioning and child and adolescent overweight and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Halliday, J A; Palma, C L; Mellor, D; Green, J; Renzaho, A M N

    2014-04-01

    There is mounting evidence that family functioning is linked to childhood overweight and obesity, and that both of these are associated with health-related behaviours and adverse health outcomes in children and adolescents. This paper systematically examines the peer-reviewed evidence regarding the relationship between child and adolescent overweight and obesity and family functioning. Peer-reviewed literature published between 1990 and 2011 hosted in Scopus, Pub Med or Psyc INFO were searched, in addition to the reference lists of included papers. Twenty-one studies met the selection criteria. Of the 17 identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, 12 reported significant associations between family functioning and childhood overweight and obesity. The instruments used to measure family functioning in the identified studies were heterogeneous. Poor family functioning was associated with increased risk of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents, and obese children and adolescents were more likely to come from families with poor family functioning. Aspects of family functioning which were associated with increased risk of child and adolescent obesity included poor communication, poor behaviour control, high levels of family conflict and low family hierarchy values. Half (2/4) of the identified intervention studies showed a significant relationship between family functioning and changes in child weight. The results demonstrate that family functioning is linked to obesity; however, higher level evidence and greater understanding of the mechanisms behind this relationship are required. The results indicate a need for a standardised family functioning measure applicable across populations. The results provide evidence of the value of considering family functioning in childhood obesity research and intervention.

  4. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism enhances task switching in elderly.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the relevance of the functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism as a modulator of task-switching performance in healthy elderly by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Task switching was examined in a cue-based and a memory-based paradigm. Val/Val carriers were generally slower, showed enhanced reaction time variability and higher error rates, particularly during memory-based task switching than the Met-allele individuals. On a neurophysiological level these dissociative effects were reflected by variations in the N2 and P3 ERP components. The task switch-related N2 was increased while the P3 was decreased in Met-allele carriers, while the Val/Val genotype group revealed the opposite pattern of results. In cue-based task-switching no behavioral and ERP differences were seen between the genotypes. These data suggest that superior memory-based task-switching performance in elderly Met-allele carriers may emerge due to more efficient response selection processes. The results implicate that under special circumstances the Met-allele renders cognitive processes more efficient than the Val/Val genotype in healthy elderly, corroborating recent findings in young subjects.

  5. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use.

  6. Adolescent muscle dysmorphia and family-based treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott

    2015-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the prevalence of male body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia is rising. To date, however, there is no published evidence on the efficacy of treatments for muscle dysmorphia. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy who met full diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia, whose symptoms were treated into remission with eating disorder-focused, family-based treatment. The age of this patient fell within the time period in which symptoms of muscle dysmorphia are most likely to develop and this case represents the first published case report of family-based treatment for muscle dysmorphia in this age group. Thus, this case report has important implications for clinicians considering treatment options for presentations of muscle dysmorphia when first presenting in adolescence. Implications for the development of treatment guidelines for muscle dysmorphia and for the diagnostic debate surrounding muscle dysmorphia are also discussed. PMID:24554557

  7. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Guerrero, Héctor; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL), using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. For the precursor mission (MMPM) intended to verify the landing concept and key technology during a real Mars mission all qualification activities are completed and the payload and system flight model components are being manufactured. The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. Details of the current MMPM system and payload configuration and their performance parameters will be shown.

  8. Adolescent Identity and Career Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.; Whitten, Leah S.; Kraska, Marie F.

    2014-01-01

    The wish to be seen as an adult has been an adolescent goal for generations. This goal is more difficult to attain in a technological society because extended education is needed for employment but the criteria for adult recognition continue to reflect conditions of the past. Results are reported for an online poll of 288 high school students…

  9. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  10. 7 CFR 1948.86 - Site development and acquisition grant selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Acquisition Policies Act of 1970) have been met. (b) Competitive criteria. The following criteria will be... in the State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas; (2) The increase in the number of new... for in the State Investment Strategy for Energy Impacted Areas in relation to available...

  11. The Bulimia Test--Revised: Validation with "DSM-IV" Criteria for Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelen, Mark H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The Bulimia Test--Revised (BULIT-R) was given to 23 female subjects who met the criteria for bulimia in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM-IV) and 124 female controls. The BULIT-R appears to be a valid instruction for identifying individuals who meet DSM-IV criteria for bulimia. (SLD)

  12. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  13. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; de Farias, José Cazuza; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were “high levels of body weight” (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and “lower level of physical activity” (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with “high levels of body weight” and “low levels of physical activity” were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  14. Enhancing reuse of structured eligibility criteria and supporting their relaxation.

    PubMed

    Milian, Krystyna; Hoekstra, Rinke; Bucur, Anca; Ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Paulissen, John

    2015-08-01

    Patient recruitment is one of the most important barriers to successful completion of clinical trials and thus to obtaining evidence about new methods for prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The reason is that recruitment is effort consuming. It requires the identification of candidate patients for the trial (the population under study), and verifying for each patient whether the eligibility criteria are met. The work we describe in this paper aims to support the comparison of population under study in different trials, and the design of eligibility criteria for new trials. We do this by introducing structured eligibility criteria, that enhance reuse of criteria across trials. We developed a method that allows for automated structuring of criteria from text. Additionally, structured eligibility criteria allow us to propose suggestions for relaxation of criteria to remove potentially unnecessarily restrictive conditions. We thereby increase the recruitment potential and generalizability of a trial. Our method for automated structuring of criteria enables us to identify related conditions and to compare their restrictiveness. The comparison is based on the general meaning of criteria, comprised of commonly occurring contextual patterns, medical concepts and constraining values. These are automatically identified using our pattern detection algorithm, state of the art ontology annotators and semantic taggers. The comparison uses predefined relations between the patterns, concept equivalences defined in medical ontologies, and threshold values. The result is a library of structured eligibility criteria which can be browsed using fine grained queries. Furthermore, we developed visualizations for the library that enable intuitive navigation of relations between trials, criteria and concepts. These visualizations expose interesting co-occurrences and correlations, potentially enhancing meta-research. The method for criteria structuring processes only certain types of

  15. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA 1999 CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA 1999 CHEM PM MET DATA Note: The negative sign is ... the longitude in the following data files: NARSTO_EPA_SS_ATLANTA_GAS_GAS_DATA_1_KB_V1.csv and NARSTO_EPA_SS_ATLANTA_MET_MET_DATA_1_KB_V1.csv Project Title:  NARSTO ...

  16. Quality-of-life factors in adolescent inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    MacPhee, M; Hoffenberg, E J; Feranchak, A

    1998-02-01

    Little is known about the specific psychosocial factors that influence quality of life in adolescents with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We adapted a model by Garrett and Drossman to assess adolescent adjustment to recent-onset IBD. Thirty adolescent-parent pairs completed a set of standardized questionnaires. The inclusion criteria were adolescents 12-18 years of age with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis of < 5 years' duration. Adolescents' health-related quality-of-life scores significantly correlated with satisfaction and degree of closeness with their social support members, such as parents. An unexpected finding was that the adolescents included more extended family than peers in their social support networks. Also of note was that parental coping styles rather than adolescent coping styles significantly correlated with adolescents' quality-of-life health scores. Severity of illness did not correlate with adolescent quality-of-life health scores. There was significant agreement between adolescent and parental quality-of-life health scores and stressful event ratings. Adolescents with recent-onset IBD rely more on family members than their peers for emotional support, and they depend more on their parents' coping skills than their own. These findings may indicate lags in normal adolescent development. Adolescents and parents do communicate and share concerns with each other. Support programs for adolescents with IBD should reinforce existing coping skills and parent-adolescent communication while promoting normative development.

  17. Association between adolescence obesity and metabolic syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nouri, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more prevalent among Iranian adolescences. This study aimed to find the relationship between obesity and MetS among different education grades of Iranian adolescence. Materials and Methods: Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. MetS was defined according to the De Ferranti definition. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.6% and 6.2% in junior and 11.5% and 4.3% in high school students, respectively. Obese subjects in both grades have higher waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride than comparable groups. Multiple logistic regression models showed that overweight and obesity were strongly associated with MetS components analyzed. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight and obese in junior high school students were 1.47 and 2.23 times more likely to be having high TG, respectively, whereas overweight and obese in high school-students were also more likely to have elevated TG [ORs 1.94 (1.28-2.94), 4.96 (2.39-10.3) respectively]. Conclusion: Obese children have the highest prevalence of MetS. Prevalence of MetS-related components has reached high level among Iranian adolescences that were overweight or obese. PMID:25143919

  18. Tidal analysis of Met rocket wind data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing Met Rocket wind data is described. Modern tidal theory and specialized analytical techniques were used to resolve specific tidal modes and prevailing components in observed wind data. A representation of the wind which is continuous in both space and time was formulated. Such a representation allows direct comparison with theory, allows the derivation of other quantities such as temperature and pressure which in turn may be compared with observed values, and allows the formation of a wind model which extends over a broader range of space and time. Significant diurnal tidal modes with wavelengths of 10 and 7 km were present in the data and were resolved by the analytical technique.

  19. Protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes. A study of Met-tRNA f Met binding factor(s) and Met-tRNA f Met binding to ribosomes and AUG codon.

    PubMed

    Gupta, N K; Chatterjee, B; Chen, Y C; Majumdar, A

    1975-02-10

    The effects of additions of Mg-2+, ribosomes, and AUG codon on the Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex were studied using a Millipore filtration method (J. Biol. Chem. 248, 4500 (1973)). Upon addition of increasing concentration of Mg-2+, the Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex dissociates into free Met-tRNAf Met and initiation factor (GTP), with an infection around 1.5 to 2 mM Mg-2+. The Mg-2+-induced dissociation of Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex was enhanced at ice bath temperature. At 37 degrees and in the presence of 1.5 to 2mM Mg-2+, the Met-tRNAf Met-initiation factor-GTP complex catalyzes the transfer of Met-tRNAf Met to ribosomes and AUG codon. Ribosome bound Met-tRNAf Met is stable to Mg-2+ and low temperature. A Millipore filtration assay for studies of (35S)Met-tRNAf Met binding to ribosomes and Aug codon has been developed. The assay procedure is carried out in three stages. In Stage I, the Met-tRNAf Met is bound to initiation factor in the presence of GTP, AUG codon (required for Stage II reaction), and 3.7 times 10-5 M aurintricarboxylic acid. The incubation is carried out at 37 degrees for 5 min. In Stage II, ribosomes and Mg-2+ (1.5 to 2mM final concentration) are added and the incubation is continued at 37 degrees for 10 min. In Stage III, more Mg-2+ is added to make the final Mg-2+ concentration of the incubation mixture 5 mM, and the reactions are further incubated at ice bath temperature for 10 min. The reactions are then terminated by addition of excess cold wash buffer and filtered through Millipore filters. Under the standard assay conditions, the radioactivity bound to Millipore filters in the absence of ribosomes and AUG codon is markedly reduced. Addition of ribosomes alone gave a significant increase in the radioactivity bound to Millipore filters. A further 2- to 3-fold stimulation of binding of (35S)Met-tRNAf Met to Millipore filters was observed when both ribosomes and AUG codon were added. The Met

  20. The modified obstetric metabolic equivalent (MET): finding a MET that fits in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C G; Foster, R C; Lanningham-Foster, L M; Smith, K M

    2012-06-01

    The Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA) provides the energy expenditure (EE) for hundreds of daily activities reported in metabolic equivalents (MET). It remains to be determined if the metabolic changes of pregnancy alter the use of the CPA MET (METCPA) in this population. The energy cost of rest, activities of daily living (ADL; typing, folding laundry and sweeping) and treadmill walking [2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mph (0% incline), 3.0 mph (3% incline)] were compared with the METCPA from the 2000 and 2011 CPA in 30 pregnant women (10-14 weeks gestation) using indirect calorimetry (IC). The METCPA for each activity was compared against two measured IC values: METabsolute (3.5 ml O2/kg/min) and METratio (EEactivity/EErest). Means for both comparisons were tested by one-sample t-test. Measured MET correlated with the 2011 METCPA: METabsolute v. METCPA R 2 = 0.906, P < 0.0001; METratio v. METCPA R 2 = 0.861, P < 0.0001. Differences between measured MET values and the 2011 METCPA ranged from 16% underestimation to 48% overestimation. Using the absolute definition, the METCPA significantly overestimated the ADL (P < 0.0005); yet, no significant differences were found between walking at 0% grade and METCPA. Conversely, only folding laundry was significantly different with the ratio definition, whereas walking at a level grade was significantly underestimated (P < 0.0001). Similar observations were found using the 2000 CPA. The use of the METCPA to estimate EE in pregnant women can result in significant over- or underestimation, depending on the activity and the definition of the MET that is used.

  1. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  2. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

  3. [Video games: are the motivations and intensity of use changing with age? Comparison between a population of adolescent and adult gamers].

    PubMed

    Caillon, J; Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the popularity of video games, few studies have been conducted in France on their use. The objective of this study was to gather data from a sample of French video game players to learn more about this population. This approach also aimed to examine whether differences exist between adolescent and adult gamers in terms of their motivations to play and whether this practice met the criteria for problem video game playing. A questionnaire collecting sociodemographic data and assessing the problems associated with the use of video games, as well as motivations to play, was distributed during a video game festival and on the Internet. A total of 778 people responded to the questionnaire. The results showed that there were few differences between adolescent and adult gamers. Both groups had an intense video game habit. The majority of them sometimes had the feeling of losing control of their use and sacrificed other activities to play video games. This last dimension was most frequently cited by adults. The feeling of spending more time playing was most frequently cited by adolescents. Concerning motivations to play, the two groups differed only on the score of the "social" dimension, significantly higher among adolescents.

  4. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-05-31

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing.

  5. Diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence in women

    PubMed Central

    Bamber, D; Cockerill, I; Rodgers, S; Carroll, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To formulate diagnostic criteria for exercise dependence. Method: Fifty six adult female exercisers were interviewed about their exercise behaviour and attitudes. The eating disorders examination, a semistructured clinical interview, was used to diagnose eating disorders. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and analysed from a social constructionist perspective using QSR NUD*IST. Participants also completed the exercise dependence questionnaire. Results: Two diagnostic criteria emerged from analysis of the interview data: impaired functioning and withdrawal. Impaired functioning was manifest in four areas: psychological, social and occupational, physical, and behavioural. Impairment in at least two areas was considered necessary for diagnosis. Withdrawal was evident as either an adverse reaction to the interruption of exercise or unsuccessful attempts at exercise control. Either sufficed for diagnosis. The absence or presence of an eating disorder was used to distinguish between primary and secondary exercise dependence. Ten women met these criteria for exercise dependence. All 10 also exhibited eating disorders and, accordingly, should be regarded as showing secondary, rather than primary, exercise dependence. Exercise dependent women had significantly higher scores on the exercise dependence questionnaire than non-dependent women. Conclusion: These new diagnostic criteria should now be adopted and explored further, particularly among men and individuals with possible primary exercise dependence. PMID:14514528

  6. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  7. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents in Lebanon as wars gained in ferocity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shaar, Khuzama Hijal

    2013-09-01

    Significance for public healthPost traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents has been implicated in developmental impairments, mental and scholastic problems, alcohol and drug abuse, and antisocial behavior in its victims among others. Absence of review studies regarding the prevalence of PTSD in adolescents in Lebanon, a country plagued by decades of civil strife and external occupation and invasion, is noted. Such information may reinforce the need to develop national public health policies to identify PTSD in children and adolescents, provide them with counseling and treatment, and formulate prevention strategies to protect vulnerable youth from devastations of war.For decades, Lebanon was war-torn by civil strife, and occupation and invasion by neighboring countries. In time, these wars have escalated in intensity from sniping, barricading streets and random shelling of residential quarters to the use of rockets, aerial bombing, and heavy artillery. Adverse mental health effects are noted in times of war with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a main outcome. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of published studies documenting the prevalence of PTSD in the adolescent population of Lebanon, to investigate the increase in these rates with the escalation of war intensity, and to examine PTSD determinants. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) between inception to the first week of January 2013. Search terms used were PTSD, adolescents and Lebanon. Eleven studies reporting PTSD in adolescents met the inclusion criteria for a total number of 5965 adolescents. Prevalence rates of PTSD ranged from 8.5% to 14.7% for the civil war, 3.7% for adolescents with sensory disabilities, 21.6% for the Grapes of Wrath War, and 15.4% to 35.0% for the 2006 July War. Some increase in PTSD rates in time is noted. Type of trauma such as bereavement, injury, house destruction, and economic problems, low self

  8. Absence of tpr-met and expression of c-met in human gastric mucosa and carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Heideman, D A; Snijders, P J; Bloemena, E; Meijer, C J; Offerhaus, G J; Meuwissen, S G; Gerritsen, W R; Craanen, M E

    2001-08-01

    The c-met proto-oncogene, encoding the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, can be activated by various mechanisms. These include, among others, gene amplification with concomitant overexpression and the tpr-met oncogenic rearrangement. In the case of gastric cancer, contradictory results on the presence of the tpr-met oncogenic rearrangement have been published. The current study aimed therefore to assess the prevalence of tpr-met expression in Caucasian gastric adenocarcinomas, to evaluate the importance of this oncogene in their carcinogenesis. In addition, the level of c-met expression was determined, to evaluate the role of this alternative mode of activation of the proto-oncogene. A series of Caucasian gastric adenocarcinomas (n=43) and normal gastric mucosal samples (n=14) was analysed for tpr-met and c-met expression. Expression of tpr-met mRNA in the samples was performed by two reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, with excellent correlation. The specificity of both methods was confirmed by direct sequencing of the PCR products of the MNNG-HOS cell line, which is known to contain the rearrangement. The level of c-met expression was assessed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry (IHC). None of the normal gastric mucosal or gastric adenocarcinoma samples expressed tpr-met mRNA, as determined by both RT-PCR assays. Seventy per cent of the adenocarcinomas showed overexpression of c-met, according to elevated c-met mRNA levels, compared with the expression level of normal gastric mucosa. A significant correlation was found between the level of c-met mRNA and protein expression. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that tpr-met activation does not play a role in Caucasian gastric carcinogenesis, while overexpression of the c-met gene occurs in the majority of Caucasian gastric adenocarcinomas.

  9. A new challenge for meteorological measurements: The "MeteoMet" project - Metrology for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, A.; Lopardo, G.; Antonsen, I.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Boese, N.; del Campo, D.; Dobre, M.; Drnovšek, J.; Elkatmis, A.; Georgin, E.; Grudniewicz, E.; Heinonen, M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Johansson, J.; Klason, P.; Knorova, R.; Melvad, C.; Merrison, J.; Migała, K.; de Podesta, M.; Saathoff, H.; Smorgon, D.; Sparasci, F.; Strnad, R.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change and its consequences require immediate actions in order to safeguard the environment and economy in Europe and in the rest of world. Aiming to enhance data reliability and reduce uncertainties in climate observations, a joint research project called "MeteoMet - Metrology for Meteorology" started in October 2011 coordinated by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM). The project is focused on the traceability of measurements involved in climate change: surface and upper air measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance and reciprocal influences between measurands. This project will provide the first definition at the European level of validated climate parameters with associated uncertainty budgets and novel criteria for interpretation of historical data series. The big challenge is the propagation of a metrological measurement perspective to meteorological observations. When such an approach will be adopted the requirement of reliable data and robust datasets over wide scales and long terms could be better met.

  10. Gestational risks and psychiatric disorders among indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10-12 and 13-15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother's positive parenting.

  11. An under-met and over-met expectations model of employee reactions to merit raises.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a model of how raise expectations influence the relationship between merit pay raises and employee reactions and tested it using a sample of hospital employees. Pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were consistently related to personal reactions (e.g., pay raise happiness, pay-level satisfaction, and turnover intentions). Merit pay raises were strongly related to reactions only among employees with high raise expectations and high PFP perceptions. The interactive effects of under-met/over-met expectations and PFP perceptions were mediated by the extent to which participants saw the raise as generous and they were happy with the raises they received. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for expectation-fulfillment theories, merit pay research, and the administration of incentives. PMID:18361641

  12. An under-met and over-met expectations model of employee reactions to merit raises.

    PubMed

    Schaubroeck, John; Shaw, Jason D; Duffy, Michelle K; Mitra, Atul

    2008-03-01

    The authors developed a model of how raise expectations influence the relationship between merit pay raises and employee reactions and tested it using a sample of hospital employees. Pay-for-performance (PFP) perceptions were consistently related to personal reactions (e.g., pay raise happiness, pay-level satisfaction, and turnover intentions). Merit pay raises were strongly related to reactions only among employees with high raise expectations and high PFP perceptions. The interactive effects of under-met/over-met expectations and PFP perceptions were mediated by the extent to which participants saw the raise as generous and they were happy with the raises they received. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for expectation-fulfillment theories, merit pay research, and the administration of incentives.

  13. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored. PMID:26828376

  14. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  15. Behavioural activation for the treatment of low-income, African American adolescents with major depressive disorder: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Maryann; Keeley, Mary L; Ritschel, Lorie; Craighead, W Edward

    2013-01-01

    Behavioural activation (BA) is a psychosocial treatment that has shown promise in the treatment of adults suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies have shown that BA may also be effective for treating depressed adolescents. There are no studies that have reported on the BA treatment of depressed and low-income African American adolescents; thus, the current study reports on the effectiveness of a version of BA adapted for the treatment of African American adolescents who were diagnosed with MDD (n = 3). Participants were allowed to attend a maximum of 17 sessions of weekly psychotherapy. Based on results taken from structured interviews, two of the three participants no longer met criteria for MDD at the end of treatment, and the severity of clinician-rated depressive symptoms and impairment decreased for all participants at post-treatment assessment. Additionally, all participants and their caregivers reported satisfaction with treatment. Implications of these findings, study limitations and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  16. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in 122,053 Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P < 0.01). Method of measurement of BP and year in which the survey was conducted were associated with heterogeneity in the estimates of HBP among boys. The data indicate that HBP is higher among boys than girls, and that the method of measurement plays an important role in the overall heterogeneity of HBP value distributions, particularly in boys. PMID:25501086

  17. A review of the predisposing, precipitating and perpetuating factors in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lievesley, Kate; Rimes, Katharine A; Chalder, Trudie

    2014-04-01

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a condition characterised by severe mental and physical fatigue coupled with profound disability. The purpose of this review was to investigate psychological, social and physiological factors associated with fatigue and disability in CFS in children and adolescents. The review aimed to gain an overview of the strength of evidence for the relationship between these different factors and CFS in young people. Seventy-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. A narrative synthesis of these studies was conducted. The strongest and most consistent finding was that rates of psychiatric co-morbidity, predominantly anxiety and depressive disorders, were higher in young people with CFS compared to healthy controls or illness control groups. Studies suggested that many children and adolescents with CFS reported that their illness began with an infection and there was some objective and prospective evidence to support this. Preliminary evidence suggested a link between CFS and a family history of CFS, high expectations from both the parent and child, personality traits such as conscientiousness and physical illness attributions. The evidence was limited by methodological problems. Few studies were prospective in nature and future research should address this. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed and a hypothesised model of the factors associated with CFS in children and adolescents is presented.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Anthenelli, Robert M; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M; Beavers, Jennifer; DelBello, Melissa P

    2013-12-30

    The study examined the prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Participants were 80 adolescents between 13 and 22 years of age with co-occurring bipolar I disorder and cannabis abuse or dependence who reported ever trying a cigarette. Diagnostic and symptom severity measures were completed as part of the baseline assessments for a clinical trial. Almost half (49%) of these participants who ever tried a cigarette were current heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day), and 70% met DSM-IV-TR lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking was associated with older age, heavier marijuana use and greater compulsive craving, lifetime diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, illicit drug use disorders, and poorer overall functioning. Nicotine dependence was related to White race, higher current mania severity, and poorer overall functioning. These findings suggest that heavy smoking and nicotine dependence were highly prevalent among these adolescents. Although both were associated with greater physical and psychosocial problems, only heavy smoking was linked to a clear pattern of more severe substance-related and psychiatric problems. Further research to elucidate mechanisms and develop interventions to address early, entrenched patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana is warranted.

  19. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth.

  20. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  1. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-01-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  2. Effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on personality traits and educational attainment in a longitudinal population representative study.

    PubMed

    Lehto, K; Akkermann, K; Parik, J; Veidebaum, T; Harro, J

    2013-10-01

    The COMT Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with anxiety and affective disorders, but its effect on anxiety-related personality traits varies between studies. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of COMT Val158Met on personality traits from adolescence to young adulthood in a population representative Caucasian birth cohort. Also its association with educational attainment and anxiety and mood disorders by the age 25 were examined. This analysis is based on the older cohort of the Estonian Children Personality Behavior and Health Study (original number of subjects 593). The personality traits were assessed when the participants were 15, 18 and 25 years old. COMT Val158Met had an effect on Neuroticism in females by age 25 (p=0.001, Bonferroni-corrected for five traits), whereas female Val homozygotes scored the highest. In addition, the Conscientiousness scores of subjects with Val/Val genotype were decreasing in time, being the lowest by the age 25 (p=0.006, Bonferroni-corrected for five traits). By the age 25, males with the Val/Met genotype had mainly secondary or vocational education, whereas female heterozygotes mostly had obtained or were obtaining university education. COMT Val158Met was not associated with anxiety or mood disorders in either gender. These results suggest that genes affecting dopamine system are involved in the development of personality traits and contribute to educational attainment.

  3. Contemporary issues on the epidemiology and antiretroviral adherence of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Olurotimi A; Malee, Kathleen M; Ryscavage, Patrick; Hunter, Scott J; Taiwo, Babafemi O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents are a unique and sometimes neglected group in the planning of healthcare services. This is the case in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than eight out of ten of the world's HIV-infected adolescents live. Although the last decade has seen a reduction in AIDS-related mortality worldwide, largely due to improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), AIDS remains a significant contributor to adolescent mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Although inadequate access to ART in parts of the subcontinent may be implicated, research among youth with HIV elsewhere in the world suggests that suboptimal adherence to ART may play a significant role. In this article, we summarize the epidemiology of HIV among sub-Saharan African adolescents and review their adherence to ART, emphasizing the unique challenges and factors associated with adherence behaviour. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of online databases for articles, relevant abstracts, and conference reports from meetings held between 2010 and 2014. Our search terms included “adherence,” “compliance,” “antiretroviral use” and “antiretroviral adherence,” in combination with “adolescents,” “youth,” “HIV,” “Africa,” “interventions” and the MeSH term “Africa South of the Sahara.” Of 19,537 articles and abstracts identified, 215 met inclusion criteria, and 148 were reviewed. Discussion Adolescents comprise a substantial portion of the population in many sub-Saharan African countries. They are at particular risk of HIV and may experience worse outcomes. Although demonstrated to have unique challenges, there is a dearth of comprehensive health services for adolescents, especially for those with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. ART adherence is poorer among older adolescents than other age groups, and psychosocial, socio-economic, individual, and treatment-related factors influence adherence behaviour among adolescents in this region. With

  4. Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2003-09-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents is still poorly understood. The provisional diagnostic criteria and the concept are depicted here. The treatment modalities and prognosis for the disease are yet inconsistent. PMID:15168991

  5. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents

  6. IT TAKES TWO: PARTNER ATTRIBUTES ASSOCIATED WITH SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Niccolai, Linda M.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Brown, Jennifer L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Sales, Jessica M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify partner attributes associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents and summarize implications for research and prevention. Design Systematic review. Methods We identified peer-reviewed studies published 1990–2010 which assessed ≥1 partner attribute in relation to a biologically-confirmed STI among adolescents (15–24 years) by searching MEDLINE and included articles. Studies which included adolescents but >50% of the sample or with mean or median age ≥25 years were excluded. Results Sixty-four studies met eligibility criteria; 59% were conducted in high-income countries; 80% were cross-sectional; 91% enrolled females and 42% males. There was no standard “partner” definition. Partner attributes assessed most frequently included: age, race/ethnicity, multiple sex partners and STI symptoms. Older partners were associated with prevalent STIs but largely unrelated to incidence. Black race was associated with STIs but not uniformly. Partners with multiple partners and STI symptoms appear to be associated with STIs predominantly among females. Although significant associations were reported, weaker evidence exists for: other partner sociodemographics; sexual and other behaviors (sexual concurrency, sex worker, intimate partner violence, substance use, travel) and STI history. There were no apparent differences by STI. Conclusions Partner attributes are independently associated with STIs among male and female adolescents worldwide. These findings reinforce the importance of assessing partner attributes when determining STI risk. Prevention efforts should continue to promote and address barriers to condom use. Increased efforts are needed to screen and treat STIs and reduce risky behavior among men. A standard “partner” definition would facilitate interpretation of findings in future studies. PMID:23588126

  7. Kinematic upper limb evaluation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Almeida, Cibele Santos; Dumont, Arislander Jonatan Lopes; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Duarte, Natalia Almeida de Carvalho; Braun, Luiz Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a review of the literature on objective measures of upper limb movements in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy and describe the methods used to investigate upper limb kinematics in this population. [Materials and Methods] An extensive database search was performed using the keywords kinematics, upper limb, and cerebral palsy. A total of 146 papers were identified, but only five met the inclusion criteria. [Results] No consensus was found regarding the data collection, processing, and analysis procedures or reporting of the results. [Conclusion] Standardization of the protocol for 3D upper limb movement analysis will provide the foundation for comparable, reproducible results and eventually facilitate the planning of treatment interventions. PMID:27065566

  8. How many different ways do patients meet the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder?

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Ellison, William; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    There are 227 possible ways to meet the symptom criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, symptom occurrence is not random, and some symptoms co-occur significantly beyond chance. This raises the questions of whether all of the theoretically possible different ways of meeting the MDD criteria actually occur in patients, and whether some combinations of criteria are much more common than others. More than 1500 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for MDD at the time of the evaluation were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The patients met the MDD symptom criteria in 170 different ways. Put another way, one-quarter (57/227) of the criteria combinations did not occur. The most frequent combination was the presence of all 9 criteria (10.1%, n=157). Nine combinations (all 9 criteria, 3 of the 8-criterion combinations, 4 of the 7-criterion combinations, and one 6-criterion combination) were present in more than 2% of the patients, together accounting for more than 40% of the diagnoses. The polythetic definition of MDD, which requires a minimum number of criteria from a list, results in significant diagnostic heterogeneity because there are many different ways to meet criteria. While there is significant heterogeneity amongst patients meeting the MDD diagnostic criteria, a relatively small number of combinations could be considered as diagnostic prototypes as they account for more than 40% of the patients diagnosed with MDD. PMID:25266848

  9. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  10. Conceptual and Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol and Substance Misusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstead, William J.; Anderson, Carl L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a system of care and clinical issues central to service delivery to adolescents with alcohol/drug problems. Recognizes the importance of adolescence as a developmental period and its implications for treatment. Develops criteria to distinguish the most appropriate level of care for the adolescent's presenting clinical condition. (CMG)

  11. Adolescence: a foundation for future health.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Susan M; Afifi, Rima A; Bearinger, Linda H; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Dick, Bruce; Ezeh, Alex C; Patton, George C

    2012-04-28

    Adolescence is a life phase in which the opportunities for health are great and future patterns of adult health are established. Health in adolescence is the result of interactions between prenatal and early childhood development and the specific biological and social-role changes that accompany puberty, shaped by social determinants and risk and protective factors that affect the uptake of health-related behaviours. The shape of adolescence is rapidly changing-the age of onset of puberty is decreasing and the age at which mature social roles are achieved is rising. New understandings of the diverse and dynamic effects on adolescent health include insights into the effects of puberty and brain development, together with social media. A focus on adolescence is central to the success of many public health agendas, including the Millennium Development Goals aiming to reduce child and maternal mortality and HIV/AIDS, and the more recent emphases on mental health, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. Greater attention to adolescence is needed within each of these public health domains if global health targets are to be met. Strategies that place the adolescent years centre stage-rather than focusing only on specific health agendas-provide important opportunities to improve health, both in adolescence and later in life.

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Enhancing Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults 13–24 Years of Age: A Review of the Evidence Base

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Youth living with HIV are highly under-represented in the evidence base for adherence interventions, despite their diverse and unique needs and barriers. Objective: This systematic review aimed to identify antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions specifically targeting adolescents and young adults (defined as ages 13–24) with the goal of characterizing the evidence base. Methods: Articles were identified using the PubMed database and cover work published through September 14, 2015. Inclusion criteria: (1) average age 13 to 24, (2) HIV positive, (3) on or beginning ART, (4) intervention targeted ART adherence in full or in part, (5) reported adherence, viral load, and/or CD4 count outcomes. Strength of evidence was defined as level 1 [randomized controlled trial (RCT) with significance testing on outcomes], 2 (within group studies with statistical testing on outcomes), 3 (RCTs with descriptive results), or 4 (within group studies with descriptive results). Results: Of 151 articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Published between 2003 and 2014, these studies evaluated diverse intervention approaches. Most were conducted in the US and were small pilots that have yet to be replicated despite promising results. Only 3 studies met criteria for highest level strength of evidence; 2 supported a phone-based counseling approach with adherence monitors and 1 for weekly individual and family counseling. Conclusions: Despite nearly 20 years passing since the wide-scale availability of ART, and clear recognition that adolescents and youth adults fair worse on the cascade of HIV care, the evidence base remains sparse and underdeveloped. Promising approaches need replication and more rigorous studies are desperately needed. PMID:26959190

  13. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism and Clinical Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia and Schizo-Affective Disorder Patients: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Eric; Zai, Clement C.; Lisoway, Amanda; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Felsky, Daniel; Tiwari, Arun K.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Ikeda, Masashi; Molero, Patricio; Ortuno, Felipe; Porcelli, Stefano; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Gao, Shugui; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Pelayo-Terán, José M; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Potkin, Steven G.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme plays a crucial role in dopamine degradation, and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with significant differences in enzymatic activity and consequently dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. Multiple studies have analyzed the COMT Val158Met variant in relation to antipsychotic response. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between COMT Val158Met and antipsychotic response. Methods: Searches using PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases (03/01/2015) yielded 23 studies investigating COMT Val158Met variation and antipsychotic response in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder. Responders/nonresponders were defined using each study’s original criteria. If no binary response definition was used, authors were asked to define response according to at least 30% Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score reduction (or equivalent in other scales). Analysis was conducted under a fixed-effects model. Results: Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Five additional antipsychotic-treated samples were analyzed for Val158Met and response and included in the meta-analysis (ntotal=1416). Met/Met individuals were significantly more likely to respond than Val-carriers (P=.039, ORMet/Met=1.37, 95% CI: 1.02–1.85). Met/Met patients also experienced significantly greater improvement in positive symptoms relative to Val-carriers (P=.030, SMD=0.24, 95% CI: 0.024–0.46). Posthoc analyses on patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (n=1207) showed that Met/Met patients were significantly more likely to respond relative to Val-carriers (P=.0098, ORMet/Met=1.54, 95% CI: 1.11–2.14), while no difference was observed for typical-antipsychotic-treated patients (n=155) (P=.65). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder

  14. MET Inhibition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zuoquan; Lee, Young H.; Boeke, Marta; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.; Liu, Zongzhi; Bottaro, Donald P.; Kluger, Harriet M.; Shuch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal form of kidney cancer. Small molecule VEGFR inhibitors are widely used but are not curative and various resistance mechanisms such as activation of the MET pathway have been described. Dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitors have recently shown clinical benefit but limited preclinical data evaluates their effects in ccRCC. Methods: An interrogation of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was performed to evaluate oncogenic alterations in the MET/VEGFR2 pathway. We evaluated the in vitro effects of Cabozantinib, a dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, using a panel of ccRCC cell lines. Drug effects of cell viability and proliferation, migration, cell scatter, anchorage independent growth, and downstream MET/VEGFR2 signaling pathways were assessed. Results: Twelve percent of TCGA cases had possible MET/HGF oncogenic alterations with co-occurrence noted (p<0.001). MET/HGF altered cases had worse overall survival (p=0.044). Cabozantinib was a potent inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 in vitro in our cell line panel. PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways were also suppressed by cabozantinib, however the effects on cell viability in vitro were modest. At nanomolar concentrations of cabozantinib, HGF-stimulated migration, invasion, cellular scattering and soft agar colony formation were inhibited. Conclusions: We provide further preclinical rationale for dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibition in ccRCC. While the MET pathway is implicated in VEGFR resistance, dual inhibitors may have direct anti-tumor effects in a patient subset with evidence of MET pathway involvement. Cabozantinib is a potent dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and likely has anti-angiogenic effects similar to other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Future work involving in vivo models will be useful to better define mechanisms of potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:27390595

  15. The impact of endorsing Spitzer's proposed criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V on male and female Veterans.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lyndsey N; Chard, Kathleen M; Schumm, Jeremiah A; O'Brien, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This study explored differences between Spitzer's proposed model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the current DSM-IV diagnostic classification scheme in 353 Veterans. The majority of Veterans (89%) diagnosed with PTSD as specified in the DSM-IV also met Spitzer's proposed criteria. Veterans who met both DSM-IV and Spitzer's proposed criteria had significantly higher Clinician Administered PTSD Scale severity scores than Veterans only meeting DSM-IV criteria. Logistic regression indicated that being African American and having no comorbid diagnosis of major depressive disorder or history of a substance use disorder were found to predict those Veterans who met current, but not proposed criteria. These findings have important implications regarding proposed changes to the diagnostic classification criteria for PTSD in the forthcoming DSM-V.

  16. Salmonella typhimurium metC operator-constitutive mutations.

    PubMed

    Park, Y M; Stauffer, G V

    1989-07-15

    We used an Escherichia coli lac deletion strain lysogenized with a metC-lacZ fusion phage (lambda Clac) to select operator-constitutive mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium metC gene control region. The mutations were located in a region containing 2 tandemly repeated 8 bp palindromes previously proposed to be the MetJ repressor binding site. Lysogens carrying lambda Clac mutant phage exhibit high beta-galactosidase levels that are only partially repressible by methionine. The results suggest that the mutations disrupt the methionine control system mediated by the metJ gene product. PMID:2506106

  17. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  18. Comparing the glucose kinetics of adolescent girls and adult women during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal energy demands are met mostly from oxidation of maternally supplied glucose. In pregnant adults this increased glucose requirement is met by an increase in gluconeogenesis. It is not known, however, whether, like their adult counterparts, pregnant adolescent girls can increase gluconeogenesis ...

  19. Selection criteria for internships in clinical neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David; Odland, Anthony P; Ritchie, Abigail S; Mittenberg, Wiley

    2012-01-01

    Criteria used in the evaluation and selection of applicants for clinical neuropsychology internships were identified by a survey of programs that met guidelines for specialty training. The number of internships that offer training with specialization in clinical neuropsychology has more than doubled during the past 10 years. Supervising neuropsychologists from 75 programs replied to the survey, yielding a 72.8% response rate. Clinical experience in neuropsychological assessment, specialization in clinical neuropsychology during graduate education, personal interview, and letters of recommendation were reported to be the most salient selection criteria. Practica that provide experience with flexible or functional systems assessment approaches at university-affiliated or VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs) medical centers and doctoral curricula that follow International Neuropsychological Society/Division 40 course guidelines, with teaching and supervision provided by neuropsychologists, were preferred prerequisites to internship. These results are consistent with selection criteria reported over a decade ago and indicate continued endorsement of the vertically integrated model of education and training outlined by the Houston Conference on Specialty Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome and Importance of Associated Variables in Children and Adolescents in Guabiruba - SC, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosini, Nilton; Moura, Solange A. Z. Oppermann; Rosini, Rodrigo Diegoli; Machado, Marcos José; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk factors that characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be present in childhood and adolescence, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Objective Evaluate the prevalence of MetS and the importance of its associated variables, including insulin resistance (IR), in children and adolescents in the city of Guabiruba-SC, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1011 students (6-14 years, 52.4% girls, 58.5% children). Blood samples were collected for measurement of biochemical parameters by routine laboratory methods. IR was estimated by the HOMA-IR index, and weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were determined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS. Results The prevalence of MetS, IR, overweight and obesity in the cohort were 14%, 8.5%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Among students with MetS, 27% had IR, 33% were overweight, 45.5% were obese and 22% were eutrophic. IR was more common in overweight (48%) and obese (41%) students when compared with eutrophic individuals (11%; p = 0.034). The variables with greatest influence on the development of MetS were obesity (OR = 32.7), overweight (OR = 6.1), IR (OR = 4.4; p ≤ 0.0001 for all) and age (OR = 1.15; p = 0.014). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents evaluated in this study. Students who were obese, overweight or insulin resistant had higher chances of developing the syndrome. PMID:25993484

  1. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  2. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  3. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Relationship between Uric Acid and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: An Analysis of NHANES 1999–2006

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Dong, Lili; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Among adolescents uric acid is associated with insulin resistance, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and in adults high uric acid levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objective Determine whether the relationship of uric acid with MetS varies in adolescents by race/ethnicity and gender. Methods We used linear regression to evaluate associations between uric acid and other MetS-associated clinical and laboratory measures among 3,296 non-Hispanic-white, non-Hispanic-black and Hispanic adolescents age 12–19y participating in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (1999–2006). Results Overall, non-Hispanic-white males and females had the highest uric acid levels among the three racial/ethnic groups. In each racial/ethnic group there were higher uric acid levels for those adolescents with vs. without MetS. However, the extent of the MetS-related increase in uric acid level varied by race and gender. Among males, MetS was associated with the greatest increases in uric acid among non-Hispanic whites. However, among females, the MetS-related increase in uric acid was greatest among non-whites. Non-Hispanic-white females exhibited the lowest degrees of correlation between levels of uric acid and MetS-associated variables. Uric acid levels did not correlate with insulin levels in non-Hispanic-white females. Conclusions These data suggest the relationship between uric acid and MetS varies by race/ethnicity and gender. In particular, non-Hispanic-white males exhibit a strong relationship and non-Hispanic-white females exhibit a relatively poor correlation between uric acid and MetS-related factors. These data may have implications for the use of uric acid as a marker of future risk among adolescents. PMID:22000606

  4. Oncogenic activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase fusion protein, Tpr-Met, involves exclusion from the endocytic degradative pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, H H L; Peschard, P; Lin, T; Naujokas, M A; Zuo, D; Park, M

    2007-11-01

    Multiple mechanisms of dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are observed in human cancers. In addition to gain-of-function, loss of negative regulation also contributes to oncogenic activation of RTKs. Negative regulation of many RTKs involves their internalization and degradation in the lysosome, a process regulated through ubiquitination. RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation, are no longer transmembrane proteins, and are predicted to escape lysosomal degradation. To test this, we used the Tpr-Met oncogene, generated following chromosomal translocation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met). Unlike Met, Tpr-Met is localized in the cytoplasm and also lacks the binding site for Cbl ubiquitin ligases. We determined whether subcellular localization of Tpr-Met, and/or loss of its Cbl-binding site, is important for oncogenic activity. Presence of a Cbl-binding site and ubiquitination of cytosolic Tpr-Met oncoproteins does not alter their transforming activity. In contrast, plasma membrane targeting allows Tpr-Met to enter the endocytic pathway, and Tpr-Met transforming activity as well as protein stability are decreased in a Cbl-dependent manner. We show that transformation by Tpr-Met is in part dependent on its ability to escape normal downregulatory mechanisms. This provides a paradigm for many RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation.

  5. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shuch, Brian; Falbo, Ryan; Parisi, Fabio; Adeniran, Adebowale; Kluger, Yuval; Kluger, Harriet M.; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P = 0.1). MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R = 0.5) and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P = 0.39). Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents. PMID:26448928

  6. Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Adolescent Marijuana Users: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James

    2006-01-01

    This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…

  7. Mental Health Literacy and Help-Giving Responses in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sadhbh; Swords, Lorraine; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed mental health literacy in Irish adolescents (N = 187), and explored participants' help-giving responses toward hypothetical depressed peers. Participants read five vignettes, each describing an adolescent experiencing a life difficulty; two of the characters met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"…

  8. Sapphires-in-Transition: Enhancing Personal Development among Black Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce Lynom

    1994-01-01

    Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…

  9. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  10. The Relationship between Aerobic Capacity and Physical Activity in Blind and Sighted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobberling, G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between habitual physical activity and aerobic capacity in 30 blind and 30 sighted adolescents. Both physical activity and maximal oxygen consumption were significantly higher among the sighted adolescents. A minimum of 30 minutes of daily activity at a minimal oxygen consumption of 8 METs (resting…

  11. A Systematic Review of Psychiatric, Psychological, and Behavioural Outcomes following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Karen M.; Brooks, Brian L.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Villavicencio-Requis, Angela; Gnanakumar, Vithya; Robertson, Helen Lee; Schneider, Kathryn; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence regarding longer-term psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes (for example, anxiety, mood disorders, depression, and attention disorders) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in children and adolescents has not been previously synthesized. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the available evidence examining psychiatric, psychological, and behavioural outcomes following mTBI in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: Nine electronic databases were systematically searched from 1980 to August 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; study design was a randomized controlled trial, quasi-experimental design, cohort or historical cohort study, case-control study, or cross-sectional study; exposure included mTBI (including concussion); population included children and adolescents (<19 years) at the time of mTBI, as well as a comparison group (for example, healthy children, children with orthopaedic injuries); and included psychiatric, psychological, or behavioural outcomes (for example, anxiety, mood disorders, depression, attention disorders). Two authors independently assessed the quality and level of evidence with the Downs and Black (DB) criteria and Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) model, respectively, for each manuscript. Results: Of 9472 studies identified in the initial search, 30 were included and scored. Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The median methodological quality for all 30 studies, based on the DB criteria, was 15/33 (range 6 to 19). The highest level of evidence demonstrated by all reviewed studies was level 2b based on OCEBM criteria, with the majority (28/30 studies) classified at this level. Based on the literature included in this systematic review, psychological and psychiatric problems in children with a history of mTBI were found to be more prevalent when mTBI is associated with hospitalization, when

  12. Success, but Slowly, as Met School Redefines Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Seven Oaks Met School, the only high school in Canada that is part of the U.S.-based Big Picture Learning network of innovative schools, graduated its first class this spring. Internships with businesses and institutions in the community are a core element of the Met School experience. Students report on their internship experience, as well as on…

  13. Aptamers Binding to c-Met Inhibiting Tumor Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Piater, Birgit; Doerner, Achim; Guenther, Ralf; Kolmar, Harald; Hock, Bjoern

    2015-01-01

    The human receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in the control of critical cellular processes. Since c-Met is frequently over expressed or deregulated in human malignancies, blocking its activation is of special interest for therapy. In normal conditions, the c-Met receptor is activated by its bivalent ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Also bivalent antibodies can activate the receptor by cross linking, limiting therapeutic applications. We report the generation of the RNA aptamer CLN64 containing 2'-fluoro pyrimidine modifications by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). CLN64 and a previously described single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer CLN3 exhibited high specificities and affinities to recombinant and cellular expressed c-Met. Both aptamers effectively inhibited HGF-dependent c-Met activation, signaling and cell migration. We showed that these aptamers did not induce c-Met activation, revealing an advantage over bivalent therapeutic molecules. Both aptamers were shown to bind overlapping epitopes but only CLN3 competed with HGF binding to cMet. In addition to their therapeutic and diagnostic potential, CLN3 and CLN64 aptamers exhibit valuable tools to further understand the structural and functional basis for c-Met activation or inhibition by synthetic ligands and their interplay with HGF binding. PMID:26658271

  14. A pilot evaluation of older adolescents' sexual reference displays on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Brockman, Libby N; Wasserheit, Judith N; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Many older adolescents display sexual references on their social networking site profiles; this study investigated whether these references were associated with self-reported sexual intention, sexual experience, or risky sexual behavior. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduate freshmen were identified within 1 large U.S. university Facebook network. Profile owners who displayed sexual references (Displayers) and did not display references (Non-Displayers) were invited to complete surveys. Surveys measured sexual intention, using the Postponing Sexual Intercourse (PSI) scale, and sexual experiences. A higher PSI score was inversely related to intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Of the 118 profiles that met inclusion criteria, 85 profile owners completed surveys. Profile owners were mostly female (56.5%) and Caucasian (67.1%). The mean PSI score for Displayers was 6.5 ± 1.6, and the mean PSI score for Non-Displayers was 10.2 ± 0.6 (p = .02). There were no differences between Displayers and Non-Displayers regarding lifetime prevalence of sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, or frequency of condom use. Display of sexual references on college freshmen's Facebook profiles was positively associated with reporting intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Facebook profiles may present an innovative cultural venue to identify adolescents who are considering sexual activity and may benefit from targeted educational messages. PMID:22239559

  15. Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2006-01-01

    Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems.

  16. Psychopathy's influence on the coupling between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes among incarcerated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Megan M; Dismukes, Andrew R; Vitacco, Michael J; Breiman, Chelsea; Fleury, Donald; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a heterogeneous diagnosis, leading researchers to initiate studies focused on neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder. One specifier of CD currently considered for inclusion in the DSM-V is callous-unemotional (CU) traits, a key component of psychopathy. CU traits are thought to have neuroendocrine underpinnings, yet little is known about hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) hormones in the context of psychopathic traits. The current study sought to identify daily coupling patterns between HPA and HPG hormones in order to clarify distinct neurobiological underpinning associated with psychopathic/CU traits. Fifty incarcerated adolescent males who met criteria for CD were recruited and provided 10 saliva samples across 2 days. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL:YV) and Inventory of Callous Unemotional Traits (ICU) on a third day. Diurnal cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA functioning was modeled via hierarchical linear modeling. Psychopathy subscales from the measures administered were used as predictors of daily coupling patterns between these hormones. Results indicated all three hormones were tightly coupled. Further, higher PCL-YV interpersonal scores related to greater coupling between all three hormones, whereas higher ICU callousness scores related to greater uncoupling of testosterone with cortisol and DHEA. The current study is novel in its emphasis on testing the coupling of HPA and HPG hormones among incarcerated adolescent males. Results suggest that affective and interpersonal psychopathic traits are marked by unique HPA- and HPG coupling. PMID:23852424

  17. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  18. Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guse, Kylene; Levine, Deb; Martins, Summer; Lira, Andrea; Gaarde, Jenna; Westmorland, Whitney; Gilliam, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    New digital media (e.g., the Internet, text messaging, and social networking sites [SNS]) have dramatically altered the communication landscape, especially for youth. These communication platforms present new tools for engaging youth in sexual health promotion and risk reduction. We searched eight public databases across multiple disciplines for all peer-reviewed studies published between January 2000 and May 2011 that empirically evaluated the impact of digital media-based interventions on the sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors of adolescents aged 13-24 years. Of 942 abstracts, 10 met inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted in the United States. Eight described Web-based interventions, one used mobile phones, and one was conducted on an SNS. Two studies significantly delayed initiation of sex, and one was successful in encouraging users of an SNS to remove sex references from their public profile. Seven interventions significantly influenced psychosocial outcomes such as condom self-efficacy and abstinence attitudes, but at times the results were in directions unexpected by the study authors. Six studies increased knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or pregnancy. This area of research is emerging and rapidly changing. More data from controlled studies with longer (>1 year) follow-up and measurement of behavioral outcomes will provide a more robust evidence base from which to judge the effectiveness of new digital media in changing adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:23174462

  19. Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guse, Kylene; Levine, Deb; Martins, Summer; Lira, Andrea; Gaarde, Jenna; Westmorland, Whitney; Gilliam, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    New digital media (e.g., the Internet, text messaging, and social networking sites [SNS]) have dramatically altered the communication landscape, especially for youth. These communication platforms present new tools for engaging youth in sexual health promotion and risk reduction. We searched eight public databases across multiple disciplines for all peer-reviewed studies published between January 2000 and May 2011 that empirically evaluated the impact of digital media-based interventions on the sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors of adolescents aged 13-24 years. Of 942 abstracts, 10 met inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted in the United States. Eight described Web-based interventions, one used mobile phones, and one was conducted on an SNS. Two studies significantly delayed initiation of sex, and one was successful in encouraging users of an SNS to remove sex references from their public profile. Seven interventions significantly influenced psychosocial outcomes such as condom self-efficacy and abstinence attitudes, but at times the results were in directions unexpected by the study authors. Six studies increased knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or pregnancy. This area of research is emerging and rapidly changing. More data from controlled studies with longer (>1 year) follow-up and measurement of behavioral outcomes will provide a more robust evidence base from which to judge the effectiveness of new digital media in changing adolescent sexual behavior.

  20. A pilot evaluation of older adolescents' sexual reference displays on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Brockman, Libby N; Wasserheit, Judith N; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Many older adolescents display sexual references on their social networking site profiles; this study investigated whether these references were associated with self-reported sexual intention, sexual experience, or risky sexual behavior. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduate freshmen were identified within 1 large U.S. university Facebook network. Profile owners who displayed sexual references (Displayers) and did not display references (Non-Displayers) were invited to complete surveys. Surveys measured sexual intention, using the Postponing Sexual Intercourse (PSI) scale, and sexual experiences. A higher PSI score was inversely related to intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Of the 118 profiles that met inclusion criteria, 85 profile owners completed surveys. Profile owners were mostly female (56.5%) and Caucasian (67.1%). The mean PSI score for Displayers was 6.5 ± 1.6, and the mean PSI score for Non-Displayers was 10.2 ± 0.6 (p = .02). There were no differences between Displayers and Non-Displayers regarding lifetime prevalence of sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, or frequency of condom use. Display of sexual references on college freshmen's Facebook profiles was positively associated with reporting intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Facebook profiles may present an innovative cultural venue to identify adolescents who are considering sexual activity and may benefit from targeted educational messages.

  1. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  2. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  3. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  4. Effect of the 2010 task force criteria on reclassification of cardiovascular magnetic resonance criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to evaluate the effect of application of the revised 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) on the prevalence of major and minor Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) criteria for Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) versus application of the original 1994 TFC. We also assessed the utility of MRI to identify alternative diagnoses for patients referred for ARVC evaluation. Methods 968 consecutive patients referred to our institution for CMR with clinical suspicion of ARVC from 1995 to 2010, were evaluated for the presence of major and minor CMR criteria per the 1994 and 2010 ARVC TFC. CMR criteria included right ventricle (RV) dilatation, reduced RV ejection fraction, RV aneurysm, or regional RV wall motion abnormalities. When quantitative measures of RV size and function were not available, and in whom abnormal size or function was reported, a repeat quantitative analysis by 2 qualified CMR physicians in consensus. Results Of 968 patients, 220 (22.7%) fulfilled either a major or a minor 1994 TFC, and 25 (2.6%) fulfilled any of the 2010 TFC criterion. Among patients meeting any 1994 criteria, only 25 (11.4%) met at least one 2010 criterion. All patients who fulfilled a 2010 criteria also satisfied at least one 1994 criterion. Per the 2010 TFC, 21 (2.2%) patients met major criteria and 4 (0.4%) patients fulfilled at least one minor criterion. Eight patients meeting 1994 minor criteria were reclassified as satisfying 2010 major criteria, while 4 patients fulfilling 1994 major criteria were reclassified to only minor or no criteria under the 2010 TFC. Eighty-nine (9.2%) patients had alternative cardiac diagnoses, including 43 (4.4%) with clinically significant potential ARVC mimics. These included cardiac sarcoidosis, RV volume overload conditions, and other cardiomyopathies. Conclusions Application of the 2010 TFC resulted in reduction of total patients meeting any diagnostic CMR criteria for ARVC from 22.7% to 2.6% versus the 1994 TFC

  5. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  6. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  7. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  8. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  9. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  10. Youth Meeting Symptom and Impairment Criteria for Mania-Like Episodes Lasting Less than Four Days: An Epidemiological Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Santosh, Paramala; Leibenluft, Ellen; Goodman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about short-duration episodes of mania-like symptoms in youth. Here we determine the prevalence, morbid associations, and contribution to social impairment of a phenotype characterised by episodes during which symptom and impairment criteria for mania are met, but DSM-IV duration criteria are not (bipolar not otherwise…

  11. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... B. Criteria for Companion Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will be designated as having a shortage of companion animal veterinary professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1... population to number of companion animal veterinarians in the area is at least 30,000:1 and the...

  12. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... B. Criteria for Companion Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will be designated as having a shortage of companion animal veterinary professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1... population to number of companion animal veterinarians in the area is at least 30,000:1 and the...

  13. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Veterinary Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... B. Criteria for Companion Animal Veterinary Shortage. A geographic area will be designated as having a shortage of companion animal veterinary professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1... population to number of companion animal veterinarians in the area is at least 30,000 : 1 and the...

  14. 42 CFR Appendix B to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Dental Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Dental Professional(s) B Appendix B to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. B Appendix B to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Dental Professional... designated as having a shortage of dental professional(s) if both the following criteria are met: (a)...

  15. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  16. Space Tethers: Design Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlin, D. D.; Faile, G. C.; Hayashida, K. B.; Frost, C. L.; Wagner, C. Y.; Mitchell, M. L.; Vaughn, J. A.; Galuska, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is prepared to provide a systematic process for the selection of tethers for space applications. Criteria arc provided for determining the strength requirement for tether missions and for mission success from tether severing due to micrometeoroids and orbital debris particle impacts. Background information of materials for use in space tethers is provided, including electricity-conducting tethers. Dynamic considerations for tether selection is also provided. Safety, quality, and reliability considerations are provided for a tether project.

  17. Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amit, M

    2010-01-01

    A well-balanced vegetarian diet can provide for the needs of children and adolescents. However, appropriate caloric intake should be ensured and growth monitored. Particular attention should be paid to adequate protein intake and sources of essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins B12 and D. Supplementation may be required in cases of strict vegetarian diets with no intake of any animal products. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be appropriately advised to ensure that the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant are adequately met. Recommendations are provided. Adolescents on restricted vegetarian or other such diets should be screened for eating disorders. PMID:21532796

  18. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  19. Children in the criminal justice and secure care systems: how their mental health needs are met.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Z; Thornes, R; Bailey, S

    1998-10-01

    A study was made of the perceptions among relevant service providers of the mental health needs of young people considered for secure placement. Information was obtained in 1996 from 75% of departments of child and adolescent psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, social services children's services, youth justice, probation, secure units and young offender institutions in England and Wales. The findings confirm that highly disturbed young people, who may be a danger to themselves and others, may present to a wide range of services, and that their mental health needs are neither well recognized, widely understood, nor adequately met. Availability of appropriate levels and types of expertise and resource is patchy and strictly limited, within secure settings and in local community services across all agencies.

  20. Prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in psoriasis patients according to newer classification criteria.

    PubMed

    Maldonado Ficco, Hernán; Citera, Gustavo; Maldonado Cocco, José Antonio

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) according to CASPAR criteria, ASAS peripheral and axial SpA criteria, and New York criteria for AS. The first 100 patients consecutively attending a psoriasis dermatology clinic were assessed. Demographic and clinical data were collected; all patients were questioned and examined for joint manifestations. Rheumatoid factor and radiographies of hands, feet, cervical spine, and pelvis for sacroiliac joints were obtained. X-rays were read independently by two experienced observers in blind fashion. Patients with objective joint manifestations, both axial and peripheral, were evaluated for fulfillment of CASPAR, ASAS peripheral and axial, and New York criteria. Median age 48 years; 93 % of patients had psoriasis vulgaris and 56 % nail involvement. Seventeen patients had peripheral arthritis as follows: nine mono/oligoarticular and eight polyarthritis. Median arthritis duration was 8 years. Seventeen percent of patients fulfilled CASPAR and ASAS peripheral criteria, 6 % New York, and 5 % ASAS axial criteria. Patients who met CASPAR criteria showed a significantly higher psoriasis duration compared to those without arthritis (M 16 vs. 10 years, p = 0.02), and a higher frequency of nail involvement (88.2 vs. 49.4 %, p = 0.003). Five patients (29.4 %) fulfilled ASAS axial criteria; all of them had peripheral involvement as follows: mono/oligoarticular in three patients and polyarticular in two. Patients with peripheral and axial involvement presented a significantly higher frequency of erythrodermic psoriasis compared to the other patients (35.3 vs. 1.2 %, p = 0.0006 and 80 vs. 16.7 %, p = 0.02). Prevalence of PsA, for CASPAR and ASAS peripheral criteria, was of 17 %. Five percent of patients met ASAS axial criteria, while 6 % met New York criteria. Worth noting, few patients without signs or symptoms of arthritis had radiological changes, both axial and peripheral, precluding

  1. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  2. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  3. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shahr Babaki, Amir Eslami; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ataei-Jafari, Asal; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Asayesh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC)) and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides (TG) and high fasting blood sugar (FBG)) were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group) increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC. PMID:27167372

  4. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study.

    PubMed

    Heshmat, Ramin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Shahr Babaki, Amir Eslami; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ataei-Jafari, Asal; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC)) and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides (TG) and high fasting blood sugar (FBG)) were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group) increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC. PMID:27167372

  5. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  6. Medical Compromise in Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified: Are Diagnostic Criteria for Eating Disorders Markers of Severity?

    PubMed Central

    Peebles, Rebecka; Hardy, Kristina K.; Wilson, Jenny L.; Lock, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the medical severity of adolescents with eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) to those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Patients and Methods Medical records of 1310 females aged 8 through 19 years treated for AN, BN, or EDNOS were retrospectively reviewed. EDNOS patients were subdivided into partial anorexia (pAN) and partial bulimia (pBN) categories if they met all but one DSM-IV criterion for AN or BN, respectively. Primary outcome variables were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, temperature, and QTc interval on electrocardiogram. Additional physiologically significant medical complications were also reviewed. Results 25.2% had AN, 12.4% BN, and 62.4% had EDNOS. The medical severity of EDNOS patients was intermediate to that of subjects with AN and BN in all primary outcomes. Patients with pAN had significantly higher heart rates, systolic blood pressures, and temperatures than those with AN; patients with pBN did not differ significantly from those with BN in any primary outcome variable; however, subjects with pAN and pBN differed significantly from each other in all outcome variables. Patients with pBN and BN had longer QTc intervals and higher rates of additional medical complications reported at presentation than other groups. Conclusions EDNOS is a medically heterogeneous category with serious physiologic sequelae in children and adolescents. Broadening AN and BN criteria in pediatric patients to include pAN and pBN patients may prove to be clinically useful. PMID:20385643

  7. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  8. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life.

  9. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk.

  10. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992

  11. Acetyl-L-carnitine as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Seyed-Hesameddin; Heidari, Shahram; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Tabrizi, Mina; Ghaleiha, Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether a previous observed Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) treatment effect could be repeated in an ALC adjunctive therapy treatment trial of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. This was a six-week, randomized clinical trial undertaken in an outpatient child and adolescent clinic. Subjects included 40 outpatients (28 boys and 12 girls) between the ages of 7-13 who met the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD. All study subjects were randomly assigned to receive treatment using capsules of ALC doses ranging from 500 to 1,500 mg/day depending on the weight of the child plus methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight or Placebo plus methylphenidate at a dose of 20-30 mg/day depending on weight. The principal measure of outcome was the Teacher and Parent attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Rating Scale- IV. No difference was observed between the two groups on the Parent and Teacher Rating Scale scores (df = 1; F = 0.10; P = 0.74 and df = 1; F = 0.22; P = 0.63 respectively). Side effects consisting of headache and irritability were observed more frequently in the methylphenidate plus placebo group. The results of this study do not support the application of ALC as an adjunctive therapy to methylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:21336630

  12. [Current concepts of depression during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Greszta, Elzbieta

    2004-01-01

    Until the 1960-ties, there was considerable debate on whether or not depression exists before adulthood. Next, there were popular concepts, which emphasized that depression during adolescence is "normal" for that particular stage of development. From 1980-ties, adolescent depression is seen as the same problem as with adults. The diagnosis of depression in adolescents is based on adult diagnostic criteria. Today, there is a more generally accepted standard that adolescence depression is essentially the same phenomenon as adult depression but with some development specific modifications. As compared with adults, adolescents with depression demonstrate a more variable course. The adolescent with depression may exhibit somatic complaints, school difficulties and deconcentration rather than depressed mood. Three conceptualizations of depressive phenomena during adolescence have been presented in the literature: (1) depressed mood alone, (2) depressive syndrome, and (3) depressive disorders. Compas, Ey and Grant have compared and integrated different approaches to a synthesis that reflected a comprehensive model of depressive phenomena during adolescence. Depressed mood, syndromes, and disorders are integrated as 3 levels of depressive phenomena in a hierarchical and sequential model.

  13. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  14. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  15. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  16. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work.

  17. Imaging the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (Met) and Assessing Tumor Responses to a Met Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Human Xenograft Mouse Models with a [99mTc] (AH-113018) or Cy 5** (AH-112543) Labeled Peptide.

    PubMed

    Jagoda, Elaine M; Bhattacharyya, Sibaprasad; Kalen, Joseph; Riffle, Lisa; Leeder, Avrum; Histed, Stephanie; Williams, Mark; Wong, Karen J; Xu, Biying; Szajek, Lawrence P; Elbuluk, Osama; Cecchi, Fabiola; Raffensperger, Kristen; Golla, Meghana; Bottaro, Donald P; Choyke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Developing an imaging agent targeting the hepatocyte growth factor receptor protein (Met) status of cancerous lesions would aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of Met-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A peptide targeting Met labeled with [(99m)Tc] had high affinity in vitro (Kd = 3.3 nM) and detected relative changes in Met in human cancer cell lines. In vivo [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide (AH-113018) was retained in Met-expressing tumors, and high-expressing Met tumors (MKN-45) were easily visualized and quantitated using single-photon emission computed tomography or optical imaging. In further studies, MKN-45 mouse xenografts treated with PHA 665752 (Met TKI) or vehicle were monitored weekly for tumor responses by [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide imaging and measurement of tumor volumes. Tumor uptake of [(99m)Tc]-Met peptide was significantly decreased as early as 1 week after PHA 665752 treatment, corresponding to decreases in tumor volumes. These results were comparable to Cy5**-Met peptide (AH-112543) fluorescence imaging using the same treatment model. [(99m)Tc] or Cy5**-Met peptide tumor uptake was further validated by histologic (necrosis, apoptosis) and immunoassay (total Met, p Met, and plasma shed Met) assessments in imaged and nonimaged cohorts. These data suggest that [(99m)Tc] or Cy5**-Met peptide imaging may have clinical diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic monitoring applications. PMID:26461980

  18. Effects of Rational-Emotive Health Education Program on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Okere, Anthony U; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday

    2016-07-01

    Exploring beliefs about personal risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential to understanding what motivates people to engage in behaviors that reduce or increase their risk of HIV infection. Therefore, the current study's objective was to examine the effects of a Rational-Emotive Health Education Program (REHEP) on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria.Forty-four participants were identified as having high-risk perceptions about HIV infection through a self-report questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria. The treatment process was guided by a REHEP manual and consisted of 8 weeks of full intervention and 2 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated measures analysis of variance to assess improvements in individual participants and across control and treatment group risk perceptions after the intervention.HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents did not differ across the treatment and control groups at baseline. Through REHEP, HIV risk perceptions significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to those in the control group. REHEP had significant effect on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents exposed to treatment group, despite their sex. Religious background did not determine the significant effect of REHEP on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents in the treatment group.Follow-up studies that would use a REHEP to assist client population from other parts of the country to promote HIV risk reduction, especially among those with high-risk behavior, are needed in Nigeria. PMID:27442633

  19. Problematic Internet Use and Problematic Online Gaming Are Not the Same: Findings from a Large Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  20. Strategies to facilitate exposure to internet-delivered health behavior change interventions aimed at adolescents or young adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K

    2011-02-01

    The Internet is considered to be a promising delivery channel of interventions aimed at promoting healthful behaviors, especially for adolescents and young adults. Exposure to these interventions, however, is generally low. A more extensive exploration of methods, strategies, and their effectiveness with regard to facilitating exposure is therefore timely, because this knowledge is crucial to improve the use of such interventions and, subsequently, to increase behavioral change. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature was conducted, resulting in 838 studies based on title selection, of which 26 studies met the eligibility criteria. The systematic review resulted in an overview of methods and strategies that have been used to facilitate exposure. Patterns of effective strategies could be observed, such as the combination of tailored communication and the use of reminders and incentives. Nevertheless, exposure-specific theories need to be developed and objective exposure measures should be tracked and reported in future studies.

  1. Deviant adolescent subcultures: assessment strategies and clinical interventions.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1992-01-01

    Alienation is a contributing factor in adolescents' participation in Satanism, the neo-Nazi skinhead movement, and violent street gangs. Many of their needs are met by gang and/or cult affiliation, including a sense of belonging, self-worth, companionship, and excitement. Emphasizing prevention may minimize deviant subculture involvement, but some adolescents require clinical intervention, ranging from a few outpatient sessions to lengthy inpatient hospitalization. Therapists must be knowledgeable about adolescents' involvement, empathic to their circumstances, and sophisticated in the approach to treatment.

  2. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  3. [Adolescents as research subjects and free informed consent: knowledge and opinion of researchers and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Fabiana; Bento, Silvana Ferreira; Hardy, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that evaluated the knowledge and opinions of researchers and adolescents that served as their research subjects on the legal norms that regulate the participation of the latter as research subjects, the capacity of adolescents to make autonomous decisions regarding participation, and the adolescent experience after agreeing to take part in a study. This was a qualitative study with a convenience sample, the size of which was defined by the criteria of informational redundancy. Interviews were conducted with three researchers who had used adolescents as research subjects and nine of these subjects. This number of interviews was sufficient to reach informational redundancy. Data was collected through recorded semi-structured interviews, with open questions. All the researchers were familiar with some legal document related to the participation of adolescents as subjects of research. On the other hand, the adolescents were surprised because they were not aware of the existence of such documents. However, they considered them necessary for their own protection. In general, researchers and adolescents believe that adolescents have the capacity to decide autonomously to participate as research subjects. The adolescents affirmed that they had decided to volunteer conscientiously.

  4. [Adolescents as research subjects and free informed consent: knowledge and opinion of researchers and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Fabiana; Bento, Silvana Ferreira; Hardy, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that evaluated the knowledge and opinions of researchers and adolescents that served as their research subjects on the legal norms that regulate the participation of the latter as research subjects, the capacity of adolescents to make autonomous decisions regarding participation, and the adolescent experience after agreeing to take part in a study. This was a qualitative study with a convenience sample, the size of which was defined by the criteria of informational redundancy. Interviews were conducted with three researchers who had used adolescents as research subjects and nine of these subjects. This number of interviews was sufficient to reach informational redundancy. Data was collected through recorded semi-structured interviews, with open questions. All the researchers were familiar with some legal document related to the participation of adolescents as subjects of research. On the other hand, the adolescents were surprised because they were not aware of the existence of such documents. However, they considered them necessary for their own protection. In general, researchers and adolescents believe that adolescents have the capacity to decide autonomously to participate as research subjects. The adolescents affirmed that they had decided to volunteer conscientiously. PMID:16470282

  5. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  6. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians. PMID:27570673

  7. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction.

    PubMed

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians.

  8. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction.

    PubMed

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians. PMID:27570673

  9. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase as an Autism Genetic Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yun; Huentelman, Matthew; Smith, Christopher; Qiu, Shenfeng

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we will briefly discuss recent literature on the role of MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in brain development and how perturbation of MET signaling may alter normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Recent human genetic studies have established MET as a risk factor for autism, and the molecular and cellular underpinnings of this genetic risk are only beginning to emerge from obscurity. Unlike many autism risk genes that encode synaptic proteins, the spatial and temporal expression pattern of MET RTK indicates this signaling system is ideally situated to regulate neuronal growth, functional maturation, and establishment of functional brain circuits, particularly in those brain structures involved in higher levels of cognition, social skills, and executive functions. PMID:24290385

  10. NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Nitrogen Oxides Ozone Surface Winds Air Temperature Humidity Solar Irradiance Particulate Matter Ultraviolet Radiation Surface Pressure Nitric Acid Aerosol Extinction Aerosol Backscatter ...

  11. NARSTO PAC2001 LANGLEY GAS PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 LANGLEY GAS PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Chemiliminescence GC-MS Ion Chromatograph Pressure Sensor Temperature Probe Humidity Sensor Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector ...

  12. PREVENTING CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS: OVERVIEW OF SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kathryn; Manassis, Katharina; Duda, Stephanie; Bagnell, Alexa; Bernstein, Gail A; Garland, E Jane; Miller, Lynn D; Newton, Amanda; Thabane, Lehana; Wilansky, Pamela

    2015-12-01

    Overviews of systematic reviews (OSRs) provide rapid access to high quality, consolidated research evidence about prevention intervention options, supporting evidence-informed decision-making, and the identification of fruitful areas of new research. This OSR addressed three questions about prevention strategies for child and adolescent anxiety: (1) Does the intervention prevent anxiety diagnosis and/or reduce anxiety symptoms compared to passive controls? (2) Is the intervention equal to or more effective than active controls? (3) What is the evidence quality (EQ) for the intervention? Prespecified inclusion criteria identified systematic reviews and meta-analyses (2000-2014) with an AMSTAR quality score ≥ 3/5. EQ was rated using Oxford evidence levels EQ1 (highest) to EQ5 (lowest). Three reviews met inclusion criteria. One narrative systematic review concluded school-based interventions reduce anxiety symptoms. One meta-analysis pooled 65 randomized controlled trials (RCTs; any intervention) and reported a small, statistically significant reduction in anxiety symptoms and diagnosis incidence. Neither review provided pooled effect size estimates for specific intervention options defined by type (i.e., universal/selective/indicated), intervention content, or comparison group (i.e., passive/active control), thus precluding EQ ratings. One meta-analysis pooled trials of vigorous exercise and reported small, nonstatistically significant reductions in anxiety symptoms for comparisons against passive and active controls (EQ1). Better use of primary studies in meta-analyses, including program-specific pooled effect size estimates and network meta-analysis is needed to guide evidence-informed anxiety prevention program choices. RCTs of innovative community/primary care based interventions and web-based strategies can fill knowledge gaps.

  13. The role of multicomponent therapy in the metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Masquio, Deborah C L; de Piano, Aline; Campos, Raquel M S; Sanches, Priscila L; Carnier, June; Corgosinho, Flávia C; Netto, Bárbara D M; Carvalho-Ferreira, Joana P; Oyama, Lila M; Nascimento, Claudia M O; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-06-28

    Obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation, which increases the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risks. The aim of the present study was to verify the role of multicomponent therapy in controlling the MetS, inflammation and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in obese adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the relationships between adipokines, the MetS parameters and cIMT. A total of sixty-nine obese adolescents participated in the present study and completed 1 year of multicomponent therapy (a combination of strategies involving nutrition, psychology, physical exercise and clinical therapy), and were divided according to their MetS diagnosis as follows: MetS (n 19); non-MetS (n 50). Blood analyses of glucose, lipid and adipokine concentrations (adiponectin, leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and C-reactive protein) were collected. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment-adiponectin. cIMT and visceral and subcutaneous fat were estimated using ultrasonography. At baseline, the MetS group presented higher waist circumference, glucose and insulin levels, and systolic and median blood pressures compared with the non-MetS group. After therapy, both groups showed improvements in the anthropometric profile, body composition, insulin level, insulin resistance, insulin sensibility, TAG and VLDL-cholesterol, adiponectin, leptin and PAI-1 levels, blood pressure and cIMT. The prevalence of the MetS was reduced from 27·5 to 13·0 %. Metabolic syndrome patients showed resistance in the attenuation of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and leptin:adiponectin and adiponectin:leptin ratios. In the MetS group, the variation in the adiponectin:leptin ratio was correlated with variations in glucose, insulin sensibility, total cholesterol, LDL-c and systolic blood pressure. Additionally, the

  14. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the manufacturer must show that the following criteria are met: (i) As in the case of solar, wind, and... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased...

  15. 26 CFR 1.23-6 - Procedure and criteria for additions to the approved list of energy-conserving components or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., the manufacturer must show that the following criteria are met: (i) As in the case of solar, wind, and... for heating and cooling (see § 450.35 of 10 CFR part 450 (1980)). (7) The impact of increased...

  16. Quartic Rotation Criteria and Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Douglas B.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the current analytic rotation criteria for simple structure in factor analysis are summarized and identified as members of a general symmetric family of quartic criteria. A unified development of algorithms for orthogonal and direct oblique rotation using arbitrary criteria from this family is presented. (Author/TJH)

  17. Criteria for Restructuring Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Sheila

    1995-01-01

    Criteria most often used by higher education administrators in restructuring higher education in the 1980s and 1990s are outlined. A distinction is made between retrenchment and restructuring. Criteria recommended in the literature are compared with criteria actually used, and the results. Some alternatives are suggested. (MSE)

  18. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  19. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  20. COMT val158met predicts reward responsiveness in humans.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, T M; Linden, D E; Heerey, E A

    2012-11-01

    A functional variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene [val158met (rs4680)] is frequently implicated in decision-making and higher cognitive functions. It may achieve its effects by modulating dopamine-related decision-making and reward-guided behaviour. Here we demonstrate that individuals with the met/met polymorphism have greater responsiveness to reward than carriers of the val allele and that this correlates with risk-seeking behaviour. We assessed performance on a reward responsiveness task and the Balloon analogue risk task, which measure how participants (N = 70, western European, university and postgraduate students) respond to reward and take risks in the presence of available reward. Individuals with the met/met genotype (n = 19) showed significantly higher reward responsiveness, F2,64 = 4.02, P = 0.02, and reward-seeking behaviour, F(2,68) = 4.52, P = 0.01, than did either val/met (n = 25) or val/val (n = 26) carriers. These results highlight a scenario in which genotype-dependent reward responsiveness shapes reward-seeking, therefore suggesting a novel framework by which COMT may modulate behaviour. PMID:22900954

  1. Adolescent immunization.

    PubMed

    Handal, G A

    2000-06-01

    The dramatic improvements achieved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in children have only been shared partially by adolescents and young adults, as today several million adolescents are not receiving the full complement of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This article discusses the reasons for this problem and the tools to bridge this gap. In particular, medical societies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a close assessment of the adolescentís immunization status between 11 and 12 years of age, inclusion of school immunization, and providing missing immunizations at any opportunity. The article also addresses other vaccines recommended for groups of adolescents with special needs, reporting information, and provides an update on the vaccines of the future.

  2. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: • MetBaro Pressure device • MetHumi Humidity device • MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: • PanCam Panoramic • MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer • DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: • Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA • Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special

  3. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-14

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  4. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  5. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  6. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  7. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL).The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior.The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In the near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission is the demonstration of the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has been defined.

  8. Expressions and clinical significances of c-MET, p-MET and E2f-1 in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate on the expressions and the clinical significances of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET), phosphorylated c-MET (p-MET) and e2f-1 transcription factor in primary lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Method Tissue samples from the primary lesion of GC in patients who accepted D2/D3 radical gastrectomy with R0/R1 resection were stained by immunohistochemistry of c-MET, p-MET, e2f-1 and Ki-67. The univariate and the multivariate analyses involving in clinicopathological parameters and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results The positivity rates for c-MET (66.12%, 80 cases/121 cases), p-MET (59.50%, 72 cases/121 cases), e2f-1 (38.84%, 47 cases/121 cases) and Ki-67 (72.73%, 88 cases/121 cases) in primary lesion of GC was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous tissue at 5 cm places far from the margin of primary lesion (P < 0.05, respectively). The deeper tumor invasion, the severer lymph node metastasis, the later stage of TNM and the higher expression of Ki-67 was respectively an independent risk factor for the higher expression of c-MET or p-MET, but the younger age and the shorter survival time was an independent risk factor for the higher expression of e2f-1 respectively. Survival analysis showed that the worse prognosis could be observed in the patients with the combination of both c-MET-positive and e2f-1-negative (P = 0.038) or both p-MET-positive and e2f-1-negative (P = 0.042). Cox analysis demonstrated that the severer lymphatic node metastasis and the higher positivity rate of c-MET, p-MET or e2f-1 were an independent prognosis factor respectively. The higher expression of e2f-1 was identified in patients with Stage I-II, which correlated with a shorter survival time. Survival analysis also revealed that the prognosis of patients with positive expression of e2f-1 at Stage I-II was significantly worse than that in patients with negative expression of e2f-1 (χ2 = 13.437, P = 0.001). However, in

  9. Applying Objective Diagnostic Criteria to Students in a College Support Program for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a large group of postsecondary students participating in a support program for students classified as having learning disabilities (LD) met criteria for five objective diagnostic models for LD: IQ-achievement discrepancy (1.0 SD, 1.5 SD, and greater than 2.0 SD) models, a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  10. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  11. Can Asperger's Disorder Be Differentiated from Autism Using "DSM-IV" Criteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Patti Ann; Mayes, Susan D.; Rhodes, Robert L.; Waldo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Parents of 26 children with diagnoses of Asperger's disorder completed a symptom checklist to determine whether the children met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, Text Revision" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for Asperger's disorder, autism, or pervasive developmental disorder…

  12. MET Gene Amplification and MET Receptor Activation Are Not Sufficient to Predict Efficacy of Combined MET and EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR TKI-Resistant NSCLC Cells.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Dario; Santini, Simonetta; Cardinali, Beatrice; Papoff, Giuliana; Lalli, Cristiana; Samperna, Simone; Fustaino, Valentina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, plays a critical role in regulating multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and cell survival. Deregulation of the EGFR signaling has been found to be associated with the development of a variety of human malignancies including lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, making inhibition of EGFR the most promising molecular targeted therapy developed in the past decade against cancer. Human non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the EGFR gene frequently experience significant tumor regression when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although acquired resistance invariably develops. Resistance to TKI treatments has been associated to secondary mutations in the EGFR gene or to activation of additional bypass signaling pathways including the ones mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, Fas receptor and NF-kB. In more than 30-40% of cases, however, the mechanisms underpinning drug-resistance are still unknown. The establishment of cellular and mouse models can facilitate the unveiling of mechanisms leading to drug-resistance and the development or validation of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming resistance and enhancing outcomes in NSCLC patients. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines and a pilot study on the effects of a combined MET and EGFR inhibitors treatment. The characterization of the erlotinib-resistant cell lines confirmed the association of EGFR TKI resistance with loss of EGFR gene amplification and/or AXL overexpression and/or MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation. These cellular models can be instrumental to further investigate the signaling pathways associated to EGFR TKI-resistance. Finally the drugs combination pilot study shows that MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation

  13. MET Gene Amplification and MET Receptor Activation Are Not Sufficient to Predict Efficacy of Combined MET and EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR TKI-Resistant NSCLC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Presutti, Dario; Santini, Simonetta; Cardinali, Beatrice; Papoff, Giuliana; Lalli, Cristiana; Samperna, Simone; Fustaino, Valentina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, plays a critical role in regulating multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and cell survival. Deregulation of the EGFR signaling has been found to be associated with the development of a variety of human malignancies including lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, making inhibition of EGFR the most promising molecular targeted therapy developed in the past decade against cancer. Human non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the EGFR gene frequently experience significant tumor regression when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although acquired resistance invariably develops. Resistance to TKI treatments has been associated to secondary mutations in the EGFR gene or to activation of additional bypass signaling pathways including the ones mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, Fas receptor and NF-kB. In more than 30–40% of cases, however, the mechanisms underpinning drug-resistance are still unknown. The establishment of cellular and mouse models can facilitate the unveiling of mechanisms leading to drug-resistance and the development or validation of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming resistance and enhancing outcomes in NSCLC patients. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines and a pilot study on the effects of a combined MET and EGFR inhibitors treatment. The characterization of the erlotinib-resistant cell lines confirmed the association of EGFR TKI resistance with loss of EGFR gene amplification and/or AXL overexpression and/or MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation. These cellular models can be instrumental to further investigate the signaling pathways associated to EGFR TKI-resistance. Finally the drugs combination pilot study shows that MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation

  14. Met interacts with EGFR and Ron in canine osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    McCleese, J K; Bear, M D; Kulp, S K; Mazcko, C; Khanna, C; London, C A

    2013-06-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is known to be over-expressed in canine osteosarcoma (OSA). In human cancers, the RTKs Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ron are frequently co-expressed and engage in heterodimerization, altering signal transduction and promoting resistance to targeted therapeutics. We found that EGFR and Ron are expressed in canine OSA cell lines and primary tissues, EGFR and Ron are frequently phosphorylated in OSA tumour samples, and Met is co-associated with EGFR and Ron in canine OSA cell lines. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation induced amplification of ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in OSA cells and Met was phosphorylated following TGFα stimulation providing evidence for receptor cross-talk. Lastly, treatment of OSA cells with combined gefitinib and crizotinib inhibited cell proliferation in an additive manner. Together, these data support the notion that Met, EGFR and Ron interact in OSA cells and as such, may represent viable targets for therapeutic intervention.

  15. Met interacts with EGFR and Ron in canine osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    McCleese, J. K.; Bear, M. D.; Kulp, S. K.; Mazcko, C.; Khanna, C.; London, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Met is known to be over-expressed in canine osteosarcoma (OSA). In human cancers, the RTKs Met, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Ron are frequently co-expressed and engage in heterodimerization, altering signal transduction and promoting resistance to targeted therapeutics. We found that EGFR and Ron are expressed in canine OSA cell lines and primary tissues, EGFR and Ron are frequently phosphorylated in OSA tumour samples, and Met is co-associated with EGFR and Ron in canine OSA cell lines. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation induced amplification of ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation in OSA cells and Met was phosphorylated following TGFα stimulation providing evidence for receptor cross-talk. Lastly, treatment of OSA cells with combined gefitinib and crizotinib inhibited cell proliferation in an additive manner. Together, these data support the notion that Met, EGFR and Ron interact in OSA cells and as such, may represent viable targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22235915

  16. MetAmyl: A METa-Predictor for AMYLoid Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Emily, Mathieu; Talvas, Anthony; Delamarche, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aggregation of proteins or peptides in amyloid fibrils is associated with a number of clinical disorders, including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and prion diseases, medullary thyroid cancer, renal and cardiac amyloidosis. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of fibril formation remain largely unknown. Several lines of evidence revealed that short amino-acid segments (hot spots), located in amyloid precursor proteins act as seeds for fibril elongation. Therefore, hot spots are potential targets for diagnostic/therapeutic applications, and a current challenge in bioinformatics is the development of methods to accurately predict hot spots from protein sequences. In this paper, we combined existing methods into a meta-predictor for hot spots prediction, called MetAmyl for METapredictor for AMYLoid proteins. MetAmyl is based on a logistic regression model that aims at weighting predictions from a set of popular algorithms, statistically selected as being the most informative and complementary predictors. We evaluated the performances of MetAmyl through a large scale comparative study based on three independent datasets and thus demonstrated its ability to differentiate between amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic polypeptides. Compared to 9 other methods, MetAmyl provides significant improvement in prediction on studied datasets. We further show that MetAmyl is efficient to highlight the effect of point mutations involved in human amyloidosis, so we suggest this program should be a useful complementary tool for the diagnosis of these diseases. PMID:24260292

  17. c-Met as a Target for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Giovannetti, Elisa; Biasco, Guido; Peters, Godefridus J.

    2015-01-01

    MET and its ligand HGF are involved in many biological processes, both physiological and pathological, making this signaling pathway an attractive therapeutic target in oncology. Downstream signaling effects are transmitted via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase protein kinase B)/AKT, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT), and nuclear factor-κB. The final output of the terminal effector components of these pathways is activation of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes leading to increases in cell proliferation, survival, mobilization and invasive capacity. In addition to its role as an oncogenic driver, increasing evidence implicates MET as a common mechanism of resistance to targeted therapies including EGFR and VEGFR inhibitors. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the HGF-MET signaling pathway in cancer and its therapeutic targeting (HGF activation inhibitors, HGF inhibitors, MET antagonists and selective/nonselective MET kinase inhibitors). Recent advances in understanding the role of this pathway in the resistance to current anticancer strategies used in lung, kidney and pancreatic cancer are discussed. PMID:26628860

  18. Redefining autism spectrum disorder using DSM-5: the implications of the proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Robyn L; Rodi, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    A number of changes were made to pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) in the recently released diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VA, 2013). Of the 210 participants in the present study who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for a PDD [i.e., autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)], only 57.1% met DSM-5 criteria (specificity = 1.0) for autism spectrum disorder when criteria were applied concurrently during diagnostic assessment. High-functioning individuals (i.e., Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS) were less likely to meet DSM-5 criteria than those with autistic disorder. A failure to satisfy all three criteria in the social-communication domain was the most common reason for exclusion (39%). The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24057130

  19. A review of the father-child relationship in the development and maintenance of adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested.

  20. The prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Mello, Danielli Braga; Lanzillotti, Haydée Serrão; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players. This cross-sectional controlled study investigated the pubertal development (Tanner stages); body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA); dietary intake (food record); presence of disordered eating (EAT-26, BITE and BSQ); menstrual status (questionnaire) and bone mineral density (DXA). The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) was divided into two severity stages. The study included 45 adolescents (24 athletes and 21 controls) at some pubertal developmental stage. The athletes exhibited better body composition profiles. We found that 91.7%, 33.3% and 25% of athletes and 71.4%, 9.5% and 33.3% of controls met criteria for disordered eating and/or low energy availability, menstrual irregularities and low bone mass, respectively. A greater percentage of athletes than controls presented with 1 and 2 FAT components (stage I), and 4.2% presented with the full syndrome. In conclusion, tennis players appear to present with more severe disorders than controls and should be monitored to avoid damage to their performance and health.

  1. The effect of healthy dietary consumption on executive cognitive functioning in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, J F W; Gorski, M T; Gruber, S A; Kurdziel, L B F; Rimm, E B

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate whether healthier dietary consumption among children and adolescents impacts executive functioning. PubMed, Education Resources Information Center, PsychINFO and Thomson Reuters' Web of Science databases were searched, and studies of executive functioning among children or adolescents aged 6-18 years, which examined food quality, macronutrients and/or foods, were included. Study quality was also assessed. In all, twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Among the twelve studies examining food quality (n 9) or macronutrient intakes (n 4), studies examining longer-term diet (n 6) showed positive associations between healthier overall diet quality and executive functioning, whereas the studies examining the acute impact of diet (n 6) were inconsistent but suggestive of improvements in executive functioning with better food quality. Among the ten studies examining foods, overall, there was a positive association between healthier foods (e.g. whole grains, fish, fruits and/or vegetables) and executive function, whereas less-healthy snack foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and red/processed meats were inversely associated with executive functioning. Taken together, evidence suggests a positive association between healthy dietary consumption and executive functioning. Additional studies examining the effects of healthier food consumption, as well as macronutrients, on executive functioning are warranted. These studies should ideally be conducted in controlled environments and use validated cognitive tests. PMID:27487986

  2. The prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Mello, Danielli Braga; Lanzillotti, Haydée Serrão; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players. This cross-sectional controlled study investigated the pubertal development (Tanner stages); body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA); dietary intake (food record); presence of disordered eating (EAT-26, BITE and BSQ); menstrual status (questionnaire) and bone mineral density (DXA). The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) was divided into two severity stages. The study included 45 adolescents (24 athletes and 21 controls) at some pubertal developmental stage. The athletes exhibited better body composition profiles. We found that 91.7%, 33.3% and 25% of athletes and 71.4%, 9.5% and 33.3% of controls met criteria for disordered eating and/or low energy availability, menstrual irregularities and low bone mass, respectively. A greater percentage of athletes than controls presented with 1 and 2 FAT components (stage I), and 4.2% presented with the full syndrome. In conclusion, tennis players appear to present with more severe disorders than controls and should be monitored to avoid damage to their performance and health. PMID:23318655

  3. The effect of adjunctive light therapy on ameliorating breakthrough depressive symptoms in adolescent-onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Papatheodorou, G; Kutcher, S

    1995-01-01

    Seven adolescents or young adults (aged 16 to 22 years) who met DSM-III-R criteria for bipolar disorder were treated for persistent depressive symptoms (greater than three weeks) with adjunctive light therapy (10,000 lux given twice per day). Patients were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Symptoms Check List (SCL-58). Three patients showed a marked response of greater than 70% decrease of their baseline score. Two patients had a moderate decrease (40% to 74%) and two patients obtained mild to no response. There were no reported side-effects. Paired t-tests done on pre- and post-BDI scores (pre mean = 21.2 sd +/- 10.0; post mean = 11.1, sd +/- 8.8; paired t = 4.31; p > 0.0051) and pre- and post-SCL-58 scores above baseline of 58 (pre mean = 57.4, sd +/- 24.4; post mean = 28.7, sd +/- 18.6; paired t = 5.50; p > 0.0015) showed significant improvement. These preliminary results indicate that some bipolar adolescents with breakthrough depressive symptoms could benefit from light therapy as an adjunct to their continued thymoleptic treatment. PMID:7786884

  4. Subthreshold depression in adolescence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bertha, Eszter A; Balázs, Judit

    2013-10-01

    In adolescence, the number of depressive symptoms is rising notably. Individuals may have relevant depressive symptoms without meeting the full criteria of a major depressive episode (MDE), a condition referred to as subthreshold depression (sD). This article presents a review on adolescent sD examining the prevalence, the quality of life (QoL), the risk of developing MDE, and preventive programs available for adolescents living with sD. A systematic literature search from the year of the introduction of Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) until 2012 (18 years) was conducted with a special focus on adolescent sD. Data from 27 studies were included into this review. The results show high prevalence of sD among adolescents, with a negative impact on QoL, and provide evidence that sD is a significant risk indicator of later MDE; therefore, individuals with sD represent good targets for preventive interventions. Our review highlights the fact that sD is a significant health problem among adolescents indeed, and adolescents with sD could be a subgroup of youth, who need further help to reduce their clinically significant depressive symptoms for the successful prevention of a later MDE.

  5. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  6. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  7. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  8. Response criteria for glioma.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A Gregory; Batchelor, Tracy T; Wen, Patrick Y; Zhang, Wei-Ting; Jain, Rakesh K

    2008-11-01

    The current method for assessing the response to therapy of glial tumors was described by Macdonald et al. in 1990. Under this paradigm, response categorization is determined on the basis of changes in the cross-sectional area of a tumor on neuroimaging, coupled with clinical assessment of neurological status and corticosteroid utilization. These categories of response have certain limitations; for example, cross-sectional assessment is not as accurate as volumetric assessment, which is now feasible. Disentangling antitumor effects of therapies from their effects on blood-brain barrier permeability can be challenging. The use of insufficient response criteria might be overestimating the true benefits of drugs in early-stage studies, and, therefore, such therapies could mistakenly move forward into later phases, only to result in disappointment when overall survival is measured. We propose that studies report both radiographic and clinical response rates, use volumetric rather than cross-sectional area to measure lesion size, and incorporate findings from mechanistic imaging and blood biomarker studies more frequently, and also suggest that investigators recognize the limitations of imaging biomarkers as surrogate end points.

  9. Novel interaction partners of the TPR/MET tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Schaaf, Christian P; Benzing, Jörg; Schmitt, Thomas; Erz, Dorothee H R; Tewes, Magdalena; Bartram, Claus R; Janssen, Johannes W G

    2005-02-01

    A large variety of biological processes is mediated by stimulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase MET. Screening a mouse embryo cDNA library, we were able to identify several novel, putative intracellular TPR/MET-substrates: SNAPIN, DCOHM, VAV-1, Sorting nexin 2, Death associated protein kinase 3, SMC-1, Centromeric protein C, and hTID-1. Interactions as identified by yeast two-hybrid analysis were validated in vitro and in vivo by mammalian two-hybrid studies, a far-western assay and coimmunoprecipitation. Participation in apoptosis-regulating mechanisms through interaction with DAPK-3 and cell cycle control via binding to nuclear proteins such as CENPC and SMC-1 are possible new aspects of intracellular MET signaling.

  10. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Sakhardande, Ashok; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of adolescents drink alcohol, with many engaging in high-risk patterns of consumption, including binge drinking. Here, we systematically review and synthesize the existing empirical literature on how consuming alcohol affects the developing human brain in alcohol-using (AU) youth. Methods For this systematic review, we began by conducting a literature search using the PubMED database to identify all available peer-reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of AU adolescents (aged 19 and under). All studies were screened against a strict set of criteria designed to constrain the impact of confounding factors, such as co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Results Twenty-one studies (10 MRI and 11 fMRI) met the criteria for inclusion. A synthesis of the MRI studies suggested that overall, AU youth showed regional differences in brain structure as compared with non-AU youth, with smaller grey matter volumes and lower white matter integrity in relevant brain areas. In terms of fMRI outcomes, despite equivalent task performance between AU and non-AU youth, AU youth showed a broad pattern of lower task-relevant activation, and greater task-irrelevant activation. In addition, a pattern of gender differences was observed for brain structure and function, with particularly striking effects among AU females. Conclusions Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors) within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the

  11. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.

  12. Remembering the early days of the Met Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Met Lab was set up by the war-time Manhattan District, US Corp of Engineers to (i) find a system using normal uranium in which a chain reaction would occur; (ii) to show that if such a chain reaction did occur, it would be possible to separate plutonium chemically from the uranium matrix and the fission products formed in the chain reactions; and (iii) to prepare plans for the large-scale production of plutonium. Chemistry Section C-1 of the Met Lab was assigned the responsibility for developing separation methods for plutonium production on the industrial scale. This report describes some aspects of daily life in Section C-1.

  13. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents.

  14. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  15. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide... Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national...

  16. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide... Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national...

  17. 42 CFR 51a.5 - What criteria will DHHS use to decide which projects to fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES GRANTS PROJECT GRANTS FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH § 51a.5 What criteria will DHHS use to decide... Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth is a special compendium of health status goals and national...

  18. Prevalence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus and hyperacusis. Data sources Articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases and from the relevant reference lists using the methods described in the study protocol, which has previously been published. Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Eligibility criteria Studies addressing childhood prevalence, for example, children and young people aged 5–19 years. Data selection 2 reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study consistency. Owing to the heterogeneity in the methodologies among the reported studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46% in the general paediatric population and among children with normal hearing, and from 23.5% to 62.2% of population of children with hearing loss. Reported prevalence ranged from 6% to 41.9% when children with hearing loss and normal hearing were both included. The prevalence of hyperacusis varied from 3.2% to 17.1%. Conclusions Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance) was observed. The lack of consistency among studies indicates the necessity of examining the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents with a set of

  19. Deconstructing major depression: a validation study of the DSM-IV symptomatic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lux, V.; Kendler, K. S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The DSM-IV symptomatic criteria for major depression (MD) derive primarily from clinical experience with modest empirical support. Method The sample studied included 1015 (518 males, 497 females) Caucasian twins from a population-based registry who met criteria for MD in the year prior to the interview. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to compare the associations of: (1) single symptomatic criterion, (2) two groups of criteria reflecting cognitive and neurovegetative symptoms, with a wide range of potential validators including demographic factors, risk for future episodes, risk of MD in the co-twin, characteristics of the depressive episode, the pattern of co-morbidity and personality traits. Results The individual symptomatic criteria showed widely varying associations with the pattern of co-morbidity, personality traits, features of the depressive episode and demographic characteristics. When examined separately, these two criteria groups showed robust differences in their patterns of association, with the validators with the cognitive criteria generally producing stronger associations than the neurovegetative. Conclusions Among depressed individuals, individual DSM-IV symptomatic criteria differ substantially in their predictive relationship with a range of clinical validators. These results challenge the equivalence assumption for the symptomatic criteria for MD and suggest a more than expected degree of ‘ covert ’ heterogeneity among these criteria. Part of this heterogeneity is captured by the distinction between cognitive versus neurovegetative symptoms, with cognitive symptoms being more strongly associated with most clinically relevant characteristics. Detailed psychometric evaluation of DSM-IV criteria is overdue. PMID:20059797

  20. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  1. Performance Criteria: Concrete, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenbeck, Roger F.; And Others

    The State University Construction Fund provides guidance and direction to professionals participating in its program by issuing performance criteria that set forth owner or user requirements. This document provides guidelines in the form of performance criteria, testing procedures, and instructions to achieve an acceptable level of performance in…

  2. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  3. Seven Oaks Met School Builds Curriculum around Each Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    This article features Seven Oaks School Division Met School in Winnipeg, a high school that limits class size to 15, tailors its curriculum to the needs and interests of its individual students, places students in community-based internships two days a week, and keeps the teacher--called an advisor--with the same group of students from Grade 9…

  4. NARSTO PAC2001 CONVAIR PM OZONE MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 CONVAIR PM OZONE MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Temperature Probe Humidity Probe Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Optical Counter Location:  Lower Fraser ... Air Temperature Humidity Upper Level Winds Ozone Aerosol Particle Properties Order Data:  ASDC Order ...

  5. NARSTO PAC2001 CESSNA VOC PM OZONE MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 CESSNA VOC PM OZONE MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Temperature Probe Humidity Probe Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Optical Counter GC Location:  Lower Fraser ... Air Temperature Humidity Upper Level Winds Ozone Aerosol Particle Properties Volatile Organic Compounds ...

  6. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10.133 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... order to qualify for free entry or a lower rate of duty unless the language of the particular...

  7. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  8. NARSTO SOS99NASH SURFACE MET CHEM DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO SOS99NASH SURFACE MET CHEM DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Aerosols Level:  L2 ... Sulfur Dioxide Ozone Solar Radiation Humidity Surface Winds Air Temperature Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool: ...

  9. The MET Project: The Wrong 45 Million Dollar Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded the investigation of a $45 million question: How can we identify and develop effective teaching? Now that the findings from their Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project have been released, it's clear they asked a simpler question, namely, What other measures match up well with value-added…

  10. NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Aethaelometer Anemometer Rain Gauge Pressure Sensor Radiometers Temperature Sensor Weighing Balance AA ... Amount Surface Pressure Solar Radiation Surface Air Temperature Particulates Trace Metals Order Data:  ...

  11. Lessons Learned: The MetLife Foundation Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Haynes, Leslie; Liebowitz, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This past year, Jobs for the Future studied strategies that community colleges are using to improve the quality and effectiveness of their services to low-income youth and adults. Much of this research was conducted for the MetLife Foundation Community College Excellence Awards Initiative. Across the country, in urban, rural, and suburban…

  12. NARSTO PAC2001 SLOCAN PARK GAS PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 SLOCAN PARK GAS PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Ground Station, Tethered Balloon Instrument:  Temperature Probe Humidity Sensor Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Chemiliminescence TEOM GC-MS Ion Chromatograph Pressure Sensor Aethaelometer Fluorescence Spectroscopy IR CO2 ...

  13. The Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) Model. Volume 1; Technical Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1 presents a technical description of the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model atmosphere and a summary of its historical development. Various programs developed to augment the original capability of the model are discussed in detail. The report also describes each of the individual subroutines developed to enhance the model. Computer codes for these subroutines are contained in four appendices.

  14. Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Kendall, Cyril W C; Viguiliouk, Effie; Augustin, Livia S; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Maroleanu, Adriana; Chiavaroli, Laura; Leiter, Lawrence A; de Souza, Russell J; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a broader evidence summary to inform dietary guidelines of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the MetS. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 4 April 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ≥3 weeks reporting at least one criterion of the MetS. Data extraction Two or more independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Results Eligibility criteria were met by 49 RCTs including 2226 participants who were otherwise healthy or had dyslipidaemia, MetS or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tree nut interventions lowered triglycerides (MD=−0.06 mmol/L (95% CI −0.09 to −0.03 mmol/L)) and fasting blood glucose (MD=−0.08 mmol/L (95% CI −0.16 to −0.01 mmol/L)) compared with control diet interventions. There was no effect on waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or blood pressure with the direction of effect favouring tree nuts for waist circumference. There was evidence of significant unexplained heterogeneity in all analyses (p<0.05). Conclusions Pooled analyses show a MetS benefit of tree nuts through modest decreases in triglycerides and fasting blood glucose with no adverse effects on other criteria across nut types. As our conclusions are limited by the short duration and poor quality of the majority of trials, as well as significant unexplained between-study heterogeneity, there remains a need for larger, longer, high-quality trials. Trial registration number NCT01630980. PMID:25074070

  15. Does neighbourhood social capital aid in levelling the social gradient in the health and well-being of children and adolescents? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although most countries in the European Union are richer and healthier than ever, health inequalities remain an important public health challenge. Health-related problems and premature death have disproportionately been reported in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood social capital is believed to influence the association between neighbourhood deprivation and health in children and adolescents, making it a potentially interesting concept for policymakers. Methods This study aims to review the role of social capital in health inequalities and the social gradient in health and well-being of children and adolescents. A systematic review of published quantitative literature was conducted, focussing on (1) the mediating role of neighbourhood social capital in the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health-related outcomes in children and adolescents and (2) the interaction between neighbourhood social capital and socio-economic characteristics in relation to health-related outcomes in children and adolescents. Three electronic databases were searched. Studies executed between 1 January 1990 and 1 September 2011 in Western countries (USA, New Zealand, Australia and Europe) that included a health-related outcome in children or adolescents and a variable that measured neighbourhood social capital were included. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The findings are mixed. Only two of five studies confirmed that neighbourhood social capital mediates the association between neighbourhood deprivation and health and well-being in adolescents. Furthermore, two studies found a significant interaction between neighbourhood socio-economic factors and neighbourhood social capital, which indicates that neighbourhood social capital is especially beneficial for children who reside in deprived neighbourhoods. However, two other studies did not find a significant interaction between SES and neighbourhood social capital. Due

  16. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  17. Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: systematic review of published and 'grey' literature.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Maes, Lea; Spittaels, Heleen; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the present review was to summarise the existing European published and 'grey' literature on the effectiveness of school-based interventions to promote a healthy diet in children (6-12 years old) and adolescents (13-18 years old). Eight electronic databases, websites and contents of key journals were systematically searched, reference lists were screened, and authors and experts in the field were contacted for studies evaluating school-based interventions promoting a healthy diet and aiming at primary prevention of obesity. The studies were included if they were published between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2007 and reported effects on dietary behaviour or on anthropometrics. Finally, forty-two studies met the inclusion criteria: twenty-nine in children and thirteen in adolescents. In children, strong evidence of effect was found for multicomponent interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Limited evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour, and for environmental interventions on fruit and vegetable intakes. Interventions that specifically targeted children from lower socio-economic status groups showed limited evidence of effect on behaviour. In adolescents, moderate evidence of effect was found for educational interventions on behaviour and limited evidence of effect for multicomponent programmes on behaviour. In children and adolescents, effects on anthropometrics were often not measured, and therefore evidence was lacking or delivered inconclusive evidence. To conclude, evidence was found for the effectiveness of especially multicomponent interventions promoting a healthy diet in school-aged children in European Union countries on self-reported dietary behaviour. Evidence for effectiveness on anthropometrical obesity-related measures is lacking.

  18. [Diagnostic criteria in acute neuromyelitis].

    PubMed

    Panea, Cristina; Petrescu, Simona; Monica, Pop; Voinea, Liliana; Dascălu, Ana-Maria; Nicolae, Miruna; Ungureanu, E; Panca, Aida; Grădinaru, Sânziana

    2007-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica, also known as Devic disease, was identified in the 19th century, is one of the inflammatory idiopathic demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system, often mistaken for severe multiple sclerosis. In 1999 it had been proposed diagnostic criteria for neuromyelitis optica, but in 2006 these criteria were revised by Dean Wingerchuck. These criteria are 99% sensitive and 90% specific for differentiating neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis that present with optic neuritis or a myelitis syndrome. In the following article we present clinical, spinal and cerebral MR imaging, serological and aspects of cerebrospinal fluid examination features of neuromyelitis optica and the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica established in 2006. The recently identified serum antibody biomarker: neuromyelitis optica immunoglobulin G (NMO Ig G), which target aquaporin 4 water channel, distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis, is one of the revised criteria of neuromyelitis optica. PMID:18543687

  19. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  20. Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    This volume presents an overview of contemporary black adolescents from social, psychological, economic, educational, medical, historical, and comparative perspectives, with most emphasizing the roles that race, socioeconomic status, and environmental forces play in this critical period. The volume includes 19 chapters by various authors arranged…

  1. Mind the gap: assessing impairment among children affected by proposed revisions to the diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate

    2012-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) workgroup for disruptive behavior disorders is considering adopting a frequency threshold for symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). In the present study, the impact of substituting the term "often" with a specific age-based frequency on impairment and prognosis among preschool children was tested in a longitudinal design. Mutually exclusive groups were created to identify children who met criteria for ODD based on a symptom threshold of "often," as in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-4), and those that met criteria for ODD based on a threshold of "1-2 times per day," which approximated the proposal for DSM-5. Comparisons of these groups to each other and to nondiagnosed peers determined the impact of changing the symptom threshold on impairment and prognosis. Close to one-third of children who met DSM-4 criteria for ODD did not meet criteria under the alternative diagnosis; African American children were overrepresented in this group. Preschoolers who met DSM-4, but not the alternative criteria, had higher rates of ODD, conduct disorder (CD), and were more impaired than their nondiagnosed peers at baseline and follow-up. Preschoolers meeting DSM-4 criteria were less impaired than children meeting the alternative ODD criteria at baseline according to parent, but not according to teacher report. No differences could be detected between those meeting DSM-4 and those meeting the alternative criteria in rate of ODD, CD, or impairment at follow-up. Among clinically referred preschool children, changing the symptom threshold for ODD could result in a sizable group of children who would no longer meet diagnostic criteria, despite demonstrating significant morbidity concurrently and prospectively.

  2. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase val/met polymorphism with cognitive function in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Ning; Ju, Kang; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Chuang; Xu, Ping; Chen, Silu; Cao, Aiai; Chen, Xue; Guo, Lanting

    2015-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a kind of neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset. The cognitive dysfunction caused by GTS could affect the growth and learning of children and adolescents. The mechanism of cognitive functions was associated with dopaminergic system, thus we access the associations between polymorphism of some dopaminergic system-related genes including Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) met/val, Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III 48 bp VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats), Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Ra 86 bp and IL-1β exon 5, and cognitive functions in GTS patients. Genotyping analysis was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Test for cognitive functions of GTS patients included modified wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), trail making test, visual reproduction test, stroop test and verbal fluency test. The patients with COMT met/met genotype showed less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with COMT val/val genotype (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, patients without allele val had better delayed memory in visual reproduction test, less errors in the stroop test and less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with allele val (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in cognitive functions among patients with different genotypes or alleles of polymorphisms of DRD4 exon III 48 bp VNTR, IL-1 Ra 86 bp and IL-1β exon 5 (P > 0.05). Polymorphism of COMT met/val was correlated with cognitive functions in GTS patients. This study provided basis for the analysis of molecular genetic pathology of cognitive dysfunctions in GTS. PMID:25367405

  3. The Met-genotype of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with reduced Stroop interference in elderly.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by impairments of executive functions that rely on the functional integrity of fronto-striatal networks. This integrity is modulated by the release of neurotrophins like the brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we investigate effects of the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on interference processing in 131 healthy elderly subjects using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a Stroop task, participants had to indicate the name or the colour of colour-words while colour was either compatible or incompatible with the name. We show that susceptibility to Stroop-interference is affected by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: the Met-allele carriers showed better performance and enhanced N450 in interference trials. Other processes necessary to prepare and allocate cognitive resources to a particular task were not affected by BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, underlining the specificity of the observed effects. The observed performance and ERP difference is possibly due to dopamine related effects of BDNF in fronto-striatal networks, where it putatively mediates a shift in the balance of the direct and indirect pathway involved in inhibitory functions.

  4. Sleep Duration Predicts Cardiometabolic Risk in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    IglayReger, Heidi B.; Peterson, Mark D.; Liu, Dongmei; Parker, Christine A.; Woolford, Susan J.; (Sallinen) Gafka, Bethany J.; Hassan, Fauziya; Gordon, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent contributions of objectively measured sleep duration and fragmentation on cardiometabolic risk accumulation in free-living obese adolescents. Study design Characteristics of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose) were measured in obese adolescents and standardized residuals(z-scores) were summed (inverse high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) to create a continuous cardiometabolic risk score (cMetScore), adjusted for age, sex, and race. Sleep and physical activity were objectively measured in habitual, free-living conditions for 7 days (SenseWear Pro3, BodyMedia, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; n = 37; 54% female, ages 11–17 years). Associations between sleep duration and cMetScore were assessed via multiple linear regression. Results Body mass index, total sleep time, and sleep session length were each correlated with cMetScore (P < .05 all). Total sleep time was inversely and independently associated with cMetScore (r = −0.535, P = .001) and was the best independent predictor of metabolic risk. Conclusions Sleep duration inversely predicts cardiometabolic risk in obese adolescents, even when we controlled for various measures of physical activity, anthropometry, and adiposity. Further research should investigate the biological mechanism of this relationship and the potential treatment effect of sleep intervention in decreasing cardiometabolic risk in this population. PMID:24612904

  5. Management of migraine in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kabbouche, Marielle A; Gilman, Deborah K

    2008-01-01

    Headaches in children and adolescents are still under-diagnosed. 75% of children are affected by primary headache by the age of 15 with 28% fitting the ICHD2 criteria of migraine. Migraine is considered a chronic disorder that can severely impact a child’s daily activities, including schooling and socializing. Early recognition and aggressive therapy, with acute and prophylactic treatments, as well as intensive biobehavioral interventions, are essential to control the migraine attacks and reverse the progression into intractable disabling headache. PMID:18830400

  6. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Steinway, Steven N.; Dang, Hien; You, Hanning; Rountree, C. Bart; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance. Methods We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+) HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells) were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses. Results We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate

  7. A Pilot Study of Adjunctive Family Psychoeducation in Adolescent Major Depression: Feasibility and Treatment Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Mark; Boyle, Michael; McCleary, Lynn; Miller, Jennifer; Steele, Margaret; Duku, Eric; Offord, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To obtain preliminary evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depressive disorder. Method: Participants were from outpatient clinics in Hamilton and London, Ontario. Over 24 months, 41 adolescents ages 13 through 18 years meeting major depressive disorder criteria were…

  8. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  9. Emotion Regulation Training for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized to treatment as usual only (TAU) or ERT + TAU.…

  10. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  11. The Role of Mother and Father in the Value Socialization Process of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel, Judy I.

    The values humans possess take form in relation to the day-to-day activities and decisions (instrumental values) and as criteria for a lifetime (terminal values). This study compares the importance level assigned by adolescents to instrumental and terminal values and the relationship of adolescents' perception of value importance with their…

  12. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  13. Brief Report: Investigating the Implications of Applying the New DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Preschool Population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chui Mae; Koh, Hwan Cui

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic reports for 206 children who underwent an assessment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the DSM-IV-TR criteria, were re-evaluated using the DSM-5 criteria. Mean age of the children at time of diagnosis was 3 years 10 months. Of the 202 children diagnosed with ASD on the DSM-IV-TR, 184 (91.1 %) also met the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. The overall concordance rate of ASD diagnosis on the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 was higher than that reported in other studies. Of the 18 children who did not meet DSM-5 criteria for ASD, 16 children met all social communication criteria but did not fulfil at least two restricted and repetitive behaviour (RRB) criteria. Six of those children had further RRBs emerging later on follow-up. PMID:27318808

  14. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  15. [Emotion Regulation in Adolescents with Nonsuicidal Self-Injury].

    PubMed

    In-Albon, Tina; Tschan, Taru; Schwarz, Daniela; Schmid, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent and impairing condition that was newly included in DSM-5 in the section III criteria for further research. Difficulties in emotion regulation play an important role in the development and maintenance of NSSI. This study investigated the emotion regulation in female adolescents with NSSI according to DSM-5 (n=55), clinical control adolescents with mental disorders without NSSI (n=30), and nonclinical control adolescents (n=58) using self-report questionnaires and interviews. As expected, results indicated that adolescents with NSSI have significantly more difficulties in emotion regulation compared to healthy controls. In addition, adolescents with NSSI reported also significantly more difficulties in impulse control, lack of emotional clarity, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies compared to nonclinical and clinical controls. Adolescents with NSSI felt significantly more often sadness compared to clinical controls (d=0.66) and compared to other emotions. Adolescents with NSSI indicated significantly less often happiness compared to nonclinical controls (d=1.83). Results support that adolescents with NSSI have difficulties in emotion regulation and that these difficulties are even more pronounced than in adolescents with other mental disorders. Clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:26032034

  16. Brief Report: Investigating the Implications of Applying the New DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Preschool Population in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Chui Mae; Koh, Hwan Cui

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic reports for 206 children who underwent an assessment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the DSM-IV-TR criteria, were re-evaluated using the DSM-5 criteria. Mean age of the children at time of diagnosis was 3 years 10 months. Of the 202 children diagnosed with ASD on the DSM-IV-TR, 184 (91.1%) also met the DSM-5 criteria for ASD.…

  17. Estimation of METs by Accelerometers while Walking and Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Yoneyama, Mitsuru

    It is quite important for Japan to maintain or promote the health condition of elderly citizens. Given the circumstances, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has established the standards for the activities and exercises for promoting the health, and quantitatively determined the exercise intensity on 107 items of activities. This exercise intensity, however, requires recording the type and the duration of the activity to be calculated. In this paper, the exercise intensities are surmised using 3D accelerometer while the subjects are walking and running. As the result, the exercise intensities were surmised to be within the root mean square error of 1.2[METs] for walking and 3.2[METs] for running respectively.

  18. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Shirai, Satoshi; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on- Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  19. Operational Use of OGC Web Services at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    The Met Office has adopted the Service-Orientated Architecture paradigm to deliver services to a range of customers through Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The approach uses standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services to provide information to web-based applications through a range of generic data services. "Invent", the Met Office beta site, is used to showcase Met Office future plans for presenting web-based weather forecasts, product and information to the public. This currently hosts a freely accessible Weather Map Viewer, written in JavaScript, which accesses a Web Map Service (WMS), to deliver innovative web-based visualizations of weather and its potential impacts to the public. The intention is to engage the public in the development of new web-based services that more accurately meet their needs. As the service is intended for public use within the UK, it has been designed to support a user base of 5 million, the analysed level of UK web traffic reaching the Met Office's public weather information site. The required scalability has been realised through the use of multi-tier tile caching: - WMS requests are made for 256x256 tiles for fixed areas and zoom levels; - a Tile Cache, developed in house, efficiently serves tiles on demand, managing WMS request for the new tiles; - Edge Servers, externally hosted by Akamai, provide a highly scalable (UK-centric) service for pre-cached tiles, passing new requests to the Tile Cache; - the Invent Weather Map Viewer uses the Google Maps API to request tiles from Edge Servers. (We would expect to make use of the Web Map Tiling Service, when it becomes an OGC standard.) The Met Office delivers specialist commercial products to market sectors such as transport, utilities and defence, which exploit a Web Feature Service (WFS) for data relating forecasts and observations to specific geographic features, and a Web Coverage Service (WCS) for sub-selections of gridded data. These are locally rendered as maps or

  20. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Kent, J.; Adam, M.; Buxmann, J.; Francis, P.; Haywood, J.

    2016-06-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA), has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK) will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  1. Design criteria for maglev structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Maglev systems represent an entirely new concept in transportation. They will not operate on nor share the right-of-way with any other system. It is important, therefore, that the guideways be designed and constructed so as to be economical, constructable, durable, adaptable, reliable, and readily maintained. Comparisons should be made with the current transportation systems, especially highways and railroads. Since most of the guideway will be elevated, the comparison should be with the bridges. The object of the comparisons should be to avoid the shortcomings of the other systems while building on their strengths. This paper develops in some detail design and construction criteria that will ensure a good, long-lived performance of the maglev guideway. The importance of beauty should have a low priority in comparison to the other design criteria. Clean, simple details meeting other criteria will ensure an acceptable appearance. These criteria were used in evaluating the four maglev concepts developed for the National Maglev Initiative.

  2. Maximizing the accuracy of field-derived numeric nutrient criteria in water quality regulations.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    High levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus can cause unhealthy biological or ecological conditions in surface waters and prevent the attainment of their designated uses. Regulatory agencies are developing numeric criteria for these nutrients in an effort to ensure that the surface waters in their jurisdictions remain healthy and productive, and that water quality standards are met. These criteria are often derived using field measurements that relate nutrient concentrations and other water quality conditions to expected biological responses such as undesirable growth or changes in aquatic plant and animal communities. Ideally, these numeric criteria can be used to accurately "diagnose" ecosystem health and guide management decisions. However, the degree to which numeric nutrient criteria are useful for decision making depends on how accurately they reflect the status or risk of nutrient-related biological impairments. Numeric criteria that have little predictive value are not likely to be useful for managing nutrient concerns. This paper presents information on the role of numeric nutrient criteria as biological health indicators, and the potential benefits of sufficiently accurate criteria for nutrient management. In addition, it describes approaches being proposed or adopted in states such as Florida and Maine to improve the accuracy of numeric criteria and criteria-based decisions. This includes a preference for developing site-specific criteria in cases where sufficient data are available, and the use of nutrient concentration and biological response criteria together in a framework to support designated use attainment decisions. Together with systematic planning during criteria development, the accuracy of field-derived numeric nutrient criteria can be assessed and maximized as a part of an overall effort to manage nutrient water quality concerns. PMID:24123826

  3. COMT Val158Met Polymorphism Modulates Huntington's Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rebeix, Isabelle; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Durr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Charles, Perrine; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Youssov, Katia; Verny, Christophe; Damotte, Vincent; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Goizet, Cyril; Simonin, Clémence; Tranchant, Christine; Maison, Patrick; Rialland, Amandine; Schmitz, David; Jacquemot, Charlotte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic factors modulating the progression of Huntington’s disease (HD). Dopamine levels are affected in HD and modulate executive functions, the main cognitive disorder of HD. We investigated whether the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, which influences dopamine (DA) degradation, affects clinical progression in HD. We carried out a prospective longitudinal multicenter study from 1994 to 2011, on 438 HD gene carriers at different stages of the disease (34 pre-manifest; 172 stage 1; 130 stage 2; 80 stage 3; 17 stage 4; and 5 stage 5), according to Total Functional Capacity (TFC) score. We used the Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale to evaluate motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional decline. We genotyped participants for COMT polymorphism (107 Met-homozygous, 114 Val-homozygous and 217 heterozygous). 367 controls of similar ancestry were also genotyped. We compared clinical progression, on each domain, between groups of COMT polymorphisms, using latent-class mixed models accounting for disease duration and number of CAG (cytosine adenine guanine) repeats. We show that HD gene carriers with fewer CAG repeats and with the Val allele in COMT polymorphism displayed slower cognitive decline. The rate of cognitive decline was greater for Met/Met homozygotes, which displayed a better maintenance of cognitive capacity in earlier stages of the disease, but had a worse performance than Val allele carriers later on. COMT polymorphism did not significantly impact functional and behavioral performance. Since COMT polymorphism influences progression in HD, it could be used for stratification in future clinical trials. Moreover, DA treatments based on the specific COMT polymorphism and adapted according to disease duration could potentially slow HD progression. PMID:27657697

  4. Worldwide distribution of PSEN1 Met146Leu mutation

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, L.; Colao, R.; Rubino, E.; Smirne, N.; Frangipane, F.; Terni, B.; Curcio, S.A.M.; Mirabelli, M.; Clodomiro, A.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Maletta, R.; Anfossi, M.; Gallo, M.; Geracitano, S.; Tomaino, C.; Muraca, M. G.; Leotta, A.; Lio, S. G.; Pinessi, L.; Rainero, I.; Sorbi, S.; Nee, L.; Milan, G.; Pappatá, S.; Postiglione, A.; Abbamondi, N.; Forloni, G.; St. George Hyslop, P.; Rogaeva, E.; Bugiani, O.; Giaccone, G.; Foncin, J. F.; Spillantini, M. G.; Puccio, G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Large kindreds segregating familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) offer the opportunity of studying clinical variability as observed for presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations. Two early-onset FAD (EOFAD) Calabrian families with PSEN1 Met146Leu (ATG/CTG) mutation constitute a unique population descending from a remote common ancestor. Recently, several other EOFAD families with the same mutation have been described worldwide. Methods: We searched for a common founder of the PSEN1 Met146Leu mutation in families with different geographic origins by genealogic and molecular analyses. We also investigated the phenotypic variability at onset in a group of 50 patients (mean age at onset 40.0 ± 4.8 years) by clinical, neuropsychological, and molecular methodologies. Results: EOFAD Met146Leu families from around the world resulted to be related and constitute a single kindred originating from Southern Italy before the 17th century. Phenotypic variability at onset is broad: 4 different clinical presentations may be recognized, 2 classic for AD (memory deficits and spatial and temporal disorientation), whereas the others are expressions of frontal impairment. The apathetic and dysexecutive subgroups could be related to orbital-medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dysfunction. Conclusions: Genealogic and molecular findings provided evidence that the PSEN1 Met146Leu families from around the world analyzed in this study are related and represent a single kindred originating from Southern Italy. The marked phenotypic variability might reflect early involvement by the pathologic process of different cortical areas. Although the clinical phenotype is quite variable, the neuropathologic and biochemical characteristics of the lesions account for neurodegenerative processes unmistakably of Alzheimer nature. PMID:20164095

  5. The relationship between Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Waris, Petra; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Tani, Pekka

    2013-04-01

    Asperger's syndrome (AS), a pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), has nowadays been widely advocated in media. Therefore, psychiatrists treating adolescents frequently meet patients as well as their families reporting of symptoms resembling those of Asperger's syndrome. It is known that symptoms of Asperger's syndrome have some overlap with those of schizophrenia, but less is known about comorbidity between these two syndromes. We describe a sample of 18 adolescents with early onset schizophrenia. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was based on assessment with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. The diagnostic interview for Social and Communication Disorders version 11 was used to assess autism spectrum disorders. Ten adolescents fulfilled symptom criteria of Asperger's syndrome after the onset of schizophrenia, while only two persons had Asperger's syndrome before the onset of schizophrenia, a prerequisite for diagnosis. 44% of the adolescents fulfilled the diagnosis of some PDD in childhood. Most of them were, however, unrecognized before the onset of schizophrenia. On the other hand, all 18 patients had one or more symptoms of PDDS in adolescence. Adolescents with schizophrenia have often symptoms consistent with AS, although only few of them have fulfilled the diagnostic criteria in their childhood, a prerequisite for the diagnosis of AS. There is a risk for misdiagnosis of adolescents with autistic symptoms if detailed longitudinal anamnesis is not obtained.

  6. Correctness criteria for process migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two correctness criteria, the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion for process migration are discussed. The state machine approach is used to model the interactions between a user process and its environment. These criteria are defined in terms of the model. The idea of environment view was introduced to distinguish what a user process observes about its environment from what its environment state really is and argue that a consistent view of the environment must be maintained for every migrating process.

  7. Determination of criteria weights in solving multi-criteria problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2014-12-01

    A multi-criteria (MC) problem comprises of units to be analyzed under a set of evaluation criteria. Solving a MC problem is basically the process of finding the overall performance or overall quality of the units of analysis by using certain aggregation method. Based on these overall measures of each unit, a decision can be made whether to sort them, to select the best or to group them according to certain ranges. Prior to solving the MC problems, the weights of the related criteria have to be determined with the assumption that the weights represent the degree of importance or the degree of contribution towards the overall performance of the units. This paper presents two main approaches which are called as subjective and objective approaches, where the first one involves evaluator(s) while the latter approach depends on the intrinsic information contained in each criterion. The subjective and objective weights are defined if the criteria are assumed to be independent with each other, but if they are dependent, there is another type of weight, which is called as monotone measure weight or compound weights which represent degree of interaction among the criteria. The measure of individual weights or compound weights must be addressed in solving multi-criteria problems so that the solutions are more reliable since in the real world, evaluation criteria always come with different degree of importance or are dependent with each other. As the real MC problems have their own uniqueness, it is up to the decision maker(s) to decide which type of weights and which method are the most applicable ones for the problem under study.

  8. Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Criteria Among Heavy-Drinking College Students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Optimization of the concentration optics of the Martian airborne dust sensor for MetNet space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; de Castro, A. J.; López, F.

    2012-06-01

    Martian atmosphere contains a significant and rapidly changing load of suspended dust that never drops to zero. The main component of Martian aerosol is micron-sized dust thought to be a product of soil weathering. Although airborne dust plays a key role in Martian climate, the basic physical properties of these aerosols are still poorly known. The scope of Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. MEIGA-MetNet payload is the Spanish contribution in MetNet. Infrared Laboratory of University Carlos III (LIR-UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of a micro-sensor for the characterization of airborne dust. This design must accomplish with a strict budget of mass and power, 45 g and 1 W respectively. The sensor design criteria have been obtained from a physical model specifically developed for optimizing IR local scattering. The model calculates the spectral power density scattered and detected between 1 and 5 μm by a certain particle distribution and sensor configuration. From model calculations a modification based on the insertion of a compound ellipsoidal concentrator (CEC) has appeared as necessary. Its implementation has multiplied up to 100 the scattered optical power detected, significantly enhancing the detection limits of the sensor.

  10. Adolescent Suicide Risk Screening in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    King, Cheryl A.; O'Mara, Roisin M.; Hayward, Charles N.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many adolescents who die by suicide have never obtained mental health services. In response to this, the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention recommends screening for elevated suicide risk in emergency departments (EDs). This cross-sectional study was designed to examine 1) the concurrent validity and utility of an adolescent suicide risk screen for use in general medical EDs and 2) the prevalence of positive screens for adolescent males and females using two different sets of screening criteria. Methods Participants were 298 adolescents seeking pediatric or psychiatric emergency services (50% male; 83% white, 16% black or African American, 5.4% Hispanic). The inclusion criterion was age 13 to 17 years. Exclusion criteria were severe cognitive impairment, no parent or legal guardian present to provide consent, or abnormal vital signs. Parent or guardian consent and adolescent assent were obtained for 61% of consecutively eligible adolescents. Elevated risk was defined as 1) Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-Junior [SIQ-JR] score of ≥31 or suicide attempt in the past 3 months or 2) alcohol abuse plus depression (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3 [AUDIT-3] score of ≥3, Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale-2 [RADS-2] score of ≥76). The Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) were used to ascertain concurrent validity. Results Sixteen percent (n = 48) of adolescents screened positive for elevated suicide risk. Within this group, 98% reported severe suicide ideation or a recent suicide attempt (46% attempt and ideation, 10% attempt only, 42% ideation only) and 27% reported alcohol abuse and depression. Nineteen percent of adolescents who screened positive presented for nonpsychiatric reasons. One-third of adolescents with positive screens were not receiving any mental health or substance use treatment. Demonstrating concurrent validity, the BHS scores of adolescents with positive screens

  11. Appropriateness criteria for bariatric surgery: beyond the NIH guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yermilov, Irina; McGory, Marcia L; Shekelle, Paul W; Ko, Clifford Y; Maggard, Melinda A

    2009-08-01

    Careful selection of bariatric patients is critical for successful outcomes. In 1991, the NIH first established patient selection guidelines; however, some surgeons operate on individuals outside of these criteria, i.e., extreme age groups. We developed appropriateness criteria for the spectrum of patient characteristics including age, BMI, and severity of eight obesity-related comorbidities. Candidate criteria were developed using combinations of patient characteristics including BMI: > or =40 kg/m(2), 35-39, 32-34, 30-31, <30; age: 12-18, 19-55, 56-64, 65+ years old; and comorbidities: prediabetes, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, venous stasis disease, chronic joint pain, and gastroesophageal reflux (plus severity level). Criteria were formally validated on their appropriateness of whether the benefits of surgery clearly outweighed the risks, by an expert panel using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi method. Nearly all comorbidity severity criteria for patients with BMI > or =40 kg/m(2) or BMI = 35-39 kg/m(2) in intermediate age groups were found to be appropriate for surgery. In contrast, patients in the extreme age categories were considered appropriate surgical candidates under fewer conditions, primarily the more severe comorbidities, such as diabetes and hypertension. For patients with a BMI of 32-34, only the most severe category of diabetes (Hgb A1c >9, on maximal medical therapy), is an appropriate criterion for those aged 19-64, whereas many mild to moderate severity comorbidity categories are "inappropriate." There is overwhelming agreement among the panelists that the current evidence does not support performing bariatric surgery in lower BMI individuals (BMI <32). This is the first development of appropriateness criteria for bariatric surgery that includes severity categories of comorbidities. Only for the most severe degrees of comorbidities were adolescent and elderly patients deemed appropriate for surgery. Patient selection for

  12. Adolescent Development: Workshop II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keng, Chiam Heng; And Others

    Workshops concerning adolescent development explored problems of adolescents, schooling and adolescence, preparation for adulthood, leisure and recreation, as well as values, culture, and change in relation to the development of youth. The discussion of adolescents' problems identified major problem areas, (emphasizing problems of communicating…

  13. Skill deficits and male adolescent delinquency.

    PubMed

    Dishion, T J; Loeber, R; Stouthamer-Loeber, M; Patterson, G R

    1984-03-01

    The research literature on juvenile delinquency shows that antisocial adolescents are often lacking in academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Past research on antisocial adolescents has focused primarily on the relationship between single skill deficits and official delinquency. The present report extends this body of literature by investigating the relationship between seven measures of skill and official and self-reported delinquency in a nonclinical sample of 70 white male adolescents. Youths classified as delinquent on the basis of prior police contact had a lower multivariate profile on seven measures of academic, interpersonal, and work skills. Five of the seven measures correlated significantly with both the official and self-reported criteria of delinquency. Academic skill deficits may be the strongest covariates of antisocial behavior.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-07-28

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance.

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance. PMID:23582695

  18. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET

  19. Prevalence of psoriatic arthritis in psoriasis patients according to newer classification criteria.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Hernán Maldonado; Citera, Gustavo; Cocco, José Antonio Maldonado

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) according to Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria, Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) peripheral and axial SpA criteria, and New York criteria for AS. The first 100 patients consecutively attending a psoriasis dermatology clinic were assessed. Demographic and clinical data were collected; all patients were questioned and examined for joint manifestations. Rheumatoid factor and radiographies of hands, feet, cervical spine, and pelvis for sacroiliac joints were obtained. X-rays were read independently by two experienced observers in blind fashion. Patients with objective joint manifestations, both axial and peripheral, were evaluated for fulfillment of CASPAR, ASAS peripheral and axial, and New York criteria. Median age 48 years; 93 % of patients had psoriasis vulgaris and 56 % had nail involvement. Seventeen patients had peripheral arthritis as follows: nine mono/oligoarticular and eight polyarthritis. Median arthritis duration was of 8 years. Seventeen percent of patients fulfilled CASPAR and ASAS peripheral criteria, 6 % New York, and 5 % ASAS axial criteria. Patients who met CASPAR criteria showed a significantly higher psoriasis duration compared to those without arthritis (M 16 vs 10 years, p = 0.02), and a higher frequency of nail involvement (88.2 vs 49.4 %, p = 0.003). Five patients (29.4 %) fulfilled ASAS axial criteria; all of them had peripheral involvement as follows: mono/oligoarticular in three patients and polyarticular in two. Patients with peripheral and axial involvement presented a significantly higher frequency of erythrodermic psoriasis compared to the other patients (35.3 vs 1.2 %, p = 0.0006 and 80 vs 16.7 %, p = 0.02). Prevalence of PsA, for CASPAR and ASAS peripheral criteria, was of 17 %. Five percent of patients met ASAS axial criteria, while 6 % met New York criteria. Worth noting, few patients

  20. Initiation and Generalization of Self-Instructional Skills in Adolescents with Autism and Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine A; Ayres, Kevin A; Alexander, Jennifer; Ledford, Jennifer R; Shepley, Collin; Shepley, Sally B

    2016-04-01

    Self-instruction using videos or other supports on a mobile device is a pivotal skill and can increase independence for individuals with disabilities by decreasing a need for adult supports. This study evaluated the effects of progressive time delay (PTD) to teach four adolescents with autism and intellectual disability how to initiate self-instruction in the presence of a task direction for an untrained task. Participants were screened for imitating video models prior to the study and were taught to navigate to videos on an iPhone(®) in history training. A multiple probe design across settings embedded in a multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of PTD on initiation of self-instruction. All participants learned to self-instruct. Two participants generalized self-instruction to two novel settings. Two participants required instruction in two settings before generalizing to the third. Three participants generalized self-instruction in the presence of a task direction from the researcher to a task direction from their classroom teacher in all three settings. One participant generalized to a task direction presented by the classroom teacher in one setting, but not in the other two. All participants maintained self-instruction behaviors assessed 1 week after all participants met criteria in all settings. Self-instruction using videos or other supports on a mobile device is a pivotal skill and can increase independence for individuals with disabilities by decreasing a need for adult supports.

  1. Initiation and Generalization of Self-Instructional Skills in Adolescents with Autism and Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine A; Ayres, Kevin A; Alexander, Jennifer; Ledford, Jennifer R; Shepley, Collin; Shepley, Sally B

    2016-04-01

    Self-instruction using videos or other supports on a mobile device is a pivotal skill and can increase independence for individuals with disabilities by decreasing a need for adult supports. This study evaluated the effects of progressive time delay (PTD) to teach four adolescents with autism and intellectual disability how to initiate self-instruction in the presence of a task direction for an untrained task. Participants were screened for imitating video models prior to the study and were taught to navigate to videos on an iPhone(®) in history training. A multiple probe design across settings embedded in a multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of PTD on initiation of self-instruction. All participants learned to self-instruct. Two participants generalized self-instruction to two novel settings. Two participants required instruction in two settings before generalizing to the third. Three participants generalized self-instruction in the presence of a task direction from the researcher to a task direction from their classroom teacher in all three settings. One participant generalized to a task direction presented by the classroom teacher in one setting, but not in the other two. All participants maintained self-instruction behaviors assessed 1 week after all participants met criteria in all settings. Self-instruction using videos or other supports on a mobile device is a pivotal skill and can increase independence for individuals with disabilities by decreasing a need for adult supports. PMID:26572658

  2. The relationship between internet addiction and body mass index in Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Canan, Fatih; Yildirim, Osman; Ustunel, Tuba Yildirim; Sinani, Gjergji; Kaleli, Arzu Hisarvant; Gunes, Cemalettin; Ataoglu, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Internet use patterns and Internet addiction among adolescents and to examine the correlation between Internet addiction and eating attitudes and body mass index (BMI). The study was conducted among 1,938 students, aged between 14 and 18 years. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and a sociodemographic query form were used to collect data. According to the IAT, 12.4% of the study sample met the criteria for Internet addiction. A significant positive correlation between BMI and the IAT (r=0.307; p<0.01) and weekly Internet use (r=0.215; p<0.01) was found. Nine students with Internet addiction (3.8%) and 90 with average Internet use (5.3%) were found to have a possible eating disorder (p>0.05). No relationship was found between the EAT and the IAT and duration of weekly Internet use. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association of the IAT with BMI (r=0.235; p<0.001). These results indicate an association between Internet addiction and BMI. Further studies are needed to describe the causality of this association.

  3. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.

  4. Cognitive Impairment Occurs in Children and Adolescents With Multiple Sclerosis: Results From a United States Network

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Laura; Serafin, Dana; Charvet, Leigh; Ackerson, Joseph; Benedict, Ralph; Braaten, Ellen; Brown, Tanya; O’Donnell, Ellen; Parrish, Joy; Preston, Thomas; Zaccariello, Michael; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Yeh, Ann; Krupp, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    In the largest sample studied to date, we measured cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis (n =187) as well as those with clinically isolated syndrome (n =44). Participants were consecutively enrolled from six United States PediatricMultiple Sclerosis Centers of Excellence. Participants had amean of 14.8 ± 2.6 years of age and an average disease duration of 1.9 ± 2.2 years. A total of 65 (35%) children with multiple sclerosis and 8 (18%) with clinically isolated syndrome met criteria for cognitive impairment. The most frequent areas involved were fine motor coordination (54%), visuomotor integration (50%), and speeded information processing (35%). A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (odds ratio = 3.60, confidence interval = 1.07, 12.36, P = .04) and overall neurologic disability (odds ratio = 1.47, confidence interval = 1.10, 2.10, P = .03) were the only independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment may occur early in these patients, and prompt recognition is critical for their care. PMID:23155206

  5. Cognitive impairment occurs in children and adolescents with multiple sclerosis: results from a United States network.

    PubMed

    Julian, Laura; Serafin, Dana; Charvet, Leigh; Ackerson, Joseph; Benedict, Ralph; Braaten, Ellen; Brown, Tanya; O'Donnell, Ellen; Parrish, Joy; Preston, Thomas; Zaccariello, Michael; Belman, Anita; Chitnis, Tanuja; Gorman, Mark; Ness, Jayne; Patterson, Marc; Rodriguez, Moses; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Yeh, Ann; Krupp, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    In the largest sample studied to date, we measured cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with pediatric multiple sclerosis (n = 187) as well as those with clinically isolated syndrome (n = 44). Participants were consecutively enrolled from six United States Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Centers of Excellence. Participants had a mean of 14.8 ± 2.6 years of age and an average disease duration of 1.9 ± 2.2 years. A total of 65 (35%) children with multiple sclerosis and 8 (18%) with clinically isolated syndrome met criteria for cognitive impairment. The most frequent areas involved were fine motor coordination (54%), visuomotor integration (50%), and speeded information processing (35%). A diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (odds ratio = 3.60, confidence interval = 1.07, 12.36, P = .04) and overall neurologic disability (odds ratio = 1.47, confidence interval = 1.10, 2.10, P = .03) were the only independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment may occur early in these patients, and prompt recognition is critical for their care.

  6. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  7. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  8. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  9. The Pressured World of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the adolescent experience and why adolescents engage in self-destructive behavior. He suggests some changes in the way that adults treat adolescents that could reduce adolescent behavior problems and self-abuse. (CH)

  10. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  11. LoVo colon cancer cells resistant to oxaliplatin overexpress c-MET and VEGFR-1 and respond to VEGF with dephosphorylation of c-MET.

    PubMed

    Mezquita, Belén; Pineda, Estela; Mezquita, Jovita; Mezquita, Pau; Pau, Montserrat; Codony-Servat, Jordi; Martínez-Balibrea, Eva; Mora, Conchi; Maurel, Joan; Mezquita, Cristóbal

    2016-05-01

    Oxaliplatin-resistant LoVo colon cancer cells overexpressing c-MET and VEGFR-1 were selected to study several signaling pathways involved in chemoresistance, as well as the effect of increasing amounts of VEGF in the regulation of c-MET. In comparison with chemosensitive LoVo colon cancer cells, oxaliplatin-resistant cells (LoVoR) overexpress and phosphorylate c-MET, upregulate the expression of transmembrane and soluble VEGFR-1 and, unexpectedly, downregulate VEGF. In addition, LoVoR cells activate other transduction pathways involved in chemoresistance such as Akt, β-catenin-TCF4 and E-cadherin. While c-MET is phosphorylated in LoVoR cells expressing low levels of VEGF, c-MET phosphorylation decreases when recombinant VEGF is added into the culture medium. Inhibition of c-MET by VEGF is mediated by VEGFR-1, since phosphorylation of c-MET in the presence of VEGF is restored after silencing VEGFR-1. Dephosphorylation of c-MET by VEGF suggests that tumors coexpressing VEGFR-1 and c-MET may activate c-MET as a result of anti-VEGF therapy.

  12. Marital Conflict and Adolescent Distress: The Role of Adolescent Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Gordon T.; Conger, Rand D.

    1997-01-01

    Studied role of adolescents' awareness in relationship between marital conflict and adolescent distress. Found marital conflict was related to parental hostility toward adolescents and adolescents' awareness of conflict; parental hostility and adolescents' awareness of marital conflict were related to adolescent-perceived parental hostility. Found…

  13. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  14. Criteria for Authorship in Bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Master, Zubin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple authorship is becoming increasingly common in bioethics research. There are well-established criteria for authorship in empirical bioethics research but not for conceptual research. It is important to develop criteria for authorship in conceptual publications to prevent undeserved authorship and uphold standards of fairness and accountability. This article explores the issue of multiple authorship in bioethics and develops criteria for determining who should be an author on a conceptual publication in bioethics. Authorship in conceptual research should be based on contributing substantially to: (1) identifying a topic, problem, or issue to study; (2) reviewing and interpreting the relevant literature; (3) formulating, analyzing, and evaluating arguments that support one or more theses; (4) responding to objections and counterarguments; and (5) drafting the manuscript and approving the final version. Authors of conceptual publications should participate substantially in at least two of areas (1)–(5). PMID:21943265

  15. Common criteria for usability review.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to present a literature review, in a grouping of common criteria for usability approaches of Bastien and Scapin (1993), Nielsen (1994), Shnneiderman(1998), Dix et al (1998), Preece et al (2005) and ISO 9241-110 (2006). After establishment of prerequisites for knowledge of the general characteristics of the users who will use the system, are defined and explained the criteria in common: consistency, user control, ease of learning, flexibility, errors management, reduction of excess and visibility system status. Although there is no determination as to which criteria should be considered when developing an interface and each author presents some specificity in their approach, it is observed that there is equivalence in the measures adopted usability. PMID:22316859

  16. Criteria for Initial Appointment in Rank and Subsequent Promotion for Faculty in Two-Year Public Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orf, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of community colleges over the last five decades has not been met with a commensurate expansion of knowledge about policy development. In order to address this gap in knowledge, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of rank among two-year colleges in the United States; to identify the criteria used to determine rank upon hire for…

  17. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban... redesignated to another urban area, the following conditions must be met: (1) All hospitals in an urban...

  18. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban... redesignated to another urban area, the following conditions must be met: (1) All hospitals in an urban...

  19. 42 CFR 412.234 - Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... seeking redesignation to another urban area. 412.234 Section 412.234 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Redesignation § 412.234 Criteria for all hospitals in an urban county seeking redesignation to another urban... redesignated to another urban area, the following conditions must be met: (1) All hospitals in an urban...

  20. 42 CFR 2.65 - Procedures and criteria for orders authorizing disclosure and use of records to criminally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Court Orders Authorizing Disclosure and Use § 2.65... hearing. Unless an order under § 2.66 is sought with an order under this section, the person holding the... court finds that all of the following criteria are met: (1) The crime involved is extremely...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix C to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Mental Health Professionals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Mental Health Professionals C Appendix C to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... a shortage of mental health professionals if the following four criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area for the delivery of mental health services. 2. One of the following conditions...

  2. 42 CFR Appendix C to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Mental Health Professionals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Mental Health Professionals C Appendix C to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... a shortage of mental health professionals if the following four criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area for the delivery of mental health services. 2. One of the following conditions...

  3. 42 CFR Appendix C to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Mental Health Professionals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Mental Health Professionals C Appendix C to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... a shortage of mental health professionals if the following four criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area for the delivery of mental health services. 2. One of the following conditions...

  4. 42 CFR Appendix C to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Mental Health Professionals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Mental Health Professionals C Appendix C to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... a shortage of mental health professionals if the following four criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational area for the delivery of mental health services. 2. One of the following conditions...

  5. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - < 95th percentile for age and sex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:25685291

  6. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome: An important diagnostic consideration in adolescents presenting with disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Chesney, Tyler; Matsos, Laura; Couturier, Jennifer; Johnson, Natasha

    2014-03-01

    Although previously thought to have no withdrawal symptoms, there is now convergent evidence for a cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS), criteria for its diagnosis, and evidence of its impact in the adolescent population. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome represents an important and under-recognized consideration in adolescents with disordered eating. We describe three clinical cases of adolescents presenting to an eating disorders program with primary complaints of gastrointestinal symptoms, food avoidance, and associated weight loss. They did not meet the criteria for an eating disorder, but did fulfill the DSM-5 criteria for CWS. This report emphasizes the importance of considering the impact of heavy cannabis use in adolescents presenting with gastrointestinal complaints, and eating disorder symptoms, including weight loss. PMID:24281745

  7. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  8. Adolescent sexuality and its problems.

    PubMed

    Yang, M

    1995-09-01

    Adolescent sexual activity is increasing globally. Abstinence and a delay in the start of sexual intercourse may be the most effective methods in preventing the consequences of teenage sexual activity. However, these goals are seldom met. With the change in social norms, peer pressure and media influences; teenagers are engaging in premarital sex earlier. Family life education in countries like Sweden and Finland reduces teenage pregnancy and abortion. It is unrealistic to expect sexually active adolescents to stop their sexual activity. An effective contraceptive method will provide an alternative to prevent teenage pregnancy. Issues on compliance of contraceptive use, especially at the very outset of sexual activity should be addressed. Most of the problems associated with teenage pregnancy are now thought to be related to the social circumstances of the mother, the poor nutritional status before pregnancy and poor attendance at antenatal clinics. Risk-taking behaviour in this age group will also make them more prone to contracting sexually transmitted diseases. High risk groups should be screened and treated early. Contraceptive methods with protection against sexually transmitted diseases should be advised.

  9. Multicenter Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Study Points to Challenges for Keeping Blood Glucose in a Safe Range by a Control Algorithm in Adults and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes from Various Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Howard; Renard, Eric; Kovatchev, Boris; Cobelli, Claudio; Avogaro, Angelo; Nimri, Revital; Magni, Lalo; Buckingham, Bruce A.; Chase, H. Peter; Doyle, Francis J.; Lum, John; Calhoun, Peter; Kollman, Craig; Dassau, Eyal; Farret, Anne; Place, Jerome; Breton, Marc; Anderson, Stacey M.; Dalla Man, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Phillip, Moshe; Atlas, Eran; Muller, Ido; Miller, Shahar; Toffanin, Chiara; Raimondo, Davide Martino; De Nicolao, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Control to Range Study was a multinational artificial pancreas study designed to assess the time spent in the hypo- and hyperglycemic ranges in adults and adolescents with type 1 diabetes while under closed-loop control. The controller attempted to keep the glucose ranges between 70 and 180 mg/dL. A set of prespecified metrics was used to measure safety. Research Design and Methods: We studied 53 individuals for approximately 22 h each during clinical research center admissions. Plasma glucose level was measured every 15–30 min (YSI clinical laboratory analyzer instrument [YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH]). During the admission, subjects received three mixed meals (1 g of carbohydrate/kg of body weight; 100 g maximum) with meal announcement and automated insulin dosing by the controller. Results: For adults, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 159 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values 71–180 mg/dL was 66% overall (59% daytime and 82% overnight). For adolescents, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 166 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values in range was 62% overall (53% daytime and 82% overnight). Whereas prespecified criteria for safety were satisfied by both groups, they were met at the individual level in adults only for combined daytime/nighttime and for isolated nighttime. Two adults and six adolescents failed to meet the daytime criterion, largely because of postmeal hyperglycemia, and another adolescent failed to meet the nighttime criterion. Conclusions: The control-to-range system performed as expected: faring better overnight than during the day and performing with variability between patients even after individualization based on patients' prior settings. The system had difficulty preventing postmeal excursions above target range. PMID:25003311

  10. Promise and challenges on the horizon of MET-targeted cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    MET (MNNG HOS transforming gene) is one of the receptor tyrosine kinases whose activities are frequently altered in human cancers, and it is a promising therapeutic target. MET is normally activated by its lone ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), eliciting its diverse biological activities that are crucial for development and physiology. Alteration of the HGF-MET axis results in inappropriate activation of a cascade of intracellular signaling pathways that contributes to hallmark cancer events including deregulated cell proliferation and survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Aberrant MET activation results from autocrine or paracrine mechanisms due to overexpression of HGF and/or MET or from a ligand-independent mechanism caused by activating mutations or amplification of MET. The literature provides compelling evidence for the role of MET signaling in cancer development and progression. The finding that cancer cells often use MET activation to escape therapies targeting other pathways strengthens the argument for MET-targeted therapeutics. Diverse strategies have been explored to deactivate MET signaling, and compounds and biologics targeting the MET pathway are in clinical development. Despite promising results from various clinical trials, we are still waiting for true MET-targeted therapeutics in the clinic. This review will explore recent progress and hurdles in the pursuit of MET-targeted cancer drugs and discuss the challenges in such development. PMID:26009700

  11. Regulation of MET by FOXP2, genes implicated in higher cognitive dysfunction and autism risk.

    PubMed

    Mukamel, Zohar; Konopka, Genevieve; Wexler, Eric; Osborn, Gregory E; Dong, Hongmei; Bergman, Mica Y; Levitt, Pat; Geschwind, Daniel H

    2011-08-10

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable, behaviorally defined, heterogeneous disorder of unknown pathogenesis. Several genetic risk genes have been identified, including the gene encoding the receptor tyrosine kinase MET, which regulates neuronal differentiation and growth. An ASD-associated polymorphism disrupts MET gene transcription, and there are reduced levels of MET protein expression in the mature temporal cortex of subjects with ASD. To address the possible neurodevelopmental contribution of MET to ASD pathogenesis, we examined the expression and transcriptional regulation of MET by a transcription factor, FOXP2, which is implicated in regulation of cognition and language, two functions altered in ASD. MET mRNA expression in the midgestation human fetal cerebral cortex is strikingly restricted, localized to portions of the temporal and occipital lobes. Within the cortical plate of the temporal lobe, the pattern of MET expression is highly complementary to the expression pattern of FOXP2, suggesting the latter may play a role in repression of gene expression. Consistent with this, MET and FOXP2 also are reciprocally expressed by differentiating normal human neuronal progenitor cells (NHNPs) in vitro, leading us to assess whether FOXP2 transcriptionally regulates MET. Indeed, FOXP2 binds directly to the 5' regulatory region of MET, and overexpression of FOXP2 results in transcriptional repression of MET. The expression of MET in restricted human neocortical regions, and its regulation in part by FOXP2, is consistent with genetic evidence for MET contributing to ASD risk.

  12. MicroRNA and MET in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-protein coding RNAs that modulate important cellular functions via their post-transcriptional regulation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Recent evidences from multiple tumor types and model systems implicate miRNA dysregulation as a common mechanism of tumorigenesis, cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Several miRNAs are dysregulated in cancers and a single miRNA can have multiple targets involved in different oncogenic pathways. MET, the tyrosine kinase receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has a central role in lung cancer development and in acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors; it has been predicted and shown to be the target gene of multiple miRNAs, which play a crucial role in controlling its activity in a stimulatory or inhibitory sense. In this review we will focus on the most important and recent studies about the role of miRNAs in the control of MET expression, reporting also the progress made using miRNAs for therapy of lung cancer. PMID:25992367

  13. Materials Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04, 05, and 06

    SciTech Connect

    Zalk, D; Ingram, C; Simmons, L; Arganbright, R; Lyle, J; Wong, K

    2006-03-23

    The purpose of this work is to examine the environmental, safety, health and operational aspects of detonating a confined explosive test apparatus that has been designed to maximize the dynamics of impact on beryllium metal components for Contained Firing Facility (CFF) applications. A combination of experimental collection and evaluation methods were designed and implemented to provide an evaluation of immediately postdetonation by-products reflecting a potential worst-case scenario beryllium aerosolization explosive event. The collective Material Evaluation Test Series (METS) 04 - 06 provided explosive devices designed to scale for the dedicated METS firing tank that would provide a post-detonation internal environment comparable to the CFF. The experimental results provided appropriate information to develop operational parameters to be considered for conducting full-scale beryllium-containing experimental tests with similar designs within CFF and B801A. These operational procedures include the inclusion of chelating agents in pre-shot CFF cardboard containers with a minimum of 600 gallons content, an extended time period post-test before purging the CFF chamber, and an adaptation of approaches toward applications of the scrubber and HEPA systems during the post-shot sequence for an integrated environmental, safety, and health approach. In addition, re-entry and film retrieval procedures will be adapted, in line with abatement techniques for cleaning the chamber, that will be required for work inside a CFF that will contain an elevated concentration of spherical and highly aerosolizable beryllium particulate.

  14. Socialization of Adolescents: Cultural Practices in Children's Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…

  15. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  16. The Reading Life Histories of Three Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Billye J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the reading lives of three adolescent male students who struggle in reading. The three students identified for this study are students who failed to meet the academic criteria for promotion from grade eight to grade nine as defined by the 2011 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAKS) and were placed in grade nine by a school…

  17. Motivating Adolescents to Reduce Their Fines in a Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Subjected adolescents on 16-bed token economy ward of state hospital to 4 interventions in 7-phase experiment to reduce number of fines they received each day. No significant differences in average fines per day, number of residents meeting criteria, or mean number of zero-fine days per week were found across phases. (Author/NB)

  18. GOME-2 total ozone columns from MetOp-A/MetOp-B and assimilation in the MACC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, N.; Koukouli, M. E.; Inness, A.; Valks, P.; Loyola, D. G.; Zimmer, W.; Balis, D. S.; Zyrichidou, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R. J. D.

    2014-09-01

    The two Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument (GOME-2) sensors operated in tandem are flying onboard EUMETSAT's (European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites, launched in October 2006 and September 2012 respectively. This paper presents the operational GOME-2/MetOp-A (GOME-2A) and GOME-2/MetOp-B (GOME-2B) total ozone products provided by the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M-SAF). These products are generated using the latest version of the GOME Data Processor (GDP version 4.7). The enhancements in GDP 4.7, including the application of Brion-Daumont-Malicet ozone absorption cross sections, are presented here. On a global scale, GOME-2B has the same high accuracy as the corresponding GOME-2A products. There is an excellent agreement between the ozone total columns from the two sensors, with GOME-2B values slightly lower with a mean difference of only 0.55±0.29%. First global validation results for 6 months of GOME-2B total ozone using ground-based measurements show that on average the GOME-2B total ozone data obtained with GDP 4.7 are slightly higher than, both, Dobson observations by about 2.0±1.0% and Brewer observations by about 1.0±0.8%. It is concluded that the total ozone columns (TOCs) provided by GOME-2A and GOME-2B are consistent and may be used simultaneously without introducing systematic effects, which has been illustrated for the Antarctic ozone hole on 18 October 2013. GOME-2A total ozone data have been used operationally in the Copernicus atmospheric service project MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation) near-real-time (NRT) system since October 2013. The magnitude of the bias correction needed for assimilating GOME-2A ozone is reduced (to about -6 DU in the global mean) when the GOME-2 ozone retrieval algorithm changed to GDP 4.7.

  19. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying.

  20. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying. PMID:24877777

  1. Site Products. Performance Criteria, Interim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Performance criteria for the physical facilities of universities are reviewed to establish an understanding of the principles, policies and requirements that form the basis for an organized approach to building and site planning, development, design and construction. Guidelines are given emphasizing the designer's responsibility to analyze the…

  2. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  3. THE CONTINUING SEARCH FOR CRITERIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BROUDY, H.S.

    EDUCATIONAL CONTROL OF THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT THERE IS A SUBSTANTIVE BODY OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT TEACHING FOR WHICH PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION IS NECESSARY. IF SO, THE TEACHER MUST BE EVALUATED NOT AS A PERSON BUT AS A FUNCTIONARY IN A SPECIAL SITUATION (THE CLASSROOM). FOR THAT PURPOSE, CRITERIA ARE NECESSARY. PERSONALITY…

  4. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  5. Criteria for a Learning College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakauer, Renate

    This document contains a self-assessment tool allowing colleges to measure themselves against the criteria for an ideal learning college and identify where to focus their efforts for improvement. The tool consists of nine sections, each outlining a different area crucial to the functioning of learning colleges. Section 1 focuses on the learning…

  6. Biology of MET: a double life between normal tissue repair and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    MNNG HOS transforming gene (MET) is a class IV receptor tyrosine kinase, expressed on the surface of epithelial cells. The interaction with the hepatocyte grow factor (HGF) induces MET dimerization and the activation of multiple intracellular pathways leading to cell proliferation, anti-apoptosis, morphogenic differentiation, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis. Knock out mice have demonstrated that MET is necessary for normal embryogenesis including the formation of striate muscles, liver and trophoblastic structures. The overexpression of MET and HGF are common in solid tumors and contribute to determine their growth. Indeed, MET has been cloned as a transforming gene from a chemically induced human osteosarcoma cell line and therefore is considered a proto-oncogene. Germline MET mutations are characteristic of hereditary papillary kidney cancers and MET amplification is observed in tumors including lung and gastric adenocarcinomas. The inhibition of MET signaling is the target for specific drugs that are raising exciting expectation for medical treatment of cancer. PMID:25992381

  7. Amplification of the MET receptor drives resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bardelli, Alberto; Corso, Simona; Bertotti, Andrea; Hobor, Sebastijan; Valtorta, Emanuele; Siravegna, Giulia; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Scala, Elisa; Cassingena, Andrea; Zecchin, Davide; Apicella, Maria; Migliardi, Giorgia; Galimi, Francesco; Lauricella, Calogero; Zanon, Carlo; Perera, Timothy; Veronese, Silvio; Corti, Giorgio; Amatu, Alessio; Gambacorta, Marcello; Diaz, Luis A.; Sausen, Mark; Velculescu, Victor E.; Comoglio, Paolo; Trusolino, Livio; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Giordano, Silvia; Siena, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    EGFR targeted monoclonal antibodies are effective in a subset of metastatic colorectal tumors (mCRC). Inevitably, all patients develop resistance, which occurs through emergence of KRAS mutations in approximately 50% of the cases. We show that amplification of the MET proto-oncogene is associated with acquired resistance in patients who do not develop KRAS mutations during anti-EGFR therapy. Amplification of the MET locus was present in circulating tumor DNA before relapse was clinically evident. Functional studies demonstrate that MET activation confers resistance to anti-EGFR therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, in patient-derived CRC xenografts, MET amplification correlated with resistance to EGFR blockade which could be overcome by MET kinase inhibitors. These results highlight the role of MET in mediating primary and secondary resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in CRC and encourage the use of MET inhibitors in patients displaying resistance as a result of MET amplification. PMID:23729478

  8. Lack of neural compensatory mechanisms of BDNF val66met met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Huey, Edward D; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2016-03-01

    Compromises in compensatory neurobiologic mechanisms due to aging and/or genetic factors (i.e., APOE gene) may influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism effects on temporal lobe morphometry and memory performance. We studied 2 cohorts from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 175 healthy subjects and 222 with prodromal and established Alzheimer's disease. Yearly structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive performance assessments were carried out over 3 years of follow-up. Both cohorts had similar BDNF Val/Val and Met allele carriers' (including both Val/Met and Met/Met individuals) distribution. In healthy subjects, a significant trend for thinner posterior cingulate and precuneus cortices was detected in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes in APOE E4 carriers, with large and medium effect sizes, respectively. The mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease cohort showed a longitudinal decline in entorhinal thickness in BDNF Met carriers compared to Val/Val in APOE E4 carriers, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. In addition, an effect of BDNF genotype was found in APOE E4 carriers for episodic memory (logical memory and ADAS-Cog) and semantic fluency measures, with Met carriers performing worse in all cases. These findings suggest a lack of compensatory mechanisms in BDNF Met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26923413

  9. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  10. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  11. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  12. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT GRANT AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used...

  13. 46 CFR 385.51 - Criteria: Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criteria: Projects. 385.51 Section 385.51 Shipping... COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS REGULATIONS Criteria for Award § 385.51 Criteria: Projects. The criteria to be used by MarAd in evaluating all projects prior to award of a grant or cooperative agreement are as follows:...

  14. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  15. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all...

  16. 7 CFR 3430.34 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 3430.34 Section 3430.34... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.34 Evaluation criteria. (a) General... evaluation criteria, and only those criteria, to judge the merit of the proposals they review....

  17. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has...

  18. 7 CFR 3430.34 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 3430.34 Section 3430.34... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Application Review and Evaluation § 3430.34 Evaluation criteria. (a) General... evaluation criteria, and only those criteria, to judge the merit of the proposals they review....

  19. 36 CFR 401.9 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Evaluation criteria. 401.9... MEMORIALS § 401.9 Evaluation criteria. Commission consideration of a request to approve a memorial will include, but not be limited to, evaluation of following criteria: Criteria Discussion (a) How long has...

  20. 7 CFR 2500.024 - Evaluation criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evaluation criteria. 2500.024 Section 2500.024... Pre-Award: Proposal Review and Evaluation § 2500.024 Evaluation criteria. (a) General. To ensure any... Leader of the review criteria. Reviewers are instructed to use those same evaluation criteria, and...