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  1. Grade and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Friendship Selection Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Joan M.; Repinski, Daniel J.

    Noting that when adolescents select friends, they are creating a relationship context that will be an important source of influence, this study examined the criteria adolescents use when choosing friends. Adolescents in grades 7 and 10 were interviewed about the criteria they used when selecting friends, particularly the importance they placed…

  2. ICMJE authorship criteria are not met in a substantial proportion of manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica

    PubMed Central

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Mlinarić, Ana; Antončić, Dragana; Horvat, Martina; Omazić, Jelena; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to investigate if: (a) authors of Biochemia Medica meet authorship criteria given by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), (b) authorship violations are more frequent in submissions containing some type of scientific misconduct. Materials and methods Self-reported authorship contributions regarding the three ICMJE criteria were analysed for all submissions to Biochemia Medica (February 2013-April 2015) which were forwarded to peer-review. To test the differences in frequencies we used Chi-squared test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results 186 manuscripts were authored by 804 authors. All ICMJE criteria were met by 487/804 (61%) authors. The first and the last author met all the criteria more frequently than those authors in between (P < 0.001). The degree to which ICMJE criteria was met for the first author did not differ between manuscripts authored by only one author and those authored by >1 author (P = 0.859). In 9% of the manuscripts ICMJE criteria were not met by a single author. Authors of the 171/186 manuscripts declared that all persons qualify for authorship but only 49% of them satisfied all ICMJE criteria. Authors have failed to acknowledge contributors in 88/186 (47%) manuscripts; instead these contributors have been listed as authors without fulfilling ICMJE criteria. Authorship violation was not more common in 42 manuscripts with some type of scientific misconduct (P = 0.135). Conclusion Large proportion of authors of the manuscripts submitted to Biochemia Medica do not fulfil ICMJE criteria. Violation of authorship criteria is not more common for manuscripts with some type of scientific misconduct. PMID:26526700

  3. Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Bernhard M; Huemer, Julia; Rabl, Ulrich; Boubela, Roland N; Kalcher, Klaudius; Berger, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jurgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Jia, Tianye; Lathrop, Mark; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Bartova, Lucie; Popovic, Ana; Scharinger, Christian; Sitte, Harald H; Steiner, Hans; Friedrich, Max H; Kasper, Siegfried; Perkmann, Thomas; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Haslacher, Helmuth; Esterbauer, Harald; Moser, Ewald; Schumann, Gunter; Pezawas, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Prefrontal dopamine levels are relatively increased in adolescence compared to adulthood. Genetic variation of COMT (COMT Val158Met) results in lower enzymatic activity and higher dopamine availability in Met carriers. Given the dramatic changes of synaptic dopamine during adolescence, it has been suggested that effects of COMT Val158Met genotypes might have oppositional effects in adolescents and adults. The present study aims to identify such oppositional COMT Val158Met effects in adolescents and adults in prefrontal brain networks at rest. Resting state functional connectivity data were collected from cross-sectional and multicenter study sites involving 106 healthy young adults (mean age 24 ± 2.6 years), gender matched to 106 randomly chosen 14-year-olds. We selected the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) as seed due to its important role as nexus of the executive control and default mode network. We observed a significant age-dependent reversal of COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity between amPFC and ventrolateral as well as dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus. Val homozygous adults exhibited increased and adolescents decreased connectivity compared to Met homozygotes for all reported regions. Network analyses underscored the importance of the parahippocampal gyrus as mediator of observed effects. Results of this study demonstrate that adolescent and adult resting state networks are dose-dependently and diametrically affected by COMT genotypes following a hypothetical model of dopamine function that follows an inverted U-shaped curve. This study might provide cues for the understanding of disease onset or dopaminergic treatment mechanisms in major neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:25319752

  4. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.705 Section 171.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? For your land to be granted...

  5. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.705 Section 171.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? For your land to be granted...

  6. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.705 Section 171.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? For your land to be granted...

  7. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? 171.705 Section 171.705 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver? For your land to be granted...

  8. Resected Lung Cancer Patients Who Would and Would Not Have Met Screening Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Farjah, Farhood; Wood, Douglas E.; Zadworny, Megan E.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Rizk, Nabil P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening may underestimate the risk of malignancy for some individuals. We compared the predicted risk of lung cancer among patients who would have met screening criteria to those who would not have despite being at moderate-risk. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed of resected lung cancer patients. The screen eligible group was based on criteria provided by the United States Preventive Services Task Force—age 55–80 and a ≥30 pack-year smoking history. The screen ineligible group was based on criteria provided by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for a moderate-risk individual not recommended screening—age >50 years, >20 pack-year smoking history, and no history of asbestos exposure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A recently validated risk-prediction model was used to compare the risk of lung cancer across eligibility groups based on measured and imputed patient-level variables. Results Screen ineligible patients (n=88) had a lower estimated probability of lung cancer than screen eligible patients (n=419)—1.3% versus 3.1%, p<0.001. However, 20% of screen ineligible patients had a predicted probability of lung cancer greater than or equal to the prevalence of lung cancer (3.7%) among National Lung Screening Trial participants; 17% of screen ineligible patients had a predicted probability of lung cancer greater than or equal to the American Association for Thoracic Surgery threshold (5%) defining high-risk individuals. Conclusions Current eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening underestimate the risk of lung cancer for some individuals who might benefit from lung cancer screening. PMID:26298169

  9. Racial/ethnic and sex differences in the ability of metabolic syndrome criteria to predict elevations in fasting insulin in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D.; Dong, Lili; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate racial/ethnic and sex differences in the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis and fasting insulin among adolescents. Study design We analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey 1999–2008 for 3,693 non-Hispanic-white, non-Hispanic-black and Hispanic adolescents (12–19y). We used linear regression to evaluate differences in fasting insulin between those with and without an adolescent adaptation of ATPIII-MetS in a sex- and race/ethnicity-specific basis. Results Females had higher insulin levels than males and non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics had higher levels than non-Hispanic whites. Adolescents with MetS had higher insulin levels than those without MetS. The difference in insulin levels between those with and without MetS was greater among non-Hispanic blacks compared with non-Hispanic whites (p<0.05) but not Hispanics (p=0.10). The sensitivity of MetS for detecting elevated insulin levels was lower among non-Hispanic blacks and females compared with other ethnicities and males, respectively. Correlations between insulin and individual MetS components were similar among ethnicities. Conclusion MetS diagnosis performed more poorly in predicting elevated insulin levels among non-Hispanic blacks and among females. These data support the hypothesis that non-Hispanic blacks do not meet current criteria for MetS until they have reached a more advanced degree of insulin resistance. PMID:21784441

  10. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  11. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Using Three Different Diagnostic Criteria among Low Earning Nomadic Kazakhs in the Far Northwest of China: New Cut-Off Points of Waist Circumference to Diagnose MetS and Its Implications

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Heng; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Ma, Rulin; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Xu, Shangzhi; Li, Shugang; Yan, Yizhong; Mu, Lati; Rui, Dongsheng; Niu, Qiang; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has aroused wide public concern, most studies on MetS tend to examine urban and high income settings, and few studies cover nomadic areas and low earning populations. This research aims to investigate the prevalence of MetS and explore the cut-off point of waist circumference in a nomadic minority typical of low income populations in the remote northwest region of China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a representative sample of 3900 Kazakh adults aged 18–84 years from 2009–2010. Three widely used criteria (ATP III\\IDF\\JIS) were employed to estimate the prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs to compare them with other populations. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to explore the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference. Results The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS was 13.8%, 20.9%, and 24.8% based on the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was higher in women and increased with age. Except for reduced HDL-cholesterol, the risk of other components of MetS increased with waist circumference enlargement. The cut-off point of waist circumference in screening at least two other components of MetS was 88 cm in men (Sensitivity = 61.1%, Specificity = 62.1%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.54) and 83 cm in women (Sensitivity = 60.0%, Specificity = 59.6%, ROC Curve Distance = 0.57). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS in Kazakhs is higher than the national level of China and falls in between the Euro-American and Asia levels, as their cut-off points of waist circumference differ from that recommended for Chinese. We suggest a cost-effective strategy to screen for MetS and prevent cardiovascular disease using new cut-off points of waist circumference in low earning nomadic Kazakhs. PMID:26901035

  12. BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain function in adolescents: role for early alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Dinu-Biringer, R; Lourdusamy, A; Tzschoppe, J; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Millenet, S; Bach, C; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A L W; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Frouin, V; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Rietschel, M; Schumann, G; Flor, H

    2015-03-01

    Changes in reward processing have been identified as one important pathogenetic mechanism in alcohol addiction. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (rs6265/Val66Met) modulates the central nervous system activity of neurotransmitters involved in reward processing such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. It was identified as crucial for alcohol consumption in healthy adults and, in rats, specifically related to the function in the striatum, a region that is commonly involved in reward processing. However, studies in humans on the association of BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain functions and its role for alcohol consumption, a significant predictor of later alcohol addiction, are missing. Based on an intermediate phenotype approach, we assessed the early orientation toward alcohol and alcohol consumption in 530 healthy adolescents that underwent a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a significantly lower response in the putamen to reward anticipation in adolescent Met carriers with high versus low levels of alcohol consumption. During reward feedback, Met carriers with low putamen reactivity were significantly more likely to orient toward alcohol and to drink alcohol 2 years later. This study indicates a possible effect of BDNF Val66Met on alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adolescence. PMID:25650137

  13. Academic Achievement over 8 Years among Children Who Met Modified Criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder at 4-6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massetti, Greta M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E.; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S.; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred…

  14. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  15. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  16. 40 CFR 80.1338 - What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? 80.1338 Section 80.1338... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Benzene Small Refiner Provisions § 80.1338 What criteria must be met to qualify as a small refiner for the gasoline benzene requirements of this subpart? (a) A...

  17. BDNF-Val66Met variant and adolescent stress interact to promote susceptibility to anorexic behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Madra, M; Zeltser, L M

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets for anorexia nervosa (AN) because current medications do not impact eating behaviors that drive AN's high mortality rate. A major obstacle to developing new treatments is the lack of animal models that recapitulate the pattern of disease onset typically observed in human populations. Here we describe a translational mouse model to study interactions between genetic, psychological and biological risk factors that promote anorexic behavior. We combined several factors that are consistently associated with increased risk of AN-adolescent females, genetic predisposition to anxiety imposed by the BDNF-Val66Met gene variant, social isolation stress and caloric restriction (CR). Approximately 40% of the mice with all of these risk factors will exhibit severe self-imposed dietary restriction, sometimes to the point of death. We systematically varied the risk factors outlined above to explore how they interact to influence anorexic behavior. We found that the Val66Met genotype markedly increases the likelihood and severity of abnormal feeding behavior triggered by CR, but only when CR is imposed in the peri-pubertal period. Incidence of anorexic behavior in our model is dependent on juvenile exposure to social stress and can be extinguished by adolescent handling, but is discordant from anxiety-like behavior. Thus, this study characterized gene × environment interactions during adolescence that could be the underlying driver of abnormal eating behavior in certain AN patients, and represents a promising system to identify possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27045846

  18. BDNF-Val66Met variant and adolescent stress interact to promote susceptibility to anorexic behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Madra, M; Zeltser, L M

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets for anorexia nervosa (AN) because current medications do not impact eating behaviors that drive AN's high mortality rate. A major obstacle to developing new treatments is the lack of animal models that recapitulate the pattern of disease onset typically observed in human populations. Here we describe a translational mouse model to study interactions between genetic, psychological and biological risk factors that promote anorexic behavior. We combined several factors that are consistently associated with increased risk of AN—adolescent females, genetic predisposition to anxiety imposed by the BDNF-Val66Met gene variant, social isolation stress and caloric restriction (CR). Approximately 40% of the mice with all of these risk factors will exhibit severe self-imposed dietary restriction, sometimes to the point of death. We systematically varied the risk factors outlined above to explore how they interact to influence anorexic behavior. We found that the Val66Met genotype markedly increases the likelihood and severity of abnormal feeding behavior triggered by CR, but only when CR is imposed in the peri-pubertal period. Incidence of anorexic behavior in our model is dependent on juvenile exposure to social stress and can be extinguished by adolescent handling, but is discordant from anxiety-like behavior. Thus, this study characterized gene × environment interactions during adolescence that could be the underlying driver of abnormal eating behavior in certain AN patients, and represents a promising system to identify possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27045846

  19. Clinical Features of Adult/Adolescent Atopic Dermatitis and Chinese Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Mu, Zhang-Lei; Lu, Qian-Jin; Zhang, Li; Yao, Xu; Zheng, Min; Tang, Yi-Wen; Lu, Xin-Xiang; Xia, Xiu-Juan; Lin, You-Kun; Li, Yu-Zhen; Tu, Cai-Xia; Yao, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Jin-Hua; Li, Wei; Lai, Wei; Yang, Hui-Min; Xie, Hong-Fu; Han, Xiu-Ping; Xie, Zhi-Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Guo, Zai-Pei; Deng, Dan-Qi; Shi, Tong-Xin; Zhang, Jian-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by chronic recurrent dermatitis with profound itching. Most patients have personal and/or family history of atopic diseases. Several criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of AD. Although the clinical features of childhood AD have been widely studied, there has been less large-scale study on adult/adolescent AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of adult/adolescent patients with chronic symmetrical eczema/AD and to propose Chinese diagnostic criteria for adult/adolescent AD. Methods: A hospital-based study was performed. Forty-two dermatological centers participated in this study. Adult and adolescent patients (12 years and over) with chronic symmetrical eczema or AD were included in this study. Questionnaires were completed by both patients and investigators. The valid questionnaires were analyzed using EpiData 3.1 and SPSS 17.0 software. Results: A total of 2662 valid questionnaires were collected (1369 male and 1293 female). Of all 2662 patients, 2062 (77.5%) patients had the disease after 12 years old, while only 600 (22.5%) patients had the disease before 12 years old, suggesting late-onset eczema/AD is common. Two thousand one hundred and thirty-nine (80.4%) patients had the disease for more than 6 months. One thousand one hundred and forty-four (43.0%) patients had a personal and/or family history of atopic diseases. One thousand five hundred and forty-eight (58.2%) patients had an elevated total serum IgE and/or eosinophilia and/or positive allergen-specific IgE. Based on these clinical and laboratory features, we proposed Chinese criteria for adult/adolescent AD. Of all 2662 patients, 60.3% were satisfied with our criteria, while only 48.2% satisfied with Hanifin Rajka criteria and 32.7% satisfied with Williams criteria, suggesting a good sensitivity of our criteria in adult/adolescent AD patients. Conclusion: Late-onset of eczema or AD is

  20. Revised You’re Welcome Criteria and Future Developments in Adolescent Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Dougal S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Department of Health (England) will publish revised You’re Welcome criteria. This is the first comprehensive attempt to define good quality health services for young people (11-19 years) and provide a self-assessment tool applicable to all adolescent health services. It builds on a growing understanding of the distinctiveness and importance of adolescent health, and the demands placed on adolescent health services. This article reviews changing understandings of the nature of adolescence, including physical, psychological and social transition, evolving patterns of morbidity and mortality, adolescence as part of a life-course approach to health and health behaviours, and the specific needs of young people when using health services. We describe key features of the You're Welcome criteria and discuss the views of young people and professionals involved in revising them, as well as relevant published literature. Lastly, we discuss how the perspective of social paediatrics may be useful in guiding professionals towards a more holistic approach to adolescent care in the future. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750630

  1. Participant roles of bullying in adolescence: Status characteristics, social behavior, and assignment criteria.

    PubMed

    Pouwels, J Loes; Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-05-01

    This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we compared two sets of criteria for assigning students to the participant roles of bullying. Participants were 1,638 adolescents (50.9% boys, Mage  = 16.38 years, SD =.80) who completed the shortened participant role questionnaire and peer nominations for peer status and behavioral characteristics. Adolescents were assigned to the participant roles according to the relative criteria of Salmivalli, Lagerspetz, Björkqvist, Österman, and Kaukiainen (1996). Next, the students in each role were divided in two subgroups based on an additional absolute criterion: the Relative Only Criterion subgroup (nominated by less than 10% of their classmates) and the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup (nominated by at least 10% of their classmates). Adolescents who bullied or reinforced or assisted bullies were highly popular and disliked and scored high on peer-valued characteristics. Adolescents who were victimized held the weakest social position in the peer group. Adolescents who defended victims were liked and prosocial, but average in popularity and peer-valued characteristics. Outsiders held a socially weak position in the peer group, but were less disliked, less aggressive, and more prosocial than victims. The behavior and status profiles of adolescents in the participant roles were more extreme for the Absolute & Relative Criterion subgroup than for the Relative Only Criterion subgroup. Aggr. Behav. 42:239-253, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26350031

  2. Prevalence and function of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of adolescents, using suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder.

    PubMed

    Zetterqvist, Maria; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Dahlström, Orjan; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2013-07-01

    Previous prevalence rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents have varied considerably. In the present cross-sectional study, prevalence rates, characteristics and functions of NSSI were assessed in a large randomized community sample consisting of 3,060 (50.5 % female) Swedish adolescents aged 15-17 years. The suggested criteria for NSSI disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, (DSM-5) were used to assess prevalence rates with the aim of arriving at a more precise estimate. Out of the whole sample, 1,088 (35.6 %) adolescents (56.2 % female) reported at least one episode of NSSI during the last year, of which 205 (6.7 %) met suggested DSM-5 criteria for a potential NSSI disorder diagnosis. The NSSI disorder diagnosis was significantly more common in girls (11.1 % vs. 2.3 %, χ (2) (1, N = 3046) = 94.08, p < 0.001, cOR = 5.43, 95 % CI [3.73, 7.90]). The NSSI disorder group consisted of significantly more smokers and drug users compared to adolescents with NSSI that did not meet DSM-5 criteria for NSSI disorder, and also differed concerning demographic variables. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on reported functions of NSSI, with the aim of validating Nock and Prinstein's (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 72:885-890, 2004, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114:140-146, 2005) four-factor model on a Swedish community sample, resulting in a close to acceptable fit. A two-factor model (social and automatic reinforcement) resulted in a slightly better fit. The most frequently reported factors were positive and negative automatic reinforcement. A majority of functions were significantly more often reported by girls than boys. The implications of the suggested DSM-5 criteria and reported functions are discussed. PMID:23344701

  3. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  4. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase "Val[superscript 158]Met" Genotype, Parenting Practices and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Testing the Differential Susceptibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laucht, Manfred; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Treutlein, Jens; Schmidt, Martin H.; Esser, Gunter; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Rietschel, Marcella; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, first evidence has been reported for a gene-parenting interaction (G x E) with regard to adolescent alcohol use. The present investigation set out to extend this research using the catechol-O-methyltransferase ("COMT") "Val[superscript 158]Met" polymorphism as a genetic susceptibility factor. Moreover, the current study…

  5. 25 CFR 171.705 - What criteria must be met for my land to be granted an Annual Assessment Waiver?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Non-Assessment Status § 171.705 What criteria... Annual Assessment Waiver, we must determine that our irrigation facilities are not capable of delivering adequate irrigation water to your farm unit. Inadequate water supply due to natural conditions or...

  6. Reduced severity of posttraumatic stress disorder associated with Val allele of Val66Met polymorphism at brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene among Chinese adolescents after Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong Hui; Fan, Mei; Hu, Min Shan; Ran, Mao Sheng; Fang, Ding Zhi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to longitudinally investigate the association of BDNF Val66Met with PTSD symptoms in Chinese Han adolescents who experienced the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Variants of BDNF Val66Met were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and verified by DNA sequencing. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) among high school students at 6, 12, and 18 months after the earthquake. No differences of PTSD prevalence and PCL-C scores were found between the Val/Val homozygotes and the Met allele carriers at 6, 12, and 18 months after the earthquake regardless of gender. Decreased PTSD prevalence was observed at 12 and 18 months when compared with that at 6 months after the earthquake regardless of gender and the genotype. Meanwhile, PCL-C scores were decreased consecutively in the female subjects regardless of the genotypes. However, the scores at 18 months were lower when compared with those at 12 months in the male Val/Val homozygotes, but not in the male Met allele carriers. In addition, differences were found for the predictors of PCL-C scores and PTSD prevalence between the Val/Val homozygotes and the Met allele carriers during follow-up. These findings suggest that the association of BDNF Val66Met with PTSD is longitudinally different in Chinese Han adolescents after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The Val allele may be associated with reduced PTSD severity in male adolescents in the later stage of PTSD rehabilitation during follow-up. PMID:26751724

  7. Metabolic syndrome in canadian adults and adolescents: prevalence and associated dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2012-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes five chronic disease risk factors which doubles the risk of CVD and increases the risk of diabetes fivefold. Objective. To determine the prevalence of MetS and its risk factors in Canadians (12-79 y) and to compare the dietary intake in Canadians with MetS and without MetS. Subjects and Methods. Cycle 1 of Canadian health measures survey, CHMS data, 2007-2009, was used. To identify MetS cases, the most recent criteria were used for adults and adolescents. Ethnical cut points for waist measurement were applied for adults. Results and Conclusion. The prevalence of MetS among 12-79 y Canadians was 18.31% with the lowest prevalence in adolescents (3.50%). Using ethnical cut points to define abdominal obesity increased the prevalence of MetS by 0.5% in adults. The most prevalent defining component of MetS in Canadians identified with MetS was abdominal obesity. Reduced HDL-C was equally prevalent among adolescents. Canadians with MetS consumed significantly more diet soft drinks, but less dairy products, dietary fat, and sugar-sweetened beverages compared to Canadians without MetS. Known cases of diabetes with MetS had healthier beverage choices compared to individuals without the diagnosis of diabetes, indicating adherence to nutrition recommendations. PMID:24533211

  8. Metabolic Syndrome in Canadian Adults and Adolescents: Prevalence and Associated Dietary Intake

    PubMed Central

    Setayeshgar, Solmaz; Whiting, Susan J.; Vatanparast, Hassanali

    2012-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) includes five chronic disease risk factors which doubles the risk of CVD and increases the risk of diabetes fivefold. Objective. To determine the prevalence of MetS and its risk factors in Canadians (12–79 y) and to compare the dietary intake in Canadians with MetS and without MetS. Subjects and Methods. Cycle 1 of Canadian health measures survey, CHMS data, 2007–2009, was used. To identify MetS cases, the most recent criteria were used for adults and adolescents. Ethnical cut points for waist measurement were applied for adults. Results and Conclusion. The prevalence of MetS among 12–79 y Canadians was 18.31% with the lowest prevalence in adolescents (3.50%). Using ethnical cut points to define abdominal obesity increased the prevalence of MetS by 0.5% in adults. The most prevalent defining component of MetS in Canadians identified with MetS was abdominal obesity. Reduced HDL-C was equally prevalent among adolescents. Canadians with MetS consumed significantly more diet soft drinks, but less dairy products, dietary fat, and sugar-sweetened beverages compared to Canadians without MetS. Known cases of diabetes with MetS had healthier beverage choices compared to individuals without the diagnosis of diabetes, indicating adherence to nutrition recommendations. PMID:24533211

  9. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach. PMID:25826043

  10. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Gray Matter Volume in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Fukui, Kento; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Yokota, Susumu; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    The Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with psychiatric disorders and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in adults. However, the relationship between BDNF and rGMV in children has not been clarified. In this 3-year cross-sectional/longitudinal (2 time points) study, we investigated the effects of BDNF genotypes on rGMV in 185 healthy Japanese children aged 5.7–18.4 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses. We found that the volume of the right cuneus in Met homozygotes (Met/Met) was greater than in Val homozygotes (Val/Val) in both exams, and the left insula and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex volumes were greater in Val homozygotes versus Met homozygotes in Exam l. In addition, Met homozygous subjects exhibited higher processing speed in intelligence indices than Val homozygotes and Val/Met heterozygotes at both time points. Longitudinal analysis showed that the left temporoparietal junction volume of Val/Met heterozygotes increased more substantially over the 3-year study period than in Val homozygotes, and age-related changes were observed for the Val/Met genotype. Our findings suggest that the presence of 2 Met alleles may have a positive effect on rGMV at the developmental stages analyzed in this study. PMID:26830347

  11. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Gray Matter Volume in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Fukui, Kento; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Yokota, Susumu; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-04-01

    The Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with psychiatric disorders and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in adults. However, the relationship between BDNF and rGMV in children has not been clarified. In this 3-year cross-sectional/longitudinal (2 time points) study, we investigated the effects of BDNF genotypes on rGMV in 185 healthy Japanese children aged 5.7-18.4 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses. We found that the volume of the right cuneus in Met homozygotes (Met/Met) was greater than in Val homozygotes (Val/Val) in both exams, and the left insula and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex volumes were greater in Val homozygotes versus Met homozygotes in Exam l. In addition, Met homozygous subjects exhibited higher processing speed in intelligence indices than Val homozygotes and Val/Met heterozygotes at both time points. Longitudinal analysis showed that the left temporoparietal junction volume of Val/Met heterozygotes increased more substantially over the 3-year study period than in Val homozygotes, and age-related changes were observed for the Val/Met genotype. Our findings suggest that the presence of 2 Met alleles may have a positive effect on rGMV at the developmental stages analyzed in this study. PMID:26830347

  12. Identifying genetic predictors of depression risk: 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms are associated with rumination and co-rumination in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey B.; McGeary, John E.; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite research supporting moderate heritability of depression, efforts to replicate candidate gene associations to depression have yielded inconsistent results. We tested whether Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR exhibit utility as genetic markers of depression risk, testing for replicable associations to cognitive and interpersonal endophenotypes of depression (rumination and co-rumination), and further exploring developmental and sex moderation. Method: In Study I, 228 youth (ages 8–14) of mothers with or without a history of MDD during the child's lifetime were recruited from the community. Replication tests were carried out in Study II, a sample of 87 youth with similar recruitment. Results: In Study I, the Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with rumination in adolescents, but not children, such that adolescents homozygous for the Val allele reported higher rumination levels. Further, a cumulative genetic score (CGS) (Val66Val and 5-HTTLPR) predicted higher levels of co-rumination, specifically among adolescent girls. Both genetic associations maintained significance after covarying for current depressive symptomology, and the other endophenotype. Finally, both genetic associations exhibited similar effect sizes in Study II, although results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Results replicate a previously reported association between the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val allele and rumination in adolescents, and provide preliminary support for a CGS predictive of co-rumination in adolescent girls. The current study indicates that candidate genes may demonstrate utility as consistent genetic markers of depression risk when focused on specific phenotypes, and supports the need to explore potential differential effects of developmental stage and sex. However, given the small sample sizes and possibility of chance findings, these results should be interpreted with caution pending replication. PMID:24312122

  13. Core and Peripheral Criteria of Video Game Addiction in the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16–74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach. PMID:25826043

  14. DSM-V diagnostic criteria for bereavement-related disorders in children and adolescents: developmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Pynoos, Robert S; Cohen, Judith A; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Two bereavement-related disorders are proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V): Adjustment Disorder Related to Bereavement, to be located in the main body of the text as an official diagnostic entity; and Bereavement-Related Disorder, including a Traumatic Death Specifier, to be located in the Appendix as an invitation for further research. These diagnoses currently do not include developmentally informed criteria, despite the importance of developmental processes in the ways children and adolescents grieve. In this article, we draw upon a selective review of the empirical literature and expert clinical knowledge to recommend developmentally informed modifications and specifiers of the proposed criteria for both bereavement disorders and strategies to improve future research. This article is derived from an invited report submitted to the DSM-V Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Trauma, and Dissociative Disorders Sub-Work Group, and suggested modifications have received preliminary approval to be incorporated into the DSM-V at the time of this writing. Adoption of these proposals will have far-reaching consequences, given that DSM-V criteria will influence both critical treatment choices for bereaved youth and the next generation of research studies. PMID:22913501

  15. Empirically Derived Subtypes of Lifetime Anxiety Disorders: Developmental and Clinical Correlates in U.S. Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  16. Effectiveness of the SpineCor brace based on the new standardized criteria proposed by the scoliosis research society for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Coillard, Christine; Vachon, Valerie; Circo, Alin B; Beauséjour, Marie; Rivard, Charles H

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor brace for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in accordance with the standardized criteria proposed by the Scoliosis Research Society Committee on Bracing and Nonoperative Management. They proposed these guidelines to make the comparison among studies more valid and reliable. From 1993 to 2006, 493 patients were treated using the SpineCor brace. Two hundred forty-nine patients met the criteria for inclusion, and 79 patients were still actively being treated. Overall, 170 patients have a definitive outcome. All girls were premenarchal or less than 1 year postmenarchal. Assessment of brace effectiveness included (1) percentage of patients who have 5 degrees or less curve progression, and percentage of patients who have 6 degrees or more progression; (2) percentage of patients who have been recommended/undergone surgery before skeletal maturity; (3) percentage of patients with curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity (end of treatment); and (4) Two-year follow-up beyond maturity to determine the percentage of patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Successful treatment (correction, >5 degrees, or stabilization, +/-5 degrees) was achieved in 101 (59.4%) of the 170 patients from the time of the fitting of the SpineCor brace to the point in which it was discontinued. Thirty-nine immature patients (22.9%) required surgical fusion while receiving treatment. Two (1.2%) of 170 patients had curves exceeding 45 degrees at maturity. One mature patient (2.1%) required surgery within 2 years of follow-up beyond skeletal maturity. The conclusion drawn from these findings is that the SpineCor brace is effective for the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Moreover, positive outcomes are maintained after 2 years because 45 (95.7%) of 47 patients stabilized or corrected their end of bracing Cobb angle up to 2 years after bracing. Therapeutic study-investigating the

  17. Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder in an Australian School-Based Sample of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Short, Michelle; Dohnt, Hayley; Micic, Gorica

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish the extent to which the developmental changes in sleep timing experienced by Australian adolescents meet the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) diagnostic criteria for delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD), and whether adolescents with DSPD engage in poorer lifestyle choices, and are more impaired compared to good sleeping adolescents. Methods: Three-hundred seventy-four Australian adolescents (mean age 15.6 years, SD 1.0) participants completed a 7-day sleep diary, wore wrist actigraphy, and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess DSPD criteria. Results: The ICSD-2 criteria for DSPD were met by 1.1% (N = 4) of the adolescents sampled. The majority of adolescents (51.9%, N = 194) met one criterion, 14% (N = 52) of the adolescents met 2 criteria, while 33.2% (N = 124) did not fulfill any DSPD criteria. Despite having significantly delayed sleep timing, adolescents who met all criteria for DSPD reported similar lifestyle habits and daytime functioning. However, there were trends for greater alcohol and caffeine consumption, less sport participation, yet more time spent on extracurricular activities (i.e., learning to play a musical instruments for adolescents with DSPD. Conclusions: Despite the majority of adolescents reporting DSPD symptoms, only a small minority met full diagnostic criteria. Adolescents with DSPD reported similar lifestyle habits and daytime functioning to those with some or no symptoms. Future investigations of non-school-attending DSPD adolescents are needed to confirm the trends for lifestyle behaviors found in the present study. Citation: Lovato N; Gradisar M; Short M; Dohnt H; Micic G. Delayed sleep phase disorder in an australian school-based sample of adolescents. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):939-944. PMID:23997706

  18. Consequences of the Diagnostic Criteria Proposed for the ICD-11 on the Prevalence of PTSD in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sachser, Cedric; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, a working group of the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a reformulation of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria for the upcoming 11(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; Maercker, Brewin, Bryant, Cloitre, van Ommeren, et al., 2013). This study investigated the consequences of the proposed ICD-11 PTSD symptom reduction on the prevalence of PTSD in children and adolescents. Prevalence rates of PTSD in a clinical sample of 159 traumatized children and adolescents were compared applying criteria according to the 4(th) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994), the ICD-10 (WHO, 1992), and the ICD-11. The prevalence rate was 76.1% using DSM-IV, 88.1% using ICD-10, and 61.0% using ICD-11. The use of the criteria proposed for ICD-11 resulted in 27.1% less positive cases compared with ICD-10 and 15.1% less positive cases compared with DSM-IV. Our results showed that in a clinical sample of children and adolescents the prevalence of PTSD was significantly affected by the use of different diagnostic systems. This will constitute a major challenge for research and practice because, depending on the algorithm used, different groups of patients will be included in studies and different groups of individuals will be able to access medical care and therapy. PMID:26915520

  19. Mental Health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranke, Derrick; Floersch, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents with a mental health diagnosis and their experience of stigma in schools. Forty adolescents between the ages of twelve and seventeen who met DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric illness and who were prescribed psychiatric medication were selected. The Teen Subjective Experience of Medication Interview was used to…

  20. The Interacting Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Depression Is Not an Artifact of Gene-Environment Correlation: Evidence from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the…

  1. Etiologies of illness among patients meeting integrated management of adolescent and adult illness district clinician manual criteria for severe infections in northern Tanzania: implications for empiric antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Matthew P; Maro, Venance P; Bartlett, John A; Crump, John A

    2015-02-01

    We describe the laboratory-confirmed etiologies of illness among participants in a hospital-based febrile illness cohort study in northern Tanzania who retrospectively met Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness District Clinician Manual (IMAI) criteria for septic shock, severe respiratory distress without shock, and severe pneumonia, and compare these etiologies against commonly used antimicrobials, including IMAI recommendations for emergency antibacterials (ceftriaxone or ampicillin plus gentamicin) and IMAI first-line recommendations for severe pneumonia (ceftriaxone and a macrolide). Among 423 participants hospitalized with febrile illness, there were 25 septic shock, 37 severe respiratory distress without shock, and 109 severe pneumonia cases. Ceftriaxone had the highest potential utility of all antimicrobials assessed, with responsive etiologies in 12 (48%) septic shock, 5 (14%) severe respiratory distress without shock, and 19 (17%) severe pneumonia illnesses. For each syndrome 17-27% of participants had etiologic diagnoses that would be non-responsive to ceftriaxone, but responsive to other available antimicrobial regimens including amphotericin for cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis; anti-tuberculosis therapy for bacteremic disseminated tuberculosis; or tetracycline therapy for rickettsioses and Q fever. We conclude that although empiric ceftriaxone is appropriate in our setting, etiologies not explicitly addressed in IMAI guidance for these syndromes, such as cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, and tetracycline-responsive bacterial infections, were common. PMID:25385866

  2. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population. All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1–18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population. Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1–V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r′ wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed. These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  3. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-12-01

    To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population.All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1-18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population.Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1-V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r' wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed.These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  4. Enhanced oxidative stress and platelet activation combined with reduced antioxidant capacity in obese prepubertal and adolescent girls with full or partial metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karamouzis, I; Pervanidou, P; Berardelli, R; Iliadis, S; Papassotiriou, I; Karamouzis, M; Chrousos, G P; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C

    2011-08-01

    In adults, obesity is a main factor implicated in increased oxidative stress (OS), platelet activation (PA) and impaired antioxidant status (AS), all predisposing factors for cardiovascular disease leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important cardiovascular risk factor, which progressively develops and may already be present during late childhood or adolescence. However, scarce data exist on oxidative-antioxidant balance and PA in childhood and adolescence in the presence of partial (PMetS) or full MetS. The aim of the study was to evaluate OS, PA, and AS in prepubertal and adolescent obese girls with partial or full MetS. 96 girls with a clinical and metabolic evaluation for obesity and 44 healthy normal-weight sex- and age-matched girls were studied. IDF-adopted criteria were used to define full and partial MetS and the patient population was divided into 4 groups: the first comprised 31 pre-pubertal girls with PMetS (PR-PMetS), the second 37 adolescents with PMetS (AD-PMetS), the third 10 prepubertal girls with full MetS (PR-MetS), and the fourth 18 adolescents with full MetS (AD-MetS). The OS was evaluated by measuring plasma 15-F(2t)-Isoprostane levels (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and protein carbonyls, PA by thromboxane B(2) levels (TXB(2)), and AS by serum vitamin E and plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. 15-F(2t)-IsoP, protein carbonyls, and TXB(2) levels were significantly gradually amplified, and vitamin E and TAC reduced, and significantly correlated with obesity from childhood to adolescence and from partial to full MetS. This study demonstrates the loss of the normal homeostatic balance between oxidant-antioxidant state in obese children and adolescents with manifestations of partial and full MetS. PMID:21823055

  5. Alliance and Outcome in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirk, Stephen R.; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Kaplinski, Heather Crisp; McMakin, Dana L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcomes in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Fifty-four adolescents met criteria for a depressive disorder and were treated in school-based clinics. Alliance was measured after the third session from both therapist and…

  6. Quality of Life of Adolescents and Young Adults Born at High Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Majnemer, Annette; Mazer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research on quality of life (QoL) of adolescents and young adults born preterm and those with congenital heart disease (CHD) was systematically reviewed, and factors associated with QoL were identified. Forty-five studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Although the majority of studies found that self-reported QoL of adolescents and young…

  7. Therapist Strategies for Building Involvement in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungbluth, Nathaniel J.; Shirk, Stephen R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined predictive relations between 9 therapist behaviors and client involvement in manual-guided, cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescent depression. Analyses included 42 adolescents who met criteria for a depressive disorder (major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, or adjustment disorder with depressed mood) and who were…

  8. [Percutaneous coronary intervention can be done on an outpatient basis. Patient Safe method for early discharge--if the criteria are met].

    PubMed

    Vazda, Mahir; Varenhorst, Christoph; Eggers, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Due to technical and medical advances, the complication rate associated with elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has decreased considerably during the past decades. Accordingly, patients might be scheduled for same-day discharge without exposing them to an increased risk. We conducted a retrospective single-center study to test such an approach. Overall, we noted no difference in the 30-day complication rate in a total of 128 angina patients undergoing elective PCI before and after implementation of a same-day discharge policy. The only variable associated with an increased complication rate was PCI of >2 coronary segments. These patients as well as those with PCI of left main or bifurcational stenoses, femoral access and reduced well-being are recommended to stay at the hospital according to routines at our institution. In summary, our data indicate that same-day discharge after elective PCI is safe provided that suitable patients are identified by appropriate criteria. PMID:25803524

  9. Analysis of the performance of the CONTOUR® TS Blood Glucose Monitoring System: when regulatory performance criteria are met, should we have confidence to use a medical device with all patients?

    PubMed

    Lyon, Martha E; Lyon, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    The article entitled, Performance of the CONTOUR® TS Blood Glucose Monitoring System, by Frank and colleagues in this issue of Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, demonstrates that the CONTOUR® TS glucose meter exceeds current regulatory expectations for glucose meter performance. However, the appropriateness of current regulatory expectations, such as International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003, is being reevaluated because of increasing concern regarding the reliability of glucose meters in ambulatory and hospitalized environments. Between 2004 and 2008, 12,673 serious adverse events with glucose meters that met the ISO 15197 expectations were reported in the Food and Drug Administration-Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience surveillance database. Should different glucose meter performance criteria be applied to ambulatory versus critical care patients? PMID:21303646

  10. A Comparison of Various DSM Criteria for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.

    In recent years the pace has been accelerating by which changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) systems are made. Revisions occur before extensive empirical knowledge can be drawn upon to guide these changes. For substance use disorders, the criteria have undergone changes from DSM-III to DSM-III-R, and from…

  11. Clinical experience in 115 patients with arthritis and/or enthesitis who met the classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (CASPAR) within the last two years-Possible association with malignant disorders.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kiyofumi; Suyama, Yasuhiro; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2016-07-01

    Among about 400 patients with active arthritis and/or enthesitis who were referred to our department within the last two years, 140 of them were strongly suspected as having psoriatic arthritis by a comprehensive diagnostic procedure and after consulting specialists from dermatology, orthopedics, and radiodiagnostics at our institution and other institutions. Among them, 115 patients strictly met the classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis (CASPAR). Among the 115 patients, 19 patients (9 males and 10 females) had current psoriasis and 96 patients (22 males and 74 females) did not have current psoriasis. Nineteen (16.5%) of the 115 patients had developed malignant tumor before the onset of arthritis, and 4 (3.5%) developed malignant tumor after the onset of arthritis. Twenty-two of the 23 patients who developed malignancy were female and 10 patients developed breast cancer. Differential diagnoses in these 23 patients may include paraneoplastic syndrome. We consider that it is important to take into account the possibility of paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with arthritis and/or enthesitis who apparently meet the CASPAR criteria, and detailed screening and monitoring of malignant disease may be beneficial to the patients. PMID:26391911

  12. Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, R.; Correa-Burrows, P.; Reyes, M.; Blanco, E.; Albala, C.; Gahagan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the optimal cutoff of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents and examine whether insulin resistance (IR), determined by this method, was related to genetic, biological, and environmental factors. Methods. In 667 adolescents (16.8 ± 0.3 y), BMI, waist circumference, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, diet, and physical activity were measured. Fat and fat-free mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Family history of type 2 diabetes (FHDM) was reported. We determined the optimal cutoff of HOMA-IR to diagnose MetS (IDF criteria) using ROC analysis. IR was defined as HOMA-IR values above the cutoff. We tested the influence of genetic, biological, and environmental factors on IR using logistic regression analyses. Results. Of the participants, 16% were obese and 9.4 % met criteria for MetS. The optimal cutoff for MetS diagnosis was a HOMA-IR value of 2.6. Based on this value, 16.3% of participants had IR. Adolescents with IR had a significantly higher prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, fasting hyperglycemia, and MetS compared to those who were not IR. FHDM, sarcopenia, obesity, and low adiponectin significantly increased the risk of IR. Conclusions. In adolescents, HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 was associated with greater cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26273675

  13. Self-efficacy expectations among traumatized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saigh, P A; Mroueh, M; Zimmerman, B J; Fairbank, J A

    1995-07-01

    Bandura's Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy (MSPSE) were administered to three matched groups of adolescents. The first group met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The second had been exposed to qualitatively and quantitatively similar stressors and did not meet criteria for PTSD (traumatized PTSD negatives). The third group consisted of non-traumatized controls. Data analysis revealed that the adolescents with PTSD had appreciably lower self-efficacy ratings on eight of the nine subtests that comprise the MSPSE. Non-significant differences were observed when the MSPSE subtest scores of the traumatized PTSD negatives and controls were compared. PMID:7654163

  14. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  15. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  16. Reciprocity in Adolescent and Caregiver Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Slesnick, Natasha; Carmona, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, with assessments every six months, the reciprocity in violent behaviors (verbal and physical) was investigated in a sample of 161 adolescents, who met the criteria for substance or alcohol abuse or dependence, and their caregivers, who participated in a clinical trial for family treatment for adolescent substance abuse. Using observed variables in a structural equation model with panel data, there was very little stability in violent behaviors across time from the perspectives of both the adolescents and caregivers. Evidence for violence reciprocity between adolescent and caregiver was demonstrated toward the end of the study period. The results are discussed in the context of previous literature about adolescent-to-parent violence. PMID:25684856

  17. A Family History of Diabetes Modifies the Association between Elevated Urine Albumin Concentration and Hyperglycemia in Nondiabetic Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Corona, Aida; Ávila-Hermosillo, Antonio; Nelson, Robert G.; Ramírez-López, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    We examined the frequency of elevated urine albumin concentration (UAC) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic markers in 515 nondiabetic Mexican adolescents stratified by family history of diabetes (FHD). UAC was measured in a first morning urine sample and considered elevated when excretion was ≥20 mg/mL. MetS was defined using International Diabetes Federation criteria. Fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and lipids were evaluated. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Elevated UAC was present in 12.4% and MetS was present in 8.9% of the adolescents. No association was found between elevated UAC and MetS. Among adolescents with FHD, 18.4% were overweight and 20.7% were obese, whereas, among those without a FHD, 15.9% were overweight and 7.5% were obese. Hyperglycemia was higher in those with elevated UAC than in those without (44.4% versus 5.1%, p = 0.003). Hyperglycemia (OR = 9.8, 95% CI 1.6–59.4) and number of MetS components (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.5–13.3) were independently associated with elevated UAC. Among female participants, abdominal obesity was associated with elevated UAC (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 1.2–16.9). Conclusion. Elevated UAC was associated neither with MetS nor with any metabolic markers in nondiabetic adolescents. However, FHD modified the association of elevated UAC with hyperglycemia and the number of MetS components. PMID:26347891

  18. Late Adolescent and Young Adult Outcomes of Girls Diagnosed with ADHD in Childhood: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Yu, Jihnhee; MacLean, Michael G.; Wymbs, Brian T.; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita; Robb, Jessica A.; Karch, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the late adolescent and young adult outcomes of girls diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Method: The study included 58 women from a larger longitudinal study of ADHD. A total of 34 (M = 19.97 years old) met "DSM" criteria for ADHD in childhood, whereas the remaining 24 (M = 19.83 years old) did not. Self- and…

  19. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  20. Helping Clinicians Prevent Pregnancy among Sexually Active Adolescents: U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use and U.S. Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Emily M

    2015-08-01

    The United States has made substantial progress in reducing teenage birth rates in recent decades, but rates remain high. Teen pregnancy can increase the risk of poor health outcomes and lead to decreased educational attainment, increased poverty, and welfare use, as well as increased cost to taxpayers. One of the most effective ways to prevent teenage pregnancy is through the use of effective birth control methods. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention has made the prevention of teenage pregnancy 1 of its 10 winnable battles. The CDC has released 2 evidence-based clinical guideline documents regarding contraceptive use for adolescents and adults. The first guideline, US Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010, helps clinicians recognize when a contraceptive method may not be safe to use for a particular adolescent but also when not to withhold a contraceptive method that is safe to use. The second document, US Selected Practice Recommendations for Contraceptive Use, 2013, provides guidance for how to use contraceptive methods safely and effectively once they are deemed safe. Health care providers are encouraged to use these documents to provide safe and effective contraceptive care to patients seeking family planning, including adolescents. PMID:26026219

  1. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    PubMed

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (P<0.01). Protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, and potassium intakes were higher in the post-modeled intake condition compared with the pre-modeled condition (P<0.01). Substituting the healthier pizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. PMID:24119532

  2. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  3. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  4. An Integrative Review of Factors Influencing Breastfeeding in Adolescent Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Kanhadilok, Supannee; McGrath, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this integrative review was to describe factors that influence breastfeeding behaviors in adolescent mothers. Twenty-two articles met inclusion criteria. Findings showed that most adolescent mothers intended to breastfeed during pregnancy. Yet, breastfeeding initiation ranged from 39% to 69%. Almost half of adolescent mothers stopped within 1 month. Less than 25% continued to breastfeeding behaviors to 6 months. Factors that influenced breastfeeding decisions in adolescent mothers included social and cultural norms. Personal beliefs about being a good mother were important to intention and initiation of breastfeeding. Promoting maternal competence was found to be essential to breastfeeding initiation and continuation for adolescent mothers. Support from partners and professionals also led to positive attitudes toward breastfeeding initiation and continuation. PMID:26957895

  5. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also…

  6. MET ONE 831

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Met One 831 sensor measures particulate matter (PM) by counting and sizing individual particles using scattered laser light. The unit then converts the count data to mass measurements in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3). The Met One 831 counts particles in four different PM...

  7. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with components of the metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chan, Te-Fu; Lin, Wei-Ting; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Lee, Chun-Ying; Wu, Pei-Wen; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Huang, Chun-Chi; Tsai, Sharon; Lin, Chih-Lung; Lee, Chien-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are the principle source of added sugar in diets. Cardiometabolic disturbances can occur from early childhood to adulthood. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the gender-specific association of SSB intake with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2727 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years randomly selected from three diverse economic areas in Southern Taiwan by using a multistage-sampling strategy participated in this study. Demographic, dietary, physical and anthropometric parameters were measured, and serum lipid profiles and glucose levels were determined. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) specifies that MetS requires abdominal obesity and ≥2 abnormal components, and Cook criteria for MetS require ≥3 abnormal components. We applied survey-data modules to data analyses, and used multiple regression and logistic models to adjust for covariates. An increased SSB intake was linked to a greater waist circumference in both sexes and to systolic blood pressure in boys (P for trend: ≤0.043). Male moderate and high consuming SSB drinkers exhibited triglyceride levels that were 8.0 and 8.2 mg/dL significantly higher, respectively, than those of nondrinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, boys who consumed >500 mL/day (high quantity) of SSBs exhibited 10.3-fold (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.2-90.2) and 5.1-fold (95% CIs: 1.01-25.5) risks of contracting MetS, as defined by the IDF and Cook criteria for MetS, respectively. In girls, the risk estimates for the same comparison were not significant by the IDF criteria (6.5-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.9-∞) or Cook criteria (5.9-fold risk, 95% CIs: 0.8-43.8) for MetS. High SSB consumption was also linked to 1.9-fold (95% CIs: 1.1-3.1) and 2.7-fold (95% CIs: 1.3-5.7) higher risks of being at a greater overall metabolic risk in girls and boys, respectively. In conclusion, a high SSB intake is associated with adolescent MetS

  8. Polydrug use and attempted suicide among Hispanic adolescents in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Juan C; Robles, Rafaela R; Colón, Héctor M; Negrón, Juan L; Matos, Tomás D; Calderón, José M

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at examining the relationship between suicidal attempts, polydrug use, and depression in adolescents. A sample of 691 adolescents and their parents were interviewed. Subjects who met the criteria for depression and those who used alcohol were significantly more likely to be suicidal attempters (OR = 6.8, p < 0.001; OR = 7.5, p < 0.001). Polydrug users were significantly more likely to attempt suicide (OR = 8.8, p = 0.032). Adolescents with mothers who met the criteria for depression were more likely to report suicide attempts (OR = 2.4, p = 0.069). Health professionals need to screen for polydrug use and depression to prevent future suicidal behaviors. PMID:21541861

  9. Psychotropic Medication Treatment of Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Olfson, Mark; He, Jian-ping; Merikangas, Kathleen Ries

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the 12-month prevalence of psychotropic medication use among adolescents and the match between mental disorder diagnoses and past year antidepressant and stimulant use. Method Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey–Adolescent Supplement (2002–2004), a nationally representative survey of 10,123 adolescents ages 13 to 18 years, that assesses DSM-IV disorders using a fully structured diagnostic interview, a modified version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Rates of 12-month psychotropic medication use are stratified by respondent socio-demographic characteristics and the distribution of 12-month DSM-IV CIDI disorders is estimated among past 12-month use of antidepressants and stimulants. Results During a one year period, 7.0% of adolescents used at least one psychotropic medication; these medications were most commonly antidepressants (3.9%) followed by stimulants (2.8%), anxiolytics (0.8%), antipsychotics (0.5%) and mood stabilizers (0.4%). Nearly three-quarters (74.1%) of adolescents with any past year psychotropic medication use had at least one CIDI mental disorder and many had disorders for which the specific medication class is clinically indicated. Among adolescents using antidepressants, 48.8% had a past 12 month depressive or anxiety disorder and an additional 20.3% had a lifetime depressive or anxiety disorder. Nearly one half (49.1%) of adolescents using stimulants met past 12 month attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) criteria and an additional 13.1% met lifetime criteria for ADHD. Conclusions Most adolescents who are treated with psychotropic medications have one or more psychiatric disorders and many, though far from all, have mental disorders for which the specific medications are clinically indicated. PMID:23582869

  10. Polymorphism of ABCB1/MDR1 C3435T in Children and Adolescents with Partial Epilepsy is due to Different Criteria for Drug Resistance – Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Emich-Widera, Ewa; Likus, Wirginia; Kazek, Beata; Sieroń, Aleksander L.; Urbanek, Ksymena

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of “drug resistance” in epilepsy can be defined and interpreted in various ways. This may be due to discrepant definitions of drug resistance to pharmacotherapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between C3435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene and drug resistance in epilepsy with the consideration of 4 different criteria for qualification to groups sensitive and resistant to applied pharmacotherapy. Material/Methods Evaluation of C3435T polymorphism of MDR1/ABCB1 gene was conducted on a group of 82 white children and young adolescents up to 18 years old. While qualifying the patients to the group of sensitive or drug resistant, the following 4 definitions of drug resistance were applied: the ILAE’s, Appleton’s, Siddiqui’s, and Berg’s. Results A detailed analysis of genotypes of the MDR1 gene did not show any significant discrepancies between the groups of patients resistant and sensitive to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in 4 consecutive comparisons taking into consideration various criteria of sensitivity and resistance to pharmacotherapy. Conclusions The obtained results clearly confirm the lack of a connection between the occurrence of drug-resistant epilepsy and C435T polymorphism of the MDR1 gene irrespective of the definition of drug resistance applied to the patient. PMID:25223475

  11. Adolescent male with anorexia nervosa: a case report from Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This is the first reported case of an adolescent male with anorexia nervosa in Iraq. This disorder is believed to be rare in males across cultures and uncommon for both genders in Arab countries. The patient met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa. He was hospitalized and received medical and psychiatric treatment at local facilities as discussed below and responded well to treatment. PMID:22280999

  12. Interventions to Improve the Literacy Functioning of Adolescents with Emotional and/or Behavior Disorders: A Review of the Literature between 1965 and 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hagaman, Jessica L.; Harper, John

    2008-01-01

    This review examines interventions intended to improve the literacy functioning of adolescent students with emotional and/or behavior disorders. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria and included a variety of interventions designed to affect a variety of literacy areas, including spelling, writing, and reading fluency. Findings from these…

  13. Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie Sarno; Bunford, Nora

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano ( 2008 ) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2007 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. Our review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press ) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we conclude that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management, and behavioral peer interventions are well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  14. The Association of Dairy Intake With Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghotboddin Mohammadi, Shirin; Mirmiran, Parvin; Bahadoran, Zahra; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of dairy product plays an important role in prevention and treatment of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the association of dairy intake with MetS and its components in Tehranian adolescents. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 785 adolescent aged 10 to 19 years, participated from the fourth phase of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Usual dietary intake was assessed using a valid semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Total dairy, low fat and high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese were evaluated. Assessment of anthropometric, biochemical and blood pressure was performed and MetS was defined according to the de Ferranti criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 14.8 ± 2.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 22.2% (girls: 19.5% and boys: 25.2%). The most prevalent risk factor for MetS in boys was high waist circumference (53.4%) and among girls was low HDL-C (53.1%). Energy density and intake of protein, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, calcium and phosphor were higher in the highest quartile of dairy consumption than the lowest quartile. After adjustments for confounders, odds ratios with 95% confidence interval for MetS in the highest quartile of total dairy, low fat dairy, high fat dairy, milk, yoghurt and cheese compared with lowest quartile were respectively 0.97 (0.57 - 1.66), 1.44 (0.83 - 2.49), 0.97 (0.56 - 1.67), 0.70 (0.42 - 1.18), 1.62 (0.99 - 2.64) and 0.72 (0.44 - 1.18). Conclusions: Results of this study did not support the hypothesis that dairy products consumption protects against MetS and its components. PMID:26425126

  15. Scholastic impairments among traumatized adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saigh, P A; Mroueh, M; Bremner, J D

    1997-05-01

    This investigation sought to determine if exposure to exceptional stress is associated with academic deficits or whether academic deficits are specifically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In order to address these questions, the Metropolitan Achievement Test (MAT) as well as a measure of intelligence were administered to three groups of Lebanese adolescents. The first group met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The second group had been exposed to qualitatively and quantitatively similar stressors but did not meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The third group consisted of nontraumatized controls. Data analysis using IQ as a covariate determined that the MAT scores of the PTSD subjects were significantly lower than the scores of the stress exposed PTSD negatives and controls. No significant differences were observed when the MAT scores of the stress exposed PTSD negatives and controls were compared. PMID:9149452

  16. Measurement of Religiosity/Spirituality in Adolescent Health Outcomes Research: Trends and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    McGrady, Meghan E.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between religious/spiritual (R/S) factors and adolescent health outcomes has been studied for decades; however, the R/S measurement tools used may not be developmentally relevant for adolescents. A systematic literature review was conducted to review and evaluate trends in measuring R/S in adolescent health outcomes research. In this review a total of 100 articles met criteria for inclusion. Relatively few (n = 15) included adolescent-specific R/S measures or items accounting for developmentally relevant issues such as parental religiosity or age-appropriate language. Future R/S and health research with adolescents would be strengthened by incorporating developmentally relevant R/S measurement tools, psychometrics, and multidimensional measures. PMID:20127172

  17. Telemedicine in interdisciplinary work practices: On an IT system that met the criteria for success set out by its sponsors, yet failed to become part of every-day clinical routines

    PubMed Central

    de Bont, Antoinette; Bal, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background Information systems can play a key role in care innovations including task redesign and shared care. Many demonstration projects have presented evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness and high levels of patient satisfaction. Yet these same projects often fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. The aim of the paper is to gain insight into a common paradox that a technology can meet the criteria for success set out at the start of the project yet fail to become part of everyday clinical routines. Methods We evaluated a telecare service set up to reduce the workload of ophthalmologists. In this project, optometrists in 10 optical shops made digital images to detect patients with glaucoma which were further assessed by trained technicians in the hospital. Over a period of three years, we conducted interviews with the project team and the users about the workability of the system and its integration in practice. Beside the interviews, we analyzed record data to measure the quality of the images. We compared the qualitative accounts with these measurements. Results According to our measurements, the quality of the images was at least satisfactory in 90% of the cases, i.e. the images could be used to screen the patients – reducing the workload of the ophthalmologist considerably. However, both the ophthalmologist and the optometrists became increasingly dissatisfied respectively with the perceived quality of the pictures and the perceived workload. Through a detailed analysis of how the professionals discussed the quality of the pictures, we re-constructed how the notion of quality of the images and being a good professional were constructed and linked. The IT system transformed into a quality system and, at the same time, transformed the notions of being a good professional. While a continuous dialogue about the quality of the pictures became an emblem for the quality of care, this dialogue was hindered by the system and the way the care

  18. ASI/MET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) is the mast and windsocks at the center of this color image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 4. The instrument appears in two different sections due to image parallax. The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. The windsocks are seen pointing almost completely up, representing little wind movement at the three locations of the windsocks. A rock at left holds a shadow of the ASI/MET, indicating the sun's position is at the rear right. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible, in addition to several rocks of varying sizes in the distance.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  19. Feasibility of using text messaging for unhealthy behaviors screening in a clinical setting: a case study on adolescent hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Underage alcohol use is the leading cause of preventable mortality among adolescents in the USA. Moreover, the average age of onset of underage drinking is 13 years. This study examined the feasibility of using a text messaging survey (TMS) to assess adolescent alcohol use. A sample of 29 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, was recruited from two primary care clinics. They completed a 16 question TMS while in the waiting room and a two-question exit TMS. The participation rate was 87%. Two out of 25 (8%) adolescents met the criteria for hazardous drinking and 28% reported alcohol use. It was found that 38% and 25% of adolescents who completed the exit TMS were asked or advised about drinking, respectively. Text messaging to assess adolescent alcohol use in this setting seems feasible, does not disrupt patient workflow, and can assess many health behaviors before a clinical encounter. PMID:22759622

  20. Prevalence and predictors of PTSD and depression among adolescent victims of the Spring 2011 tornado outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodological problems limit the generalizability of previous findings. This study addressed prevalence estimates and risk factors for PTSD and MDE among adolescents exposed to the spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin, Missouri. Methods A large (N=2,000), population-based sample of adolescents and caregivers, recruited randomly from tornado-affected communities, participated in structured telephone interviews. PTSD and MDE prevalence were estimated for the overall sample, by gender, and by age. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for PTSD and MDE. Results Overall, 6.7% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for PTSD and 7.5% of adolescents met diagnostic criteria for MDE since the tornado. Girls were significantly more likely than boys to meet diagnostic criteria for MDE, and older adolescents were more likely than younger adolescents to report MDE since the tornado. Female gender, prior trauma exposure, and an injured family member were associated with greater risk for PTSD and MDE. Specific incident characteristics (loss of services, concern about others’ safety) were associated with greater PTSD risk; prior disaster exposure was associated with lower MDE risk. Conclusions Whereas most adolescents were resilient following tornado exposure, roughly 1 in 15 developed PTSD, 1 in 13 developed MDE, and many more endorsed subclinical mental health problems. Information regarding specific risk factors can guide early screening, prevention, and intervention efforts in disaster-affected communities. PMID:24580551

  1. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02–8.63; P for trend<0.001), 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01–7.87; P for trend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01–6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  2. ASI/MET Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder meteorology mast casts a shadow on the lander solar array, as seen in this superpan mosaic. Looking to the southeast during the morning, the windsocks are slightly tilted, indicating the presence of a light wind from the southwest. The MET mast measured the temperature, pressure, and wind speed at the Pathfinder landing site. During the mission, the instrument returned 8.5 million individual measurements from the surface of Mars.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  3. ASI/MET mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast is visible against a backdrop of rocky Martian terrain in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). The windsocks are slightly tilted, showing some wind activity. Distortions in the background are due to parallax.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. [Histamine intolerance - are the criteria of an adverse reaction met?].

    PubMed

    Reese, Imke

    2016-06-01

    Searching the internet for an explaination of recurring symptoms, many people come across the so-called histamine intolerance disorder. Also many practitioners like to diagnose this disorder without making sure that reproducibility, a prerequisite for an adverse reaction, is present. Consequently, presumably affected persons are often advised to follow a low-histamine diet. Depending on the source of information, these diets often avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on patient quality of life. While most persons benefit from such a diet in the beginning - this might be due to the change in dietary habits or the expectation of symptom improvement by dieting - in the long run the expected loss of symptoms will not happen. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release is responsible for reactions. The role of ingested histamine is discussed controversially. However, it is more than obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance.If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergologists and nutritionists/dieticians. PMID:27177895

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To review the extant literature on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (10–19 years old) of both sexes. Design. The search was carried out using Medline and Scopus considering articles published from the establishment of the databanks until June 7, 2012. Data on the prevalence of children being overweight and obese from the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) website was also reviewed. Only original articles and one National Health Report were considered. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Results. Twenty-five of these studies were nationally representative, and ten countries were represented only by regional data. Conclusions. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents worldwide is high, and obesity is higher among boys. The IOTF criterion is the most frequently used method to classify adolescents as overweighed or obese in public health research. PMID:24555142

  6. 12-Month and Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Black Adolescents in the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Sean; Baser, Raymond S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Jackson, James S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Provide nationally representative data on the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of suicidal ideation and attempts among African American and Caribbean black adolescents in the United States. Method Data on nonfatal suicidal behavior among 1,170 African American and Caribbean black adolescents aged 13 to 17 years are from the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent, a nationally representative household survey of adults with an attached adolescent sample conducted between February 2001 and June 2003. Results Nationwide black adolescents reported having a lifetime prevalence of 7.5% for suicidal ideation and 2.7% for attempts. The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation and attempt was 3.2% and 1.4%, respectively. Among all respondents, 4% of black American adolescents and 7% of female subjects were projected to attempt suicide by age 17 years. African American adolescents were approximately five times more likely than Caribbean black adolescents to attempt suicide. Almost half of the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent respondents who reported a suicide attempt had never met criteria for any of the DSM-IV disorders by the time of their attempts. Conclusions Clinicians should be trained to screen for suicidal behavior, even among those without DSM-IV disorders, when treating black adolescents, particularly female subjects. In addition, preventive efforts should consider ethnic differences in suicide risk and targeting nonclinical settings. PMID:19182692

  7. MET inhibition in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giaj Levra, Matteo; Novello, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Targeted agents have completely changed cancer treatment strategy, leading it from a “one size fits all” approach to a customized therapy. In this scenario Met, a heterodimere receptor tyrosine kinase deeply involved into embryogenesis and organogenesis, has been introduced many years ago as a potential target for biological agents, becoming “druggable” only in this last period of time. Met can be altered through receptor overexpression, genomic amplification, mutations or alternative splicing, autocrine or paracrine secretion of hepatic growth factor (HGF): these dysregulations stimulate tumorigenesis (in terms of cell-cell detachment, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and survival) and metastatization. Met is overexpressed in lung cancer and Met gene amplification can drive the dependency of cell survival and proliferation upon the Met signaling. Both Met overexpression and amplification seem to correlate with poor prognosis. Met amplification is also described to be linked to EGFR acquired resistance. Several Met inhibitors have been tested both in preclinical and human trials, demonstrating activity in lung cancer treatment. This paper aims to summarize data on Met biological function, on its interaction with cell signaling and other pathways and to present data on those Met inhibitors currently under evaluation. PMID:25806202

  8. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  9. MET deregulation in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Lorenza

    2015-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is an oncogene encoding for a trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptor activated by the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). MET has a normal function in organ development during embryogenesis and in tissue homeostasis during adult life. Deregulation of HGF/MET signaling pathway is frequently observed in many cancer types, conferring invasive growth and tendency to progression. MET deregulation is due to gene amplification or increased copy number, gene mutation, receptor over-expression or ligand autocrine loops activation. These events lead to migration, invasion, proliferation, metastatic spread and neo-angiogenesis of cancer cells, suggesting that anti-HGF/MET agents may represent a potential antitumor strategy. In breast cancer (BC), preclinical and clinical data demonstrated the role of HGF/MET signalling pathway in carcinogenesis, disease progression and resistance features. Methods For this review article, all published data on HGF/MET in BC were collected and analyzed. Results Several evidences underline that, in early BC, MET over-expression has an independent negative prognostic significance, regardless of method used for evaluation and BC subtypes. Available data suggest that MET is a relevant target particularly in basal-like (BL) and in triple negative BC. Moreover, preclinical and retrospective data support the critical role of MET deregulation in the development of resistance to target-agents, such as anti-HER2 strategies. Conclusions MET is a promising new target in BC. Several anti-MET agents are under investigation and ongoing clinical trials will clarify its relevance in BC treatment. PMID:26366398

  10. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents. PMID:25248622

  11. Post-Traumatic Reactions in Adolescents: How Well Do the DSM-IV PTSD Criteria Fit the Real Life Experience of Trauma Exposed Youth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saul, Andrea L.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the structure and symptom specific patterns of post traumatic distress in a sample of 1,581 adolescents who reported exposure to at least one traumatic event. Symptom reporting patterns are consistent with past literature in that females reported more symptoms than males and older youth reported more symptoms than did their…

  12. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Steven W; Owens, Julie; Bunford, Miss Nora

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this research was to update the Pelham and Fabiano (2008) review of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Method We completed a systematic review of the literature published between 2008 and 2013 to establish levels of evidence for psychosocial treatments for these youth. The review included the identification of relevant articles using criteria established by the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (see Southam-Gerow & Prinstein, in press) using keyword searches and a review of tables of contents. Results We extend the conceptualization of treatment research by differentiating training interventions from behavior management and by reviewing the growing literature on training interventions. Consistent with the results of the previous review we concluded that behavioral parent training, behavioral classroom management and behavioral peer interventions were well-established treatments. In addition, organization training met the criteria for a well-established treatment. Combined training programs met criteria for Level 2 (Probably Efficacious), neurofeedback training met criteria for Level 3 (Possibly Efficacious), and cognitive training met criteria for Level 4 (Experimental Treatments). Conclusions The distinction between behavior management and training interventions provides a method for considering meaningful differences in the methods and possible mechanisms of action for treatments for these youth. Characteristics of treatments, participants, and measures, as well as the variability in methods for classifying levels of evidence for treatments, are reviewed in relation to their potential effect on outcomes and conclusions about treatments. Implications of these findings for future science and practice are discussed. PMID:24245813

  13. GNS-12 Packaging design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-24

    The purpose of this Packaging Design Criteria (PDC) is to provide criteria for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP)(Onsite). The SARP provides the evaluation to demonstrate that the onsite transportation safety criteria are met for the transport and storage of the 324 Building vitrified encapsulated material in the GNS-12 cask. In this application, the approved PDC provides a formal set of standards for the payload requirements, and guidance for the current cask transport configuration and a revised storage seal and primary lid modification design.

  14. MET — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: The proto-oncogene MET product is the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and encodes tyrosine-kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. Various mutations in the MET gene are associated with papillary renal carcinoma. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008

  15. LCLS Heavy Met Outgassing Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kishiyama, K. I.

    2010-12-01

    A Heavy Met that is 95% tungsten, 3% nickel and 2% iron and sintered to 100% density and is Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) compatible is proposed for use as the X-ray slit in the Front End Enclosure and the Fixed Mask for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The Heavy Met was tested in the LLNL Vacuum Sciences and Engineering Lab (VSEL) to determine its outgassing rate and its overall compatibility with the vacuum requirements for LCLS.

  16. Standards and Criteria for AMS School Accreditation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Montessori Society, New York, NY.

    This pamphlet lists 15 standards, and criteria to be met to reach those standards, used in accrediting American Montessori Society schools. Part 1, dealing with institutional stability, describes standards and criteria for school organization and administration, financial practices and procedures, physical facilities, enrollment policies, child…

  17. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Status in Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Camarillo-Romero, Eneida; Dominguez-Garcia, Ma Victoria; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Camarillo-Romero, Maria del Socorro; Talavera-Piña, Juan; Huitron-Bravo, Gerardo; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) improves endothelial dysfunction and may benefit patients with MetS. Aims. To evaluate the effect of a physical activity (PA) program on markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in adolescents with (MetS). Methods. We carried out a cohort study of 38 adolescents with and without MetS (18 females and 20 males). All participants completed a 3-month PA program. All variables of the MetS as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress tests were evaluated. Results. Females with and without MetS showed significant differences for almost all components of the MetS, whereas males were significantly different in half of the components. After the PA program, components of the MetS were not different from baseline values except for HDL-C levels. Some baseline endothelial dysfunction markers were significantly different among adolescents with and without MetS; however, after the PA program, most of these markers significantly improved in subjects with and without MetS. Conclusion. PA improves the markers of endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with MetS although other changes in the components of the MetS were not observed. Perhaps the benefits of PA on all components of MetS would appear after a PA program with a longer duration. PMID:22888450

  18. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  19. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of Rapid Auditory and Linguistic Processing in Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Fox, Christine; Leonard, Laurence B.; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Tomblin, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Brief tonal stimuli and spoken sentences were utilized to examine whether adolescents (aged 14;3-18;1) with specific language impairments (SLI) exhibit atypical neural activity for rapid auditory processing of non-linguistic stimuli and linguistic processing of verb-agreement and semantic constraints. Further, we examined whether the behavioral and electrophysiological indices for rapid auditory processing were correlated with those for linguistic processing. Fifteen adolescents with SLI and 15 adolescents with normal language met strict criteria for displaying consistent diagnoses from kindergarten through the eighth grade. The findings provide evidence that auditory processing for non-linguistic stimuli is atypical in a significant number of adolescents with SLI compared to peers with normal language and indicate that reduced efficiency in auditory processing in SLI is more vulnerable to rapid rates (200 ms ISI) of stimuli presentation (indexed by reduced accuracy, a tendency for longer RTs, reduced N100 over right anterior sites, and reduced amplitude P300). Many adolescents with SLI displayed reduced behavioral accuracy for detecting verb-agreement violations and semantic anomalies, along with less robust P600s elicited by verb-agreement violations. The results indicate that ERPs elicited by morphosyntactic aspects of language processing are atypical in many adolescents with SLI. Additionally, correlational analyses between behavioral and electrophysiological indices of processing non-linguistic stimuli and verb-agreement violations suggest that the integrity of neural functions for auditory processing may only account for a small proportion of the variance in morphosyntactic processing in some adolescents. PMID:20889197

  1. Clinical Assessment of Adolescents Involved in Satanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cynthia M.

    1994-01-01

    Describes Satanism as destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification and that may seduce adolescents who feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. Explores psychosocial needs of adolescents that are met by participation in Satanic worship. Includes method for determining adolescents' level of involvement and assessment…

  2. Mental and substance use disorders from early adolescence to young adulthood among indigenous young people: final diagnostic results from an 8-year panel study

    PubMed Central

    Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Crawford, Devan M.; Walls, Melissa L.; Gentzler, Kari C.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to investigate change in prevalence rates for mental and substance abuse disorders between early adolescence and young adulthood in a cohort of indigenous adolescents who participated in an 8-year panel study. Method The data are from a lagged, sequential study of 671 indigenous adolescents (Wave 1) from a single culture in the Northern Midwest USA and Canada. At Wave 1 (mean age 11.3 years, Wave 4 (mean age 14.3 years), Wave 6 (mean age 16.2 years), and at Wave 8 (mean age 18.3 years) the tribally enrolled adolescents completed a computer-assisted personal interview that included DISC-R assessment for 11 diagnoses. Our yearly retention rates by diagnostic wave were: Wave 2, 94.7 %; Wave 4, 87.7 %; Wave 6, 88.0 %; Wave 8, 78.5 %. Results The findings show a dramatic increase in lifetime prevalence rates for substance use disorders. By young adulthood, over half had met criteria of substance abuse or dependence disorder. Also at young adulthood, 58.2 % had met lifetime criteria of a single substance use or mental disorder and 37.2 % for two or more substance use or mental disorders. The results are compared to other indigenous diagnostic studies and to the general population. Conclusions A mental health crisis exists within the indigenous populations that participated in this study. Innovations within current mental health service systems are needed to address the unmet demand of adolescents and families. PMID:24488151

  3. Anorexia nervosa and gender dysphoria in two adolescents.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Jennifer; Pindiprolu, Bharadwaj; Findlay, Sheri; Johnson, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Little has been published about the co-occurrence of gender dysphoria (GD) and eating disorders (ED) in adults, with no cases described in the adolescent population. The emphasis on body shape in both conditions suggests that there may be some overlap in symptomatology. We report two adolescent cases initially diagnosed with anorexia nervosa who later met criteria for GD. The drive for thinness for the 16-year-old male was associated with a wish to achieve a feminine physique whereas there was an emphasis for stunted breast growth and a desire for muscularity in the 13-year-old female. Complexities in presentation, evolution of symptoms over time, and the treatment of the two cases are discussed. Clinicians should inquire about sexual issues in the presentation of ED and should monitor for symptoms of GD, not only at initial presentation, but throughout treatment, especially as weight gain progresses. PMID:25421316

  4. Post-traumatic reactions in adolescents: how well do the DSM-IV PTSD criteria fit the real life experience of trauma exposed youth?

    PubMed

    Saul, Andrea L; Grant, Kathryn E; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the structure and symptom specific patterns of post traumatic distress in a sample of 1,581 adolescents who reported exposure to at least one traumatic event. Symptom reporting patterns are consistent with past literature in that females reported more symptoms than males and older youth reported more symptoms than did their younger peers. Young people reporting exposure to exclusively violent type traumas were also found to be more likely to endorse symptoms than peers exposed exclusively to non violent type traumas. Confirmatory factor analysis provided stronger support for a four-factor model of PTSD than either the DSM-IV model or an alternate model. Further examination of the four factor model revealed gender differences in factor loadings with small to moderate effect sizes for recurrent, distressing memories, flashbacks, restricted affect, difficulty remember details, detachment, limited future orientation, hypervigilance and startle symptoms. Differences in factor loadings with the four factor model were also noted between younger and older adolescents, with medium to large effect sizes on the arousal items. In contract, comparison of the factor loadings revealed only small differences between youth exposed exclusively to violent traumatic stressors and those exposed exclusively to non violent traumatic stressors, suggesting relative similarity between these two groups. PMID:18330689

  5. Relationships between parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among South Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Haeryun; Kim, Haesung

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the roles played by parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in surrounding Kyung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more on the POSIT scale, which suggested they met the problematic criteria for substance abuse risk. Logistic regression results suggested that the influence of social support on substance abuse risk among adolescents depended on the source of support--parents or peers. These findings need to be considered in the development of intervention programs for adolescents at risk for substance abuse. PMID:19435169

  6. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  7. Sleep, stress, neurocognitive profile and health-related quality of life in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Juliana; Dos Santos, Flávia Heloísa; Terreri, Maria Teresa R. A.; Fraga, Melissa Mariti; Silva, Simone Guerra; Hilário, Maria Odete E.; Len, Claudio A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to measure levels of sleep, stress, and depression, as well as health-related quality of life, and to assess the neurocognitive profiles in a sample of adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. METHODS: Nineteen adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain and 20 age-matched healthy control subjects were evaluated regarding their levels of sleep and stress, as well as quality of life, and underwent neurocognitive testing. RESULTS: The sample groups consisted predominantly of females (84%), and the socioeconomic status did not differ between the two groups. In addition, the occurrence of depressive symptoms was similar between the two groups; specifically, 26% of the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain patients and 30% of the control subjects had scores indicative of depression. Teenagers in the group with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain reported poorer quality of life and sleep scores than those in the control group. Regarding stress, patients had worse scores than the control group; whereas 79% of the adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain met the criteria for a diagnosis of stress, only 35% of the adolescents in the control group met the criteria. In both groups, we observed scores that classified adolescents as being in the resistance phase (intermediate) and exhaustion phase (pathological) of distress. However, the idiopathic musculoskeletal pain group more frequently reported symptomatic complaints of physical and emotional distress. The neurocognitive assessment showed no significant impairments in either group. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did not exhibit cognitive impairments. However, adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain did experience intermediate to advanced psychological distress and lower health-related quality of life, which may increase their risk of cognitive dysfunction in the future. PMID:23070339

  8. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  9. Exploring the Proposed DSM-5 Criteria in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taheri, Azin; Perry, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The proposed DSM-5 criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) depart substantially from the previous DSM-IV criteria. In this file review study of 131 children aged 2-12, previously diagnosed with either Autistic Disorder or Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), 63% met the new DSM-5 ASD criteria, including 81%…

  10. Non-suicidal self-injury (Nssi) in adolescent inpatients: assessing personality features and attitude toward death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a common concern among hospitalized adolescents, and can have significant implications for short and long-term prognosis. Little research has been devoted on how personality features in severely ill adolescents interact with NSSI and "attitude toward life and death" as a dimension of suicidality. Developing more specific assessment methodologies for adolescents who engage in self-harm without suicidal intent is relevant given the recent proposal of a non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disorder and may be useful in predicting risk in psychiatrically impaired subjects. Methods Consecutively hospitalized adolescents in a psychiatric unit (N = 52; 71% females; age 12-19 years), reporting at least one recent episode of self-harm according to the Deliberate Self-harm Inventory, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Mental Disorders and Personality Disorders (SCID I and II), the Children's Depression Inventory and the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale (MAST). Results Mean age onset of NSSI in the sample was 12.3 years. All patients showed "repetitive" NSSI (high frequency of self-harm), covering different modalities. Results revealed that 63.5% of adolescents met criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and that the rest of the sample also met criteria for personality disorders with dysregulated traits. History of suicide attempts was present in 46.1% of cases. Elevated depressive traits were found in 53.8%. Results show a statistically significant negative correlation between the score on the "Attraction to Life" subscale of the MAST and the frequency and diversification of self-harming behaviors. Conclusions Most adolescent inpatients with NSSI met criteria for emotionally dysregulated personality disorders, and showed a reduced "attraction to life" disposition and significant depressive symptoms. This peculiar psychopathological configuration must be addressed in the treatment of adolescent

  11. ASI/MET shadow & airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A shadow of the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) has been cast on a rock at right in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 4. The instrument appears in two different sections due to image parallax. The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible, in addition to several rocks of varying sizes in the distance.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The IMP was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  12. ASI/MET - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) is the mast and windsocks at the center of this color image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. The instrument appears in two different sections due to image parallax. The ASI/MET is an engineering subsytem that acquired atmospheric data during Pathfinder's descent, and will continue to get more data through the entire landed mission. The windsocks are seen pointing almost completely up, representing little wind movement at the three locations of the windsocks. A rock at left holds a shadow of the ASI/MET, indicating the sun's position is at the rear right. Portions of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible, in addition to several rocks of varying sizes in the distance.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  13. Psychological Treatments for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gutermann, Jana; Schreiber, Franziska; Matulis, Simone; Schwartzkopff, Laura; Deppe, Julia; Steil, Regina

    2016-06-01

    Meta-analyses of the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in childhood and adolescence are restricted to specific trauma, selected interventions, and methodologically rigorous studies. This large meta-analysis quantifies the effects of psychological treatments for PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 13,040 articles; 135 studies with 150 treatment conditions (N = 9562 participants) met the inclusion criteria (psychological interventions with children and/or adolescents with PTSD symptoms that report quantitative measures of symptom change). The mean effect sizes (ESs) for PTSD symptoms ranged from large to small, depending on the control condition. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) yielded the highest ESs. Age and caretaker involvement were identified as moderators. CBT, especially when conducted in individual treatment with the inclusion of parents, is a highly effective treatment for trauma symptoms. Psychological treatments need to be modified to address younger patients' specific needs. PMID:27059619

  14. Adolescent health promotion scale: development and psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Wang, Edward K; Yang, Rea-Jane; Liou, Yiing-Mei

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a newly devised instrument, the Adolescent Health Promotion scale (AHP), a 40-item Likert-type self-report instrument used to detect unhealthy lifestyles in adolescents. Content validity was considered to be supported based on the findings of previous studies and the observations of a panel of 14 content experts. This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the instrument. The psychometric properties of the AHP, including item analysis, factor analysis, and reliability measures, were assessed based on the responses of 1,128 Taiwanese adolescents. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures and Bartlett's sphericity test showed that the samples met the criteria for factor analysis. Factor analysis yielded a six-factor instrument that explained 51.14% of the variance in the 40 items. The six factors were social support, life appreciation, health responsibility, nutritional behaviors, exercise behaviors, and stress management. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale was 0.932, and alpha coefficients for the subscales ranged from 0.75 to 0.88. The results of this study indicate that the AHP has good construct validity and reliability in Taiwanese and that its use by school health nurses to assess adolescent health promotion programs is warranted. PMID:12588427

  15. Solving CASMI 2013 with MetFrag, MetFusion and MOLGEN-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Schymanski, Emma L.; Gerlich, Michael; Ruttkies, Christoph; Neumann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    The second Critical Assessment of Small Molecule Identification (CASMI) contest took place in 2013. A joint team from the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag) and Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB) participated in CASMI 2013 with an automatic workflow-style entry. MOLGEN-MS/MS was used for Category 1, molecular formula calculation, restricted by the information given for each challenge. MetFrag and MetFusion were used for Category 2, structure identification, retrieving candidates from the compound databases KEGG, PubChem and ChemSpider and joining these lists pre-submission. The results from Category 1 were used to guide whether formula or exact mass searches were performed for Category 2. The Category 2 results were impressive considering the database size and automated regime used, although these could not compete with the manual approach of the contest winner. The Category 1 results were affected by large m/z and ppm values in the challenge data, where strategies beyond pure enumeration from other participants were more successful. However, the combination used for the CASMI 2013 entries was extremely useful for developing decision-making criteria for automatic, high throughput general unknown (non-target) identification and for future contests. PMID:26819879

  16. Ionospheric Profiling using GPS/MET Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, George; Romans, Larry

    1996-01-01

    A report on ionospheric profiling using GPS and MET data is presented. A description of the GPS occultation technique, some examples of GPS/MET data products, the data processing system and a preliminary validation of ionospheric profiles is discussed.

  17. Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: a Critical Approach Considering the Interaction between Pubertal Stage and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pediatricians increasingly diagnose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent years to describe cardiovascular risk and to guide management of the obese child. However, there is an ongoing discussion about how to define the MetS in childhood and adolescence. Since insulin resistance-the major driver of MetS-is influenced by pubertal stage, it is questionable to use definitions for MetS in children and adolescents that do not take into account pubertal status. A metabolic healthy status in prepubertal stage does not predict a metabolic healthy status during puberty. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors improve at the end of puberty without treatment. However, having a uniform internationally accepted definition of the MetS for children and adolescents would be very helpful for the description of populations in different studies. Therefore, the concept of MetS has to be revisited under the influence of puberty stage. PMID:26747052

  18. Adolescent health in Asia: insights from India.

    PubMed

    Basker, Mona M

    2016-08-01

    Adolescents living in the Indian subcontinent form a significant proportion of the general population. India is home to 236 million adolescents, who make up one-fifth of the total population of India. Adolescent health is gradually considered an important issue by the government of India. Awareness is increasing about adolescent needs. Health care professionals in particular are becoming more interested in the specific needs of adolescent age. Adolescent medicine as a subspecialty of pediatrics has also gained importance gradually over the last decade. In a hospital setting, adolescent-specific needs are met, albeit not in a uniform manner in all the health centers. After having been trained in adolescent medicine in India and abroad, I present this paper as a bird's eye view of the practice of adolescent health and medicine in India. PMID:27447203

  19. Moderators of Brief Motivation-Enhancing Treatments for Alcohol-Positive Adolescents Presenting to the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Jones, Richard N; Hernandez, Lynn; Graves, Hannah R; Spirito, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    A 2011 randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of two brief motivation-enhancing therapy (MET) models among alcohol-positive adolescents in an urban emergency department: adolescent MET-only versus MET + Family Check-Up (FCU), a parent MET model. Results indicated that among the 97 adolescents completing the 3-month assessment, both conditions were associated with reduced drinking and MET+FCU was associated with lower rates of high volume drinking than adolescent MET-only. The goal of this study was to identify predictors and moderators of high volume drinking in the original trial. Seven candidate variables were evaluated as moderators across three domains: demographic characteristics, psychological factors, and socio-contextual factors. Analyses of covariance models identified one significant predictor and one significant moderator of outcome. Older adolescents had significantly worse drinking outcomes than younger adolescents regardless of MET condition. Adolescents whose parents screened positive for problematic alcohol use at baseline had significantly worse drinking outcomes in the MET+FCU condition than the MET-only condition. Results indicate that alcohol-positive adolescents presenting to the emergency department may respond better to MET models if they are under the age of 16. Involving parents who have problematic alcohol use in a parent-focused MET may have negative effects on adolescent high volume drinking. PMID:27568507

  20. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  1. Reactions of Met-Cars

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Guo, B.C.

    1993-12-31

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti{sub 8}c{sub 12}{sup +}, while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anon and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed.

  2. Repetition, Power Imbalance, and Intentionality: Do These Criteria Conform to Teenagers' Perception of Bullying? A Role-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadrado-Gordillo, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The criteria that researchers use to classify aggressive behaviour as bullying are "repetition", "power imbalance", and "intent to hurt". However, studies that have analyzed adolescents' perceptions of bullying find that most adolescents do not simultaneously consider these three criteria. This paper examines adolescents' perceptions of bullying…

  3. A Review of Familial Correlates of Child and Adolescent Obesity: What has the 21st Century Taught us so Far?

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background With the rising prevalence rates of child and adolescent obesity over the last several decades it is important to examine the extant research in order to inform future research. Objective The aim of this paper is to review and critique research investigating familial correlates of child and adolescent obesity in the last decade. Methods A literature review was conducted between March 2008 and December 2008. Studies published after 2000 that assessed familial associations with child and adolescent obesity in the parental, family functioning, and sibling domains were included in the review. A total of 81 studies met inclusionary criteria. Results The majority of studies focused on the parental domain. Substantial evidence indicates an association between authoritative parenting style and child/adolescent lower BMI, healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Also, research on family meals has consistently shown an association between the frequency of family meals and child/adolescent lower BMI and healthy dietary intake. Conclusion To date, there is preliminary evidence that suggests that familial factors are associated with child and adolescent obesity, dietary intake, physical activity and weight control behaviors, but the majority of the evidence is cross-sectional and there are limitations with the research. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:20306760

  4. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. PMID:27338965

  5. Mania symptoms and HIV-risk behavior among adolescents in mental health treatment.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Angela J; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, M age = 14.9 years) who received mental health treatment completed private, computer-based assessments of psychiatric disorders and of sexual and substance use behaviors and provided urine to screen for sexually transmitted infections (STI). Eighty-seven percent met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, and among these youth 21% were considered ESM+. Compared to those with other psychiatric disorders, ESM+ were more likely to be sexually active (61.6% vs. 53.6%), have multiple sexual partners (58.6% vs. 37.5%), have unprotected sex (38.4% vs. 28.0%), exchange sex for money (4.7% vs. 1.2%), and test positive for an STI (14.0% vs. 6.3%). Among ESM+ youth, sexual risk behaviors were primarily associated with individual factors (e.g., self-efficacy, impulsivity, and substance use) and varied depending on the type of sexual behavior (e.g., onset of sex, number of partners, and condom use). Adolescents with ESM should be regularly screened for sexual risk behaviors and receive HIV prevention skills. Efforts to increase self-efficacy for safer sex, reduce impulsivity, and decrease substance use may be effective targets for sexual risk reduction among adolescents with ESM. PMID:22540428

  6. [Nursing in palliative care to children and adolescents with cancer: integrative literature review].

    PubMed

    da Costa, Thailly Faria; Ceolim, Maria Filomena

    2010-12-01

    Pediatric palliative care is a challenge for nursing because it requires emotional balance and knowledge about its specific features. This study is an integrative literature review that aims to identify nursing actions in palliative care for children and adolescents with cancer, considering peculiarities of the disease and dying process. The review was performed by searching for articles indexed in Biblioteca Virtual da Adolescência (Adolec), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and PubMed databases from January 2004 till May 2009. From 29 references found, six met inclusion criteria. Results show teamwork, home care, pain management, dialogue, family support and particularities of childhood cancer fundamental tools for nursing in palliative care. The complexity of care in this situation requires solidarity, compassion, support and relieving suffering. PMID:21805890

  7. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  8. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  9. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... rights and privileges. Establish and maintain satisfying relationships. Adolescents will learn to share intimacy without feeling worried ...

  10. Autism-Associated Promoter Variant in MET Impacts Functional and Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Rudie, J. D.; Hernandez, L. M.; Brown, J. A.; Beck-Pancer, D.; Colich, N. L.; Gorrindo, P.; Thompson, P. M.; Geschwind, D. H.; Bookheimer, S. Y.; Levitt, P.; Dapretto, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY As genes that confer increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are identified, a crucial next step is to determine how these risk factors impact brain structure and function and contribute to disorder heterogeneity. With three converging lines of evidence, we show that a common, functional ASD risk variant in the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (MET) gene is a potent modulator of key social brain circuitry in children and adolescents with and without ASD. MET risk genotype predicted atypical fMRI activation and deactivation patterns to social stimuli (i.e., emotional faces), as well as reduced functional and structural connectivity in temporo-parietal regions known to have high MET expression, particularly within the default mode network. Notably, these effects were more pronounced in individuals with ASD. These findings highlight how genetic stratification may reduce heterogeneity and help elucidate the biological basis of complex neuropsychiatric disorders such as ASD. PMID:22958829

  11. Nuclear safety criteria and specifications for space nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to define safety criteria which must be met to implement US safety policy for space fission reactors. These criteria provide the bases for decisions on the acceptability of specific mission and reactor design proposals. (JDH)

  12. Clinical assessment of adolescents involved in Satanism.

    PubMed

    Clark, C M

    1994-01-01

    Satanism is a destructive religion that promises power, dominance, and gratification to its practitioners. Unfortunately, some adolescents are seduced by these promises, often because they feel alienated, alone, angry, and desperate. This article explores the psychosocial needs of adolescents that are often met by participation in Satanic worship. Gratification of these needs, when met, may make leaving the cult a difficult and lengthy process. Included is a method for determining the adolescents' level of involvement and an assessment strategy for the therapeutic evaluation process. A brief overview of clinical intervention is also discussed. PMID:8085495

  13. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  14. Predictive value of ceruloplasmin for metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-Riovalle, Jacqueline; Sinausía, Laura; Carmen Valenza, Maríe; Perona, Javier S

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is precisely defined and the cardiovascular risk associated with the clustering of its components has been demonstrated in adults. However, data on children and adolescents are still scarce, in part, because of difficulties in transposing the definition from adults. The identification of risk factors for the development of MetS at an early age is essential for prevention purposes with low-grade inflammation acting as a determinant for the association among the MetS components. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of the MetS with systemic markers of inflammation and ceruloplasmin in a population of adolescents. The present is a cross-sectional study whose sample population consisted of 976 adolescents, 13.2 ± 1.2 years of age. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by ELISA. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was determined by a solid-phase chemiluminiscent immunometric assay. Ceruloplasmin was measured by immunoturbidimetry. MetS adolescents exhibited higher levels of TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and ceruloplasmin compared to non-MetS individuals. TNF-α, IL-6, and CRP showed strong correlations with the MetS components and insulin resistance but not relevant predictive values according to ROC curves (AUC values 0.544- 0.555). In contrast, ceruloplasmin only showed significant correlations in non-Mets individuals, but exhibited a very high predictive value (AUC=0.941, P < 0.001). The determination of serum ceruloplasmin in adolescents might be a useful tool to identify patients with the highest risk of future cardiovascular disease. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(2):163-170, 2016. PMID:27083758

  15. Overweight and obese adolescents: what turns them off physical activity?

    PubMed

    Stankov, Ivana; Olds, Timothy; Cargo, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of qualitative studies was undertaken to understand the barriers to physical activity experienced by adolescents who were overweight or obese. From a search of electronic databases and 'grey' literature, published between 1950 and 2009, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Bronfenbrenner's model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesising barriers to physical activity. Two reviewers appraised study quality. Miles and Huberman's cross-case analysis was integrated with thematic networking to synthesize the individual, interpersonal and environmental level barriers for boys and girls of different ethnicities and socioeconomic status, across school settings and generalised context. Thirty-five barriers were identified, 13 of which occurred in physical activity situations in the school setting, 18 were not linked to a specific setting, and the remainder were common across both contexts. The fact that these barriers emerged from studies that focused on topics such as victimisation and mental health is particularly poignant and reflects the potentially pervasive influence of adolescent's excessive weight not only in relation to physical activity situations but other aspects of their lives. Furthermore, socioeconomic status and ethnicity was poorly considered, with only one study linking these participant characteristics to quotations and discussing the potential implications. At present, there are few qualitative studies with sufficiently thick description or interpretive validity that provide insight into this vulnerable group of adolescents, and give them a voice to influence policy and practice. PMID:22554016

  16. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time. PMID:25691386

  17. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Mikito; Otsuki, Sho; Fujimori, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yuya; Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor, c-MET (MET), play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells. Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or small-molecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells. These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC. PMID:26600931

  18. Predictors of Post-Infectious Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Katz, Ben Z; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case-control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with Infectious Mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at 6 months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at 6 months. PMID:24660116

  19. Predictors of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Katz, Ben Z.; Shiraishi, Yukiko; Mears, Cynthia J.; Im, Young; Taylor, Renee R.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on identifying risk factors for adolescent post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), utilizing a prospective, nested case–control longitudinal design in which over 300 teenagers with infectious mononucleosis (IM) were identified through primary care sites and followed. Baseline variables that were gathered several months following IM, included autonomic symptoms, days in bed since IM, perceived stress, stressful life events, family stress, difficulty functioning and attending school, family stress, and psychiatric disorders. A number of variables were predictors of post-infectious CFS at six months; however, when autonomic symptoms were used as a control variable, only days spent in bed since mono was a significant predictor. Step-wise logistic regression findings indicated that baseline autonomic symptoms as well as days spent in bed since mono, which reflect the severity of illness, were the only significant predictors of those who met CFS criteria at six months. PMID:24660116

  20. Valacyclovir treatment of chronic fatigue in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) presents with fatigue, low motivation, diminished mood, and reduced activity, all symptoms having extensive diagnostic overlaps with depression. Studies have linked chronic viral infections with CFS, and antiviral therapy has effectively treated CFS in adult patients. In a retrospective case series, 15 adolescents and preteens referred to the author for treatment-resistant depression or mood disorder were evaluated and found to have met the Fukuda diagnostic criteria for CFS. While a subset (4/15) had been diagnosed in the past with CFS, the majority had a current diagnosis of depression or a mood disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV Text Revision (DSM-IV TR) criteria for depression were not met in all patients, although 3 cases of mood disorder not otherwise specified (MD-NOS) and 1 case of Tourette syndrome (TS) plus MD-NOS were diagnosed. Baseline scores on the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) were below the cutoff for depression in all but 1 patient. Baseline self-assessment scales for CFS or fatigue were obtained and sleep was evaluated with sleep logs. All patients were treated subsequently with valacyclovir, with 93% having a positive response. At the end of treatment, scores on fatigue self-assessment scales improved significantly (P < .001). Vigor subscale scores also improved significantly (P < .001). Some patients experienced complete resolution of symptoms. Although not every patient was tested, available laboratory testing revealed increased counts of natural killer (NK) cells and decreased human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) antibody titers in all patients who responded to valacyclovir. This article discusses the significance of infectious agents in the pathogenesis of psychiatric symptoms. The study's data support an intriguing hypothesis that a portion of treatment-resistant depression in fact may be undiagnosed CFS or other chronic viral infection. PMID:24445302

  1. c-Met expression and MET amplification in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Bois, Melanie C; Mansfield, Aaron S; Sukov, William R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Moser, Justin C; Sattler, Christopher A; Smith, Carin Y; Molina, Julian R; Peikert, Tobias; Roden, Anja C

    2016-08-01

    c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase shown to be overexpressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Whereas MET mutations have been identified in 3%-16% of MPMs, MET amplification has recently been reported in a single epithelioid MPM. We studied c-Met expression and MET amplification in a large MPM cohort and correlated results with morphologic and clinical features. We report the first case of MET amplification in sarcomatoid MPM. MPMs from surgical pathology files (1989-2014) were reviewed. c-Met immunohistochemistry was performed. Staining intensity and distribution were multiplied (H-score). Staining localization (cytoplasmic and/or membranous) was noted. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed using probes for MET and centromere 7. One hundred forty-nine patients (median age, 68.0years; interquartile range, 61-75) had epithelioid (n=97), biphasic (n=18), or sarcomatoid (n=34) MPM. Median follow-up was 10.1months (range, 0.1-222.5). One hundred thirty patients died of disease; 2 were alive with disease. c-Met was expressed in 147 MPMs. c-Met staining intensity, distribution, and H-score differed among the histologic subtypes (P=.015; P=.0001, and P=.0005, respectively), but none were predictive of survival. Epithelioid subtype had greater c-Met expression. MET amplification was identified in 1 sarcomatoid MPM and MET duplication in 1 epithelioid MPM; both had poor outcomes. Chromosome 7 aneusomy was observed in 54 of 144 (37.5%) MPMs and associated with decreased overall survival in sarcomatoid MPMs (hazard ratio=2.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-6.51; P=.01). In conclusion, c-Met is expressed in MPM, with significant differences in expression among histologic subtypes. MET amplification is a rare event in MPM, making it an unlikely common pathogenesis for c-Met expression. PMID:27402216

  2. COMPREHENSIVE ADOLESCENT HEALTH PROGRAMS THAT INCLUDE SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kågesten, Anna; Parekh, Jenita; Tunçalp, Özge; Turke, Shani; Blum, Robert Wm

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics and evidence of comprehensive adolescent health (CAH) programs encompassing sexual and reproductive and other health services, educational and social support. Methods Systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on CAH programs (1998-2013). Only programs with experimental, quasi-experimental or pre-post evaluations were included. Two independent reviewers screened 36,119 records and extracted articles using predefined criteria. Data was synthesised into descriptive characteristics; quality was assessed by evidence level (rigorous, strong, modest). Results Data was extracted on 46 programs (181 studies) of which 19 programs were defined as comprehensive; 9 were excluded due to insufficient evaluations. Ten CAH programs met all inclusion criteria. Most were US based; others were implemented in Egypt, Ethiopia and Mexico. Few programs (N=3) displayed rigorous evidence, 5 had strong and 2 had modest evidence. All programs with rigorous/strong evidence directly or indirectly influenced adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Common elements of these programs included: long-term commitment to adolescents, interpersonal connections, community mobilization, and skill-building elements. Conclusion The long term impact of many CAH programs cannot be proven due to insufficient evaluations. Evaluation approaches that take into account the complex operating conditions of many programs are needed to better understand mechanisms behind program effects. PMID:25320876

  3. Cytogenetic abnormalities and monosomal karyotypes in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: correlations with clinical characteristics and outcome.

    PubMed

    Manola, Kalliopi N; Panitsas, Fotios; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Daraki, Aggeliki; Karakosta, Maria; Stavropoulou, Cryssa; Avgerinou, Georgia; Hatzipantelis, Emmanuel; Pantelias, Gabriel; Sambani, Constantina; Pagoni, Maria

    2013-03-01

    The whole spectrum of chromosomal abnormalities and their prognostic significance in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been fully elucidated yet, although a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained recently. Moreover, the incidence and prognostic impact of monosomal karyotypes (MKs), which are new cytogenetic categories reported recently in adults with AML, are currently unknown for childhood and adolescent AML. In this study, we investigated the cytogenetic and clinical characteristics of 140 children and adolescents (≤21 y) with AML, and correlated their cytogenetic features with both the clinical characteristics and outcomes of our patient cohort. The most frequent cytogenetic abnormality found in our study was the t(15;17), followed by the t(8;21). Striking differences in the genetic abnormalities and French-American-British subtypes were found among infants, children, and adolescents. Of 124 cases, 15 (12.1%) met the criteria of the MK definition, and 12 of the 15 MKs (80%) were complex karyotypes. Of 124 cases, 27 (21.8%) had cytogenetic abnormalities sufficient to be diagnosed as AML with myelodyspastic sydrome-related features. As expected, patients with the t(15;17) had the most favorable outcomes, whereas patients with 11q23 rearrangements and monosomy 7 had the worst outcomes. These data expand our knowledge by providing novel insights into the cytogenetic features and their correlations with clinical characteristics and outcomes in childhood and adolescent AML. PMID:23411131

  4. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maïano, C; Hue, O; Morin, A J S; Moullec, G

    2016-07-01

    Although there have been numerous studies examining the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, they have not yet been integrated and synthesized through a systematic quantitative review process. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine: (i) the prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities; (ii) the sources of heterogeneity in studies reporting the prevalence of overweight/obesity in this population; and (iii) the risk of overweight/obesity in this population compared with their typically developing peers. A systematic literature search was performed and 16 studies, published between 1985 and 2015, met the inclusion criteria. The resulting pooled prevalence estimates for overweight, overweight-obesity and obesity were respectively: (i) 15%, 30%, and 13%, in children; and (ii) 18%, 33%, and 15% in adolescents. Subgroup analyses showed significant variations in the pooled prevalence estimates as a function of geographical region, recruitment setting, additional diagnoses, and norms used to define overweight or obesity. The findings also showed adolescents with intellectual disabilities to be respectively 1.54 and 1.80 times more at risk of overweight-obesity and obesity than typically developing adolescents. Unfortunately, no such comparison is available for children. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27171466

  5. Patterns and predictors of adolescent academic achievement and performance in a sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Langberg, Joshua M; Molina, Brooke S G; Arnold, L Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mn age = 16.8) who met diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-Combined type in early childhood (Mn age = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education services, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. PMID:21722025

  6. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  7. Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England

    PubMed Central

    Hawton, Keith; Rodham, Karen; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the factors associated with it. Design Cross sectional survey using anonymous self report questionnaire. Setting 41 schools in England. Participants 6020 pupils aged 15 and 16 years. Main outcome measure Deliberate self harm. Results 398 (6.9%) participants reported an act of deliberate self harm in the previous year that met study criteria. Only 12.6% of episodes had resulted in presentation to hospital. Deliberate self harm was more common in females than it was in males (11.2% v 3.2%; odds ratio 3.9, 95% confidence interval 3.1 to 4.9). In females the factors included in a multivariate logistic regression for deliberate self harm were recent self harm by friends, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem. In males the factors were suicidal behaviour in friends and family members, drug use, and low self esteem. Conclusions Deliberate self harm is common in adolescents, especially females. School based mental health initiatives are needed. These could include approaches aimed at educating school pupils about mental health problems and screening for those at risk. What is already known on this topicDeliberate self harm is a common reason for presentation of adolescents to hospitalCommunity studies from outside the United Kingdom have shown much greater prevalence of self harm in adolescents than hospital based studiesWhat this study addsDeliberate self harm defined according to strict criteria is common in adolescents, especially femalesAssociated factors include recent awareness of self harm in peers, self harm by family members, drug misuse, depression, anxiety, impulsivity, and low self esteem PMID:12446536

  8. Threshold and subthreshold generalized anxiety disorder among US adolescents: prevalence, sociodemographic, and clinical characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, M.; Beesdo-Baum, K.; He, J.-P.; Merikangas, K. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Threshold and subthreshold forms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent and impairing conditions among adults. However, there are few general population studies that have examined these conditions during the early life course. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the prevalence, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of threshold and subthreshold forms of GAD in a nationally representative sample of US youth; and (2) test differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between threshold and subthreshold forms of the disorder. Method The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10123 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age in the continental USA. Results Approximately 3% of adolescents met criteria for threshold GAD. Reducing the required duration from 6 months to 3 months resulted in a 65.7% increase in prevalence (5.0%); further relaxing the uncontrollability criterion led to an additional 20.7% increase in prevalence (6.1%). Adolescents with all forms of GAD displayed a recurrent clinical course marked by substantial impairment and co-morbidity with other psychiatric disorders. There were few significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between threshold and subthreshold cases of GAD. Results also revealed age-related differences in the associated symptoms and clinical course of GAD. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the clinical significance of subthreshold forms of GAD among adolescent youth, highlighting the continuous nature of the GAD construct. Age-related differences in the associated symptoms and clinical course of GAD provide further support for criteria that capture variation in clinical features across development. PMID:24384401

  9. Aggression and Violence among Iranian Adolescents and Youth: A 10-year Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572

  10. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  11. Incidence of distal femoral and distal tibial deformities in infantile and adolescent blount disease.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas G; Fishman, Michael K; McCarthy, James J; Davidson, Richard S; Gaughan, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess distal femoral and tibial deformity in patients with infantile and adolescent Blount disease. This was a retrospective review of patients at the authors' institution diagnosed with Blount disease. Thirty-eight patients (21 in the infantile group and 17 in the adolescent group) met the study criteria. Measurements of the anatomic lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), anatomic lateral distal tibial angle (aLDTA), and tibiofemoral angle (TFA) were made from long-leg radiographs. The results of the infantile and adolescent measurements were compared with each other and to a normal database. Intraobserver and interobserver error was determined. The adolescent aLDFA measurements were significantly greater (more varus) than for the infantile group and normal database. The aLDTA (ankle) measurements were not statistically different between the two groups, or from the normal database. Analysis of both intraobserver and interobserver error for the aLDFA and aLDTA showed good reliability. PMID:15718905

  12. Body image of children and adolescents with cancer: a metasynthesis on qualitative research findings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei-Yin; Mu, Pei-Fan; Tsay, Shwu-Feng; Chou, Shin-Shang; Chen, Yu-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2012-09-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer are confronted with many challenges. This review considered studies that used qualitative methods to examine the body image experience of children and adolescents with cancer. A systematic literature search of English and Chinese databases was undertaken, covering the period between 1960 and October 2010. Qualitative research findings were extracted and pooled using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Eight papers met the inclusion criteria. The derived four metasyntheses included being distanced from the body, loss of self-identity, self-protective strategies and support, and getting rid of the shackles of the body. In conclusion, children and adolescents with cancer also experience various problems associated with changes in their body image. Repeated courses of treatment lead to loss of a normal, orderly life, and might even result in changes in interpersonal interactions. In response to body image change, individuals with cancer develop self-protective, coping strategies. Children and adolescents who experience life-threatening cancer come to face body image change positively, and might hold a confident attitude toward their future. PMID:22672500

  13. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.

    2013-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  14. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.

    2015-10-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  15. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2008-09-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  16. Evaluating Dependence Criteria for Caffeine.

    PubMed

    Striley, Catherine L W; Griffiths, Roland R; Cottler, Linda B

    2011-12-01

    Background: Although caffeine is the most widely used mood-altering drug in the world, few studies have operationalized and characterized Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) substance dependence criteria applied to caffeine. Methods: As a part of a nosological study of substance use disorders funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, we assessed caffeine use and dependence symptoms among high school and college students, drug treatment patients, and pain clinic patients who reported caffeine use in the last 7 days and also reported use of alcohol, nicotine, or illicit drugs within the past year (n=167). Results: Thirty-five percent met the criteria for dependence when all seven of the adopted DSM dependence criteria were used. Rates of endorsement of several of the most applicable diagnostic criteria were as follows: 26% withdrawal, 23% desire to cut down or control use, and 44% continued use despite harm. In addition, 34% endorsed craving, 26% said they needed caffeine to function, and 10% indicated that they talked to a physician or counselor about problems experienced with caffeine. There was a trend towards increased caffeine dependence among those dependent on nicotine or alcohol. Within a subgroup that had used caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine in the past year, 28% fulfilled criteria for caffeine dependence compared to 50% for alcohol and 80% for nicotine. Conclusion: The present study adds to a growing literature suggesting the reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the caffeine dependence diagnosis. Recognition of caffeine dependence in the DSM-V may be clinically useful. PMID:24761264

  17. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  18. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4... acceptance criteria (ITAAC) completion. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has... acceptance criteria are met for ITAAC E.2.5.04.05.05.02, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  19. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... acceptance criteria (ITAAC) completion. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has... acceptance criteria are met for ITAAC E.2.5.04.05.05.02, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  20. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  1. Cervicitis in Adolescents: Do Clinicians Understand Diagnosis and Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Bailey, Sarabeth L.; Hensel, Devon J.; Scurlock, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cervicitis is widespread, but no studies have examined cervicitis in accordance with established guidelines for diagnosis and treatment. Study objectives were to describe adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis within an adolescent population and to compare factors associated with adherence to guidelines in a primary care setting and the Emergency Department. Methods Data were collected as part of a retrospective chart review of evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of STI in adolescent women in an outpatient setting. Participant charts were eligible for review if they were 12–21 years of age and were given an ICD-9 and chart diagnosis of cervicitis. Two primary outcome variables: meeting cervicitis guidelines and correct treatment among those meeting cervicitis guidelines (no/yes) were utilized; the study controlled for age, race, venue, past infection with chlamydia or gonorrhea. Results Subjects (n = 365) were examined for the primary outcome variables and 75.1% (274/365) met at least one criterion for cervicitis. Of these, 166 (60.9%: 166/274) subjects were found to meet criteria for cervicitis alone, versus subjects meeting criteria for both cervicitis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (39.4%: 108/274). The majority, 89.3%, (326/365) were treated for both chlamydia and gonorrhea, but only 64.7% (211/326) were treated correctly for both infections. Conclusions Our findings suggest that knowledge deficits exist in diagnosis and treatment of cervicitis in adolescent patients and in differentiating between cervicitis and PID. Educational tools, simulated patient exercises, and order sets may be warranted for quality improvement to allow for improved care of this at risk sexually active population. PMID:21872515

  2. Quality of life among children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis 1: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vranceanu, Ana-Maria; Merker, Vanessa L; Park, Elyse R; Plotkin, Scott R

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research is to identify, within a systematic review, aspects of quality of life (QoL) that are adversely affected in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis (NF), and to report predictors of quality of life in this population. Published reports of original research were included if they described QoL in children and/or adolescents with NF, and met methodological quality according to a list of predefined criteria. Seven studies conducted between 2006 and 2013 met inclusion criteria. All seven studies examined patients with NF1 and reported that these patients have lower general QoL compared to population norms. Parents' proxy ratings of QoL were generally lower than children's self-report ratings. By parent proxy, familial NF1 was a strong protective factor for QoL, while the opposite was found by child report. By parent proxy, male sex was significantly associated with lower scores on the parental time impact of QoL. Skin-related QoL was only slightly altered in this population, vision-specific QoL was impacted only in patients with vision loss. The majority of findings regarding predictors of QoL in children with NF1 were weak, due to a lack of studies, heterogeneity of samples, and heterogeneity of measurements/predictors assessed. Future studies should examine more comprehensively the psychosocial factors affecting the NF population, especially in young patients with NF2 and schwannomatosis, who have been neglected in prior research. The use of consistent QoL measures is preferred to allow better comparison among studies and conditions. Interventions, including comprehensive mind-body treatments, are warranted to address impaired QoL in children and adolescents with NF1. PMID:25663248

  3. Are bidirectional associations of obesity and depression already apparent in childhood and adolescence as based on high-quality studies? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mühlig, Y; Antel, J; Föcker, M; Hebebrand, J

    2016-03-01

    Our aim was to evaluate bidirectional associations of obesity and depression in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies with initial assessments in childhood or adolescence. The clarification of these relationships may support the development of innovative interventions, e.g. based on nutrition and mental health. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE. Main inclusion criteria were (i) assessment of subjects <18 years at baseline, (ii) use of validated psychometric instruments and (iii) elicitation of objectively measured anthropometric data at least at one time point. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Out of 19, 14 cross-sectional studies confirmed a significant association of obesity and depression. Three out of eight longitudinal studies reported associations between obesity and subsequent depression in female children and adolescents only, and three out of nine studies obtained evidence in favour of the other direction with two studies revealing significant results only for female and one only for male children and adolescents. Evidence is mixed, and secure conclusions are hampered by the methodological variance of the included studies. Relationships are seemingly more readily detectable in female children adolescents and in the cross-sectional compared with the longitudinal analyses. Possibly, the joint development of obesity and depression in predisposed subjects accounts for the latter discrepancy. PMID:26681065

  4. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.

    2012-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The main idea behind the MetNet landing vehicles is to use a state-of-the-art inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized and more mass and volume resources are spared for the science payload. The vehicle decelerates its entry speed using the inflatable structure and final landing sequence includes a cone headed body penetrating the Martian soil. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - Pressure device (MetBaro): mass 100g, measurement range 0..1015 hPa. - Humidity device (MetHumi): mass 15g, measurement range 0..100%RH. - Temperature sensors (MetTemp): mass 2g each, measurement range -110C..+30C. Optical devices: - Panoramic camera (PanCam): mass 100g, FOV 4 lenses mounted at 90 deg - Solar irradiance sensor (MetSIS) with optical wireless system (OWLS) for data transfer: mass 115g (MetSIS) and 7g (OWLS module), wavelength range 190..1100nm. MetSIS equipped with 28 optical detectors, two temperature sensors and two solar incidence angle detectors. - Dust sensor (DS): mass 42g, resolution: 10 particles / cm3. Composition and structure device: - Magnetometer (MOURA): mass 80g, measurement range: ±30uT. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate in very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of

  5. The effectiveness of hypnosis for reducing procedure-related pain in children and adolescents: a comprehensive methodological review.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Michelle C; Milling, Leonard S

    2009-08-01

    A comprehensive, methodologically informed review of studies of the effectiveness of hypnosis for reducing procedure-related pain in children and adolescents is provided. To be included in the review, studies were required to use a between-subjects or mixed model design in which hypnosis was compared with a control condition or an alternative intervention in reducing the procedure-related pain of patients younger than age 19. An exhaustive search identified 13 studies satisfying these criteria. Hypnosis was consistently found to be more effective than control conditions in alleviating discomfort associated with bone marrow aspirations, lumbar punctures, voiding cystourethograms, the Nuss procedure, and post-surgical pain. Furthermore, hypnosis was as at least as effective as distraction. Three hypnotic interventions met criteria as a possibly efficacious empirically supported therapy for reducing post-surgical or lumbar puncture pain. Several other hypnotic interventions would have achieved the status of a possibly efficacious therapy had studies used a treatment manual. PMID:19255840

  6. “Friending” Teens: Systematic Review of Social Media in Adolescent and Young Adult Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Scirica, Christina V; Jethwani, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background Social media has emerged as a potentially powerful medium for communication with adolescents and young adults around their health choices. Objective The goal of this systematic review is to identify research on the use of social media for interacting with adolescents and young adults in order to achieve positive health outcomes. Methods A MEDLINE/PubMed electronic database search was performed between January 1, 2002 and October 1, 2013, using terms to identify peer-reviewed research in which social media and other Web 2.0 technologies were an important feature. We used a systematic approach to retrieve papers and extract relevant data. Results We identified 288 studies involving social media, of which 87 met criteria for inclusion; 75 studies were purely observational and 12 were interventional. The ways in which social media was leveraged by these studies included (1) observing adolescent and young adult behavior (n=77), (2) providing health information (n=13), (3) engaging the adolescent and young adult community (n=17), and (4) recruiting research participants (n=23). Common health topics addressed included high-risk sexual behaviors (n=23), alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use (n=19), Internet safety (n=8), mental health issues (n=18), medical conditions (n=11), or other specified issues (n=12). Several studies used more than one social media platform and addressed more than one health-related topic. Conclusions Social media technologies offer an exciting new means for engaging and communicating with adolescents and young adults; it has been successfully used to engage this age group, identify behaviors, and provide appropriate intervention and education. Nevertheless, the majority of studies to date have been preliminary and limited in their methodologies, and mostly center around evaluating how adolescents and young adults use social media and the resulting implications on their health. Although these explorations are essential, further

  7. [Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence].

    PubMed

    Koenig, Julian; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence The present study sought to clarify the potential relationship between critical life events and pathological internet use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the framework of a European school-based study (SEYLE) which included a representative sample of 1,444 students from the Rhein-Neckar catchment area. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) was used to assess pathological internet use, whereas a combination of the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) and Life Events Checklist (LCE) was administered to assess critical life events over the period of the last six months. Statistical models were adjusted for the presence of psychopathological distress using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 4.8 % of the participating students reported pathological internet use, 14.5 % met criteria for risky Internet use. Overall, adolescents with risky or pathological internet use recalled more critical life events, particularly within the context of interpersonal relationships and academic performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychopathological distress, results showed that an unexpected decrease in academic performance as well as the termination of a romantic relationship, both were significantly associated with pathological internet use. Adolescents with pathological internet use reported significantly more frequent interpersonal problems and an unexpected decrease of academic performance. Based on the cross-sectional nature of the investigation, causality of the association cannot be established. However, results point towards potential risk factors (academic performance, termination of relationships) which may guide the identification of adolescents with risky or pathological internet use in child- and adolescent psychiatry. PMID:27595809

  8. A systematic review of self-medication practices among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Agarwal, Anoop Kumar; Khan, Nelofer

    2014-10-01

    The purpose was to systematically review the global trends and factors influencing self-medication (SM) among adolescents. Databases (Medline/Pubmed, Ingenta, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, CINAHL, Proquest, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for peer-reviewed research published between January 2000 and December 2013 on SM among adolescents aged 13-18 years. Articles were scrutinized for country of origin, sample size, recall period, prevalence rates and associations, influencing factors, medicines used, self-medicated health complaints, sources of drug information, recommendation and procurement, knowledge about medicines, and adverse drug reactions. One hundred and sixty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. SM prevalence ranged from 2% to 92% in different countries. The most frequently self-medicated over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines were analgesics and antibiotics, respectively. Headache, allergies, and fever were the most common self-medicated health complaints reported. Misuse of both over-the-counter and prescription-only medicines reflected a risky trend. Female gender, older age, maternal education, and familial practices were associated with SM among adolescents. The primary sources of drug information, recommendation, and procurement included pharmacists, parents, and friends. High-risk practices such as diversion of prescription medicines and utilization of previous prescriptions were also reported. Most studies revealed gaps in drug knowledge, although adolescents self-rated it as satisfactory. However, few adverse drug reactions were reported, probably because of lack of awareness about the potential harmful effects of medicines. Recommendations for "responsible SM" have been made to minimize the adverse effects of SM. Understanding the links between various factors promoting SM can be helpful in deriving strategies aimed at reducing drug-related health risks among adolescents. Moreover, these will aid in creating awareness

  9. [Physiological adolescence, pathological adolescence].

    PubMed

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Gourion, David; Canceil, Olivier; Lôo, Henri

    2006-11-01

    The uncertainties of looming adulthood, nostalgia for childhood, and a general malaise explain the crisis of adolescence. Rebellion, conflict, occasional failure at school or in society, and at-risk behaviors are not always signs of future psychiatric illness. In contrast, the physician must be in a position to identify tell-tale signs such as dysmorphophobia, existential anxiety, a feeling of emptiness, and school or social breakdown. Most psychiatric disorders that begin in adolescence are only diagnosed several years after onset. Yet early diagnosis is of utmost importance, as treatment becomes less effective and the long-term prognosis worsens with time. Suicide is the second cause of death during adolescence. All signs of suicidal behavior require hospitalization and evaluation in a psychiatric unit. Antidepressants may be necessary in adolescence. The recent controversy concerning a possible increase in the suicidal risk during antidepressant treatment should not mask the fact that the real public health issue is depression, and not antidepressants. Eating disorders are especially frequent among adolescent girls; it is important to identify psychiatric comorbidities such as schizophrenia, depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and to assess the vital risk. Illicit drug and alcohol consumption are frequent during adolescence; for example, close to half of all French adolescents have tried cannabis at least once. Once again, it is important to detect psychiatric comorbidities in substance-abusing adolescents. Phobia is an underdiagnosed anxiety disorder among adolescents; it may become chronic if proper treatment is not implemented, leading to suffering and disability. Finally, two major psychiatric disorders--schizophrenia and bipolar disorder--generally begin in adolescence. Treatment efficacy and the long-term prognosis both depend on early diagnosis. Treatment must be tailored to the individual patient. "Borderline" states are over

  10. Regulation of the MET oncogene: molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jack; Babic, Andy

    2016-04-01

    TheMEToncogene is a predictive biomarker and an attractive therapeutic target for various cancers. Its expression is regulated at multiple layers via various mechanisms. It is subject to epigenetic modifications, i.e. DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Hypomethylation and acetylation of theMETgene have been associated with its high expression in some cancers. Multiple transcription factors including Sp1 and Ets-1 govern its transcription. After its transcription,METmRNA is spliced into multiple species in the nucleus before being transported to the cytoplasm where its translation is modulated by at least 30 microRNAs and translation initiation factors, e.g. eIF4E and eIF4B.METmRNA produces a single chain pro-Met protein of 170kDa which is cleaved into α and β chains. These two chains are bound together through disulfide bonds to form a heterodimer which undergoes either N-linked or O-linked glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus before it is properly localized in the membrane. Upon interactions with its ligand, i.e. hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), the activity of Met kinase is boosted through various phosphorylation mechanisms and the Met signal is relayed to downstream pathways. The phosphorylated Met is then internalized for subsequent degradation or recycle via proteasome, lysosome or endosome pathways. Moreover, the Met expression is subject to autoregulation and activation by other EGFRs and G-protein coupled receptors. Since deregulation of theMETgene leads to cancer and other pathological conditions, a better understanding of theMETregulation is critical for Met-targeted therapeutics. PMID:26905592

  11. Prototype of the Modular Equipment Transporter (MET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A prototype of the Modular Equipment Transporter (MET), nicknamed the 'Rickshaw' after its shape and method of propulsion. This equipment was used by the Apollo 14 astronauts during their geological and lunar surface simulation training in the Pinacate volcanic area of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. The Apollo 14 crew will be the first one to use the MET. It will be a portable workbench with a place for the lunar handtools and their carrier, three cameras, two sample container bags, a Special Environmental Sample Container, spare film magazines, and a Lunar Surface Penetrometer.

  12. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years: Comparison between the United States and Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), its risk factors, and obesity in adolescents in the United States (US) and Korea. Data were obtained from the 2003-2004 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and 2005 Korea NHANES for adolescents aged 12-19 yr i...

  13. Patterns and Predictors of Adolescent Academic Achievement and Performance in a Sample of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Langberg, Joshua M.; Molina, Brooke S.G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Altaye, Mekibib; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Swanson, James M.; Wigal, Timothy; Hechtman, Lily

    2011-01-01

    Examined predictors of academic achievement, measured by standardized test scores, and performance, measured by school grades, in adolescents (Mage=16.8 yr) who met diagnostic criteria for ADHD-Combined type in early childhood (Mage = 8.5; N = 579). Several mediation models were also tested to determine whether ADHD medication use, receipt of special education, classroom performance, homework completion, or homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic outcomes. Childhood predictors of adolescent achievement differed from those for performance. Classroom performance and homework management mediated the relationship between symptoms of inattention and academic outcomes. Implications for understanding the relationship between symptoms of ADHD and academic functioning are discussed. PMID:21722025

  14. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Witchel, Selma Feldman; Roumimper, Hailey; Oberfield, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a familial heterogeneous disorder affecting 6% to 10% of reproductive-age women. The use of criteria developed for adult women is problematic for the adolescent girl because the clinical features associated with PCOS are normal pubertal events. The recent consensus statement on PCOS in adolescents stated that hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea need to persist for at least 2 years to consider the diagnosis of PCOS. Although insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, and obesity are often associated with PCOS, these features are not considered valid diagnostic criteria. Recent genomewide association studies implicate genetic loci involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:27241968

  15. Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009) was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Thirty-three adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and posttreatment/postwaitlist. In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators' ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed. PMID:25526831

  16. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Early Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Clinical Anxiety: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009), was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Method Thirty-three adolescents (11–15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and post-treatment/post-waitlist. Results In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators’ ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. Conclusions The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed. PMID:25526831

  17. Energy Cost of Common Activities in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lyden, Kate; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty; Alhassan, Sofiya

    2014-01-01

    Background The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values. Purpose To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium. Methods Thirty-two children (8–11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12–16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer. Results In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1–3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3–2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m·s−1, 1.56 m·s−1, and 1.34 m·s−1 (0.4–0.8 METs lower)]. Conclusion The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth. PMID:22398418

  18. Adolescents with gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Klink, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Young people with gender dysphoria are increasingly seen by pediatric endocrinologists. Mental health child specialists assess the adolescent and give advice about psychological or medical treatment. Provided they fulfill eligibility and readiness criteria, adolescents may receive pubertal suspension, consisting of using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs, later followed by cross-sex hormones (sex steroids of the experienced gender). If they fulfill additional criteria, they may have various types of gender affirming surgery. Current issues involve safety aspects. Although generally considered safe in the short-term, the long-term effects regarding bone health and cardiovascular risks are still unknown. Therefore, vigilance is warranted during and long after completion of the last gender affirming surgeries. The timing of the various treatment steps is also under debate: instead of fixed age limits, the cognitive and emotional maturation, along with the physical development, are now often considered as more relevant. PMID:26051304

  19. 5 CFR 550.705 - Criteria for meeting the requirement for 12 months of continuous employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.705 Criteria... of continuous employment is met if, on the date of separation, an employee has held one or...

  20. Overweight and obese adolescents: what turns them off physical activity?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of qualitative studies was undertaken to understand the barriers to physical activity experienced by adolescents who were overweight or obese. From a search of electronic databases and ‘grey’ literature, published between 1950 and 2009, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Bronfenbrenner’s model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesising barriers to physical activity. Two reviewers appraised study quality. Miles and Huberman’s cross-case analysis was integrated with thematic networking to synthesize the individual, interpersonal and environmental level barriers for boys and girls of different ethnicities and socioeconomic status, across school settings and generalised context. Thirty-five barriers were identified, 13 of which occurred in physical activity situations in the school setting, 18 were not linked to a specific setting, and the remainder were common across both contexts. The fact that these barriers emerged from studies that focused on topics such as victimisation and mental health is particularly poignant and reflects the potentially pervasive influence of adolescent’s excessive weight not only in relation to physical activity situations but other aspects of their lives. Furthermore, socioeconomic status and ethnicity was poorly considered, with only one study linking these participant characteristics to quotations and discussing the potential implications. At present, there are few qualitative studies with sufficiently thick description or interpretive validity that provide insight into this vulnerable group of adolescents, and give them a voice to influence policy and practice. PMID:22554016

  1. Nutrient Criteria Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed methodologies for deriving nutrient criteria, default criteria for the variety of waters and eco-regions found in the U.S., and a strategy for implementing the criteria including guidance on the use and development of biocriteria. Whereas preliminary research ha...

  2. Rebound Effects Caused by Withdrawal of MET Kinase Inhibitor Are Quenched by a MET Therapeutic Antibody.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Emanuela; Ducano, Nadia; Lupo, Barbara; Vigna, Elisa; Avanzato, Daniele; Perera, Timothy; Trusolino, Livio; Lanzetti, Letizia; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2016-09-01

    MET oncogene amplification is emerging as a major mechanism of acquired resistance to EGFR-directed therapy in lung and colorectal cancers. Furthermore, MET amplification predicts responsiveness to MET inhibitors currently in clinical trials. Among the anti-MET drugs available, ATP-competitive small-molecule kinase inhibitors abrogate receptor autophosphorylation and downstream activation of ERK1/2 and AKT, resulting in cell-cycle arrest. However, this antiproliferative effect allows persistence of a pool of cancer cells that are quiescent but alive. Once the inhibition is removed, rebound activation of MET-driven cell proliferative pathways and tumor growth may occur, an adverse event observed frequently in clinical settings after drug discontinuation. Here we show that inhibitor withdrawal prompts receptor phosphorylation to levels higher than those displayed at steady-state and generates a rebound effect pushing quiescent cancer cells back into the cell cycle, both in vitro and in experimental tumor models in vivo Mechanistically, we found that inhibitor treatment blocks MET endocytosis, causing a local increase in the number of receptors at the plasma membrane. Upon inhibitor washout, the receptor is readily rephosphorylated. The initial phosphorylation is not only increased but also prolonged in duration due to downmodulation of a phosphatase-mediated MET-negative feedback loop, which accompanies receptor internalization. Notably, treatment with a MET therapeutic antibody that induces proteolytic cleavage of the receptor at the cell surface substantially prevents this rebound effect, providing a rationale to combine or alternate these mechanistically different types of MET-targeted therapy. Cancer Res; 76(17); 5019-29. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27364553

  3. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 4: Review criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for the organization, preparation and conduct of program reviews for photovoltaic applications. These criteria apply to all photovoltaic applications. They include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Conceptual design review; (2) Preliminary design review; (3) Critical design review; and (4) Operational readiness review. Contract goal's and objectives are met through program monitoring for cost, schedule, and performance for both managerial and technical elements for all PV applications activities.

  4. Hay fever in adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Hay fever is found throughout the world. Epidemiological evidence suggests considerable geographical variation in its prevalence. Symptoms are caused by an IgE-mediated type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to airborne allergens such as pollen or fungal spores, and may also cause eye, sinus, respiratory, and systemic problems. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for hay fever in adolescents and adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 211 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intranasal corticosteroids, oral antihistamines, intranasal antihistamines, oral leukotriene receptor antagonists, systemic corticosteroids, intranasal ipratropium bromide, oral decongestants, and combinations of these treatments. PMID:21726475

  5. Harmonizing DTI measurements across scanners to examine the development of white matter microstructure in 803 adolescents of the NCANDA study.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Chu, Weiwei; Kwon, Dongjin; Nichols, B Nolan; Zhang, Yong; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Cummins, Kevin; Thompson, Wesley K; Brumback, Ty; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C; Prouty, Devin; De Bellis, Michael D; Voyvodic, James T; Clark, Duncan B; Schirda, Claudiu; Nagel, Bonnie J; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2016-04-15

    Neurodevelopment continues through adolescence, with notable maturation of white matter tracts comprising regional fiber systems progressing at different rates. To identify factors that could contribute to regional differences in white matter microstructure development, large samples of youth spanning adolescence to young adulthood are essential to parse these factors. Recruitment of adequate samples generally relies on multi-site consortia but comes with the challenge of merging data acquired on different platforms. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired on GE and Siemens systems through the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a multi-site study designed to track the trajectories of regional brain development during a time of high risk for initiating alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional analysis reports baseline Tract-Based Spatial Statistic (TBSS) of regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (L1), and radial diffusivity (LT) from the five consortium sites on 671 adolescents who met no/low alcohol or drug consumption criteria and 132 adolescents with a history of exceeding consumption criteria. Harmonization of DTI metrics across manufacturers entailed the use of human-phantom data, acquired multiple times on each of three non-NCANDA participants at each site's MR system, to determine a manufacturer-specific correction factor. Application of the correction factor derived from human phantom data measured on MR systems from different manufacturers reduced the standard deviation of the DTI metrics for FA by almost a half, enabling harmonization of data that would have otherwise carried systematic error. Permutation testing supported the hypothesis of higher FA and lower diffusivity measures in older adolescents and indicated that, overall, the FA, MD, and L1 of the boys were higher than those of the girls, suggesting continued microstructural development

  6. Frequency, Comorbidity, and Psychosocial Impairment of Depressive Disorders in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Conradt, Judith; Petermann, Franz

    2000-01-01

    Estimated the frequency, comorbidity, and psychosocial impairment of depressive disorders from survey of 1,035 German 12- to 17-year-olds. Found that 17.9 percent met the lifetime criteria for depressive disorders, according to DSM-IV criteria; criteria were higher in females than in males. Rates for all disorders increased with age, with…

  7. Aripiprazole for treating irritability in children & adolescents with autism: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Tordjman, Sylvie; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: No clear therapeutic benefits of antipsychotics have been reported for the treatment of behavioural symptoms in autism. This systematic review provides an assessment of evidence for treating irritability in autism by aripiprazole. Methods: The databases of MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for relevant articles about the effect of aripiprazole in children with autism. The articles were searched according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria specifed for this review. All the double-blind, controlled, randomized, clinical trials examining the efficacy of aripiprazole for treating children and adolescents with autism were included. Results: From the 93 titles identified, 26 were irrelevant and 58 were evaluated for more details. Only five articles met the inclusive criteria. The evidence from precise randomized double blind clinical trials of aripiprazole for the treatment of autism in children and adolescents was convincing enough to recommend aripiprazole. Adverse effects were not very common and were usually mild. Interpretation & conclusions: Current evidence suggests that aripiprazole is as effective and safe as risperidone for treating irritability in autism. However, further studies with larger sample size and longer duration are required. PMID:26458342

  8. Longitudinal evidence that psychopathy scores in early adolescence predict adult psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Lynam, Donald R; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-02-01

    This study examined the relation between psychopathy assessed at age 13 by using the mother-reported Childhood Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997) and psychopathy assessed at age 24 by using the interviewer-rated Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995). Data from over 250 participants of the middle sample of the Pittsburgh Youth Study were used to examine this relation; approximately 9% of the sample met criteria for a possible PCL:SV diagnosis. Despite the long time lag, different sources, and different methods, psychopathy from early adolescence into young adulthood was moderately stable (r=.31). The relation was present for the PCL:SV total and facet scores, was not moderated by initial risk status or initial psychopathy level, and held even after controlling for other age 13 variables. Diagnostic stability was somewhat lower. Both specificity and negative predictive power were good, and sensitivity was adequate, but positive predictive power was poor. This constitutes the first demonstration of the relative stability of psychopathy from adolescence into adulthood and provides evidence for the incremental utility of the adolescent psychopathy construct. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17324026

  9. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in bereaved children and adolescents: factor structure and correlates.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Spuij, Mariken

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the factor structure and correlates of posttraumatic stress-disorder (PTSD) symptoms among children and adolescents confronted with the death of a loved one. Three hundred thirty-two bereaved children and adolescents (aged 8-18; 56.9 % girls) who all received some form of psychosocial support after their loss, completed self-report measures of PTSD, together with measures tapping demographic and loss-related variables, depression, prolonged grief, and functional impairment. Parent-rated indices of impairment were also collected. We first evaluated the fit of six alternative models of the factor structure of PTSD symptoms, using confirmatory factor analyses. Outcomes showed that the 4-factor numbing model from King et al. (Psychological Assessment 10, 90-96, 1998), with distinct factors of reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal fit the data best. Of all participants, 51.5 % met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. PTSD-status and scores on the PTSD factors varied as a function of age and gender, but were unrelated to other demographic and loss-related variables. PTSD-status and scores on the PTSD factors were significantly associated symptom-levels of depression, prolonged grief, and functional impairment. Findings complement prior evidence that the DSM-IV model of the factor structure of PTSD symptoms may not represent the best conceptualization of these symptoms and highlight the importance of addressing PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents seeking help after bereavement. PMID:23612882

  10. Prolonged Exposure vs Dynamic Therapy for Adolescent PTSD: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Foa, Edna; Shafran, Naama; Aderka, Idan M.; Powers, Mark B.; Rachamim, Lilach; Rosenbach, Lea; Yadin, Elna; Apter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy and maintenance of developmentally adapted prolonged Exposure (PE-A) compared to active control Time Limited Dynamic Therapy (TLDP-A) for reducing post-traumatic and depressive symptoms in adolescent victims of single event traumas. Method 38 adolescents (age 12–18) were randomly assigned to receive either PE-A or TLDP-A. Results Both treatments resulted in decreased post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, and increased functioning. PE-A exhibited greater reduction of PTSD and depression symptom severity, and greater increase in global functioning than did TDLP-A. At post-treatment, 68.4% of adolescents beginning treatment with PE-A and 36.8% of those beginning treatment with TLDP-A no longer met diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Treatment gains were maintained at 6 and 17 months follow-up. Conclusions Brief individual therapy is effective in reducing post-traumatic distress and behavioral trauma-focused components enhance efficacy. PMID:20855048

  11. 46 CFR 295.31 - Criteria for payment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATORS MARITIME SECURITY PROGRAM (MSP) Payment and Billing Procedures § 295.31 Criteria for payment (a... time of the current billing. The daily reduction amounts shall be based on the annual amounts in 295.30...) have not been met. (5) Amounts owed to MARAD for reductions applicable to a prior billing period...

  12. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    MCDOWELL, A.K.; TRINER, G.C.

    2002-03-28

    DOE Order 435.1 requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of waste at TSD units operated by WMP. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Revisions to the acceptance criteria document require an Unreviewed Safety Question review to document that the changes are consistent with current applicable safety analysis. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility; and T-Plant facility. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the waste specification records (WSRds) and/or waste stream profile sheet approvals. The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite

  13. Could the organ shortage ever be met?

    PubMed

    Levitt, Mairi

    2015-01-01

    The organ shortage is commonly presented as having a clear solution, increase the number of organs donated and the problem will be solved. In the light of the Northern Ireland Assembly's consultation on moving to an opt-out organ donor register this article focuses on the social factors and complexities which impact strongly on both the supply of, and demand for, transplantable organs. Judging by the experience of other countries presumed consent systems may or may not increase donations but have not met demand. Donation rates have risen considerably in all parts of the UK recently but there is also an increasing demand for organs. Looking at international donation rates and attitudes, future demand for organs and education on donation, the question is whether the organ shortage could ever be met. The increase in longevity, in rates of diabetes and obesity and in alcohol related liver disease all contribute both to increased demand for transplants, and re-transplants, and a reduction in the number of usable organs. It is unlikely that demand could ever be met, since, if supply was unlimited, the focus would move to financial resources and competing demands on the health care budget in a publicly funded health system. These factors point to the need to focus on ways of reducing, or at least stabilizing, demand where lifestyle factors contribute to the underlying disease. PMID:26201829

  14. Smart Polymeric Nanocarriers of Met-enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Roza; Trzebicka, Barbara; Dworak, Andrzej; Otulakowski, Lukasz; Kosowski, Dominik; Hertlein, Justyna; Haladjova, Emi; Rangelov, Stanislav; Szweda, Dawid

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a novel approach to polymeric nanocarriers of the therapeutic peptide met-enkephalin based on the aggregation of thermoresponsive polymers. Thermoresponsive bioconjugate poly((di(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate)-ran-(oligo(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether methacrylate) is synthesized by AGET ATRP using modified met-enkephalin as a macroinitiator. The abrupt heating of bioconjugate water solution leads to the self-assembly of bioconjugate chains and the formation of mesoglobules of controlled sizes. Mesoglobules formed by bioconjugates are stabilized by coating with cross-linked two-layer shell via nucleated radical polymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide using a degradable cross-linker. The targeting peptide RGD, containing the fluorescence marker carboxyfluorescein, is linked to a nanocarrier during the formation of the outer shell layer. In the presence of glutathione, the whole shell is completely degradable and the met-enkephalin conjugate is released. It is anticipated that precisely engineered nanoparticles protecting their cargo will emerge as the next-generation platform for cancer therapy and many other biomedical applications. PMID:27409457

  15. Truncated RAF kinases drive resistance to MET inhibition in MET-addicted cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Petti, Consalvo; Picco, Gabriele; Martelli, Maria Luisa; Trisolini, Elena; Bucci, Enrico; Perera, Timothy; Isella, Claudio; Medico, Enzo

    2015-01-01

    Constitutively active receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are known oncogenic drivers and provide valuable therapeutic targets in many cancer types. However, clinical efficacy of RTK inhibitors is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. To identify genes conferring resistance to inhibition of the MET RTK, we conducted a forward genetics screen in the GTL-16 gastric cancer cell line, carrying MET amplification and exquisitely sensitive to MET inhibition. Cells were transduced with three different retroviral cDNA expression libraries and selected for growth in the presence of the MET inhibitor PHA-665752. Selected cells displayed robust and reproducible enrichment of library-derived cDNAs encoding truncated forms of RAF1 and BRAF proteins, whose silencing reversed the resistant phenotype. Transduction of naïve GTL-16 cells with truncated, but not full length, RAF1 and BRAF conferred in vitro and in vivo resistance to MET inhibitors, which could be reversed by MEK inhibition. Induction of resistance by truncated RAFs was confirmed in other MET-addicted cell lines, and further extended to EGFR-addicted cells. These data show that truncated RAF1 and BRAF proteins, recently described as products of genomic rearrangements in gastric cancer and other malignancies, have the ability to render neoplastic cells resistant to RTK-targeted therapy. PMID:25473895

  16. Understanding and Targeting MET Signaling in Solid Tumors - Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Ariyawutyakorn, Witthawat; Saichaemchan, Siriwimon; Varella-Garcia, Marileila

    2016-01-01

    The MET signaling pathway plays an important role in normal physiology and its deregulation has proved critical for development of numerous solid tumors. Different technologies have been used to investigate the genomic and proteomic status of MET in cancer patients and its association with disease prognosis. Moreover, with the development of targeted therapeutic drugs, there is an urgent need to identify potential biomarkers for selection of patients who are more likely to derive benefit from these agents. Unfortunately, the variety of technical platforms and analysis criteria for diagnosis has brought confusion to the field and a lack of agreement in the evaluation of MET status as a prognostic or predictive marker for targeted therapy agents. We review the molecular mechanisms involved in the deregulation of the MET signaling pathway in solid tumors, the different technologies used for diagnosis, and the main factors that affect the outcome, emphasizing the urge for completing analytical and clinical validation of these tests. We also review the current clinical studies with MET targeted agents, which mostly focus on lung cancer. PMID:27076844

  17. Adolescent Identity and Career Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris S.; Strom, Robert D.; Whitten, Leah S.; Kraska, Marie F.

    2014-01-01

    The wish to be seen as an adult has been an adolescent goal for generations. This goal is more difficult to attain in a technological society because extended education is needed for employment but the criteria for adult recognition continue to reflect conditions of the past. Results are reported for an online poll of 288 high school students…

  18. Reactor tank UT acceptance criteria. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1990-01-30

    The SRS reactor tanks are constructed of type 304 stainless steel, with 0.5 inch thick walls. An ultrasonic (UT) in-service inspection program has been developed for examination of these tanks, in accordance with the ISI Plan for the Savannah River Production Reactors Process Water System (DPSTM-88-100-1). Prior to initiation of these inspections, criteria for the disposition of any indications that might be found are required. A working group has been formed to review available information on the SRS reactor tanks and develop acceptance criteria. This working group includes nationally recognized experts in the nuclear industry. The working group has met three times and produced three documents describing the proposed acceptance criteria, the technical basis for the criteria and a proposed initial sampling plan. This report transmits these three documents, which were prepared in accordance with the technical task plan and quality assurance plan for this task, task 88-001-A- 1. In addition, this report summarizes the acceptance criteria and proposed sampling plan, and provides further interpretation of the intent of these three documents where necessary.

  19. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among Obese Adolescents Enrolled in a Multidisciplinary Weight Management Program: Clinical Correlates and Response to Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Marilyn; Evans, Ronald K.; Bryan, Daphne L.; Moskowitz, William B.; Clore, John N.; Laver, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline and after 6 months of lifestyle modification among obese adolescents referred to a multidisciplinary weight management program. Methods A total of 165 obese adolescents were evaluated at baseline, and measurements were repeated in 57 subjects who completed 6 months of the program. Metabolic syndrome was defined as having three or more of the following: a body mass index (BMI) >97th percentile, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hypertriglyceridemia, and impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Results The prevalence of a BMI >97th percentile, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, and IFG was 92.7, 54.5, 29.1, 26.7, and 2.4%, respectively. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at baseline was 30.3%. After 6 months of lifestyle modification, BMI z scores, percent body fat, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) decreased significantly from baseline; however, there was no significant change in the number of subjects demonstrating ≥three criteria of the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Approximately one third of the study subjects met the criteria of the metabolic syndrome, emphasizing the growing concern for the future development of premature cardiovascular disease in this high-risk population. Our data suggest that new strategies for lifestyle modification may be needed to improve cardiovascular risk factors significantly among adolescents with obesity. PMID:19450141

  20. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; de Farias, José Cazuza; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were “high levels of body weight” (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and “lower level of physical activity” (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with “high levels of body weight” and “low levels of physical activity” were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  1. Family Meal Frequency among Children and Adolescents with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Elran-Barak, Roni; Sztainer, Maya; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies on family meals and disordered eating have mainly drawn their samples from the general population. The goal of the current study is to determine family meal frequency among children and adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN), and Feeding or Eating Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified (FED-NEC), and to examine if family meal frequency is associated with eating disorder psychopathology. Methods: Participants included 154 children and adolescents (M=14.92±2.62), who met criteria for AN (n=60), BN (n=32), or FED-NEC (n=62). All participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the Family Meal Questionnaire (FMQ) prior to treatment at the University of Chicago Eating Disorders Program. Results: AN and BN participants significantly differed in terms of family meal frequency. A majority of participants with AN (71.7%), compared to less than half (43.7%) of participants with BN, reported eating dinner with their family frequently (five or more times per week). Family meal frequency during dinner was significantly and negatively correlated with dietary restraints and eating concerns among participants with BN (r=-.381, r=-.366, p<.05) and FED-NEC (r=-.340, r=-.276, p<.05). Conclusions: AN patients' higher family meal frequency may beexplained bytheir parents' relatively greater vigilance over eating, whereas families of BN patients may be less aware of eating disorder behaviors and hence less insistent upon family meals. Additionally, children and adolescents with AN may be more inhibited and withdrawn, and therefore are perhaps more likely to stay at home and eat together with their families. PMID:24529833

  2. Sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Paulo Henrique; Farias Júnior, José Cazuza de; Florindo, Alex Antonio

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the methodological characteristics of the studies selected and assess variables associated with sedentary behavior in Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS For this systematic review, we searched four electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, SciELO. Also, electronic searches were applied in Google Scholar. A supplementary search was conducted in the references lists of the included articles and in non-indexed journals. We included observational studies with children and adolescents aged from three to 19 years developed in Brazil, presenting analyses of associations based on regression methods and published until September 30, 2014. RESULTS Of the 255 potential references retrieved by the searches, 49 met the inclusion criteria and composed the descriptive synthesis. In this set, we identified a great number of cross-sectional studies (n = 43; 88.0%) and high methodological variability on the types of sedentary behavior assessed, measurement tools and cut-off points used. The variables most often associated with sedentary behavior were "high levels of body weight" (in 15 out of 27 studies; 55.0%) and "lower level of physical activity" (in eight out of 16 studies; 50.0%). CONCLUSIONS The findings of this review raise the following demands to the Brazilian agenda of sedentary behavior research geared to children and adolescents: development of longitudinal studies, validation of measuring tools, establishment of risk cut-offs, measurement of sedentary behavior beyond screen time and use of objective measures in addition to questionnaires. In the articles available, the associations between sedentary behavior with "high levels of body weight" and "low levels of physical activity" were observed in different regions of Brazil. PMID:27007685

  3. Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Single-Center, Open-Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Eyüp Sabri; Kutlu, Ayşe; Çıkoğlu, Sibel; Veznedaroğlu, Baybars; Erermiş, Serpil; Varan, Azmi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Risperidone is one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of children and adolescents. However, the data about its use in children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) are limited. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of risperidone in controlling major symptoms of CD in children and adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and severe CD. Methods: Children and adolescents were eligible for this single-center, open-label study if they met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for ADHD and ODD and also were diagnosed with severe CD. The patients were treated with risperidone in an open-label fashion for 8 weeks, starting at a daily dosage of 0.25 mg or 0.5 mg (depending on their body weight) in 2 divided doses. Results: The study population comprised 21 children and adolescents (17 boys, 4 girls) with a mean (SD) age of 10.8 (3.6) years. The mean (SD) dosage of risperidone at the end of 8 weeks of treatment was 1.27 (0.42) mg/d (range, 0.75–2.0 mg/d). On the basis of the global improvement subscale of the Clinical Global Impression scale, 16 of 20 patients (80%) were classified as responders. Significant improvements were observed after risperidone treatment in the inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and CD subscales of the Turgay DSM-IV–Based Child and Adolescent Behavior Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (parent and teacher forms). No severe adverse events were reported. Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous findings and suggest that risperidone may be an effective and well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of children and adolescents with CD. However, further studies, particularly placebo-controlled and double-blinded, are needed to better define the clinical use

  4. Prognostic value of MET, cyclin D1 and MET gene copy number in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenze; Song, Liping; Ai, Ting; Zhang, Yingbing; Gao, Ying; Cui, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation of the expression of MET and cyclin D1 and MET gene copy number in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and patient clinicopathologic characteristics and survival. Sixty-one NSCLC tissue specimens were included in the study. The expression of MET and cyclin D1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and MET gene copy number was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Positive expression of MET and cyclin D1 protein and increased MET gene copy number occurred in 59.0%, 59.0% and 18.0% of 61 NSCLC tissues, respectively. MET-positivity correlated with poor differentiation (P = 0.009). Increased MET gene copy number was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.004) and advanced tumor stage (P = 0.048), while the expression of cyclin D1 was not associated with any clinicopathologic parameters. There was a significant correlation between the expression of MET and MET gene copy number (P = 0.002). Additionally, the expression of cyclin D1 had a significant association with the expression of MET as well as MET gene copy number (P = 0.002 and P = 0.017, respectively). MET-positivity and increased MET gene copy number were significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively) in univariate analysis. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis confirmed that the expression of MET and MET gene copy number were prognostic indicators of NSCLC (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). The overexpression of MET and the increased MET gene copy number might be adverse prognostic factors for NSCLC patients. The activation of the MET/cyclin D1 signaling pathway may contribute to carcinogenesis and the development of NSCLC, and may represent a target for therapy. PMID:23720678

  5. Association between adolescence obesity and metabolic syndrome: Evidence from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nouri, Fatemeh; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is more prevalent among Iranian adolescences. This study aimed to find the relationship between obesity and MetS among different education grades of Iranian adolescence. Materials and Methods: Overall, 1039 junior high school and 953 high school students were selected using multistage random sampling. Fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured. Trained individuals measured waist circumference and blood pressure. MetS was defined according to the De Ferranti definition. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.6% and 6.2% in junior and 11.5% and 4.3% in high school students, respectively. Obese subjects in both grades have higher waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and triglyceride than comparable groups. Multiple logistic regression models showed that overweight and obesity were strongly associated with MetS components analyzed. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight and obese in junior high school students were 1.47 and 2.23 times more likely to be having high TG, respectively, whereas overweight and obese in high school-students were also more likely to have elevated TG [ORs 1.94 (1.28-2.94), 4.96 (2.39-10.3) respectively]. Conclusion: Obese children have the highest prevalence of MetS. Prevalence of MetS-related components has reached high level among Iranian adolescences that were overweight or obese. PMID:25143919

  6. ARM mobile facility surface meteorology (MET) handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M. T.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-min statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and rainrate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime, or programmatic needs. In addition, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in Section 3.

  7. 78 FR 65007 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has determined that the inspections, tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are met for Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC), 2.1.03.11 for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit...

  8. MET gene amplification or EGFR mutation activate MET in lung cancers untreated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Lockwood, William W.; Valencia, Ilse; Soh, Junichi; Peyton, Michael; Jida, Masaru; Otani, Hiroki; Fujii, Tetsuya; Ouchida, Mamoru; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Shimizu, Kenji; Date, Hiroshi; Minna, John D.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Lam, Wan L.; Gazdar, Adi F.; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed MET protein and copy number in NSCLC with or without EGFR mutations untreated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). MET copy number was examined in 28 NSCLC and 4 human bronchial epithelial cell lines (HBEC) and 100 primary tumors using quantitative real-time PCR. Positive results were confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Total and phospho-MET protein expression was determined in 24 NSCLC and 2 HBEC cell lines using Western blot. EGFR mutations were examined for exon 19 deletions, T790M, and L858R. Knockdown of EGFR with siRNA was performed to examine the relation between EGFR and MET activation. High-level MET amplification was observed in 3 of 28 NSCLC cell lines and in 2 of 100 primary lung tumors that had not been treated with EGFR-TKIs. MET protein was highly expressed and phosphorylated in all the 3 cell lines with high MET amplification. In contrast, 6 NSCLC cell lines showed phospho-MET among 21 NSCLC cell lines without MET amplification (p = 0.042). Furthermore, those 6 cell lines harboring phospho-MET expression without MET amplification were all EGFR mutant (p = 0.0039). siRNA-mediated knockdown of EGFR abolished phospho-MET expression in examined 3 EGFR mutant cell lines of which MET gene copy number was not amplified. By contrast, phospho-MET expression in 2 cell lines with amplified MET gene was not down-regulated by knockdown of EGFR. Our results indicated that MET amplification was present in untreated NSCLC and EGFR mutation or MET amplification activated MET protein in NSCLC. PMID:19117057

  9. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

  10. [Video games: are the motivations and intensity of use changing with age? Comparison between a population of adolescent and adult gamers].

    PubMed

    Caillon, J; Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M

    2014-03-01

    Despite the popularity of video games, few studies have been conducted in France on their use. The objective of this study was to gather data from a sample of French video game players to learn more about this population. This approach also aimed to examine whether differences exist between adolescent and adult gamers in terms of their motivations to play and whether this practice met the criteria for problem video game playing. A questionnaire collecting sociodemographic data and assessing the problems associated with the use of video games, as well as motivations to play, was distributed during a video game festival and on the Internet. A total of 778 people responded to the questionnaire. The results showed that there were few differences between adolescent and adult gamers. Both groups had an intense video game habit. The majority of them sometimes had the feeling of losing control of their use and sacrificed other activities to play video games. This last dimension was most frequently cited by adults. The feeling of spending more time playing was most frequently cited by adolescents. Concerning motivations to play, the two groups differed only on the score of the "social" dimension, significantly higher among adolescents. PMID:24457109

  11. XRCC3 Thr241Met Is Associated with Response to Platinum-Based Chemotherapy but Not Survival in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiangxiang; Hu, Jingwen; Jiang, Feng; Xu, Lin; Yin, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Background A lot of studies have investigated the correlation between x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3) Thr241Met polymorphism and clinical outcomes in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC), while the conclusion is still conflicting. Materials and Methods We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the predictive value of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on response and overall survival of patients with NSCLC. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the association strength. Results A total of 14 eligible studies with 2828 patients were identified according to our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis results showed that carriers of the variant 241Met allele were significantly associated with good response, compared with those harboring the wild 241Thr allele (Met vs. Thr, OR = 1.453, 95% CI: 1.116–1.892, Pheterogeneity = 0.968 and ThrMet+MetMet vs. ThrThr, OR = 1.476, 95% CI: 1.087–2.004, Pheterogeneity = 0.696). This significant association was observed in Caucasian population but not in Asian population. On the other hand, there was no significant association of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism with survival (ThrMet+MetMet vs. ThrThr, HR = 1.082, 95% CI: 0.929–1.261, Pheterogeneity = 0.564), and there was no difference between Asian and Caucasian population. Conclusions These findings suggest a predictive role of XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism on response to platinum-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. Additionally, we first report that the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism is associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy and highlights the prognostic value of the XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphism. PMID:24116196

  12. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  13. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality. Adolescents with eating disorders were expected to have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and trauma-related symptoms. Trauma-related symptoms were also examined in relation to BDD, in the absence of specific hypotheses. Method Participants completed the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ) and reliable and valid self-report measures of suicidality, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), dissociation, and sexual preoccupation/distress. Prevalence of BDD, eating disorders, and other clinically significant body image concerns was determined, and clinical correlates were examined. Results 6.7% (n = 14) of participants met DSM-IV criteria for definite (n = 10) or probable (n = 4) DSM-IV BDD, 3.8% (n = 8) met criteria for an eating disorder, and 22.1% (n = 46) had clinically significant shape/weight concerns (SWC) that did not clearly meet criteria for BDD or an eating disorder. Both the BDD and SWC groups scored significantly higher than the group with no significant body image concerns (no BDD/ED/SWC group) on measures of anxiety and suicidality. The BDD, SWC, and ED groups all had significantly higher levels of depression than the no BDD/ED/SWC group. Only the SWC group scored significantly higher than the no BDD/ED/SWC group on measures of PTSD, dissociation, and sexual preoccupation/distress. Conclusions A high proportion of participants had clinically significant body image concerns or a body image disorder. These concerns/disorders were associated with higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality. In addition, the group concerned with body shape or weight had significantly greater

  14. Collaborative Care for Adolescents With Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Laura P.; Ludman, Evette; McCauley, Elizabeth; Lindenbaum, Jeff; Larison, Cindy; Zhou, Chuan; Clarke, Greg; Brent, David; Katon, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Up to 20%of adolescents experience an episode of major depression by age 18 years yet few receive evidence-based treatments for their depression. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a collaborative care intervention for adolescents with depression improves depressive outcomes compared with usual care. DESIGN Randomized trial with blinded outcome assessment conducted between April 2010 and April 2013. SETTING Nine primary care clinics in the Group Health system in Washington State. PARTICIPANTS Adolescents (aged 13–17 years) who screened positive for depression (Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item [PHQ-9] score ≥10) on 2 occasions or who screened positive and met criteria for major depression, spoke English, and had telephone access were recruited. Exclusions included alcohol/drug misuse, suicidal plan or recent attempt, bipolar disorder, developmental delay, and seeing a psychiatrist. INTERVENTIONS Twelve-month collaborative care intervention including an initial in-person engagement session and regular follow-up by master’s-level clinicians. Usual care control youth received depression screening results and could access mental health services through Group Health. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was change in depressive symptoms on a modified version of the Child Depression Rating Scale–Revised (CDRS-R; score range, 14–94) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes included change in Columbia Impairment Scale score (CIS), depression response (≥50% decrease on the CDRS-R), and remission (PHQ-9 score <5). RESULTS Intervention youth (n = 50), compared with those randomized to receive usual care (n = 51), had greater decreases in CDRS-R scores such that by 12 months intervention youth had a mean score of 27.5 (95%CI, 23.8–31.1) compared with 34.6 (95%CI, 30.6–38.6) in control youth (overall intervention effect: F2,747.3 = 7.24, P < .001). Both intervention and control youth experienced improvement on the CIS with no significant

  15. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adolescents in Lebanon as wars gained in ferocity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shaar, Khuzama Hijal

    2013-09-01

    Significance for public healthPost traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents has been implicated in developmental impairments, mental and scholastic problems, alcohol and drug abuse, and antisocial behavior in its victims among others. Absence of review studies regarding the prevalence of PTSD in adolescents in Lebanon, a country plagued by decades of civil strife and external occupation and invasion, is noted. Such information may reinforce the need to develop national public health policies to identify PTSD in children and adolescents, provide them with counseling and treatment, and formulate prevention strategies to protect vulnerable youth from devastations of war.For decades, Lebanon was war-torn by civil strife, and occupation and invasion by neighboring countries. In time, these wars have escalated in intensity from sniping, barricading streets and random shelling of residential quarters to the use of rockets, aerial bombing, and heavy artillery. Adverse mental health effects are noted in times of war with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a main outcome. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of published studies documenting the prevalence of PTSD in the adolescent population of Lebanon, to investigate the increase in these rates with the escalation of war intensity, and to examine PTSD determinants. A search strategy was developed for online databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) between inception to the first week of January 2013. Search terms used were PTSD, adolescents and Lebanon. Eleven studies reporting PTSD in adolescents met the inclusion criteria for a total number of 5965 adolescents. Prevalence rates of PTSD ranged from 8.5% to 14.7% for the civil war, 3.7% for adolescents with sensory disabilities, 21.6% for the Grapes of Wrath War, and 15.4% to 35.0% for the 2006 July War. Some increase in PTSD rates in time is noted. Type of trauma such as bereavement, injury, house destruction, and economic problems, low self

  17. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Guerrero, Héctor; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL), using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. For the precursor mission (MMPM) intended to verify the landing concept and key technology during a real Mars mission all qualification activities are completed and the payload and system flight model components are being manufactured. The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. Details of the current MMPM system and payload configuration and their performance parameters will be shown.

  18. Enhancing reuse of structured eligibility criteria and supporting their relaxation.

    PubMed

    Milian, Krystyna; Hoekstra, Rinke; Bucur, Anca; Ten Teije, Annette; van Harmelen, Frank; Paulissen, John

    2015-08-01

    Patient recruitment is one of the most important barriers to successful completion of clinical trials and thus to obtaining evidence about new methods for prevention, diagnostics and treatment. The reason is that recruitment is effort consuming. It requires the identification of candidate patients for the trial (the population under study), and verifying for each patient whether the eligibility criteria are met. The work we describe in this paper aims to support the comparison of population under study in different trials, and the design of eligibility criteria for new trials. We do this by introducing structured eligibility criteria, that enhance reuse of criteria across trials. We developed a method that allows for automated structuring of criteria from text. Additionally, structured eligibility criteria allow us to propose suggestions for relaxation of criteria to remove potentially unnecessarily restrictive conditions. We thereby increase the recruitment potential and generalizability of a trial. Our method for automated structuring of criteria enables us to identify related conditions and to compare their restrictiveness. The comparison is based on the general meaning of criteria, comprised of commonly occurring contextual patterns, medical concepts and constraining values. These are automatically identified using our pattern detection algorithm, state of the art ontology annotators and semantic taggers. The comparison uses predefined relations between the patterns, concept equivalences defined in medical ontologies, and threshold values. The result is a library of structured eligibility criteria which can be browsed using fine grained queries. Furthermore, we developed visualizations for the library that enable intuitive navigation of relations between trials, criteria and concepts. These visualizations expose interesting co-occurrences and correlations, potentially enhancing meta-research. The method for criteria structuring processes only certain types of

  19. Gestational risks and psychiatric disorders among indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M

    2009-02-01

    This study reports on the effects maternal prenatal binge drinking, cigarette smoking, drug use, and pregnancy and birth complications on meeting criteria for psychiatric disorders at ages 10-12 and 13-15 years among 546 Indigenous adolescents from a single culture in the northern Midwest and Canada. Adolescent DSM-IV psychiatric disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Revised (DISC-R). Results indicate that maternal behaviors when pregnant have significant effects on adolescent psychiatric disorders even when controlling for age and gender of adolescent, family per capita income, living in a single mother household, and adolescent reports of mother's positive parenting. PMID:18998209

  20. Gastrointestinal malignancies harbor actionable MET exon 14 deletions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mineui; Kim, Sun Young; Jang, Jiryeon; Ahn, Soomin; Kang, So Young; Lee, Sujin; Kim, Seung Tae; Kim, Bogyou; Choi, Jaehyun; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Lee, Jiyun; Park, Charny; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Ho Yeong; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2015-01-01

    Recently, MET exon 14 deletion (METex14del) has been postulated to be one potential mechanism for MET protein overexpression. We screened for the presence of METex14del transcript by multiplexed fusion transcript analysis using nCounter assay followed by confirmation with quantitative reverse transcription PCR with correlation to MET protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MET amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We extracted RNAs from 230 patients enrolled onto the prospective molecular profiling clinical trial (NEXT-1) (NCT02141152) between November 2013 and August 2014. Thirteen METex14del cases were identified including 3 gastric cancer, 4 colon cancer, 5 non-small cell lung cancer, and one adenocarcinoma of unknown primary. Of these 13 METex14del cases, 11 were MET IHC 3+ and 2 were 2+. Only one out of the 13 METex14del cases was MET amplified (MET/CEP ratio > 2.0). Growths of two (gastric, colon) METex14del+ patient tumor derived cell lines were profoundly inhibited by both MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors and a monoclonal antibody targeting MET. In conclusion, METex14del is a unique molecular aberration present in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies corresponding with overexpression of MET protein but rarely with MET amplification. Substantial growth inhibition of METex14del+ patient tumor derived cell lines by several MET targeting drugs strongly suggests METex14del is a potential actionable driver mutation in GI malignancies. PMID:26375439

  1. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10... Duty Dependent Upon Actual Use § 10.133 Conditions required to be met. When the tariff classification of any article is controlled by its actual use in the United States, three conditions must be met...

  2. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10... Duty Dependent Upon Actual Use § 10.133 Conditions required to be met. When the tariff classification of any article is controlled by its actual use in the United States, three conditions must be met...

  3. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10... Duty Dependent Upon Actual Use § 10.133 Conditions required to be met. When the tariff classification of any article is controlled by its actual use in the United States, three conditions must be met...

  4. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10... Duty Dependent Upon Actual Use § 10.133 Conditions required to be met. When the tariff classification of any article is controlled by its actual use in the United States, three conditions must be met...

  5. 19 CFR 10.133 - Conditions required to be met.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conditions required to be met. 10.133 Section 10... Duty Dependent Upon Actual Use § 10.133 Conditions required to be met. When the tariff classification of any article is controlled by its actual use in the United States, three conditions must be met...

  6. Gender dysphoria in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, Scott; de Vries, Annelou L C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents presenting with gender-related concerns are increasingly seeking support from providers from a variety of disciplines within health care settings across the world. For those treating young people who meet the criteria for the DSM 5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria (GD), complex decisions in clinical care are common. Defining best practice with this population with respect to interventions that span mental health, physical, and surgical domains can be challenging, given a relative dearth of empirical data available; yet practice guidelines have emerged from different professional organizations which can aid with this. For this review paper, a broad literature search was performed to identify relevant studies pertaining to the care of adolescents with GD. In addition, an overview of trends in clinical practice, including shifts in conceptualization of how clinicians and patients define care that is considered affirming when working with this population, is described. This paper explores the characteristics of referral patterns to specialized clinics, provides a brief overview of gender identity development in adolescence, and then describes the phenomenology of known aetiological factors and co-occurring psychiatric issues in adolescents with GD. Additionally, clinical management considerations that detail assessment aims and common treatment interventions across disciplines will be explored. PMID:26828376

  7. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  8. Tidal analysis of Met rocket wind data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedinger, J. F.; Constantinides, E.

    1976-01-01

    A method of analyzing Met Rocket wind data is described. Modern tidal theory and specialized analytical techniques were used to resolve specific tidal modes and prevailing components in observed wind data. A representation of the wind which is continuous in both space and time was formulated. Such a representation allows direct comparison with theory, allows the derivation of other quantities such as temperature and pressure which in turn may be compared with observed values, and allows the formation of a wind model which extends over a broader range of space and time. Significant diurnal tidal modes with wavelengths of 10 and 7 km were present in the data and were resolved by the analytical technique.

  9. Hanford Site solid waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefson, M.D.

    1998-07-01

    Order 5820.2A requires that each treatment, storage, and/or disposal facility (referred to in this document as TSD unit) that manages low-level or transuranic waste (including mixed waste and TSCA PCB waste) maintain waste acceptance criteria. These criteria must address the various requirements to operate the TSD unit in compliance with applicable safety and environmental requirements. This document sets forth the baseline criteria for acceptance of radioactive waste at TSD units operated by WMH. The criteria for each TSD unit have been established to ensure that waste accepted can be managed in a manner that is within the operating requirements of the unit, including environmental regulations, DOE Orders, permits, technical safety requirements, waste analysis plans, performance assessments, and other applicable requirements. Acceptance criteria apply to the following TSD units: the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) including both the nonregulated portions of the LLBG and trenches 31 and 34 of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground for mixed waste disposal; Central Waste Complex (CWC); Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP); and T Plant Complex. Waste from all generators, both from the Hanford Site and from offsite facilities, must comply with these criteria. Exceptions can be granted as provided in Section 1.6. Specific waste streams could have additional requirements based on the 1901 identified TSD pathway. These requirements are communicated in the Waste Specification Records (WSRds). The Hanford Site manages nonradioactive waste through direct shipments to offsite contractors. The waste acceptance requirements of the offsite TSD facility must be met for these nonradioactive wastes. This document does not address the acceptance requirements of these offsite facilities.

  10. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-09-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  11. Prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Anthenelli, Robert M; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M; Beavers, Jennifer; DelBello, Melissa P

    2013-12-30

    The study examined the prevalence and correlates of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence in adolescents with bipolar and cannabis use disorders. Participants were 80 adolescents between 13 and 22 years of age with co-occurring bipolar I disorder and cannabis abuse or dependence who reported ever trying a cigarette. Diagnostic and symptom severity measures were completed as part of the baseline assessments for a clinical trial. Almost half (49%) of these participants who ever tried a cigarette were current heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day), and 70% met DSM-IV-TR lifetime criteria for nicotine dependence. Heavy smoking was associated with older age, heavier marijuana use and greater compulsive craving, lifetime diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, illicit drug use disorders, and poorer overall functioning. Nicotine dependence was related to White race, higher current mania severity, and poorer overall functioning. These findings suggest that heavy smoking and nicotine dependence were highly prevalent among these adolescents. Although both were associated with greater physical and psychosocial problems, only heavy smoking was linked to a clear pattern of more severe substance-related and psychiatric problems. Further research to elucidate mechanisms and develop interventions to address early, entrenched patterns of co-use of tobacco and marijuana is warranted. PMID:23684537

  12. Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Child and Adolescent Mental Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Novins, Douglas K.; Green, Amy E.; Legha, Rupinder K.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective While there has been a dramatic increase in the number of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to improve child and adolescent mental health, the poor uptake of these EBPs has led to investigations of factors related to their successful dissemination and implementation. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify key findings from empirical studies examining the dissemination and implementation of EBPs for child and adolescent mental health. Method Out of 14,247 citations initially identified, 73 articles drawn from 44 studies met inclusion criteria. The articles were classified by implementation phase (exploration, preparation, implementation, and sustainment) and specific implementation factors examined. These factors were divided into outer (i.e., system level) and inner (i.e., organizational level) contexts. Results Few studies utilized true experimental designs; most were observational. Of the many inner context factors that were examined in these studies (e.g., provider characteristics, organizational resources, leadership), fidelity monitoring and supervision had the strongest empirical evidence. While the focus of fewer studies, implementation interventions focused on improving organizational climate and culture were associated with better intervention sustainment as well as child and adolescent outcomes. Outer contextual factors such as training and use of specific technologies to support intervention use were also important in facilitating the implementation process. Conclusions The further development and testing of dissemination and implementation strategies is needed in order to more efficiently move EBPs into usual care. PMID:24074468

  13. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure in 122,053 Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Lacerda, Maria Beatriz; Moreno, Luis A.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Carvalho, Heráclito Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Several studies have reported high prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adolescents. To perform: i) systematically review the literature on the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents; ii) analyze the possible methodological factors associated with HBP; and iii) compare the prevalence between developed and developing countries. We revised 10 electronic databases up to August 11, 2013. Only original articles using international diagnosis of HBP were considered. The pooled prevalence's of HBP were estimated by random effects. Meta-regression analysis was used to identify the sources of heterogeneity across studies. Fifty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and total of 122,053 adolescents included. The pooled-prevalence of HBP was 11.2%, 13% for boys, and 9.6% for girls (P < 0.01). Method of measurement of BP and year in which the survey was conducted were associated with heterogeneity in the estimates of HBP among boys. The data indicate that HBP is higher among boys than girls, and that the method of measurement plays an important role in the overall heterogeneity of HBP value distributions, particularly in boys. PMID:25501086

  14. Is the relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic health in adolescents independent of dietary intake? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, E; Leech, R; McNaughton, S A; Dunstan, D W; Lacy, K E; Salmon, J

    2015-01-01

    Screen time, but not overall sedentary behaviour, is consistently related to cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Because of the associations screen time has with dietary intake, diet may be an important factor in the screen time and health relationship; however, evidence has not previously been synthesized. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore whether the associations between various sedentary behaviours and cardiometabolic risk markers are independent of dietary intake in adolescents. Online databases and personal libraries were searched for peer-reviewed original research articles published in English before March 2014. Included studies assessed associations between sedentary behaviour and cardiometabolic markers in 12- to 18-year-olds and adjusted for dietary intake. Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. From the 21 studies examining sedentary behaviour and adiposity, the majority found significant positive associations between television viewing, screen time and self-reported overall sedentary behaviour with markers of adiposity, independent of dietary intake. No significant associations between screen time with blood pressure and cholesterol were reported. Sedentary behaviour appears to be associated with adiposity in adolescents, irrespective of dietary intake. However, the variability of dietary variables between studies suggests further work is needed to understand the role of dietary intake when examining these associations in youth. PMID:26098509

  15. Contemporary issues on the epidemiology and antiretroviral adherence of HIV-infected adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Adejumo, Olurotimi A; Malee, Kathleen M; Ryscavage, Patrick; Hunter, Scott J; Taiwo, Babafemi O

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescents are a unique and sometimes neglected group in the planning of healthcare services. This is the case in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, where more than eight out of ten of the world's HIV-infected adolescents live. Although the last decade has seen a reduction in AIDS-related mortality worldwide, largely due to improved access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), AIDS remains a significant contributor to adolescent mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Although inadequate access to ART in parts of the subcontinent may be implicated, research among youth with HIV elsewhere in the world suggests that suboptimal adherence to ART may play a significant role. In this article, we summarize the epidemiology of HIV among sub-Saharan African adolescents and review their adherence to ART, emphasizing the unique challenges and factors associated with adherence behaviour. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of online databases for articles, relevant abstracts, and conference reports from meetings held between 2010 and 2014. Our search terms included “adherence,” “compliance,” “antiretroviral use” and “antiretroviral adherence,” in combination with “adolescents,” “youth,” “HIV,” “Africa,” “interventions” and the MeSH term “Africa South of the Sahara.” Of 19,537 articles and abstracts identified, 215 met inclusion criteria, and 148 were reviewed. Discussion Adolescents comprise a substantial portion of the population in many sub-Saharan African countries. They are at particular risk of HIV and may experience worse outcomes. Although demonstrated to have unique challenges, there is a dearth of comprehensive health services for adolescents, especially for those with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. ART adherence is poorer among older adolescents than other age groups, and psychosocial, socio-economic, individual, and treatment-related factors influence adherence behaviour among adolescents in this region. With

  16. Early intervention for adolescents at high risk for the development of bipolar disorder: pilot study of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT).

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tina R; Fersch-Podrat, Rachael; Axelson, David A; Gilbert, Alison; Hlastala, Stefanie A; Birmaher, Boris; Frank, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) delays bipolar disorder (BP) recurrence in adults by stabilizing daily routines and sleep/wake cycles. Because adolescence is a key developmental stage for illness onset and altered social and sleep patterns, this period may prove optimal for intervention with adolescents at-risk for BP. We describe a treatment development trial of IPSRT for adolescents at-risk for BP by virtue of a positive family history. Adolescents with a first-degree relative with BP were evaluated for Axis I psychopathology via semistructured interview, and relatives' BP diagnoses were confirmed via record review. IPSRT consisted of 12 sessions delivered over 6 months. Outcome variables including sleep, mood symptoms, and functioning were assessed via clinician interview and self-/parent-report at pretreatment, 3 months, and posttreatment (6 months). Thirteen adolescents attended at least one IPSRT session. Half of the sample denied Axis I psychopathology at intake; the remainder met criteria for a range of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Families reported high satisfaction with IPSRT, yet, on average, participants attended about half of scheduled sessions. Missed sessions were primarily associated with parental BP illness severity. Data indicate significant change in select sleep/circadian patterns (i.e., less weekend sleeping in and oversleeping) with treatment. Preliminary data suggest the IPSRT focus on stabilizing daily rhythms and interpersonal relationships may be beneficial for adolescents at-risk for BP. Controlled trials with longitudinal follow-up are needed to examine whether early intervention for at-risk youth helps prevent or delay disorder. PMID:24377402

  17. National Prevalence of PTSD Among Sexually Revictimized Adolescent, College, and Adult Household-Residing Women

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.

    2012-01-01

    revictimized college women, and 3.6 million sexually revictimized household women met criteria for past 6-month PTSD. Findings highlight the importance of screening for sexual revictimization and PTSD in pediatric, college, and primary care settings. PMID:22566561

  18. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents

  19. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents

  20. A Systematic Review of Oral Health Behavior Research in American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Susana J.; Mallory, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Despite improvements in prevention, oral diseases are a problem among adolescents, linked to poor health outcomes and poor school performance. Little is known about adolescent oral health behavior. This systematic review describes factors that influence oral health behavior in adolescents. Inclusion criteria for the literature search were American…

  1. Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2003-09-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents is still poorly understood. The provisional diagnostic criteria and the concept are depicted here. The treatment modalities and prognosis for the disease are yet inconsistent. PMID:15168991

  2. Antidepressant Use and Body Mass Index Change in Overweight Adolescents: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Bridget K.; Oesterle, Tyler S.; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Given the limited empirical data on antidepressant use and weight change in children, we performed a historical cohort study to assess change in age- and sex-standardized body mass index associated with antidepressant use among overweight adolescents diagnosed with a depressive disorder. Methods: We systematically reviewed electronic medical records from a tertiary academic medical center and identified adolescents (age 13–18 years) who were overweight (body mass index >85th percentile) and had a depression diagnosis. Patients were seen from January 1, 2000, through January 1, 2010. Age- and sex-standardized body mass index scores were calculated at initiation of antidepressant medication and at the end of treatment. Unmedicated patients had baseline and final age- and sex-standardized body mass index calculated using the first and last recorded measurements in the study period (maximum time between measures was 5 years). Results: In total, 435 patients (301 female) met our inclusion criteria; of these, 255 were prescribed an antidepressant (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, tricyclic antidepressant, or dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor). Age- and sex-standardized body mass index significantly increased (F1,193=14.34; P<0.001) only for adolescents treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. For patients receiving other medications or no medication, age- and sex-standardized body mass index did not change significantly. Conclusion: This study provides initial empiric evidence for a link between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and weight gain in already overweight adolescents. Further study of antidepressant use and weight gain in other pediatric populations and in prospective studies is warranted. PMID:25621183

  3. Relationship between Sleep and Pain in Adolescents with Juvenile Primary Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Margaret N.; Sherry, David D.; Boyne, Kathleen; McCue, Rebecca; Gallagher, Paul R.; Brooks, Lee J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate sleep quality in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) and determine whether sleep abnormalities, including alpha-delta sleep (ADS), correlate with pain intensity. We hypothesized that successful treatment for pain with exercise therapy would reduce ADS and improve sleep quality. Design: Single-center preintervention and postintervention (mean = 5.7 ± 1.0 weeks; range = 4.0-7.3 weeks) observational study. Patients: Ten female adolescents (mean age = 16.2 ± 0.65 SD yr) who met criteria for JPFS and completed treatment. Interventions: Multidisciplinary pain treatment, including intensive exercise therapy. Measurements and Results: Pain and disability were measured by a pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the Functional Disability Inventory. Subjective sleep measures included a sleep VAS, an energy VAS, and the School Sleep Habits Survey. Objective sleep measures included actigraphy, polysomnography (PSG), and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Baseline PSG was compared with that of healthy age- and sex-matched control patients. At baseline, patients had poorer sleep efficiency, more arousals/awakenings, and more ADS (70.3% of total slow wave sleep [SWS] versus 21.9% SWS, P = 0.002) than controls. ADS was unrelated to pain, disability, or subjective sleep difficulty. After treatment, pain decreased (P = 0.000) and subjective sleep quality improved (P = 0.008). Objective sleep quality, including the amount of ADS, did not change. Conclusions: Although perceived sleep quality improved in adolescents with JPFS after treatment, objective measures did not. Our findings do not suggest exercise therapy for pain improves sleep by reducing ADS, nor do they support causal relationships between ADS and chronic pain or subjective sleep quality. Citation: Olsen MN; Sherry DD; Boyne K; McCue R; Gallagher PR; Brooks LJ. Relationship between sleep and pain in adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. SLEEP 2013

  4. Kinematic upper limb evaluation of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Franco de Moura, Renata Calhes; Almeida, Cibele Santos; Dumont, Arislander Jonatan Lopes; Lazzari, Roberta Delasta; Lopes, Jamile Benite Palma; Duarte, Natalia Almeida de Carvalho; Braun, Luiz Ferreira; Oliveira, Claudia Santos

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to perform a review of the literature on objective measures of upper limb movements in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy and describe the methods used to investigate upper limb kinematics in this population. [Materials and Methods] An extensive database search was performed using the keywords kinematics, upper limb, and cerebral palsy. A total of 146 papers were identified, but only five met the inclusion criteria. [Results] No consensus was found regarding the data collection, processing, and analysis procedures or reporting of the results. [Conclusion] Standardization of the protocol for 3D upper limb movement analysis will provide the foundation for comparable, reproducible results and eventually facilitate the planning of treatment interventions. PMID:27065566

  5. Depleting MET-Expressing Tumor Cells by ADCC Provides a Therapeutic Advantage over Inhibiting HGF/MET Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Anna; Morello, Virginia; Huyghe, Leander; De Jonge, Natalie; Blanchetot, Christophe; Hanssens, Valérie; De Boeck, Gitte; Silence, Karen; Festjens, Els; Heukers, Raimond; Roux, Benjamin; Lamballe, Fabienne; Ginestier, Christophe; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Maina, Flavio; Brouckaert, Peter; Saunders, Michael; Thibault, Alain; Dreier, Torsten; de Haard, Hans; Michieli, Paolo

    2015-08-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor MET represent validated targets for cancer therapy. However, HGF/MET inhibitors being explored as cancer therapeutics exhibit cytostatic activity rather than cytotoxic activity, which would be more desired. In this study, we engineered an antagonistic anti-MET antibody that, in addition to blocking HGF/MET signaling, also kills MET-overexpressing cancer cells by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). As a control reagent, we engineered the same antibody in an ADCC-inactive form that is similarly capable of blocking HGF/MET activity, but in the absence of any effector function. In comparing these two antibodies in multiple mouse models of cancer, including HGF-dependent and -independent tumor xenografts, we determined that the ADCC-enhanced antibody was more efficacious than the ADCC-inactive antibody. In orthotopic mammary carcinoma models, ADCC enhancement was crucial to deplete circulating tumor cells and to suppress metastases. Prompted by these results, we optimized the ADCC-enhanced molecule for clinical development, generating an antibody (ARGX-111) with improved pharmacologic properties. ARGX-111 competed with HGF for MET binding, inhibiting ligand-dependent MET activity, downregulated cell surface expression of MET, curbing HGF-independent MET activity, and engaged natural killer cells to kill MET-expressing cancer cells, displaying MET-specific cytotoxic activity. ADCC assays confirmed the cytotoxic effects of ARGX-111 in multiple human cancer cell lines and patient-derived primary tumor specimens, including MET-expressing cancer stem-like cells. Together, our results show how ADCC provides a therapeutic advantage over conventional HGF/MET signaling blockade and generates proof-of-concept for ARGX-111 clinical testing in MET-positive oncologic malignancies. PMID:26141862

  6. Accelerometer Output and MET Values of Common Physical Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kozey, Sarah L.; Lyden, Kate; Howe, Cheryl A.; Staudenmayer, John W.; Freedson, Patty S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This paper 1) provides the calibration procedures and methods for metabolic and activity monitor data collection, 2) compares measured MET values to the MET values from the Compendium of Physical Activities, and 3) examines the relationship between accelerometer output and METs for a range of physical activities Methods Participants (n=277) completed 11 activities for seven minutes each from a menu of 23 physical activities. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured using a portable metabolic system and an accelerometer was worn. MET values were defined as follows; measuredMETs (VO2/measured RMR) and standardMETs (VO2/3.5ml·kg·min−1). For the total sample and by sub-group (age [young <40y], sex and BMI [normal-weight <25 kg·m2]), measuredMETs and standardMETs were compared to the Compendium, using 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance (α=0.05). Average count·min−1 for each activity and the linear association between count·min−1 and METs are presented. Results Compendium METs were different than measured METs for 17/21 activities (81%). The number of activities different than the Compendium were similar between sub-groups or when standard METs were used. The average counts for the activities ranged from 11 counts·min−1(dishes) to 7490 counts·min−1 (2.23m·s−1, 3%) The r2 between counts and METs was 0.65. Conclusions This study provides valuable information about data collection, metabolic responses, and accelerometer output for common physical activities in a diverse participant sample. The Compendium should be updated with additional empirical data and linear regression models are inappropriate for accurately predicting METs from accelerometer output. PMID:20142781

  7. Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Enhancing Interventions for Adolescents and Young Adults 13–24 Years of Age: A Review of the Evidence Base

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Youth living with HIV are highly under-represented in the evidence base for adherence interventions, despite their diverse and unique needs and barriers. Objective: This systematic review aimed to identify antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence interventions specifically targeting adolescents and young adults (defined as ages 13–24) with the goal of characterizing the evidence base. Methods: Articles were identified using the PubMed database and cover work published through September 14, 2015. Inclusion criteria: (1) average age 13 to 24, (2) HIV positive, (3) on or beginning ART, (4) intervention targeted ART adherence in full or in part, (5) reported adherence, viral load, and/or CD4 count outcomes. Strength of evidence was defined as level 1 [randomized controlled trial (RCT) with significance testing on outcomes], 2 (within group studies with statistical testing on outcomes), 3 (RCTs with descriptive results), or 4 (within group studies with descriptive results). Results: Of 151 articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Published between 2003 and 2014, these studies evaluated diverse intervention approaches. Most were conducted in the US and were small pilots that have yet to be replicated despite promising results. Only 3 studies met criteria for highest level strength of evidence; 2 supported a phone-based counseling approach with adherence monitors and 1 for weekly individual and family counseling. Conclusions: Despite nearly 20 years passing since the wide-scale availability of ART, and clear recognition that adolescents and youth adults fair worse on the cascade of HIV care, the evidence base remains sparse and underdeveloped. Promising approaches need replication and more rigorous studies are desperately needed. PMID:26959190

  8. [Adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fatichi, B

    1991-10-01

    This exploration of adolescent pregnancy focuses on adolescents whose pregnancies are undesired. The physical and psychic transformations of puberty and adolescence may be experienced differently in different social contexts. The prolongation of school attendance in Western societies means that most adolescents remain financially dependent on their parents. But greater sexual freedom in the society at large has been reflected in an increase in early sexual activity among adolescents. Wider use of contraception has not completely eliminated prenatal pregnancy among adolescents. Adolescent pregnancies have actually declined in France as a proportion of all pregnancies carried to term, from 4% to 1.5-2% in the past 10 or 15 years. But in 1986, 42.5% of all induced abortions were performed on adolescents. Among causes of unwanted pregnancy in adolescents are their frequent inability to believe that they may be at risk of pregnancy, or that pregnancy can result from the 1st sexual intercourse. The episodic nature of sexual relations, the lack of ready availability of contraception, and specific shortcomings of different methods are factors in the frequent failure of adolescents to protect themselves against undesired pregnancy. Adolescents may become pregnant out of loneliness or to prove that they are women, or as a result of incest or prostitution. Adolescents who seek abortions are those who have discovered and acknowledged their pregnancies before the 12th week and had the courage to inform their parents and obtain legal permission for the abortion. Pregnancy terminations are more frequent in more advantaged societal sectors with more structured family life. The moral shock and sense of failure associated with abortion are often deeply felt by adolescents. Their experience is greatly influenced by the attitudes of those around them. Adolescents who carry their pregnancies to term are those who have not sought abortion in the 1st 12 weeks. Often they refuse to admit

  9. A new challenge for meteorological measurements: The "MeteoMet" project - Metrology for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, A.; Lopardo, G.; Antonsen, I.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Boese, N.; del Campo, D.; Dobre, M.; Drnovšek, J.; Elkatmis, A.; Georgin, E.; Grudniewicz, E.; Heinonen, M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Johansson, J.; Klason, P.; Knorova, R.; Melvad, C.; Merrison, J.; Migała, K.; de Podesta, M.; Saathoff, H.; Smorgon, D.; Sparasci, F.; Strnad, R.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change and its consequences require immediate actions in order to safeguard the environment and economy in Europe and in the rest of world. Aiming to enhance data reliability and reduce uncertainties in climate observations, a joint research project called "MeteoMet - Metrology for Meteorology" started in October 2011 coordinated by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM). The project is focused on the traceability of measurements involved in climate change: surface and upper air measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance and reciprocal influences between measurands. This project will provide the first definition at the European level of validated climate parameters with associated uncertainty budgets and novel criteria for interpretation of historical data series. The big challenge is the propagation of a metrological measurement perspective to meteorological observations. When such an approach will be adopted the requirement of reliable data and robust datasets over wide scales and long terms could be better met.

  10. Counseling adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamuna, Srinivasan

    2013-11-01

    Skills for counseling adolescents are acquired over a period of time by all practitioners of adolescent health. Though the principles of counseling remain the same the process of counseling an adolescent differs considerably from that of a child or an adult. Adolescents are in their transition between childhood and adulthood with physical, emotional and social challenges to face. The maturity level of each adolescent differs and that decides the pace and contents of each session. The counselor sets the context in a non judgmental manner so that the adolescent feels the ease and eagerness to self disclose. Privacy and confidentiality are two key issues that have to be taken care of during counseling. PMID:23888379

  11. Should Screening for Depression among Children and Adolescents Be Demedicalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwitz, Allan V.; Wakefield, Jerome C.

    2009-01-01

    The criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders fails to place the symptoms of intense sadness in the context of major losses in life, and separating normal sadness from depressive disorder among adolescents is especially difficult. Suggested modifications to the screening of suicidal ideation among adolescents are also presented.

  12. Comparing the glucose kinetics of adolescent girls and adult women during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal energy demands are met mostly from oxidation of maternally supplied glucose. In pregnant adults this increased glucose requirement is met by an increase in gluconeogenesis. It is not known, however, whether, like their adult counterparts, pregnant adolescent girls can increase gluconeogenesis ...

  13. BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR Genotype are Each Associated with Visual Scanning Patterns of Faces in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Antonios I.; Wallis, Yvonne; Bair, Hayley; Crawford, Hayley; Frisson, Steven; Zeegers, Maurice P.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have documented both neuroplasticity-related BDNF Val66Met and emotion regulation-related 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms as genetic variants that contribute to the processing of emotions from faces. More specifically, research has shown the BDNF Met allele and the 5-HTTLPR Short allele to be associated with mechanisms of negative affectivity that relate to susceptibility for psychopathology. We examined visual scanning pathways in response to angry, happy, and neutral faces in relation to BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR genotyping in 49 children aged 4–7 years. Analyses revealed that variations in the visual processing of facial expressions of anger interacted with BDNF Val66Met genotype, such that children who carried at least one low neuroplasticity Met allele exhibited a vigilance–avoidance pattern of visual scanning compared to homozygotes for the high neuroplasticity Val allele. In a separate investigation of eye gaze towards the eye versus mouth regions of neutral faces, we observed that short allele 5-HTTLPR carriers exhibited reduced looking at the eye region compared with those with the higher serotonin uptake Long allele. Together, these findings suggest that genetic mechanisms early in life may influence the establishment of patterns of visual scanning of environmental stressors, which in conjunction with other factors such as negative life events, may lead to psychological difficulties and disorders in the later adolescent and adult years. PMID:26217202

  14. Metabolic Syndrome and Importance of Associated Variables in Children and Adolescents in Guabiruba - SC, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rosini, Nilton; Moura, Solange A. Z. Oppermann; Rosini, Rodrigo Diegoli; Machado, Marcos José; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background The risk factors that characterize metabolic syndrome (MetS) may be present in childhood and adolescence, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Objective Evaluate the prevalence of MetS and the importance of its associated variables, including insulin resistance (IR), in children and adolescents in the city of Guabiruba-SC, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1011 students (6-14 years, 52.4% girls, 58.5% children). Blood samples were collected for measurement of biochemical parameters by routine laboratory methods. IR was estimated by the HOMA-IR index, and weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure were determined. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between risk variables and MetS. Results The prevalence of MetS, IR, overweight and obesity in the cohort were 14%, 8.5%, 21% and 13%, respectively. Among students with MetS, 27% had IR, 33% were overweight, 45.5% were obese and 22% were eutrophic. IR was more common in overweight (48%) and obese (41%) students when compared with eutrophic individuals (11%; p = 0.034). The variables with greatest influence on the development of MetS were obesity (OR = 32.7), overweight (OR = 6.1), IR (OR = 4.4; p ≤ 0.0001 for all) and age (OR = 1.15; p = 0.014). Conclusion There was a high prevalence of MetS in children and adolescents evaluated in this study. Students who were obese, overweight or insulin resistant had higher chances of developing the syndrome. PMID:25993484

  15. 3D RoboMET Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Jonathan D.; Susan, Donald F.; Kilgo, Alice C.

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this project is to generate 3D microstructural data by destructive and non-destructive means and provide accompanying characterization and quantitative analysis of such data. This work is a continuing part of a larger effort to relate material performance variability to microstructural variability. That larger effort is called “Predicting Performance Margins” or PPM. In conjunction with that overarching initiative, the RoboMET.3D™ is a specific asset of Center 1800 and is an automated serialsectioning system for destructive analysis of microstructure, which is called upon to provide direct customer support to 1800 and non-1800 customers. To that end, data collection, 3d reconstruction and analysis of typical and atypical microstructures have been pursued for the purposes of qualitative and quantitative characterization with a goal toward linking microstructural defects and/or microstructural features with mechanical response. Material systems examined in FY15 include precipitation hardened 17-4 steel, laser-welds of 304L stainless steel, thermal spray coatings of 304L and geological samples of sandstone.

  16. Motivational Enhancement Therapy for Adolescent Marijuana Users: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Denise D.; Roffman, Roger A.; Stephens, Robert S.; Wakana, Kim; Berghuis, James

    2006-01-01

    This study's aims were (a) to investigate the feasibility of a school-based motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention in voluntarily attracting adolescents who smoke marijuana regularly but who are not seeking formal treatment and (b) to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention in reducing marijuana use. Ninety-seven adolescents who had…

  17. Mental Health Literacy and Help-Giving Responses in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sadhbh; Swords, Lorraine; Nixon, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed mental health literacy in Irish adolescents (N = 187), and explored participants' help-giving responses toward hypothetical depressed peers. Participants read five vignettes, each describing an adolescent experiencing a life difficulty; two of the characters met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders"…

  18. Sapphires-in-Transition: Enhancing Personal Development among Black Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Joyce Lynom

    1994-01-01

    Describes school counselor intervention program used for facilitating the personal development of adolescents. Notes that intervention occurred through activities that were designed for black female adolescents in a secondary public school. Describes how goals were met through structured developmental activities, counseling sessions, and organized…

  19. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  20. Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met Polymorphism and Clinical Response to Antipsychotic Treatment in Schizophrenia and Schizo-Affective Disorder Patients: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Eric; Zai, Clement C.; Lisoway, Amanda; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Felsky, Daniel; Tiwari, Arun K.; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Ikeda, Masashi; Molero, Patricio; Ortuno, Felipe; Porcelli, Stefano; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Gao, Shugui; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Pelayo-Terán, José M; Kaur, Harpreet; Kukreti, Ritushree; Meltzer, Herbert Y.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Potkin, Steven G.; Müller, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme plays a crucial role in dopamine degradation, and the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680) is associated with significant differences in enzymatic activity and consequently dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex. Multiple studies have analyzed the COMT Val158Met variant in relation to antipsychotic response. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between COMT Val158Met and antipsychotic response. Methods: Searches using PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycInfo databases (03/01/2015) yielded 23 studies investigating COMT Val158Met variation and antipsychotic response in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder. Responders/nonresponders were defined using each study’s original criteria. If no binary response definition was used, authors were asked to define response according to at least 30% Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score reduction (or equivalent in other scales). Analysis was conducted under a fixed-effects model. Results: Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Five additional antipsychotic-treated samples were analyzed for Val158Met and response and included in the meta-analysis (ntotal=1416). Met/Met individuals were significantly more likely to respond than Val-carriers (P=.039, ORMet/Met=1.37, 95% CI: 1.02–1.85). Met/Met patients also experienced significantly greater improvement in positive symptoms relative to Val-carriers (P=.030, SMD=0.24, 95% CI: 0.024–0.46). Posthoc analyses on patients treated with atypical antipsychotics (n=1207) showed that Met/Met patients were significantly more likely to respond relative to Val-carriers (P=.0098, ORMet/Met=1.54, 95% CI: 1.11–2.14), while no difference was observed for typical-antipsychotic-treated patients (n=155) (P=.65). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder

  1. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  2. Fertility preservation for girls and young women with cancer: population-based validation of criteria for ovarian tissue cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, W Hamish B; Smith, Alice Grove; Kelsey, Thomas W; Edgar, Angela E; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Ovarian tissue cryopreservation with later reimplantation has been shown to preserve fertility in adult women, but this approach remains unproven and experimental in children and adolescents. We aimed to assess the use of the Edinburgh selection criteria for ovarian tissue cryopreservation in girls and young women with cancer to determine whether we are offering this invasive procedure to the patients who are most at risk of premature ovarian insufficiency. Methods Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been selectively offered to girls and young women with cancer who met the Edinburgh selection criteria since 1996. Between Jan 1, 1996, and June 30, 2012, 410 female patients younger than 18 years at diagnosis were treated for cancer (including leukaemia and brain tumours) at the Edinburgh Children's Cancer Centre, which serves the whole South East of Scotland region. We determined the ovarian status of these patients from review of clinical records and classified them as having premature ovarian insufficiency or not, or as unable to be determined. Patients younger than 12 years at time of data cutoff (Jan 31, 2013) were excluded from the analysis. Findings 34 (8%) of the 410 patients met the Edinburgh selection criteria and were offered ovarian tissue cryopreservation before starting cancer treatment. 13 patients declined the procedure and 21 consented, and the procedure was completed successfully in 20 patients. Of the 20 patients who had ovarian tissue successfully cryopreserved, 14 were available for assessment of ovarian function. Of the 13 patients who had declined the procedure, six were available for assessment of ovarian function. Median age at the time of follow-up for the 20 assessable patients was 16·9 years (IQR 15·5–21·8). Of the 14 assessable patients who had successfully undergone ovarian cryopreservation, six had developed premature ovarian insufficiency at a median age of 13·4 years (IQR 12·5–14·6), one of whom also had

  3. Lung donor selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  4. Lung donor selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-08-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

  5. MET Inhibition in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zuoquan; Lee, Young H.; Boeke, Marta; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.; Liu, Zongzhi; Bottaro, Donald P.; Kluger, Harriet M.; Shuch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most lethal form of kidney cancer. Small molecule VEGFR inhibitors are widely used but are not curative and various resistance mechanisms such as activation of the MET pathway have been described. Dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitors have recently shown clinical benefit but limited preclinical data evaluates their effects in ccRCC. Methods: An interrogation of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset was performed to evaluate oncogenic alterations in the MET/VEGFR2 pathway. We evaluated the in vitro effects of Cabozantinib, a dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, using a panel of ccRCC cell lines. Drug effects of cell viability and proliferation, migration, cell scatter, anchorage independent growth, and downstream MET/VEGFR2 signaling pathways were assessed. Results: Twelve percent of TCGA cases had possible MET/HGF oncogenic alterations with co-occurrence noted (p<0.001). MET/HGF altered cases had worse overall survival (p=0.044). Cabozantinib was a potent inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2 in vitro in our cell line panel. PI3K, MAPK and mTOR pathways were also suppressed by cabozantinib, however the effects on cell viability in vitro were modest. At nanomolar concentrations of cabozantinib, HGF-stimulated migration, invasion, cellular scattering and soft agar colony formation were inhibited. Conclusions: We provide further preclinical rationale for dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibition in ccRCC. While the MET pathway is implicated in VEGFR resistance, dual inhibitors may have direct anti-tumor effects in a patient subset with evidence of MET pathway involvement. Cabozantinib is a potent dual MET/VEGFR2 inhibitor, significantly inhibits cell migration and invasion in vitro and likely has anti-angiogenic effects similar to other VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Future work involving in vivo models will be useful to better define mechanisms of potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:27390595

  6. Criteria, prevalence, and phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lizneva, Daria; Suturina, Larisa; Walker, Walidah; Brakta, Soumia; Gavrilova-Jordan, Larisa; Azziz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent disorder effecting reproductive-aged women worldwide. This article addresses the evolution of the criteria used to diagnosis PCOS; reviews recent advances in the phenotypic approach, specifically in the context of the extended Rotterdam criteria; discusses limitations of the current criteria used to diagnosis, particularly when studying adolescents and women in the peri- and postmenopause; and describes significant strides made in understanding the epidemiology of PCOS. This review recognizes that although there is a high prevalence of PCOS, there is increased variability when using Rotterdam 2003 criteria, owing to limitations in population sampling and approaches used to define PCOS phenotypes. Last, we discuss the distribution of PCOS phenotypes, their morbidity, and the role that referral bias plays in the epidemiology of this syndrome. PMID:27233760

  7. Kibbutz Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Aviva, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This special issue on adolescence in the Israeli kibbutz contains a series of seven papers that seek to advance thought and research regarding the relationship between a communal way of life and individual developmental processes in adolescence and early adulthood. The articles represent a transitional era as the kibbutz evolves. (SLD)

  8. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  9. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  10. Relationships Between Marijuana Dependence and Condom Use Intentions and Behavior Among Justice-Involved Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships among marijuana dependence, a theoretical model of condom use intentions, and subsequent condom use behavior in justice-involved adolescents. Participants completed baseline measures of prior sexual and substance use behavior. Of the original 720 participants, 649 (90.13 %) completed follow-up measures 6 months later. There were high levels of marijuana use (58.7 % met criteria for dependence) and risky sexual behavior among participants. Baseline model constructs were associated with condom use intentions, and intentions were a significant predictor of condom use at follow-up. Marijuana dependence did not significantly influence the relationships between model constructs, nor did it moderate the relationship of model constructs with subsequent condom use. Findings suggest that the theoretical model of condom use intentions is equally valid regardless of marijuana dependence status, suggesting that interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior among both marijuana dependent and non-dependent justice-involved adolescents can be appropriately based on the model. PMID:23370834

  11. Prefrontal brain metabolites in short-term weight-recovered adolescent anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Garcia, Ana Isabel; Lazaro, Luisa; Andrés-Perpiñá, Susana; Falcón, Carles; Plana, Maria Teresa; Bargallo, Nuria

    2010-08-16

    Various neuroimaging techniques have revealed morphological and functional alterations in anorexia nervosa (AN), although few spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies have examined short-term weight-recovered AN patients. Subjects were 32 female adolescent patients (between 13 and 18 years old) seen consecutively in our department and who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for AN. All of them had received a minimum of six months of treatment and were short-term weight-recovered (for one to three months) with a body mass index ranging from 18 to 23. A group of 20 healthy female volunteer controls of similar age were also included. All subjects were assessed with psychopathological scales and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Total choline (Cho) (p=0.007) and creatine (Cr) (p=0.008) levels were significantly higher in AN patients than in controls. AN patients receiving psychopharmacological treatment with SSRIs (N=9) had metabolite levels similar to control subjects, but patients without this treatment did not. The present study shows abnormalities in brain neurometabolites related to Cho compounds and Cr in the prefrontal cortex in short-term weight-recovered adolescent AN patients, principally in patients not undergoing psychopharmacological treatment. More studies with larger samples are necessary to test the generalizability of the present results. PMID:20580920

  12. A pilot evaluation of older adolescents' sexual reference displays on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Brockman, Libby N; Wasserheit, Judith N; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2012-01-01

    Many older adolescents display sexual references on their social networking site profiles; this study investigated whether these references were associated with self-reported sexual intention, sexual experience, or risky sexual behavior. Public Facebook profiles of undergraduate freshmen were identified within 1 large U.S. university Facebook network. Profile owners who displayed sexual references (Displayers) and did not display references (Non-Displayers) were invited to complete surveys. Surveys measured sexual intention, using the Postponing Sexual Intercourse (PSI) scale, and sexual experiences. A higher PSI score was inversely related to intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Of the 118 profiles that met inclusion criteria, 85 profile owners completed surveys. Profile owners were mostly female (56.5%) and Caucasian (67.1%). The mean PSI score for Displayers was 6.5 ± 1.6, and the mean PSI score for Non-Displayers was 10.2 ± 0.6 (p = .02). There were no differences between Displayers and Non-Displayers regarding lifetime prevalence of sexual behavior, number of sexual partners, or frequency of condom use. Display of sexual references on college freshmen's Facebook profiles was positively associated with reporting intention to initiate sexual intercourse. Facebook profiles may present an innovative cultural venue to identify adolescents who are considering sexual activity and may benefit from targeted educational messages. PMID:22239559

  13. Illicit peyote use among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2006-01-01

    Few studies to date have addressed illicit (i.e., nonceremonial) peyote use among American Indians (AIs). Participants were 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substance abuse treatment program (RSATP) between 1998 and 2001. The RSATP is designed to provide specialized treatment of patients with substance use and other comorbid psychiatric disorders and is infused with a culturally sensitive approach to treatment. The participants completed a series of interviews that collected information on psychiatric diagnostic status, history of substance use, and ethnic identity. The majority of participants were male (65%), did not come from a two-parent household (75%), reported a mean use of 5.4 substances, and met full criteria for a median of 2.9 substance use disorders. Of 89 clients, 10 (11.2%) reported illicit use of peyote. The vast majority of these youth (n = 8) reported using peyote only once or twice in their lifetime. Illicit peyote users did not differ from nonusers in terms of age, gender, other substance use, prevalence of either other substance abuse/dependence or other nonsubstance use psychiatric disorders. However, illicit peyote users were more likely to report low levels of social support, low levels of self-esteem, and low identification with AI culture yet comparable involvement in AI traditional practices. The results of this exploratory study suggest that illicit peyote use is uncommon among AI adolescents with serious substance abuse problems. PMID:16798681

  14. Interventions using new digital media to improve adolescent sexual health: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Guse, Kylene; Levine, Deb; Martins, Summer; Lira, Andrea; Gaarde, Jenna; Westmorland, Whitney; Gilliam, Melissa

    2012-12-01

    New digital media (e.g., the Internet, text messaging, and social networking sites [SNS]) have dramatically altered the communication landscape, especially for youth. These communication platforms present new tools for engaging youth in sexual health promotion and risk reduction. We searched eight public databases across multiple disciplines for all peer-reviewed studies published between January 2000 and May 2011 that empirically evaluated the impact of digital media-based interventions on the sexual health knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors of adolescents aged 13-24 years. Of 942 abstracts, 10 met inclusion criteria. Seven studies were conducted in the United States. Eight described Web-based interventions, one used mobile phones, and one was conducted on an SNS. Two studies significantly delayed initiation of sex, and one was successful in encouraging users of an SNS to remove sex references from their public profile. Seven interventions significantly influenced psychosocial outcomes such as condom self-efficacy and abstinence attitudes, but at times the results were in directions unexpected by the study authors. Six studies increased knowledge of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, or pregnancy. This area of research is emerging and rapidly changing. More data from controlled studies with longer (>1 year) follow-up and measurement of behavioral outcomes will provide a more robust evidence base from which to judge the effectiveness of new digital media in changing adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:23174462

  15. Syndrome of fixed dystonia in adolescents--short term outcome in 4 cases.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Anirban; López-Casas, Jesús; Poo, Pilar; Colomer, Jaume; Galvan, Marta; Lingappa, Lokesh; Short, Clare; Jardine, Philip E; Fernández-Alvarez, Emilio

    2009-09-01

    We describe the clinical features, investigations and outcome of 4 adolescents aged 13, 16, 17 and 19 years, with fixed dystonia. The diagnosis was made within 6 months of the onset of symptoms. One patient had an identifiable traumatic precipitant. All the affected extremities had pain, sudomotor and vascular changes which were consistent with complex regional pain syndrome. The extremities affected by dystonia were the foot and the hand. The dystonia spread to affect other extremities in one patient. One patient had hemifacial spasm. Examination of the central and peripheral nervous system and allied investigations failed to reveal an organic cause. Common genetic causes for dystonia were excluded. The response to physical treatments for the affected extremities, such as Botulinum Toxin and surgery was poor. In all our cases there were significant psychological and psychiatric factors. Three patients fully met the criteria for psychogenic dystonia and responded well to psychological intervention. Fixed dystonia in adolescents is an uncommon disorder of unknown aetiology, usually presenting in girls, which can be very disabling and difficult to treat. The affected parts of the body are usually painful and show vascular changes. The condition is allied to CRPS. Treatment with multidisciplinary approach including psychological measures and physiotherapy is more likely to be successful and may prevent unnecessary physical measures. PMID:18996036

  16. Mutations Preventing Regulated Exon Skipping in MET Cause Osteofibrous Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Mary J; Kannu, Peter; Sharma, Swarkar; Neyt, Christine; Zhang, Dongping; Paria, Nandina; Daniel, Philip B; Whetstone, Heather; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Hammerschmidt, Philipp; Weng, Angela; Dupuis, Lucie; Jobling, Rebekah; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dray, Michael; Su, Peiqiang; Wilson, Megan J; Kapur, Raj P; McCarthy, Edward F; Alman, Benjamin A; Howard, Andrew; Somers, Gino R; Marshall, Christian R; Manners, Simon; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Rathjen, Karl E; Karol, Lori A; Crawford, Haemish; Markie, David M; Rios, Jonathan J; Wise, Carol A; Robertson, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    The periosteum contributes to bone repair and maintenance of cortical bone mass. In contrast to the understanding of bone development within the epiphyseal growth plate, factors that regulate periosteal osteogenesis have not been studied as intensively. Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a congenital disorder of osteogenesis and is typically sporadic and characterized by radiolucent lesions affecting the cortical bone immediately under the periosteum of the tibia and fibula. We identified germline mutations in MET, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, that segregate with an autosomal-dominant form of OFD in three families and a mutation in a fourth affected subject from a simplex family and with bilateral disease. Mutations identified in all families with dominant inheritance and in the one simplex subject with bilateral disease abolished the splice inclusion of exon 14 in MET transcripts, which resulted in a MET receptor (MET(Δ14)) lacking a cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain. Splice exclusion of this domain occurs during normal embryonic development, and forced induction of this exon-exclusion event retarded osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and inhibited bone-matrix mineralization. In an additional subject with unilateral OFD, we identified a somatic MET mutation, also affecting exon 14, that substituted a tyrosine residue critical for MET receptor turnover and, as in the case of the MET(Δ14) mutations, had a stabilizing effect on the mature protein. Taken together, these data show that aberrant MET regulation via the juxtamembrane domain subverts core MET receptor functions that regulate osteogenesis within cortical diaphyseal bone. PMID:26637977

  17. Mars MetNet Mission Pressure and Humidity Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, H.; Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Polkko, J.; Kemppinen, O.; Leinonen, J.

    2012-09-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). MetBaro and MetHumi are part of the scientific payload of the MNL. Main scientific goal of both devices is to measure the meteorological phenomena (pressure and humidity) of the Martian atmosphere and complement the previous Mars mission atmospheric measurements (Viking and Phoenix) for better understanding of the Martian atmospheric conditions.

  18. Adolescent suicide.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In the introduction to this report our committee, with its focus on adolescent development, expressed its concern that adolescent suicidal behavior represented a grave crisis in the adolescent, a crisis not only in the development of the adolescent but one that endangers the existence of the adolescent. The possibility of a fatal outcome is abhorrent to us as physicians and psychiatrists, as it is to all those entrusted with the care and development of our fellow human beings. Consequently, we explored the ways in which developmental and other forces lead to adolescent suicide and the measures that can be taken to prevent it. We first considered the historical and cross-cultural aspects of suicidal behaviors. Societal and cultural stresses arise from parental attitudes, beliefs, expectations, and childrearing practices that evolve from the social and economic needs in each culture. If unbalanced by growth-sustaining supports, they may compromise or constrict the existential adaptive ability of the developing adolescent and place the adolescent at risk for suicide. Research into vulnerability in adolescence has revealed gender, ethnic, and geographic differences in the dimension of the problem and has indicated the social, psychological, and biological conditions that increase the likelihood that adolescents will resort to suicidal behaviors. Research is still needed to distinguish those adolescents who commit suicide from those adolescents with similar conditions who do not. Research has only begun to explore the ways in which the interaction of specific individual dynamics, precipitating events, and personal characteristics result in an adolescent's attempt of suicide. We discussed the strengths that adolescents acquire, but we emphasized the weaknesses that ensue as adolescents are faced with the impact of the thrust of their own biological, psychological, and social development with the forces inherent in their cultures. Adolescents progress through this period

  19. Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Amit, M

    2010-01-01

    A well-balanced vegetarian diet can provide for the needs of children and adolescents. However, appropriate caloric intake should be ensured and growth monitored. Particular attention should be paid to adequate protein intake and sources of essential fatty acids, iron, zinc, calcium, and vitamins B12 and D. Supplementation may be required in cases of strict vegetarian diets with no intake of any animal products. Pregnant and nursing mothers should also be appropriately advised to ensure that the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant are adequately met. Recommendations are provided. Adolescents on restricted vegetarian or other such diets should be screened for eating disorders. PMID:21532796

  20. Revisiting Bioaccumulation Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of workgroup 5 was to revisit the B(ioaccumulation) criteria that are currently being used to identify POPs under the Stockholm Convention and PBTs under CEPA, TSCA, REACh and other programs. Despite the lack of a recognized definition for a B substance, we defined ...

  1. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  2. Graphite criteria peer review

    SciTech Connect

    1986-09-01

    This report documents a review of the stress criteria proposed for the graphite components of the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) core. The review was conducted by a panel of six independent consultants, chosen for their expertise over a range of relevant disciplines.

  3. CRITERIA FOR COUNSELOR PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, LEONARD A.; MUTHARD, JOHN E.

    THIS RESEARCH CONCERNS THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG REHABILITATION COUNSELOR PERFORMANCE CRITERIA CURRENTLY BEING USED OR READILY AVAILABLE TO STATE VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AGENCIES. THE 143 COUNSELORS STUDIED CAME FROM MIDDLE-SIZED AGENCIES IN SIX STATES AND, SINCE COWORKER RATINGS WERE REQUIRED, THE SAMPLE WAS LIMITED TO COUNSELORS WORKING WITH TWO…

  4. Association between the COMTVal158Met Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease in the Han Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong; Shi, Zhihong; Liu, Mengyuan; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Shuling; Wang, Jinhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia worldwide and is associated with individual, familial and social burdens. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) may have a prominent role in AD pathophysiology by affecting the metabolism of catecholamine neurotransmitters and estrogen. Although the COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism has been investigated as a susceptibility factor for AD, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism as a risk factor for AD in the Han Chinese population and its synergistic effect with the apolipoprotein E (APOE)gene. Methods A total of 137 AD patients and 194 healthy controls were analyzed. Clinical criteria and neuropsychological tests were used to establish diagnostic groups. All subjects were analyzed for the COMTrs4680 polymorphism and APOEgenotype. Results No significant differences were observed between AD and control subjects regarding the COMT genotype frequencies of Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met, but Met alleles were higher in AD than in control subjects (35.4 and 28.1%, p = 0.045). A minor synergistic effect between the genotypes GG and APOEε4 was observed in AD patients (OR: 5.707, 95% CI: 2.505-13.002, p < 0.001). This synergistic effect was greater in women, who showed higher OR of AD (16.007, 95% CI: 4.606-56.118, p < 0.001) versus the AD group with APOE ε4 (11.972, 95% CI: 5.534-25.902, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the COMT Met allele was an independent risk factor for AD without APOE ε4 allele carriers (OR: 1.806, 95% CI: 1.160-2.810, p = 0.009), especially in men (OR: 4.904, 95% CI: 2.381-10.099, p < 0.001). Conclusion The COMT(Val158Met) polymorphism is not an independent risk factor for AD but shows a synergistic effect between the genotypes GG and APOEε4 that proves greater in women with AD. The COMT Met allele represents a risk factor in AD without APOE ε4 allele carriers, which is notable in men with AD. PMID:24575113

  5. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  6. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  7. Structure of the fMet-tRNAfMet-binding domain of B.stearothermophilus initiation factor IF2

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Sylvie; Spurio, Roberto; Czisch, Michael; Wechselberger, Rainer; Guenneugues, Marc; Gualerzi, Claudio O.; Boelens, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the fMet-tRNAfMet -binding domain of translation initiation factor IF2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Its structure consists of six antiparallel β-strands, connected via loops, and forms a closed β-barrel similar to domain II of elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G, despite low sequence homology. Two structures of the ternary complexes of the EF-Tu⋅aminoacyl-tRNA⋅ GDP analogue have been reported and were used to propose and discuss the possible fMet-tRNAfMet-binding site of IF2. PMID:10775275

  8. Response to MET inhibitors in patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas harboring MET mutations causing exon 14 skipping

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Paul K.; Drilon, Alexander; Fan, Pang-Dian; Yu, Helena; Rekhtman, Natasha; Ginsberg, Michelle S.; Borsu, Laetitia; Schultz, Nikolaus; Berger, Michael F.; Rudin, Charles M.; Ladanyi, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the MET exon 14 RNA splice acceptor and donor sites, which lead to exon skipping, deletion of the juxtamembrane domain containing the Cbl E3-ubiquitin ligase binding site, and decreased turnover of the resultant aberrant MET protein, were previously reported to be oncogenic in preclinical models. We now report responses to the MET inhibitors crizotinib and cabozantinib in four patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinomas harboring mutations leading to MET exon 14 skipping, highlighting a new therapeutic strategy for the 4% of lung adenocarcinoma patients whose tumors harbor this previously underappreciated genetic alteration. PMID:25971939

  9. MET Expression in Primary and Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications of Correlative Biomarker Assessment to MET Pathway Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shuch, Brian; Falbo, Ryan; Parisi, Fabio; Adeniran, Adebowale; Kluger, Yuval; Kluger, Harriet M.; Jilaveanu, Lucia B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Inhibitors of the MET pathway hold promise in the treatment for metastatic kidney cancer. Assessment of predictive biomarkers may be necessary for appropriate patient selection. Understanding MET expression in metastases and the correlation to the primary site is important, as distant tissue is not always available. Methods and Results. MET immunofluorescence was performed using automated quantitative analysis and a tissue microarray containing matched nephrectomy and distant metastatic sites from 34 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Correlations between MET expressions in matched primary and metastatic sites and the extent of heterogeneity were calculated. The mean expression of MET was not significantly different between primary tumors when compared to metastases (P = 0.1). MET expression weakly correlated between primary and matched metastatic sites (R = 0.5) and a number of cases exhibited very high levels of discordance between these tumors. Heterogeneity within nephrectomy specimens compared to the paired metastatic tissues was not significantly different (P = 0.39). Conclusions. We found that MET expression is not significantly different in primary tumors than metastatic sites and only weakly correlates between matched sites. Moderate concordance of MET expression and significant expression heterogeneity may be a barrier to the development of predictive biomarkers using MET targeting agents. PMID:26448928

  10. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Child and Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2008-01-01

    The evidence-base of psychosocial treatment outcome studies for depressed youth conducted since 1998 is examined. All studies for depressed children meet Nathan and Gorman's (2002) criteria for Type 2 studies whereas the adolescent protocols meet criteria for both Type 1 and Type 2 studies. Based on the Task Force on the Promotion and…

  11. Definition and Yield of Inclusion Criteria for a Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Studies in Clinical Preventive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Ellen R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A framework and concepts for developing inclusion criteria for meta-analysis are presented and illustrated in a meta-analysis of primary studies in patient education for preventive health services. Of 5,451 citations located and abstracts screened, 64 studies eventually met acceptability criteria. (SLD)

  12. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  13. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  14. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  15. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  16. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational...

  17. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Pharmacy Professional(s) F Appendix F to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., App. F Appendix F to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Pharmacy... of pharmacy professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a rational...

  18. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 5 - Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care Professional(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Vision Care Professional(s) D Appendix D to Part 5 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Pt. 5, App. D Appendix D to Part 5—Criteria for Designation of Areas Having Shortages of Vision Care... of vision care professional(s) if the following three criteria are met: 1. The area is a...

  19. Joint Association of Screen Time and Physical Activity with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in a National Sample of Iranian Adolescents: The CASPIANIII Study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; Shahr Babaki, Amir Eslami; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ataei-Jafari, Asal; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Arefirad, Tahereh; Rezaei, Fatemeh; Asayesh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its contributing factors are considered important health problems in the pediatric age group. This study was designed to assess the joint association of ST and PA with cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian adolescents. A representative sample of 5625 (50.2% boys) school students with a mean age of 14.73 (SD: 2.41) were selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces in Iran. ST and PA were assessed by self-administered validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference (WC)) and MetS components (abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), elevated triglycerides (TG) and high fasting blood sugar (FBG)) were measured according to standardized protocols. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, elevated total cholesterol (TC), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and generalized obesity were considered as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Students with high ST levels had significantly higher body mass index z-score (BMI z-score), WC, TG, LDL-C, and BP as well as lower HDL-C level; whereas those with high PA levels had significantly higher HDL-C levels as well as lower BMI z-score, TC, and BP. Adolescents with low PA/ high ST levels had significantly higher BMI, WC, LDL-C levels, as well as higher SBP and DBP compared to their other counterparts. In Multivariate model, joint effect of low PA/ high ST (compared to the high PA/low ST group) increased the odds of overweight, abdominal obesity and low HDL-C and decreased the odds of elevated TC. The findings of this study showed that joint association of high ST and low PA have direct association with abdominal obesity, overweight and low HDL-C and indirect association with elevated TC. PMID:27167372

  20. Differences between children and adolescents who commit suicide and their peers: A psychological autopsy of suicide victims compared to accident victims and a community sample

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the circumstances related to suicide among children and adolescents 15 years and younger. Methods We conducted a psychological autopsy, collecting information from parents, hospital records and police reports on persons below the age of 16 who had committed suicide in Norway during a 12-year period (1993-2004) (n = 41). Those who committed suicide were compared with children and adolescents who were killed in accidents during the same time period (n = 43) and with a community sample. Results: Among the suicides 25% met the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis and 30% had depressive symptoms at the time of death. Furthermore, 60% of the parents of the suicide victims reported the child experienced some kind of stressful conflict prior to death, whereas only 12% of the parents of the accident victims reported such conflicts. Conclusion One in four suicide victims fulfilled the criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis. The level of sub-threshold depression and of stressful conflict experienced by youths who committed suicide did not appear to differ substantially from that of their peers, and therefore did not raise sufficient concern for referral to professional help. PMID:22216948

  1. Aptamers Binding to c-Met Inhibiting Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Piater, Birgit; Doerner, Achim; Guenther, Ralf; Kolmar, Harald; Hock, Bjoern

    2015-01-01

    The human receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met plays an important role in the control of critical cellular processes. Since c-Met is frequently over expressed or deregulated in human malignancies, blocking its activation is of special interest for therapy. In normal conditions, the c-Met receptor is activated by its bivalent ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Also bivalent antibodies can activate the receptor by cross linking, limiting therapeutic applications. We report the generation of the RNA aptamer CLN64 containing 2’-fluoro pyrimidine modifications by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). CLN64 and a previously described single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) aptamer CLN3 exhibited high specificities and affinities to recombinant and cellular expressed c-Met. Both aptamers effectively inhibited HGF-dependent c-Met activation, signaling and cell migration. We showed that these aptamers did not induce c-Met activation, revealing an advantage over bivalent therapeutic molecules. Both aptamers were shown to bind overlapping epitopes but only CLN3 competed with HGF binding to cMet. In addition to their therapeutic and diagnostic potential, CLN3 and CLN64 aptamers exhibit valuable tools to further understand the structural and functional basis for c-Met activation or inhibition by synthetic ligands and their interplay with HGF binding. PMID:26658271

  2. Success, but Slowly, as Met School Redefines Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    Seven Oaks Met School, the only high school in Canada that is part of the U.S.-based Big Picture Learning network of innovative schools, graduated its first class this spring. Internships with businesses and institutions in the community are a core element of the Met School experience. Students report on their internship experience, as well as on…

  3. Targeting the HGF/MET signalling pathway in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Cecchi, Fabiola; Rabe, Daniel C.; Bottaro, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced activation of its cell surface receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase (TK), is tightly regulated by paracrine ligand delivery, ligand activation at the target cell surface, and ligand activated receptor internalization and degradation. Despite these controls, HGF/Met signaling contributes to oncogenesis and tumor progression in several cancers and promotes aggressive cellular invasiveness that is strongly linked to tumor metastasis. Area covered The prevalence of HGF/Met pathway activation in human malignancies has driven rapid growth in cancer drug development programs. The authors review Met structure and function, the basic properties of HGF/Met pathway antagonists now in preclinical and clinical development, as well as the latest clinical trial results. Expert opinion Clinical trials with HGF/Met pathway antagonists show that as a class these agents are well tolerated. Although widespread efficacy was not seen in several completed phase 2 studies, promising results have been reported in lung, gastric, prostate and papillary renal cancer patients treated with these agents. The main challenges facing the effective use of HGF/Met-targeted antagonists for cancer treatment are optimal patient selection, diagnostic and pharmacodynamic biomarker development, and the identification and testing of optimal therapy combinations. The wealth of basic information, analytical reagents and model systems available concerning HGF/Met oncogenic signaling will continue to be invaluable in meeting these challenges and moving expeditiously toward more effective disease control. PMID:22530990

  4. Astronaut Alan Shepard using MET during geological training in Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander of the Apollo 14 lunar landing mission, takes a piece of equipment from the Modular Equipment Transporter (MET) during geological and lunar surface simulation training training in the Pinacate volcanic area of northwestern Sonora, Mexico. The MET has been nicknamed 'Rickshaw' after its shape and method of propulsion.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents from the Age Range of 2 to 19 Years Old in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Niehues, Janaina R.; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R.; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  6. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from the age range of 2 to 19 years old in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina R; Gonzales, Ana Inês; Lemos, Robson R; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Infant juvenile obesity is currently a worldwide public health problem and it is increasing at alarming rate in the Brazilian population, showing its relevance in terms of public health. Objectives. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents between 2 and 19 years old in different regions of Brazil. Methods. The following electronic databases were searched (from September through November 2013): Medline (PubMed), LILACS, and SciELO, using the descriptors and Boolean operators (obesity) and (overweight) and (child) and (prevalence) and (Brazil). Prospective and/or cross-sectional designs studies were found regarding the prevalence of overweight and obese children and adolescents in the five regions of Brazil. Results. A total of 191 scientific articles were found of which 17 met all inclusion criteria. A higher prevalence of overweight was found in the south (25.7%) and north (28.8%) of the country, and obesity in the southeast (15.4%) and south (10.4%). Conclusions. The scope of the studies was mostly based on municipal coverage, which resulted in limitations for conclusive analysis, showing the need for further studies of prevalence at the national level, with emphasis on public health in obese children and adolescents throughout the Brazilian territory. PMID:24995019

  8. Impact of Exercise Training in Aerobic Capacity and Pulmonary Function in Children and Adolescents After Congenital Heart Disease Surgery: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Saquetto, Micheli Bernardone; da Silva e Silva, Cassio Magalhães; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, (from the earliest date available to January 2015) for controlled trials that evaluated the effects of exercise training on aerobic capacity and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity) in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery. Weighted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated,, and heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Eight trials (n = 292) met the study criteria. The results suggested that exercise training compared with control had a positive impact on peak VO2. Exercise training resulted in improvement in peak VO2 weighted mean difference (3.68 mL kg(-1) min(-1), 95 % CI 1.58-5.78). The improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity after exercise training was not significant. Exercise training may improve peak VO2 in children and adolescents after congenital heart disease surgery and should be considered for inclusion in cardiac rehabilitation. Further larger randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to investigate different types of exercise and its effects on the quality of life. PMID:26396114

  9. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in adolescents: pathogenetic role of genetic background and intrauterine environment.

    PubMed

    Alisi, Anna; Cianfarani, Stefano; Manco, Melania; Agostoni, Carlo; Nobili, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    In the last three decades the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been growing worldwide along with an increase of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In children and adolescents such epidemics are particularly worrisome, since the metabolic consequences in adulthood will significantly burden the health care system. Although the definition of MetS in childhood is still controversial, there is agreement with respect to NAFLD being the hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, the molecular pathogenesis of MetS and its contribution to NAFLD is complex and closely related to the pre- and postnatal environment as well as to genetic predisposing factors. The analysis of the possible relationships between NAFLD and MetS is particularly interesting, not only from an epidemiological point of view, but also to better understand the genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development of both diseases. We here summarize the most recent epidemiological data on the incidence of both diseases in adolescents, and several aspects linking MetS with NAFLD, discussing the possible role played by genetics and intrauterine environment. PMID:21355790

  10. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  11. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    "Metabolic Equivalent" (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O₂/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35-41, n = 46), women 24-53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  12. Artificial human Met agonists based on macrocycle scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenichiro; Sakai, Katsuya; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Ozawa, Naoya; Hatta, Tomohisa; Natsume, Tohru; Matsumoto, Kunio; Suga, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, also known as Met, is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family. The Met–HGF interaction regulates various signalling pathways involving downstream kinases, such as Akt and Erk. Met activation is implicated in wound healing of tissues via multiple biological responses triggered by the above-mentioned signalling cascade. Here we report the development of artificial Met-activating dimeric macrocycles. We identify Met-binding monomeric macrocyclic peptides by means of the RaPID (random non-standard peptide integrated discovery) system, and dimerize the respective monomers through rational design. These dimeric macrocycles specifically and strongly activate Met signalling pathways through receptor dimerization and induce various HGF-like cellular responses, such as branching morphogenesis, in human cells. This work suggests our approach for generating dimeric macrocycles as non-protein ligands for cell surface receptors can be useful for developing potential therapeutics with a broad range of potential applications. PMID:25758345

  13. The body-image of physically abused and normal adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, C W; Harway, M

    1981-10-01

    Compared the human figure drawings of physically abused adolescents with those of normal adolescents. The Draw-A-Person test was administered to 60 adolescents, 30 of whom were victims of physical abuse. Significant differences were found between the drawings of the two groups on six of the eight scoring criteria utilized. Significant DAP aspects included erasure, clothing, detail, fingers, symmetry and arm position. The drawings of the physically abused adolescents, taken as a whole, seemed to be indicative of poor body image with signs of insecurity, inadequacy, withdrawal, and interpersonal problems. PMID:7309879

  14. Unified nonclassicality criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryl, S.; Sperling, J.; Agudelo, E.; Mraz, M.; Köhnke, S.; Hage, B.; Vogel, W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we generalize the Bochner criterion addressing the characteristic function, i.e., the Fourier transform, of the Glauber-Sudarshan phase-space function. For this purpose we extend the Bochner theorem by including derivatives of the characteristic function. The resulting necessary and sufficient nonclassicality criteria unify previously known moment-based criteria with those based on the characteristic function. For applications of the generalized nonclassicality probes, we provide direct sampling formulas for balanced homodyne detection. A squeezed vacuum state is experimentally realized and characterized with our method. This complete framework—theoretical unification, sampling approach, and experimental implementation—presents an efficient toolbox to characterize quantum states of light for applications in quantum technology.

  15. An Efficacy/effectiveness Study of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Adolescents with Comorbid Major Depression and Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Clarke, Gregory N.; Mace, David E.; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate effectiveness of the Adolescent Coping With Depression (CWD-A) course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention for depressed adolescents with comorbid conduct disorder. Method: Between 1998 and 2001, 93 nonincarcerated adolescents (ages 13-17 years) meeting criteria for major depressive disorder and conduct disorder were…

  16. Problematic internet use and problematic online gaming are not the same: findings from a large nationally representative adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  17. Effects of Rational-Emotive Health Education Program on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Okere, Anthony U; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday

    2016-07-01

    Exploring beliefs about personal risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is essential to understanding what motivates people to engage in behaviors that reduce or increase their risk of HIV infection. Therefore, the current study's objective was to examine the effects of a Rational-Emotive Health Education Program (REHEP) on HIV risk perceptions among in-school adolescents in Anambra State, Nigeria.Forty-four participants were identified as having high-risk perceptions about HIV infection through a self-report questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria. The treatment process was guided by a REHEP manual and consisted of 8 weeks of full intervention and 2 weeks of follow-up meetings that marked the end of intervention. The study used repeated measures analysis of variance to assess improvements in individual participants and across control and treatment group risk perceptions after the intervention.HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents did not differ across the treatment and control groups at baseline. Through REHEP, HIV risk perceptions significantly reduced in the treatment group compared to those in the control group. REHEP had significant effect on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents exposed to treatment group, despite their sex. Religious background did not determine the significant effect of REHEP on HIV risk perceptions of in-school adolescents in the treatment group.Follow-up studies that would use a REHEP to assist client population from other parts of the country to promote HIV risk reduction, especially among those with high-risk behavior, are needed in Nigeria. PMID:27442633

  18. Problematic Internet Use and Problematic Online Gaming Are Not the Same: Findings from a Large Nationally Representative Adolescent Sample

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659

  19. PML diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Aksamit, Allen J.; Clifford, David B.; Davis, Larry; Koralnik, Igor J.; Sejvar, James J.; Bartt, Russell; Major, Eugene O.; Nath, Avindra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish criteria for the diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methods: We reviewed available literature to identify various diagnostic criteria employed. Several search strategies employing the terms “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy” with or without “JC virus” were performed with PubMed, SCOPUS, and EMBASE search engines. The articles were reviewed by a committee of individuals with expertise in the disorder in order to determine the most useful applicable criteria. Results: A consensus statement was developed employing clinical, imaging, pathologic, and virologic evidence in support of the diagnosis of PML. Two separate pathways, histopathologic and clinical, for PML diagnosis are proposed. Diagnostic classification includes certain, probable, possible, and not PML. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis of PML requires neuropathologic demonstration of the typical histopathologic triad (demyelination, bizarre astrocytes, and enlarged oligodendroglial nuclei) coupled with the techniques to show the presence of JC virus. The presence of clinical and imaging manifestations consistent with the diagnosis and not better explained by other disorders coupled with the demonstration of JC virus by PCR in CSF is also considered diagnostic. Algorithms for establishing the diagnosis have been recommended. PMID:23568998

  20. Waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), DOE/WIPP-069, was initially developed by a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Steering Committee to provide performance requirements to ensure public health and safety as well as the safe handling of transuranic (TRU) waste at the WIPP. This revision updates the criteria and requirements of previous revisions and deletes those which were applicable only to the test phase. The criteria and requirements in this document must be met by participating DOE TRU Waste Generator/Storage Sites (Sites) prior to shipping contact-handled (CH) and remote-handled (RH) TRU waste forms to the WIPP. The WIPP Project will comply with applicable federal and state regulations and requirements, including those in Titles 10, 40, and 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). The WAC, DOE/WIPP-069, serves as the primary directive for assuring the safe handling, transportation, and disposal of TRU wastes in the WIPP and for the certification of these wastes. The WAC identifies strict requirements that must be met by participating Sites before these TRU wastes may be shipped for disposal in the WIPP facility. These criteria and requirements will be reviewed and revised as appropriate, based on new technical or regulatory requirements. The WAC is a controlled document. Revised/changed pages will be supplied to all holders of controlled copies.

  1. Subtypes of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Self, Mariella M.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Chumpitazi, Bruno P.; Weidler, Erica M.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Pharmacologic treatments for IBS and medical management of symptoms are increasingly based on IBS subtype, so it is important to accurately differentiate patients. Few studies have classified subtypes of pediatric IBS, and conclusions have been challenged by methodologic limitations. We performed a prospective study to investigate the distribution of IBS subtypes among children and adolescents based on stool diary information, and compared subtypes according to demographic and pain characteristics. Methods We studied 129 subjects, 7–18 y old (mean 11.4 ± 2.8 y old, 60.5% female, 69.0% Caucasian) who met Pediatric Rome III IBS criteria and were part of larger studies of children with functional gastrointestinal disorders, recruited from primary and tertiary care centers. Children completed daily pain and stool diaries for 2 weeks. Participants were assigned IBS subtypes based on their reported stool information, per adult Rome III criteria. IBS subtypes were compared for demographic variables and pain characteristics. Results IBS with constipation (IBC-C) was the most common subtype of the disorder (58.1% of subjects), whereas mixed IBS (IBS-M) was the least common (2.3% of subjects); 34.1% of subjects were unsubtyped (IBS-U) and 5.4% had IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D). The groups of different IBS subtypes did not differ significantly by sex, age, ethnicity, or pain characteristics. Conclusions In contrast to adults, IBS-C and IBS-U are the most common subtypes of IBS in children, whereas IBS-D and IBS-M are less common. Demographic and pain characteristics cannot distinguish subtypes. PMID:24486406

  2. Adolescent Prostitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Bernie; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1984-01-01

    Explores the conditions which lead to teenagers' becoming prostitutes, including alienation, abuse, lack of education and employment, and family problems. Discusses the role of the justice system and institutions and the need for improving adolescents' self-image. (JAC)

  3. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  4. Clustering of the Metabolic Syndrome Components in Adolescence: Role of Visceral Fat

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Melkaye G.; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel T.; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Visceral fat (VF) promotes the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), which emerges as early as in adolescence. The clustering of MetS components suggests shared etiologies, but these are largely unknown and may vary between males and females. Here, we investigated the latent structure of pre-clinical MetS in a community-based sample of 286 male and 312 female adolescents, assessing their abdominal adiposity (VF) directly with magnetic resonance imaging. Principal component analysis of the five MetS-defining variables (VF, blood pressure [BP], fasting serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and glucose) identified two independent components in both males and females. The first component was sex-similar; it explained >30% of variance and was loaded by all but BP variables. The second component explained >20% of variance; it was loaded by BP similarly in both sexes but additional loading by metabolic variables was sex-specific. This sex-specificity was not detected in analyses that used waist circumference instead of VF. In adolescence, MetS-defining variables cluster into at least two sub-syndromes: (1) sex-similar metabolic abnormalities of obesity-induced insulin resistance and (2) sex-specific metabolic abnormalities associated with BP elevation. These results suggest that the etiology of MetS may involve more than one pathway and that some of the pathways may differ between males and females. Further, the sex-specific metabolic abnormalities associated with BP elevation suggest the need for sex-specific prevention and treatment strategies of MetS. PMID:24376531

  5. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  6. Exploring Associations between Problematic Internet Use, Depressive Symptoms and Sleep Disturbance among Southern Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and

  7. Criteria for Assessing Naturalistic Inquiries as Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon G.

    Research on the assessment of naturalistic inquiries is reviewed, and criteria for assessment are outlined. Criteria reviewed include early foundational and non-foundational criteria, trustworthiness criteria, axiomatic criteria, rhetorical criteria, action criteria, and application/transferability criteria. Case studies that are reports of…

  8. Mutations Preventing Regulated Exon Skipping in MET Cause Osteofibrous Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Mary J.; Kannu, Peter; Sharma, Swarkar; Neyt, Christine; Zhang, Dongping; Paria, Nandina; Daniel, Philip B.; Whetstone, Heather; Sprenger, Hans-Georg; Hammerschmidt, Philipp; Weng, Angela; Dupuis, Lucie; Jobling, Rebekah; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dray, Michael; Su, Peiqiang; Wilson, Megan J.; Kapur, Raj P.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Alman, Benjamin A.; Howard, Andrew; Somers, Gino R.; Marshall, Christian R.; Manners, Simon; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Rathjen, Karl E.; Karol, Lori A.; Crawford, Haemish; Markie, David M.; Rios, Jonathan J.; Wise, Carol A.; Robertson, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The periosteum contributes to bone repair and maintenance of cortical bone mass. In contrast to the understanding of bone development within the epiphyseal growth plate, factors that regulate periosteal osteogenesis have not been studied as intensively. Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a congenital disorder of osteogenesis and is typically sporadic and characterized by radiolucent lesions affecting the cortical bone immediately under the periosteum of the tibia and fibula. We identified germline mutations in MET, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase, that segregate with an autosomal-dominant form of OFD in three families and a mutation in a fourth affected subject from a simplex family and with bilateral disease. Mutations identified in all families with dominant inheritance and in the one simplex subject with bilateral disease abolished the splice inclusion of exon 14 in MET transcripts, which resulted in a MET receptor (METΔ14) lacking a cytoplasmic juxtamembrane domain. Splice exclusion of this domain occurs during normal embryonic development, and forced induction of this exon-exclusion event retarded osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and inhibited bone-matrix mineralization. In an additional subject with unilateral OFD, we identified a somatic MET mutation, also affecting exon 14, that substituted a tyrosine residue critical for MET receptor turnover and, as in the case of the METΔ14 mutations, had a stabilizing effect on the mature protein. Taken together, these data show that aberrant MET regulation via the juxtamembrane domain subverts core MET receptor functions that regulate osteogenesis within cortical diaphyseal bone. PMID:26637977

  9. FOXC2 promotes colorectal cancer metastasis by directly targeting MET.

    PubMed

    Cui, Y-M; Jiao, H-L; Ye, Y-P; Chen, C-M; Wang, J-X; Tang, N; Li, T-T; Lin, J; Qi, L; Wu, P; Wang, S-Y; He, M-R; Liang, L; Bian, X-W; Liao, W-T; Ding, Y-Q

    2015-08-13

    Metastasis is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple genes have been identified to be responsible for the development of CRC, the molecular changes that enable CRC cells to undergo early local invasion and to form distant metastatic colonies still remain largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of Forkhead box protein C2 (FOXC2) and explored the underlying mechanisms in invasion and metastasis of CRC. We show that both high FOXC2 expression and nuclear localization of FOXC2 are significantly correlated with advanced TNM (T=primary tumor; N=regional lymph nodes; M=distant metastasis) stages. FOXC2 enhanced the invasive abilities of CRC cells in vitro and promoted local invasion and distant metastasis in an orthotopic mouse metastatic model of CRC. Microarray analysis revealed that overexpression of FOXC2 increased the proto-oncogene MET tyrosine kinase expression and activated the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-MET signaling pathway. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that FOXC2 directly associated with MET promoter to increase the transcriptional activity of MET. Inhibition of MET attenuates the invasive phenotype and metastatic potential of FOXC2-overexpressing CRC cells, indicating that MET is a major mediator of FOXC2-promoted metastasis. In addition, FOXC2 expression was positively correlated with MET expression in CRC tissue samples. Our findings suggest that FOXC2 has a crucial role in CRC metastasis by regulating HGF-MET signaling via inducing MET expression, highlighting FOXC2 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing or reducing metastasis in CRC. PMID:25381815

  10. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  12. Targeting the oncogenic Met receptor by antibodies and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Vigna, E; Comoglio, P M

    2015-04-01

    The receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), a tyrosine kinase encoded by the Met oncogene, has a crucial role in cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. It is a validated therapeutic target for 'personalized' treatment of a number of malignancies. Therapeutic tools prompting selective, robust and highly effective Met inhibition potentially represent a major step in the battle against cancer. Antibodies targeting either Met or its ligand HGF, although challenging, demonstrate to be endowed with promising features. Here we briefly review and discuss the state of the art in the field. PMID:24882574

  13. MetNet Precursor - Network Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Arri-Matti

    2010-05-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The first MetNet vehicle, MetNet Precursor, slated for launch in 2011. The MetNet development work started already in 2001. The actual practical Precursor Mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various space research institutes and agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Time-resolved in situ Martian meteorological measurements acquired by the Viking, Mars Pathfinder and Phoenix landers and remote sensing observations by the Mariner 9, Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey and the Mars Express orbiters have provided the basis for our current understanding of the behavior of weather and climate on Mars. However, the available amount of data is still scarce and a wealth of additional in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes to address microscale and mesoscale atmospheric phenomena. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns and climatological cycles requires simultaneous in situ atmospheric observations. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe

  14. Magnetic criteria of aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gershoni-Poranne, Renana; Stanger, Amnon

    2015-09-21

    This review describes the current state of magnetic criteria of aromaticity. The introduction contains the fundamentals of ring currents in aromatic and antiaromatic systems, followed by a brief description of experimental and computational tools: NMR, diamagnetic susceptibility exaltation, current density analyses (CDA) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS). This is followed by more comprehensive chapters: NMR - focusing on the work of R. Mitchell - NICS and CDA - describing the progress and development of the methods to their current state and presenting some examples of representative work. PMID:26035305

  15. Criteria for software modularization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  16. Performance Criteria and Evaluation System

    1992-06-18

    The Performance Criteria and Evaluation System (PCES) was developed in order to make a data base of criteria accessible to radiation safety staff. The criteria included in the package are applicable to occupational radiation safety at DOE reactor and nonreactor nuclear facilities, but any data base of criteria may be created using the Criterion Data Base Utiliity (CDU). PCES assists personnel in carrying out oversight, line, and support activities.

  17. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO), Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept the following: • DOE hazardous and non-hazardous non-radioactive classified waste • DOE low-level radioactive waste (LLW) • DOE mixed low-level waste (MLLW) • U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) classified waste The LLW and MLLW listed above may also be classified waste. Classified waste is the only waste accepted for disposal that may be non-radioactive and shall be required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for radioactive waste as specified in this document. Classified waste may be sent to the NNSS as classified matter. Section 3.1.18 provides the requirements that must be met for permanent burial of classified matter. The NNSA/NFO and support contractors are available to assist the generator in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management Operations (EMO) at (702) 295-7063, and the call will be directed to the appropriate contact.

  18. [Adolescence: viewpoints from adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Bürgin, D; von Klitzing, K

    1994-05-01

    Adolescence is a phase of human development which is marked by a high vulnerability due to the ongoing psycho-physiological transformations. The regulation of the self-esteem is especially in danger in youngsters who went into adolescence with a marked burden of conflicts or who lived in families with disturbed intrafamilial dynamics. To be present as a partner and not to find the solutions for the adolescents' conflicts, to accept their questioning of what is established and to recognize their movements of reconciliation are the quite complex demands put on to the world of the adults. Adolescents urge us to a review of our own adolescence, to a balancing of hate and love, openness and rigidity, and to dialectic movements between disintegration and reintegration as well as between the generations. Any help, be it on the physical, the social or the psychic level, should be directed toward a restitution of the intrapsychic, intrafamilial or intergenerational balance; sociocultural factors have also always to be respected. The helpers--especially in a culture with rapid change--are often confronted with their own adolescence, which took place a generation before and mostly under totally different conditions. PMID:8016759

  19. Quartic Rotation Criteria and Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Douglas B.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the current analytic rotation criteria for simple structure in factor analysis are summarized and identified as members of a general symmetric family of quartic criteria. A unified development of algorithms for orthogonal and direct oblique rotation using arbitrary criteria from this family is presented. (Author/TJH)

  20. Oxidation of Met(144) and Met(145) in Calmodulin Blocks Calmodulin Dependent Activation of the Plasma Membrane Ca-ATPase.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Ryan K.; Urbauer, Ramona J.; Anbanandam, A; Smallwood, Heather S.; Urbauer, Jeffrey L.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2003-04-15

    Methionine oxidation in calmodulin (CaM) isolated from senescent brain results in an inability to fully activate the plasma membrane (PM) Ca-ATPase which may contribute to observed increases in cytosolic calcium levels under conditions of oxidative stress and biological aging. To identify the functional importance of the oxidation of Met-144 and Met-145 near the carboxyl-terminus of CaM, we have used site-directed mutagenesis to substitute leucines for methionines at other positions in CaM, permitting the site-specific oxidation of Met-144 and Met-145. Prior to the oxidation, the CaM-dependent activation of the PM-CA-ATPase by these CaM mutants is similar to that of wild-type CaM. Likewise, oxidation of individual methionines has a minimal effect on the CaM concentration necessary for half-maximal activation of the PM-Ca-ATPase. These results are consistent with previous suggestions that no single methionine within CaM is essential for activation of the PM-CA-ATPase. Oxidation of either Met-144 or Met-145 or all nine methionines in CaM results in an equivalent inhibition of the PM-Ca-ATPase, resulting in a 50-60% reduction in the level of enzyme activation. Oxidation of Met-144 is largely responsible for the decreased extent of enzyme activation, suggesting that this site is critical in modulating the sensitivity of CaM to oxidant-induced loss-of-function. These results are discussed in terms of a possible functional role for Met-144 and Met-145 in CaM as redox sensors that function to modulate calcium homeostasis and energy metabolism in response to conditions of oxidative stress.

  1. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction.

    PubMed

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians. PMID:27570673

  2. Regular Expression-Based Learning for METs Value Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Redd, Douglas; Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Functional status as measured by exercise capacity is an important clinical variable in the care of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Exercise capacity is commonly reported in terms of Metabolic Equivalents (METs). In the medical records, METs can often be found in a variety of clinical notes. To extract METs values, we adapted a machine-learning algorithm called REDEx to automatically generate regular expressions. Trained and tested on a set of 2701 manually annotated text snippets (i.e. short pieces of text), the regular expressions were able to achieve good accuracy and F-measure of 0.89 and 0.86. This extraction tool will allow us to process the notes of millions of cardiovascular patients and extract METs value for use by researchers and clinicians. PMID:27570673

  3. MMPM - Mission implementation of Mars MetNet Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The key technical aspects and solutions of the mission will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  4. Pharmacotherapy for adolescent alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Clark, Duncan B

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) occurs in few young adolescents, but is as common as in adults by the late teens. To address problems with the current American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV criteria, the anticipated DSM-V will eliminate the distinction between substance abuse and dependence in favour of a single category. For adolescents, pharmacotherapy for AUD may target alcohol withdrawal symptoms, alcohol consumption reinforcement properties, craving or co-morbid mental disorders. While uncommon among adolescents, severe alcohol withdrawal may require the closely monitored application of benzodiazepines. Disulfiram alters alcohol metabolism and has been shown to increase abstinence in adolescents with AUD, but sufficient motivation to maintain abstinence is needed for this approach to be appropriate. Medications to reduce alcohol craving, including naltrexone and acamprosate, may also assist some adolescents in maintaining abstinence. Adolescents with AUD typically also have co-morbid mental disorders and problems with other substances. Co-morbid mental disorders, such as major depressive disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, may be addressed by pharmacotherapy. The potential for interactions between prescribed medications and alcohol or illicit substances necessitates patient education and monitoring. While there is a paucity of empirical information on the applicability of these pharmacotherapy approaches in adolescents, cautious application of these medications in selected cases in the context of systematic psychosocial interventions is warranted to promote abstinence and address associated problems. PMID:22676261

  5. Care of the dying adolescent: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Freyer, David R

    2004-02-01

    More than 3000 adolescents in the United States die annually from the effects of chronic illness. Providing appropriate end-of-life care for these patients is particularly challenging because of several developmental, ethical, and legal considerations relevant to this age group. Developmental issues relate to the ways in which life-threatening illness alters the normal physical and psychological changes associated with adolescence, including attainment of independence, social skills, peer acceptance, and a healthy self-image. Ethical and legal issues arise from the fact that many terminally ill adolescents <18 years of age lack ordinary legal authority to make binding medical decisions (including discontinuation of their treatment), yet they meet functional criteria for having the competence to do so. In such situations, a broad medical, ethical, and legal consensus supports giving decisional authority to the minor patient. Even when full decisional authority is not appropriate, strong moral arguments exist for taking serious account of the young adolescent's treatment preferences. In supporting the dying adolescent, an atmosphere promoting excellent communication and sound decision-making should be fostered as early as possible during preterminal care and maintained thereafter. Once palliative-care strategies become the clinical focus, psychosocial support sensitive to the adolescent's developmental stage must be provided. Using these principles, clinicians can play a crucial role in helping the adolescent, in the face of death, to experience richness of life and the dignity of self-determination. PMID:14754953

  6. The prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; de Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; de Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho; de Mello, Danielli Braga; Lanzillotti, Haydée Serrão; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of disordered eating and possible health consequences in adolescent female tennis players. This cross-sectional controlled study investigated the pubertal development (Tanner stages); body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA); dietary intake (food record); presence of disordered eating (EAT-26, BITE and BSQ); menstrual status (questionnaire) and bone mineral density (DXA). The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) was divided into two severity stages. The study included 45 adolescents (24 athletes and 21 controls) at some pubertal developmental stage. The athletes exhibited better body composition profiles. We found that 91.7%, 33.3% and 25% of athletes and 71.4%, 9.5% and 33.3% of controls met criteria for disordered eating and/or low energy availability, menstrual irregularities and low bone mass, respectively. A greater percentage of athletes than controls presented with 1 and 2 FAT components (stage I), and 4.2% presented with the full syndrome. In conclusion, tennis players appear to present with more severe disorders than controls and should be monitored to avoid damage to their performance and health. PMID:23318655

  7. The effect of adjunctive light therapy on ameliorating breakthrough depressive symptoms in adolescent-onset bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Papatheodorou, G; Kutcher, S

    1995-01-01

    Seven adolescents or young adults (aged 16 to 22 years) who met DSM-III-R criteria for bipolar disorder were treated for persistent depressive symptoms (greater than three weeks) with adjunctive light therapy (10,000 lux given twice per day). Patients were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Symptoms Check List (SCL-58). Three patients showed a marked response of greater than 70% decrease of their baseline score. Two patients had a moderate decrease (40% to 74%) and two patients obtained mild to no response. There were no reported side-effects. Paired t-tests done on pre- and post-BDI scores (pre mean = 21.2 sd +/- 10.0; post mean = 11.1, sd +/- 8.8; paired t = 4.31; p > 0.0051) and pre- and post-SCL-58 scores above baseline of 58 (pre mean = 57.4, sd +/- 24.4; post mean = 28.7, sd +/- 18.6; paired t = 5.50; p > 0.0015) showed significant improvement. These preliminary results indicate that some bipolar adolescents with breakthrough depressive symptoms could benefit from light therapy as an adjunct to their continued thymoleptic treatment. PMID:7786884

  8. A review of the father-child relationship in the development and maintenance of adolescent anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Gale, Christopher J; Cluett, Elizabeth R; Laver-Bradbury, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    There are disproportionately fewer studies examining the role of the father in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. This is pertinent in the field of eating disorders, where there is a wealth of research related to family influences and the value of family-based interventions. This article reviews the key themes within the literature around the potential impact of the father-child relationship on the development and maintenance of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa in young people. The critical review searched relevant health and social care databases, as well as manually searching key journals in the eating disorder field. In these results, 13 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were critiqued, with 8 being taken forward for discussion. The 8 studies identified key themes within the relationship of the father and child (particularly daughters) around conflict and communication, parental protection and psychological control, emotional regulation and self-esteem, and self-perfectionism. All of these factors appear to influence the child's level of self-determining autonomy, which in turn can impact maladaptive eating attitudes and psychopathology. Tentative recommendations are made around working with fathers to encourage free expression of ideas and foster a sense of autonomy through compromise and collaboration with their adolescent child. Further research around these themes in relation to other family members is also suggested. PMID:23597275

  9. An explorative analysis of the recruitment of patients to a randomised controlled trial in adolescents with dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Wide Boman, Ulla; Broberg, Anders G; Krekmanova, Larisa; Staberg, Marie; Svensson, Carina; Robertson, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are considered to provide the most reliable evidence on the efficacy of interventions. The aim of this study was to describe the recruitment process of an RCT study set up to evaluate a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) intervention programme for adolescent patients with dental anxiety (DA). The participants were recruited from a consecutive sample of adolescent patients (12-19 yrs old) referred for DA to a specialised pediatric dentistry clinic. Age, gender, and reason for referral were recorded for the possible eligible patients as part of the drop-out analysis of the recruitment process. Participants were then randomized to the intervention (CBT integrated with dental treatment) or control (adapted dental treatment) condition. In the recruitment process, 138 possible eligible patients met inclusion criteria, of these 55 were enrolled, 44 declined participation and 39 patients were excluded.The patients enrolled in the RCT did not differ from the non-participants with regard to age, gender or cause of referral. As a result of difficulties in the recruitment process, the study period was extended. The considerable proportion of non-participants as evident from the recruitment process may pose a threat to the external validity of the clinical trial. From a clinical perspective, the reasons for the lack of motivation to participate in behavioural interventions and the failure to appear warrant further investigation. PMID:26995811

  10. Decreased Expression of Met During Differentiation in Rat Lung

    PubMed Central

    Kato, T.; Oka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Ito, A.

    2016-01-01

    Organ-specific stem cells play key roles in maintaining the epithelial cell layers of lung. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are distal lung epithelial stem cells of adult mice. Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells have important functions and serve as progenitor cells of alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells to repair the epithelium when they are injured. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) elicits mitogenic, morphogenic, and anti-apoptotic effects on lung epithelial cells through tyrosine phosphorylation of Met receptor, and thus is recognized as a pulmotrophic factor. To understand which cells HGF targets in lung, we identified the cells expressing Met by immunofluorescence assay. Met was strongly expressed in BASCs, which expressed an AT2 cell marker, pro-SP-C, and a club cell marker, CCSP. In alveoli, we found higher expression of Met in primary AT2 than in AT1 cells, which was confirmed using primary AT2 cells. We further examined the mitogenic activity of HGF in AT2-cell-derived alveolar-like cysts (ALCs) in 3D culture. Multicellular ALCs expressed Met, and HGF enhanced the ALC production. Taking these findings together, BASCs could also be an important target for HGF, and HGF-Met signaling could function more potent on cells that have greater multipotency in adult lung. PMID:26972715

  11. The role of the HGF/Met axis in mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Thayaparan, Thivyan; Spicer, James F; Maher, John

    2016-04-15

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related cancer that occurs most commonly in the pleural space and is incurable. Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-directed signalling plays a key role in the pathogenesis of this cancer. In the majority of mesotheliomas, up-regulated expression or signalling by Met, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can be demonstrated. Following binding of ligand, Met relays signals that promote cell survival, proliferation, movement, invasiveness, branching morphogenesis and angiogenesis. Here we describe the HGF/Met axis and review the mechanisms that lead to the aberrant activation of this signalling system in mesothelioma. We also describe the cross-talk that occurs between HGF/Met and a number of other receptors, ligands and co-receptor systems. The prevalent occurrence of HGF/Met dysregulation in patients with mesothelioma sets the scene for the investigation of pharmaceutical inhibitors of this axis. In light of the inter-relationship between HGF/Met and other ligand receptor, combinatorial targeting strategies may provide opportunities for therapeutic advancement in this challenging tumour. PMID:27068941

  12. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-02-11

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  13. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: • MetBaro Pressure device • MetHumi Humidity device • MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: • PanCam Panoramic • MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer • DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: • Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA • Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special

  14. HER2, MET and FGFR2 oncogenic driver alterations define distinct molecular segments for targeted therapies in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y J; Shen, D; Yin, X; Gavine, P; Zhang, T; Su, X; Zhan, P; Xu, Y; Lv, J; Qian, J; Liu, C; Sun, Y; Qian, Z; Zhang, J; Gu, Y; Ni, X

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Since the approval of trastuzumab, targeted therapies are emerging as promising treatment options for the disease. This study aimed to explore the molecular segmentation of several known therapeutics targets, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), MET and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), within GC using clinically approved or investigational kits and scoring criteria. Knowledge of how these markers are segmented in the same cohort of GC patients could improve future clinical trial designs. Methods: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH methods, overexpression and amplification of HER2, FGFR2 and MET were profiled in a cohort of Chinese GC samples. The correlations between anti-tumour sensitivity and the molecular segments of HER2, MET and FGFR2 alterations were further tested in a panel of GC cell lines and the patient-derived GC xenograft (PDGCX) model using the targeted inhibitors. Results: Of 172 GC patients, positivity for HER2, MET and FGFR2 alternations was found in 23 (13.4%), 21 (12.2%) and 9 (5.2%) patients, respectively. Positivity for MET was found in 3 of 23 HER2-positive GC patients. Co-positivity for FGFR2 and MET was found in 1 GC patient, and amplification of the two genes was found in different tumour cells. Our study in a panel of GC cell lines showed that in most cell lines, amplification or high expression of a particular molecular marker was mutually exclusive and in vitro sensitivity to the targeted agents lapatinib, PD173074 and crizotinib was only observed in cell lines with the corresponding high expression of the drugs' target protein. SGC031, an MET-positive PDGCX mouse model, responded to crizotinib but not to lapatinib or PD173074. Conclusions: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, MET and FGFR2 oncogenic driver alterations (gene amplification and overexpression) occur in three largely distinct molecular segments in GC. A

  15. Universal Steering Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest.

  16. Universal Steering Criteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huangjun; Hayashi, Masahito; Chen, Lin

    2016-02-19

    We propose a general framework for constructing universal steering criteria that are applicable to arbitrary bipartite states and measurement settings of the steering party. The same framework is also useful for studying the joint measurement problem. Based on the data-processing inequality for an extended Rényi relative entropy, we then introduce a family of steering inequalities, which detect steering much more efficiently than those inequalities known before. As illustrations, we show unbounded violation of a steering inequality for assemblages constructed from mutually unbiased bases and establish an interesting connection between maximally steerable assemblages and complete sets of mutually unbiased bases. We also provide a single steering inequality that can detect all bipartite pure states of full Schmidt rank. In the course of study, we generalize a number of results intimately connected to data-processing inequalities, which are of independent interest. PMID:26943513

  17. Design and validation of standardized clinical and functional remission criteria in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mosolov, Sergey N; Potapov, Andrey V; Ushakov, Uriy V; Shafarenko, Aleksey A; Kostyukova, Anastasiya B

    2014-01-01

    Background International Remission Criteria (IRC) for schizophrenia were developed recently by a group of internationally known experts. The IRC detect only 10%–30% of cases and do not cover the diversity of forms and social functioning. Our aim was to design a more applicable tool and validate its use – the Standardized Clinical and Functional Remission Criteria (SCFRC). Methods We used a 6-month follow-up study of 203 outpatients from two Moscow centers and another further sample of stable patients from a 1-year controlled trial of atypical versus typical medication. Diagnosis was confirmed by International Classification of Diseases Version 10 (ICD10) criteria and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, including intensity threshold, and further classified using the Russian domestic remission criteria and the level of social and personal functioning, according to the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP). The SCFRC were formulated and were validated by a data reanalysis on the first population sample and on a second independent sample (104 patients) and in an open-label prospective randomized 12-month comparative study of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) versus olanzapine. Results Only 64 of the 203 outpatients (31.5%) initially met the IRC, and 53 patients (26.1%) met the IRC after 6 months, without a change in treatment. Patients who were in remission had episodic and progressive deficit (39.6%), or remittent (15%) paranoid schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder (17%). In addition, 105 patients of 139 (51.7%), who did not meet symptomatic IRC, remained stable within the period. Reanalysis of data revealed that 65.5% of the patients met the SCFRC. In the controlled trial, 70% of patients in the RLAI group met the SCFRC and only 19% the IRC. In the routine treatment group, 55.9% met the SCFRC and only 5.7% the IRC. Results of the further independent

  18. Structure of the fMet-tRNA(fMet)-binding domain of B. stearothermophilus initiation factor IF2.

    PubMed

    Meunier, S; Spurio, R; Czisch, M; Wechselberger, R; Guenneugues, M; Gualerzi, C O; Boelens, R

    2000-04-17

    The three-dimensional structure of the fMet-tRNA(fMet) -binding domain of translation initiation factor IF2 from Bacillus stearothermophilus has been determined by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Its structure consists of six antiparallel beta-strands, connected via loops, and forms a closed beta-barrel similar to domain II of elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G, despite low sequence homology. Two structures of the ternary complexes of the EF-Tu small middle dotaminoacyl-tRNA small middle dot GDP analogue have been reported and were used to propose and discuss the possible fMet-tRNA(fMet)-binding site of IF2. PMID:10775275

  19. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barat, K

    2005-06-13

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks.

  20. Depression, 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms, and plasma BDNF levels in hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chen, Chih-Ken; Hsu, Heng-Jung; Wu, I-Wen; Sun, Chiao-Yin; Lee, Chin-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Depression is the most prevalent comorbid psychiatric disease among hemodialysis patients with end-stage renal disease. This cross-sectional study investigated whether depression in hemodialysis patients is associated with the polymorphism of the 5′ flanking transcriptional region (5-HTTLPR) of the serotonin transporter gene, the valine (Val)-to-methionine (Met) substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, or plasma BDNF levels. Methods A total of 188 participants (mean age: 58.5±14.0 years; 89 men and 99 women) receiving hemodialysis at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were recruited. The diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) was confirmed using the Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met were conducted using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The plasma BDNF levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Forty-five (23.9%) patients fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for a MDD. There were no significant effects of the 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism on MDD among the hemodialysis patients. The plasma BDNF levels correlated significantly with age (P=0.003) and sex (P=0.047) but not with depression, the genotypes of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met, the current antidepressant treatment, or the duration under hemodialysis. Conclusion Our results did not support the hypothesis of an involvement of the 5HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met genotypes, or plasma BDNF levels in the pathogenesis of depression, in patients receiving hemodialysis. A study with a large sample size and homogenous patient group is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:25045267

  1. Can Asperger's Disorder Be Differentiated from Autism Using "DSM-IV" Criteria?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Patti Ann; Mayes, Susan D.; Rhodes, Robert L.; Waldo, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Parents of 26 children with diagnoses of Asperger's disorder completed a symptom checklist to determine whether the children met "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, Text Revision" ("DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria for Asperger's disorder, autism, or pervasive developmental disorder…

  2. Applying Objective Diagnostic Criteria to Students in a College Support Program for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Richard L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether a large group of postsecondary students participating in a support program for students classified as having learning disabilities (LD) met criteria for five objective diagnostic models for LD: IQ-achievement discrepancy (1.0 SD, 1.5 SD, and greater than 2.0 SD) models, a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  3. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  4. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Sakhardande, Ashok; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of adolescents drink alcohol, with many engaging in high-risk patterns of consumption, including binge drinking. Here, we systematically review and synthesize the existing empirical literature on how consuming alcohol affects the developing human brain in alcohol-using (AU) youth. Methods For this systematic review, we began by conducting a literature search using the PubMED database to identify all available peer-reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of AU adolescents (aged 19 and under). All studies were screened against a strict set of criteria designed to constrain the impact of confounding factors, such as co-occurring psychiatric conditions. Results Twenty-one studies (10 MRI and 11 fMRI) met the criteria for inclusion. A synthesis of the MRI studies suggested that overall, AU youth showed regional differences in brain structure as compared with non-AU youth, with smaller grey matter volumes and lower white matter integrity in relevant brain areas. In terms of fMRI outcomes, despite equivalent task performance between AU and non-AU youth, AU youth showed a broad pattern of lower task-relevant activation, and greater task-irrelevant activation. In addition, a pattern of gender differences was observed for brain structure and function, with particularly striking effects among AU females. Conclusions Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors) within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the

  5. Detained Adolescents: Mental Health Needs, Treatment Use, and Recidivism.

    PubMed

    White, Laura M; Lau, Katherine S L; Aalsma, Matthew C

    2016-06-01

    Although approximately 60 to 70 percent of detained adolescents meet criteria for a mental disorder, few receive treatment upon community re-entry. Given that mental health treatment can reduce recidivism, we examined detained adolescents' mental health needs and their postdetention mental health treatment and recidivism. Altogether, 1,574 adolescents (≤18 years) completed a mental health screening at a detention center. Scores on the screening, mental health treatment utilization (60 days after detention), and recidivism (6 months after detention) were measured. About 82.2 percent of adolescents had elevated scores on the mental health screening, but only 16.4 percent obtained treatment and 37.2 percent reoffended. Logistic regression models revealed adolescents with insurance and higher angry-irritable scores were significantly more likely to obtain treatment, whereas males, black and older adolescents, and those endorsing a trauma history were less likely. Black adolescents, insured adolescents, and those with higher alcohol and drug use scores were significantly more likely to reoffend. Mental health treatment increased the likelihood of recidivism. The prevalence of mental health needs among detained adolescents was high, but treatment utilization was low, with notable treatment disparities across race, gender, and age. The use of mental health treatment predicted recidivism, suggesting that treatment acts as a proxy measure of mental health problems. Future research should assess the impact of timely and continuous mental health services on recidivism among detained adolescents. PMID:27236176

  6. Redefining autism spectrum disorder using DSM-5: the implications of the proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Young, Robyn L; Rodi, Melissa L

    2014-04-01

    A number of changes were made to pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) in the recently released diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (APA, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VA, 2013). Of the 210 participants in the present study who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for a PDD [i.e., autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)], only 57.1% met DSM-5 criteria (specificity = 1.0) for autism spectrum disorder when criteria were applied concurrently during diagnostic assessment. High-functioning individuals (i.e., Asperger's disorder and PDD-NOS) were less likely to meet DSM-5 criteria than those with autistic disorder. A failure to satisfy all three criteria in the social-communication domain was the most common reason for exclusion (39%). The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24057130

  7. Expressions and clinical significances of c-MET, p-MET and E2f-1 in human gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate on the expressions and the clinical significances of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET), phosphorylated c-MET (p-MET) and e2f-1 transcription factor in primary lesion of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Method Tissue samples from the primary lesion of GC in patients who accepted D2/D3 radical gastrectomy with R0/R1 resection were stained by immunohistochemistry of c-MET, p-MET, e2f-1 and Ki-67. The univariate and the multivariate analyses involving in clinicopathological parameters and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results The positivity rates for c-MET (66.12%, 80 cases/121 cases), p-MET (59.50%, 72 cases/121 cases), e2f-1 (38.84%, 47 cases/121 cases) and Ki-67 (72.73%, 88 cases/121 cases) in primary lesion of GC was significantly higher than that in non-cancerous tissue at 5 cm places far from the margin of primary lesion (P < 0.05, respectively). The deeper tumor invasion, the severer lymph node metastasis, the later stage of TNM and the higher expression of Ki-67 was respectively an independent risk factor for the higher expression of c-MET or p-MET, but the younger age and the shorter survival time was an independent risk factor for the higher expression of e2f-1 respectively. Survival analysis showed that the worse prognosis could be observed in the patients with the combination of both c-MET-positive and e2f-1-negative (P = 0.038) or both p-MET-positive and e2f-1-negative (P = 0.042). Cox analysis demonstrated that the severer lymphatic node metastasis and the higher positivity rate of c-MET, p-MET or e2f-1 were an independent prognosis factor respectively. The higher expression of e2f-1 was identified in patients with Stage I-II, which correlated with a shorter survival time. Survival analysis also revealed that the prognosis of patients with positive expression of e2f-1 at Stage I-II was significantly worse than that in patients with negative expression of e2f-1 (χ2 = 13.437, P = 0.001). However, in

  8. MET Gene Amplification and MET Receptor Activation Are Not Sufficient to Predict Efficacy of Combined MET and EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR TKI-Resistant NSCLC Cells.

    PubMed

    Presutti, Dario; Santini, Simonetta; Cardinali, Beatrice; Papoff, Giuliana; Lalli, Cristiana; Samperna, Simone; Fustaino, Valentina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, plays a critical role in regulating multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and cell survival. Deregulation of the EGFR signaling has been found to be associated with the development of a variety of human malignancies including lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, making inhibition of EGFR the most promising molecular targeted therapy developed in the past decade against cancer. Human non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the EGFR gene frequently experience significant tumor regression when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although acquired resistance invariably develops. Resistance to TKI treatments has been associated to secondary mutations in the EGFR gene or to activation of additional bypass signaling pathways including the ones mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, Fas receptor and NF-kB. In more than 30-40% of cases, however, the mechanisms underpinning drug-resistance are still unknown. The establishment of cellular and mouse models can facilitate the unveiling of mechanisms leading to drug-resistance and the development or validation of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming resistance and enhancing outcomes in NSCLC patients. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines and a pilot study on the effects of a combined MET and EGFR inhibitors treatment. The characterization of the erlotinib-resistant cell lines confirmed the association of EGFR TKI resistance with loss of EGFR gene amplification and/or AXL overexpression and/or MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation. These cellular models can be instrumental to further investigate the signaling pathways associated to EGFR TKI-resistance. Finally the drugs combination pilot study shows that MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation

  9. MET Gene Amplification and MET Receptor Activation Are Not Sufficient to Predict Efficacy of Combined MET and EGFR Inhibitors in EGFR TKI-Resistant NSCLC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Presutti, Dario; Santini, Simonetta; Cardinali, Beatrice; Papoff, Giuliana; Lalli, Cristiana; Samperna, Simone; Fustaino, Valentina; Giannini, Giuseppe; Ruberti, Giovina

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family, plays a critical role in regulating multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, cell migration and cell survival. Deregulation of the EGFR signaling has been found to be associated with the development of a variety of human malignancies including lung, breast, and ovarian cancers, making inhibition of EGFR the most promising molecular targeted therapy developed in the past decade against cancer. Human non small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with activating mutations in the EGFR gene frequently experience significant tumor regression when treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), although acquired resistance invariably develops. Resistance to TKI treatments has been associated to secondary mutations in the EGFR gene or to activation of additional bypass signaling pathways including the ones mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, Fas receptor and NF-kB. In more than 30–40% of cases, however, the mechanisms underpinning drug-resistance are still unknown. The establishment of cellular and mouse models can facilitate the unveiling of mechanisms leading to drug-resistance and the development or validation of novel therapeutic strategies aimed at overcoming resistance and enhancing outcomes in NSCLC patients. Here we describe the establishment and characterization of EGFR TKI-resistant NSCLC cell lines and a pilot study on the effects of a combined MET and EGFR inhibitors treatment. The characterization of the erlotinib-resistant cell lines confirmed the association of EGFR TKI resistance with loss of EGFR gene amplification and/or AXL overexpression and/or MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation. These cellular models can be instrumental to further investigate the signaling pathways associated to EGFR TKI-resistance. Finally the drugs combination pilot study shows that MET gene amplification and MET receptor activation

  10. Treating Children and Adolescents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...

  11. Prevalence of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rosing, Susanne Nemholt; Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Wedderkopp, Niels; Baguley, David M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review studies of the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and young people, in order to determine the methodological differences implicated in the variability of prevalence estimates and the influence of population characteristics on childhood tinnitus and hyperacusis. Data sources Articles were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases and from the relevant reference lists using the methods described in the study protocol, which has previously been published. Reporting Items for Systematic Review (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Eligibility criteria Studies addressing childhood prevalence, for example, children and young people aged 5–19 years. Data selection 2 reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed study consistency. Owing to the heterogeneity in the methodologies among the reported studies, only narrative synthesis of the results was carried out. Results Having identified 1032 publications, 131 articles were selected and 25 articles met the inclusion criteria and had sufficient methodological consistency to be included. Prevalence estimates of tinnitus range from 4.7% to 46% in the general paediatric population and among children with normal hearing, and from 23.5% to 62.2% of population of children with hearing loss. Reported prevalence ranged from 6% to 41.9% when children with hearing loss and normal hearing were both included. The prevalence of hyperacusis varied from 3.2% to 17.1%. Conclusions Data on prevalence vary considerably according to the study design, study population and the research question posed. The age range of children studied was varied and a marked degree of variation between definitions (tinnitus, hyperacusis) and measures (severity, perception, annoyance) was observed. The lack of consistency among studies indicates the necessity of examining the epidemiology of tinnitus and hyperacusis in children and adolescents with a set of

  12. Does neighbourhood social capital aid in levelling the social gradient in the health and well-being of children and adolescents? A literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although most countries in the European Union are richer and healthier than ever, health inequalities remain an important public health challenge. Health-related problems and premature death have disproportionately been reported in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood social capital is believed to influence the association between neighbourhood deprivation and health in children and adolescents, making it a potentially interesting concept for policymakers. Methods This study aims to review the role of social capital in health inequalities and the social gradient in health and well-being of children and adolescents. A systematic review of published quantitative literature was conducted, focussing on (1) the mediating role of neighbourhood social capital in the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health-related outcomes in children and adolescents and (2) the interaction between neighbourhood social capital and socio-economic characteristics in relation to health-related outcomes in children and adolescents. Three electronic databases were searched. Studies executed between 1 January 1990 and 1 September 2011 in Western countries (USA, New Zealand, Australia and Europe) that included a health-related outcome in children or adolescents and a variable that measured neighbourhood social capital were included. Results Eight studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. The findings are mixed. Only two of five studies confirmed that neighbourhood social capital mediates the association between neighbourhood deprivation and health and well-being in adolescents. Furthermore, two studies found a significant interaction between neighbourhood socio-economic factors and neighbourhood social capital, which indicates that neighbourhood social capital is especially beneficial for children who reside in deprived neighbourhoods. However, two other studies did not find a significant interaction between SES and neighbourhood social capital. Due

  13. c-Met as a Target for Personalized Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Garajová, Ingrid; Giovannetti, Elisa; Biasco, Guido; Peters, Godefridus J.

    2015-01-01

    MET and its ligand HGF are involved in many biological processes, both physiological and pathological, making this signaling pathway an attractive therapeutic target in oncology. Downstream signaling effects are transmitted via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase protein kinase B)/AKT, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STAT), and nuclear factor-κB. The final output of the terminal effector components of these pathways is activation of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes leading to increases in cell proliferation, survival, mobilization and invasive capacity. In addition to its role as an oncogenic driver, increasing evidence implicates MET as a common mechanism of resistance to targeted therapies including EGFR and VEGFR inhibitors. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the HGF-MET signaling pathway in cancer and its therapeutic targeting (HGF activation inhibitors, HGF inhibitors, MET antagonists and selective/nonselective MET kinase inhibitors). Recent advances in understanding the role of this pathway in the resistance to current anticancer strategies used in lung, kidney and pancreatic cancer are discussed. PMID:26628860

  14. [Adolescent sexuality].

    PubMed

    Calero, Juan del Rey

    2010-01-01

    The social Adolescent features are insecurity, narcissism, eroticism, more impetuosity than reason. 1/3 of adolescents have risk behaviour for health. The pregnancy rate in adolescent are 9/1,000 (11,720, the abort about 50 %). The total abort (2009) were 114,480. Increase the rate of 8,4 (1990) to 14,6/ 1,000 (2009). The sexual education fails. The consulting about contraceptives get pregnancy of the OR 3,2, condom OR 2,7. The adolescent are influenced in his matter: oeer have 70-75 % of influence, mother 30-40 %, father 15 %, for yhe environment and education Cyberspace access to information: 33 % exposed to unwanted sexual materials, 1 in 7 solicited sexual online. The argument have 4 central topic: Morality and Responsibility, Desire (responsibility vs gratification), Danger (fear related to pregnancy and STD/VIH), and Victimization. The prevention of STD: so called safe sex, delayed, and abstinence, Prevention HPV vaccine. The information is not enough, are necessary personal integral formation in values as self control, abstinence, mutual respect, responsibility, reasonable decisions. PMID:21877398

  15. Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Lynda Y.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Explores the causes and symptoms of adolescent suicide including depression, loss of parent, alienation from family, and a mystical concept of death. Treatment procedures with unsuccessful suicide attempters and their parents are described and prevention strategies are discussed which involve teachers and counselors as well as parents. (JAC)

  16. Unmotivated Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jill; Diller, Howard

    This book examines the characteristics and educational needs of unmotivated adolescents. It suggests that many of these students suffer from low self-esteem and are learning disabled and/or have an attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. It offers a definition of learning disabilities that emphasizes the presence of significant differences…

  17. Treatment Patterns, Resource Use, and Economic Outcomes Associated With Atypical Antipsychotic Prescriptions in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Lachaine, Jean; De, Gourab; Sikirica, Vanja; van Stralen, Judy; Hodgkins, Paul; Yang, Hongbo; Heroux, Julie; Ben Amor, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess treatment patterns, health care resource utilization (HRU), and costs among previously stimulant-treated children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) receiving atypical antipsychotic (AAP) prescriptions in Quebec. Methods: Health care claims data extracted from Quebec’s provincial health plan database between March 2007 and February 2012 were analyzed. Children and adolescents (6 to 17 years) with ADHD who were taking a stimulant and either switched to, or augmented with, an AAP (with the first AAP defined as the index AAP) without a documented diagnosis for which AAPs are Health Canada–approved were included. Discontinuation, augmentation, and switching of the index AAP during the 12-month, follow-up period were estimated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. HRU and costs for the 6 months before (baseline period) and after initiation of the index AAP were compared. Results: A total of 453 children and adolescents with ADHD, mostly male (74.6%) and aged 6 to 12 years (73.7%), met the inclusion criteria. The 12-month discontinuation, augmentation, and switching rates were 45.5%, 68.2%, and 80.7%, respectively. Patients had, on average, more all-cause prescription fills (22.2, compared with 13.3) and incurred more all-cause pharmacy ($889, compared with $710), total medical ($1096, compared with $644), and total health care ($1985, compared with $1354) costs during the 6-month study period than during the 6-month baseline period (all P < 0.05). Similarly, ADHD-related total health care costs were higher during the study period ($1269, compared with $835; P < 0.05); all-cause and ADHD-related total health care costs increased by 46.6% and 52.0%, respectively. Conclusion: Use of an AAP among stimulant-treated children and adolescents with ADHD in Quebec was associated with high rates of therapy changes and increased HRU and costs. PMID:25565476

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26653797

  19. CDTI target selection criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, C. L.; Davis, C. M.; Jackson, C. B.; Mcclellan, V. A.

    1984-01-01

    A Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) is a cockpit instrument which provides information to the aircrew on the relative location of aircraft traffic in the vicinity of their aircraft (township). In addition, the CDTI may provide information to assist in navigation and in aircraft control. It is usually anticipated that the CDTI will be integrated with a horizontal situation indicator used for navigational purposes and/or with a weather radar display. In this study, several sets of aircraft traffic data are analyzed to determine statistics on the number of targets that will be displayed on a CDTI using various target selection criteria. Traffic data were obtained from an Atlanta Terminal Area Simulation and from radar tapes recorded at the Atlanta and Miami terminal areas. Results are given in the form of plots showing the average percentage of time (or probability) that an aircraft equipped with a CDTI would observe from 0 to 10 other aircraft on the display for range settings on the CDTI up to 30 n. mi. and using various target discrimination techniques.

  20. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.F.; Holcomb, D.E.; Cetiner, S.M.

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC)–based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  1. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, George F; Holcomb, David Eugene; Cetiner, Sacit M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  2. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XXY, XXX, XYY, and XXYY

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Nicole R.; Ayari, Natalie; Hutaff-Lee, Christa; Boada, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Objective Attentional problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity have been described as behavioral features associated with sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). In this study, the authors compare attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in 167 participants aged 6 to 20 years with 4 types of SCA (XXY n = 56, XYY n = 33, XXX n = 25, and XXYY n = 53). They also evaluate factors associated with ADHD symptomatology (cognitive and adaptive scores, prenatal vs postnatal ascertainment) and describe the clinical response to psychopharmacologic medications in a subset of patients treated for ADHD. Methods Evaluation included medical and developmental history, cognitive and adaptive functioning assessment, and parent and teacher ADHD questionnaires containing DSM-IV criteria. Results In the total study group, 58% (96/167) met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD on parent-report questionnaires (36% in XXY, 52% in XXX, 76% in XYY, and 72% in XXYY). The Inattentive subtype was most common in XXY and XXX, whereas the XYY and XXYY groups were more likely to also have hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. There were no significant differences in Verbal, Performance, or Full Scale IQ between children with symptom scores in the ADHD range compared with those below the ADHD range. However, adaptive functioning scores were significantly lower in the group whose scores in the ADHD range were compared with those of the group who did not meet ADHD DSMIV criteria. Those with a prenatal diagnosis of XXY were less likely to meet criteria for ADHD compared with the postnatally diagnosed group. Psychopharmacologic treatment with stimulants was effective in 78.6% (66/84). Conclusions Children and adolescents with SCA are at increased risk for ADHD symptoms. Recommendations for ADHD evaluation and treatment in consideration of other aspects of the SCA medical and behavioral phenotype are provided. PMID:22333574

  3. 21 CFR 111.73 - What is your responsibility for determining whether established specifications are met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... whether established specifications are met? 111.73 Section 111.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... determining whether established specifications are met? You must determine whether the specifications you establish under § 111.70 are met....

  4. 21 CFR 111.73 - What is your responsibility for determining whether established specifications are met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... whether established specifications are met? 111.73 Section 111.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... determining whether established specifications are met? You must determine whether the specifications you establish under § 111.70 are met....

  5. 21 CFR 111.73 - What is your responsibility for determining whether established specifications are met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... whether established specifications are met? 111.73 Section 111.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... determining whether established specifications are met? You must determine whether the specifications you establish under § 111.70 are met....

  6. 21 CFR 111.73 - What is your responsibility for determining whether established specifications are met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... whether established specifications are met? 111.73 Section 111.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... determining whether established specifications are met? You must determine whether the specifications you establish under § 111.70 are met....

  7. 21 CFR 111.73 - What is your responsibility for determining whether established specifications are met?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... whether established specifications are met? 111.73 Section 111.73 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... determining whether established specifications are met? You must determine whether the specifications you establish under § 111.70 are met....

  8. Perspectives on Adolescent Residential Substance Abuse Treatment: When Are Adolescents Done?

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Gogel, Leah P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study evaluated responses from adolescents in substance abuse treatment, their parents, and treatment staff to the question of what constitutes treatment success. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 28 adolescents, 30 parents, and 29 staff at three residential substance abuse treatment programs in two states. Data were coded and organized into themes by respondent type. Results Respondents reported knowing when treatment was no longer needed based on changes in adolescents’ substance use, treatment-related and other behaviors, and attitudes and character. A fourth category of responses indicated respondents’ ambiguity regarding successful completion of substance abuse treatment. Little concurrence was found among adolescents, parents, and treatment center staff to indicate criteria suggesting that discharge is appropriate. Conclusions Substance abuse treatment programs and their clients may benefit from ensuring that staff, parents, and adolescents are aware of treatment goals to promote more effective treatment and improve collaboration toward the adolescent’s recovery. PMID:20675841

  9. Adolescent gynecology.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Joseph S; Lara-Torre, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    Given new developments in the field of adolescent reproductive health, this review focuses on highlighting new guidelines and practice patterns in evaluation and management of adolescent gynecologic problems. First, understanding the proper techniques for the initial examination is key to establishing a long-term relationship with this age group. Reservations about the first gynecologic examination are common, and the practitioner's goal is foremost to make the patient as comfortable as possible. Preventive health in this patient population is key, and practitioners should become comfortable with providing education about topics as diverse as sexuality, eating disorders, and dating violence. Furthermore, the frequency with which teenagers report sexual activity and the high unintended pregnancy rate in this age group makes counseling regarding effective contraception essential. Additionally, practitioners are encouraged to take the opportunity to discuss the availability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with adolescents. In 2007, adolescents were designated as a special population, given the frequency with which they acquire and clear mild HPV-related cervical dysplasia. More conservative treatment in this population is generally favored. During their transition through puberty, disorders of menstruation become the most common complaint requiring the attention of the gynecologist. Most commonly, anovulation serves as the cause behind such abnormal bleeding. Polycystic ovarian syndrome can develop in early puberty and carry its consequences into adulthood. Infertility, diabetes, and hirsutism mark the most important components of the syndrome and require age-appropriate management. Finally, the consequences of endometriosis on the future fertility of adolescents have brought early intervention to light. Recognition and prompt treatment are advocated to prevent the future implications of this disease. PMID:19305342

  10. BacMet: antibacterial biocide and metal resistance genes database

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Chandan; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Rensing, Christopher; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance has become a major human health concern due to widespread use, misuse and overuse of antibiotics. In addition to antibiotics, antibacterial biocides and metals can contribute to the development and maintenance of antibiotic resistance in bacterial communities through co-selection. Information on metal and biocide resistance genes, including their sequences and molecular functions, is, however, scattered. Here, we introduce BacMet (http://bacmet.biomedicine.gu.se)—a manually curated database of antibacterial biocide- and metal-resistance genes based on an in-depth review of the scientific literature. The BacMet database contains 470 experimentally verified resistance genes. In addition, the database also contains 25 477 potential resistance genes collected from public sequence repositories. All resistance genes in the BacMet database have been organized according to their molecular function and induced resistance phenotype. PMID:24304895

  11. Criteria for substantiating claims.

    PubMed

    Aggett, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Claims are used to support public health advocacy and marketing. Their evidence base is variable. Claims are made on (i) nutrient content, (ii) comparative merits, (iii) health benefits, and (iv) medical benefits. Experience with therapeutic agents has aided the development of recommendations for the substantiation of health claims for foods and food components, with which dietary supplements would be included. An EU Concerted Activity, Functional Food Science in Europe, suggested that such claims should be based on the general outcomes of 'enhanced function' and 'reduced risk of disease'. A further EU Concerted Activity, The Process for the Assessment of Scientific Support for Claims on Foods, proposed that the evidence base should provide: a characterization of the food or food component to which the claimed effect is attributed; human data, primarily from intervention studies that represent the target populations for the claim; a dose-response relationship: evidence of allowing for confounders including lifestyle, consumption patterns, background diet and food matrix; an appropriate duration for the study; a measure of compliance; and have adequate statistical power to test the hypothesis. When ideal endpoints are not easily accessible for measurement, validated and quality assured markers of the intermediate or final outcomes could be used, as long as their relationship is well characterized. Overall, the totality and coherence of published and unpublished evidence should be considered. Assessments for substantiation need expert judgement, weighting of the strength of the claim, and intelligent use of the criteria applied on an individual basis with respect both to gaps in knowledge and to any need for new knowledge and data. PMID:17913223

  12. Remembering the early days of the Met Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Met Lab was set up by the war-time Manhattan District, US Corp of Engineers to (i) find a system using normal uranium in which a chain reaction would occur; (ii) to show that if such a chain reaction did occur, it would be possible to separate plutonium chemically from the uranium matrix and the fission products formed in the chain reactions; and (iii) to prepare plans for the large-scale production of plutonium. Chemistry Section C-1 of the Met Lab was assigned the responsibility for developing separation methods for plutonium production on the industrial scale. This report describes some aspects of daily life in Section C-1.

  13. Management of migraine in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kabbouche, Marielle A; Gilman, Deborah K

    2008-01-01

    Headaches in children and adolescents are still under-diagnosed. 75% of children are affected by primary headache by the age of 15 with 28% fitting the ICHD2 criteria of migraine. Migraine is considered a chronic disorder that can severely impact a child’s daily activities, including schooling and socializing. Early recognition and aggressive therapy, with acute and prophylactic treatments, as well as intensive biobehavioral interventions, are essential to control the migraine attacks and reverse the progression into intractable disabling headache. PMID:18830400

  14. Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Blanco Mejia, Sonia; Kendall, Cyril W C; Viguiliouk, Effie; Augustin, Livia S; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I; Mirrahimi, Arash; Maroleanu, Adriana; Chiavaroli, Laura; Leiter, Lawrence A; de Souza, Russell J; Jenkins, David J A; Sievenpiper, John L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To provide a broader evidence summary to inform dietary guidelines of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Design We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the MetS. Data sources We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 4 April 2014). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ≥3 weeks reporting at least one criterion of the MetS. Data extraction Two or more independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed. Results Eligibility criteria were met by 49 RCTs including 2226 participants who were otherwise healthy or had dyslipidaemia, MetS or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tree nut interventions lowered triglycerides (MD=−0.06 mmol/L (95% CI −0.09 to −0.03 mmol/L)) and fasting blood glucose (MD=−0.08 mmol/L (95% CI −0.16 to −0.01 mmol/L)) compared with control diet interventions. There was no effect on waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or blood pressure with the direction of effect favouring tree nuts for waist circumference. There was evidence of significant unexplained heterogeneity in all analyses (p<0.05). Conclusions Pooled analyses show a MetS benefit of tree nuts through modest decreases in triglycerides and fasting blood glucose with no adverse effects on other criteria across nut types. As our conclusions are limited by the short duration and poor quality of the majority of trials, as well as significant unexplained between-study heterogeneity, there remains a need for larger, longer, high-quality trials. Trial registration number NCT01630980. PMID:25074070

  15. Correspondence between Gonadal Steroid Hormone Concentrations and Secondary Sexual Characteristics Assessed by Clinicians, Adolescents, and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Bin; Hillman, Jennifer; Biro, Frank M.; Ding, Lili; Dorn, Lorah D.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sexual maturation is staged using Tanner criteria assessed by clinicians, parents, or adolescents. The physiology of sexual maturation is driven by gonadal hormones. We investigate Tanner stage progression as a function of increasing gonadal hormone concentration and compare performances of different raters. Fifty-six boys (mean age,…

  16. Emotion Regulation Training for Adolescents with Borderline Personality Disorder Traits: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Bloo, Josephine; van Gemert, Tonny G.; Wiersema, Herman M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.; Nauta, Maaike H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Emotion Regulation Training (ERT), a 17-session weekly group training for adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. Method: One hundred nine adolescents with borderline traits (73% meeting the full criteria for BPD) were randomized to treatment as usual only (TAU) or ERT + TAU.…

  17. A Pilot Study of Adjunctive Family Psychoeducation in Adolescent Major Depression: Feasibility and Treatment Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Mark; Boyle, Michael; McCleary, Lynn; Miller, Jennifer; Steele, Margaret; Duku, Eric; Offord, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To obtain preliminary evidence of the feasibility and effectiveness of adjunctive family psychoeducation in adolescent major depressive disorder. Method: Participants were from outpatient clinics in Hamilton and London, Ontario. Over 24 months, 41 adolescents ages 13 through 18 years meeting major depressive disorder criteria were…

  18. Response and Remission in Adolescent Mania: Signal Detection Analyses of the Young Mania Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Nick C.; Patrick, Danielle M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine optimal criteria for defining response and remission in adolescents with acute mania. Method: Data were analyzed from three treatment studies of adolescents with acute mania (N = 99). Trained raters completed the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and clinicians completed the Clinical Global…

  19. The PICA Project. Year 2. Project Interim Report. Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Harold L.; And Others

    An operant conditioning program for 12 problematic adolescent boys is described in detail. Complete procedures are discussed, including criteria for student selection and the Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents (PICA) academic and psychological test battery. The academic component of the program focuses on mathematics and English…

  20. Predictors of adolescent outcomes among 4-6-year-old children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Lee, Steve S; Sibley, Margaret H; Applegate, Brooks; Molina, Brooke S G; Pelham, William E

    2016-02-01

    Children who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with functional impairment in at least one setting at 4-6 years of age were followed prospectively through age 18 years. On average, the 125 children (107 boys) with ADHD at baseline improved over time, but still continued to exhibit more symptoms, functional impairment, and risky behavior through adolescence than demographically matched healthy comparison children. These findings support the predictive validity of the diagnosis of ADHD at younger ages by demonstrating that the symptoms and impairment are enduring. Nonetheless, there were marked variations in developmental outcomes. Among children with ADHD, higher numbers of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms and higher number of concurrent symptoms (oppositional, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression) measured at baseline each predicted higher future levels of the same dimension of symptoms. In addition, higher baseline levels of inattention, oppositional, conduct disorder, and anxiety symptoms predicted greater future functional impairment. Among children with ADHD, girls and children from families with lower family incomes had relatively poorer outcomes. Although outcomes varied along a continuum, approximately 10% of the children with ADHD at 4-6 years could be classified as functioning in the normative range on multiple measures during 15-18 years. Although this finding awaits replication, lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms at 4-6 years predicted more normative functioning during adolescence. These findings suggest that ADHD identified in early childhood predicts an increased likelihood of functional impairment through adolescence for most, but not all, children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854503

  1. Migraine in affectively ill Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DILSAVER, STEVEN C.; BENAZZI, FRANCO; OEDEGAARD, KETIL J.; FASMER, OLE B.; AKISKAL, KAREEN K.; AKISKAL, HAGOP S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of migraine headache among depressed Latino adolescents of Mexican American origin. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study of the prevalence of migraine among depressed adolescents of any ethnic/racial background. In a mental health clinic for the indigent, 132 consecutive Latino adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode were compared with a sample of adolescents with other mental disorders. Logistic regression was used to test for associations and control for confounding effects. The prevalence of migraine headache among depressed adolescents was 6 times greater than that of the comparison patients (OR = 5.98, z = 2.35, p = 0.019). This finding is consistent with previously published reports involving adult samples, in which the prevalence of migraine was found to exceed that in the general population. However, contrary to what we previously found in Latino adults, the prevalence of migraine was not higher in bipolar than in unipolar adolescents. PMID:20157635

  2. MET-targeted therapy for gastric cancer: the importance of a biomarker-based strategy.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hisato; Okamoto, Isamu

    2016-07-01

    The MET protooncogene encodes the receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET (MET). Aberrant activation of MET signaling occurs in a subset of advanced malignancies, including gastric cancer, and promotes tumor cell growth, survival, migration, and invasion as well as tumor angiogenesis, suggesting its potential importance as a therapeutic target. MET can be activated by two distinct pathways that are dependent on or independent of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), with the latter pathway having been attributed mostly to MET amplification in gastric cancer. Preclinical evidence has suggested that interruption of the HGF-MET axis either with antibodies to HGF or with MET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has antitumor effects in gastric cancer cells. Overexpression of MET occurs frequently in gastric cancer and has been proposed as a potential predictive biomarker for anti-MET therapy. However, several factors can trigger such MET upregulation in a manner independent of HGF, suggesting that gastric tumors with MET overexpression are not necessarily MET driven. On the other hand, gastric cancer cells with MET amplification are dependent on MET signaling for their survival and are thus vulnerable to MET TKI treatment. Given the low prevalence of MET amplification in gastric cancer (approximately 8 %), testing for this genetic change would substantially narrow the target population but it might constitute a better biomarker than MET overexpression for MET TKI therapy. We compare aberrant MET signaling dependent on the HGF-MET axis or on MET amplification as well as address clinical issues and challenges associated with the identification of appropriate biomarkers for MET-driven tumors. PMID:26690587

  3. Performance Criteria: Concrete, Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallenbeck, Roger F.; And Others

    The State University Construction Fund provides guidance and direction to professionals participating in its program by issuing performance criteria that set forth owner or user requirements. This document provides guidelines in the form of performance criteria, testing procedures, and instructions to achieve an acceptable level of performance in…

  4. Criteria for Evaluating Advancement Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heemann, Warren, Ed.

    Criteria for evaluating college and university advancement programs are presented, based on the efforts of professional area trustees and advisory committees of the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). The criteria can be useful in three ways: as the basis of internal audits of advancement programs or program components; as the…

  5. Peer Assessment without Assessment Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Alcock, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment typically requires students to judge peers' work against assessment criteria. We tested an alternative approach in which students judged pairs of scripts against one another in the absence of assessment criteria. First year mathematics undergraduates (N?=?194) sat a written test on conceptual understanding of multivariable…

  6. [Emotion Regulation in Adolescents with Nonsuicidal Self-Injury].

    PubMed

    In-Albon, Tina; Tschan, Taru; Schwarz, Daniela; Schmid, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent and impairing condition that was newly included in DSM-5 in the section III criteria for further research. Difficulties in emotion regulation play an important role in the development and maintenance of NSSI. This study investigated the emotion regulation in female adolescents with NSSI according to DSM-5 (n=55), clinical control adolescents with mental disorders without NSSI (n=30), and nonclinical control adolescents (n=58) using self-report questionnaires and interviews. As expected, results indicated that adolescents with NSSI have significantly more difficulties in emotion regulation compared to healthy controls. In addition, adolescents with NSSI reported also significantly more difficulties in impulse control, lack of emotional clarity, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies compared to nonclinical and clinical controls. Adolescents with NSSI felt significantly more often sadness compared to clinical controls (d=0.66) and compared to other emotions. Adolescents with NSSI indicated significantly less often happiness compared to nonclinical controls (d=1.83). Results support that adolescents with NSSI have difficulties in emotion regulation and that these difficulties are even more pronounced than in adolescents with other mental disorders. Clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:26032034

  7. Cetuximab-induced MET activation acts as a novel resistance mechanism in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Na; Liu, Shizhou; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Jing; Xu, Ling; Liu, Yunpeng; Qu, Xiujuan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant MET expression and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling are implicated in promoting resistance to targeted agents; however, the induced MET activation by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors mediating resistance to targeted therapy remains elusive. In this study, we identified that cetuximab-induced MET activation contributed to cetuximab resistance in Caco-2 colon cancer cells. MET inhibition or knockdown sensitized Caco-2 cells to cetuximab-mediated growth inhibition. Additionally, SRC activation promoted cetuximab resistance by interacting with MET. Pretreatment with SRC inhibitors abolished cetuximab-mediated MET activation and rendered Caco-2 cells sensitive to cetuximab. Notably, cetuximab induced MET/SRC/EGFR complex formation. MET inhibitor or SRC inhibitor suppressed phosphorylation of MET and SRC in the complex, and MET inhibitor singly led to disruption of complex formation. These results implicate alternative targeting of MET or SRC as rational strategies for reversing cetuximab resistance in colon cancer. PMID:24714091

  8. NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-07

    NARSTO EPA SS ST LOUIS AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Amount Surface Pressure Solar Radiation Surface Air Temperature Particulates Trace Metals Order Data:  ... Data Guide Documents:  St Louis Air Chem Guide St Louis Final Report  (PDF) St Louis QA ...

  9. NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS NEW YORK AIR CHEM PM MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Thermooptical Transmission Location:  New York Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  New York Air Chem Guide CPM Summary Report  (PDF) ...

  10. The MET Project: The Wrong 45 Million Dollar Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funded the investigation of a $45 million question: How can we identify and develop effective teaching? Now that the findings from their Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) project have been released, it's clear they asked a simpler question, namely, What other measures match up well with value-added…

  11. Seven Oaks Met School Builds Curriculum around Each Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, George

    2009-01-01

    This article features Seven Oaks School Division Met School in Winnipeg, a high school that limits class size to 15, tailors its curriculum to the needs and interests of its individual students, places students in community-based internships two days a week, and keeps the teacher--called an advisor--with the same group of students from Grade 9…

  12. Radical AdoMet enzymes in complex metal cluster biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Duffus, Benjamin R; Hamilton, Trinity L; Shepard, Eric M; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W; Broderick, Joan B

    2012-11-01

    Radical S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) enzymes comprise a large superfamily of proteins that engage in a diverse series of biochemical transformations through generation of the highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical intermediate. Recent advances into the biosynthesis of unique iron-sulfur (FeS)-containing cofactors such as the H-cluster in [FeFe]-hydrogenase, the FeMo-co in nitrogenase, as well as the iron-guanylylpyridinol (FeGP) cofactor in [Fe]-hydrogenase have implicated new roles for radical AdoMet enzymes in the biosynthesis of complex inorganic cofactors. Radical AdoMet enzymes in conjunction with scaffold proteins engage in modifying ubiquitous FeS precursors into unique clusters, through novel amino acid decomposition and sulfur insertion reactions. The ability of radical AdoMet enzymes to modify common metal centers to unusual metal cofactors may provide important clues into the stepwise evolution of these and other complex bioinorganic catalysts. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Radical SAM enzymes and Radical Enzymology. PMID:22269887

  13. The Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) Model. Volume 1; Technical Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1998-01-01

    Volume 1 presents a technical description of the Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET) model atmosphere and a summary of its historical development. Various programs developed to augment the original capability of the model are discussed in detail. The report also describes each of the individual subroutines developed to enhance the model. Computer codes for these subroutines are contained in four appendices.

  14. San Diego Met High School: Personalization as a Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of San Diego Met High School is to prepare students for college and the workforce through active learning, academic rigor, and community involvement in a small school setting. Because personalization is a key component of the school culture, advisories of 20-25 students work with the same teachers for all four years. Advisers, parents,…

  15. NARSTO PAC2001 CESSNA VOC PM OZONE MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 CESSNA VOC PM OZONE MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Temperature Probe Humidity Probe Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Optical Counter GC Location:  Lower Fraser ... Air Temperature Humidity Upper Level Winds Ozone Aerosol Particle Properties Volatile Organic Compounds ...

  16. NARSTO PAC2001 CONVAIR PM OZONE MET DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO PAC2001 CONVAIR PM OZONE MET DATA Project Title:  NARSTO Discipline:  ... Temperature Probe Humidity Probe Wind Sensor UV Ozone Detector Optical Counter Location:  Lower Fraser ... Air Temperature Humidity Upper Level Winds Ozone Aerosol Particle Properties Order Data:  ASDC Order ...

  17. Altered white matter architecture in BDNF met carriers.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Erik; Foret, Ariane; Mascetti, Laura; Muto, Vincenzo; Le Bourdiec-Shaffii, Anahita; Stender, Johan; Balteau, Evelyne; Dideberg, Vinciane; Bours, Vincent; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) modulates the pruning of synaptically silent axonal arbors. The Met allele of the BDNF gene is associated with a reduction in the neurotrophin's activity-dependent release. We used diffusion-weighted imaging to construct structural brain networks for 36 healthy subjects with known BDNF genotypes. Through permutation testing we discovered clear differences in connection strength between subjects carrying the Met allele and those homozygotic for the Val allele. We trained a Gaussian process classifier capable of identifying the subjects' allelic group with 86% accuracy and high predictive value. In Met carriers structural connectivity was greatly increased throughout the forebrain, particularly in connections corresponding to the anterior and superior corona radiata as well as corticothalamic and corticospinal projections from the sensorimotor, premotor, and prefrontal portions of the internal capsule. Interhemispheric connectivity was also increased via the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, and extremely high connectivity values were found between inferior medial frontal polar regions via the anterior forceps. We propose that the decreased availability of BDNF leads to deficits in axonal maintenance in carriers of the Met allele, and that this produces mesoscale changes in white matter architecture. PMID:23935975

  18. Lessons Learned: The MetLife Foundation Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazis, Richard; Haynes, Leslie; Liebowitz, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This past year, Jobs for the Future studied strategies that community colleges are using to improve the quality and effectiveness of their services to low-income youth and adults. Much of this research was conducted for the MetLife Foundation Community College Excellence Awards Initiative. Across the country, in urban, rural, and suburban…

  19. Analysis and performance of various classification criteria sets in a Colombian cohort of patients with spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Molano, Wilson; Landewé, Robert B M; Londoño, John; Romero-Sanchez, Consuelo; Valle-Oñate, Rafael; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of classification criteria sets (Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS), European Spondylarthropathy Study Group (ESSG), and Amor) for spondyloarthritis (SpA) in a clinical practice cohort in Colombia and provide insight into how rheumatologists follow the diagnostic path in patients suspected of SpA. Patients with a rheumatologist's diagnosis of SpA were retrospectively classified according to three criteria sets. Classification rate was defined as the proportion of patients fulfilling a particular criterion. Characteristics of patients fulfilling and not fulfilling each criterion were compared. The ASAS criteria classified 81 % of all patients (n = 581) as having either axial SpA (44 %) or peripheral SpA (37 %), whereas a lower proportion met ESSG criteria (74 %) and Amor criteria (53 %). There was a high degree of overlap among the different criteria, and 42 % of the patients met all three criteria. Patients fulfilling all three criteria sets were older (36 vs. 30 years), had more SpA features (3 vs. 1 features), and more frequently had a current or past history of back pain (77 vs. 43 %), inflammatory back pain (47 vs. 13 %), enthesitis (67 vs. 26 %), and buttock pain (37 vs. 13 %) vs. those not fulfilling any criteria. HLA-B27, radiographs, and MRI-SI were performed in 77, 59, and 24 % of the patients, respectively. The ASAS criteria classified more patients as having SpA in this Colombian cohort when the rheumatologist's diagnosis is used as an external standard. Although physicians do not perform HLA-B27 or imaging in all patients, they do require these tests if the clinical symptoms fall short of confirming SpA and suspicion remains. PMID:26791876

  20. Depression and suicidality in the adolescents in Osijek, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Degmecić, Dunja; Filaković, Pavo

    2008-03-01

    Mood disorders in children and adolescents and their treatments have received increasing attention and clinical investigation over the last few decades. The core features of mood disorders are essentially the same across the life span. Developmental level, however, appears to influence the expression of certain mood symptoms with greater frequency than other within the framework of depressive disorders. Suicide is the fourth leading cause of death in children between the ages of 10 and 15 years and the third leading cause of death among the adolescents and young adults 15-25 years. In this article the authors presents cross-sectional study done on the sample of 286 adolescents. Adolescents fulfilled self-rating scale Beck Depression Inventory for the screening of the depression and suicidality. In our sample 3.85% of the adolescents fulfilled the criteria for severe depressive episode and the 5.94% of the adolescents fulfilled criteria for moderate depressive episode. Also on the item of suicidality (Item 9) 0.7% of the adolescents had very high score, while 8.4 had significant score for the suicidal risk. Our results are in concordance with similar epidemiological studies done world while. PMID:18496908

  1. Brief Report: Investigating the Implications of Applying the New DSM-5 Criteria for Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Preschool Population in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chui Mae; Koh, Hwan Cui

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic reports for 206 children who underwent an assessment for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using the DSM-IV-TR criteria, were re-evaluated using the DSM-5 criteria. Mean age of the children at time of diagnosis was 3 years 10 months. Of the 202 children diagnosed with ASD on the DSM-IV-TR, 184 (91.1 %) also met the DSM-5 criteria for ASD. The overall concordance rate of ASD diagnosis on the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 was higher than that reported in other studies. Of the 18 children who did not meet DSM-5 criteria for ASD, 16 children met all social communication criteria but did not fulfil at least two restricted and repetitive behaviour (RRB) criteria. Six of those children had further RRBs emerging later on follow-up. PMID:27318808

  2. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase val/met polymorphism with cognitive function in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Ning; Ju, Kang; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Chuang; Xu, Ping; Chen, Silu; Cao, Aiai; Chen, Xue; Guo, Lanting

    2015-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a kind of neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset. The cognitive dysfunction caused by GTS could affect the growth and learning of children and adolescents. The mechanism of cognitive functions was associated with dopaminergic system, thus we access the associations between polymorphism of some dopaminergic system-related genes including Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) met/val, Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III 48 bp VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats), Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Ra 86 bp and IL-1β exon 5, and cognitive functions in GTS patients. Genotyping analysis was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Test for cognitive functions of GTS patients included modified wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), trail making test, visual reproduction test, stroop test and verbal fluency test. The patients with COMT met/met genotype showed less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with COMT val/val genotype (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, patients without allele val had better delayed memory in visual reproduction test, less errors in the stroop test and less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with allele val (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in cognitive functions among patients with different genotypes or alleles of polymorphisms of DRD4 exon III 48 bp VNTR, IL-1 Ra 86 bp and IL-1β exon 5 (P > 0.05). Polymorphism of COMT met/val was correlated with cognitive functions in GTS patients. This study provided basis for the analysis of molecular genetic pathology of cognitive dysfunctions in GTS. PMID:25367405

  3. Children and adolescents adjustment to parental multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Families are the primary source of support and care for most children. In Western societies, 4 to 12% of children live in households where a parent has a chronic illness. Exposure to early-life stressors, including parenting stress, parental depression and parental chronic disease could lead to harmful changes in children’s social, emotional or behavioural functioning. Little is known about the child living with a parent who has Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We systematically reviewed the literature regarding possible effects of having a parent with MS on the child’s or adolescent's psychosocial adjustment. Methods The following databases: MEDLINE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, ERIC, and ProQuest Digital Dissertations were searched (from 1806 to December 2012). References from relevant articles were also manually searched. Selected studies were evaluated using the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). Results The search yielded 3133 titles; 70 articles were selected for full text review. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria. Fourteen studies employed quantitative techniques, of which 13 were cross-sectional and one was longitudinal. Four studies were both qualitative and cross-sectional in design. Only 2 of 18 studies were rated as having high methodological quality. Overall, eight studies reported that children of MS patients exhibited negative psychosocial traits compared with children of “healthy” parents. Specifically for adolescents, greater family responsibilities were linked to lower social relationships and higher distress. Three studies indicated that parental MS was associated with positive adjustment in children and adolescents, such as higher personal competence, while four found no statistically significant differences. Conclusion Although having a parent with MS was often reported to have negative psychosocial effects on children and adolescents, there was a lack of consensus and some positive aspects were

  4. Adolescent Attitudes about Rape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kershner, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    A very significant problem in society is adolescent rape victimization and the growing number of adolescent perpetrators. This paper examines adolescent attitudes about rape in order to develop curricular materials. It is found that adolescents exhibit conservative attitudes about gender roles, general rape myths, and victim issues. (Author)

  5. Counsellors' Perceptions of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the perceptions Israeli secondary-school counselors have of adolescence. Results reveal that, in general, counselors have a favorable view of adolescents and do not perceive adolescence as a "difficult stage." Counselors also believe that they are perceived positively by their adolescent students. Identifies five types of adolescents…

  6. Comparison of Accreditation Criteria: CBHDP, NLN, and COA Accreditation Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Lois; Horton, Betty

    1991-01-01

    Presents a detailed comparison of similarities and differences in the accreditation criteria of two nursing accrediting agencies--the National League for Nursing and the Council on Accreditation--as they relate to nurse anesthesiology programs. (JOW)

  7. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  8. Selection of donor and organ viability criteria: expanding donation criteria.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, E; Andrés, A

    2007-01-01

    Donation criteria have been becoming more flexible over the years. Currently, the only absolute exclusion criteria are human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV), uncontrolled tumor disease and bacterial or viral infections. ClinicaL. conditions dictate organ viability criteria: biochemical, morphological and functional, that must be fulfilled by the donors and their organs in order to focus the decision on which donor organs can be used. These criteria attempt to assure that the transplanted organs function after the extraction, transformation, implantation and reperfusion process without transmitting any infectious or tumour disease. In recent years, the gross and microscopic appearance has become one of the fundamental criteria for selection of potentially viable organs. At present, there is no age limit for hepatic and renal donation; the principal contra-indication is chronic organ damage. The use of each organ must be decided individually after a profound analysis of all the viability criteria, weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the implant of a certain organ for the recipient. PMID:17702512

  9. In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of AMG 337, a Potent and Selective MET Kinase Inhibitor, in MET-Dependent Cancer Models.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Paul E; Rex, Karen; Caenepeel, Sean; Yang, Yajing; Zhang, Yihong; Broome, Martin A; Kha, Hue T; Burgess, Teresa L; Amore, Benny; Kaplan-Lefko, Paula J; Moriguchi, Jodi; Werner, Jonathan; Damore, Michael A; Baker, Daniel; Choquette, Deborah M; Harmange, Jean-Christophe; Radinsky, Robert; Kendall, Richard; Dussault, Isabelle; Coxon, Angela

    2016-07-01

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase is involved in cell growth, survival, and invasion. Clinical studies with small molecule MET inhibitors have shown the role of biomarkers in identifying patients most likely to benefit from MET-targeted therapy. AMG 337 is an oral, small molecule, ATP-competitive, highly selective inhibitor of the MET receptor. Herein, we describe AMG 337 preclinical activity and mechanism of action in MET-dependent tumor models. These studies suggest MET is the only therapeutic target for AMG 337. In an unbiased tumor cell line proliferation screen (260 cell lines), a closely related analogue of AMG 337, Compound 5, exhibited activity in 2 of 260 cell lines; both were MET-amplified. Additional studies examining the effects of AMG 337 on the proliferation of a limited panel of cell lines with varying MET copy numbers revealed that high-level focal MET amplification (>12 copies) was required to confer MET oncogene addiction and AMG 337 sensitivity. One MET-amplified cell line, H1573 (>12 copies), was AMG 337 insensitive, possibly because of a downstream G12A KRAS mutation. Mechanism-of-action studies in sensitive MET-amplified cell lines demonstrated that AMG 337 inhibited MET and adaptor protein Gab-1 phosphorylation, subsequently blocking the downstream PI3K and MAPK pathways. AMG 337 exhibited potency in pharmacodynamic assays evaluating MET signaling in tumor xenograft models; >90% inhibition of Gab-1 phosphorylation was observed at 0.75 mg/kg. These findings describe the preclinical activity and mechanism of action of AMG 337 in MET-dependent tumor models and indicate its potential as a novel therapeutic for the treatment of MET-dependent tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1568-79. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196782

  10. 76 FR 401 - MetLife Insurance Company of Connecticut, et al.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ..., Branch Chief, Office of Insurance Products, Division of Investment Management, at (202) 551-6795... COMMISSION MetLife Insurance Company of Connecticut, et al. December 28, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and...: MetLife Insurance Company of Connecticut (``MetLife of CT''), MetLife of CT Separate Account...

  11. Maximizing the accuracy of field-derived numeric nutrient criteria in water quality regulations.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2014-01-01

    High levels of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus can cause unhealthy biological or ecological conditions in surface waters and prevent the attainment of their designated uses. Regulatory agencies are developing numeric criteria for these nutrients in an effort to ensure that the surface waters in their jurisdictions remain healthy and productive, and that water quality standards are met. These criteria are often derived using field measurements that relate nutrient concentrations and other water quality conditions to expected biological responses such as undesirable growth or changes in aquatic plant and animal communities. Ideally, these numeric criteria can be used to accurately "diagnose" ecosystem health and guide management decisions. However, the degree to which numeric nutrient criteria are useful for decision making depends on how accurately they reflect the status or risk of nutrient-related biological impairments. Numeric criteria that have little predictive value are not likely to be useful for managing nutrient concerns. This paper presents information on the role of numeric nutrient criteria as biological health indicators, and the potential benefits of sufficiently accurate criteria for nutrient management. In addition, it describes approaches being proposed or adopted in states such as Florida and Maine to improve the accuracy of numeric criteria and criteria-based decisions. This includes a preference for developing site-specific criteria in cases where sufficient data are available, and the use of nutrient concentration and biological response criteria together in a framework to support designated use attainment decisions. Together with systematic planning during criteria development, the accuracy of field-derived numeric nutrient criteria can be assessed and maximized as a part of an overall effort to manage nutrient water quality concerns. PMID:24123826

  12. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development. PMID:26048179

  13. Leisure in Children and Adolescents with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Sabrina; April, Karine Toupin; Grandpierre, Viviane; Majnemer, Annette; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to describe participation in social and physical leisure activities among children and adolescents with JIA, as well as identify potential determinants of leisure participation. Methods Electronic databases were systematically searched for articles published up until June 2013 pertaining to participation in leisure activities among youth with JIA and other rheumatic diseases. Studies were included if they measured involvement in either social or physical leisure activities. Selection and quality appraisal of articles were completed independently by two authors. Results Eight hundred and ninety-three articles were found through electronic and reference search. One hundred and nine full articles were reviewed to assess for eligibility. Twelve articles met inclusion criteria and findings were reviewed. Most focused on describing participation in physical rather than social activities. Results suggest that youth with JIA participated less in both social and physical leisure activities as compared to healthy peers, and those with JIA did not meet national recommendations for physical activity. Potential determinants of leisure participation were socio-demographic (age, sex), anthropometric (height, weight) and disease-related (JIA subtype, disease duration, pain, number of swollen or painful joints, stiffness, fatigue, well-being) factors. Conclusion Characterization of leisure activity remains limited and mostly focused on physical activity in JIA. Assessment of more comprehensive outcome measures is warranted to obtain a better description of leisure in this population. Evidence of the influence of contextual factors as potential determinants of involvement in leisure among children with pediatric rheumatologic diseases is needed. PMID:25329390

  14. A retrospective open trial of adjunctive donepezil in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Hardan, Antonio Y; Handen, Benjamin L

    2002-01-01

    In light of the recently reported neuropathologic and neurochemical abnormalities of the cholinergic pathways in autism, donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is a potentially useful agent in the treatment of cognitive and behavioral symptoms observed in this disorder. A retrospective pilot study was conducted to determine whether donepezil is effective in the treatment of children and adolescents with autism. Eight patients (mean age = 11.0 +/- 4.1 years; range 7-19 years) who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) criteria for autistic disorder were openly treated with donepezil. All patients were on concomitant psychoactive medications. Four of these patients (50%) demonstrated significant improvement as assessed by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Decreases in the Irritability and Hyperactivity subscales were observed, but no changes in the Inappropriate Speech, Lethargy, and Stereotypies subscales were noted. Limited and transient side effects were reported, with one patient experiencing gastrointestinal disturbances and another reporting mild irritability. Double-blind, placebo-controlled investigations are needed to provide further evidence of the potential benefits of donepezil to patients with autistic disorder. PMID:12427297

  15. Mediators of Change in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Philip C.; Cummings, Colleen M.; Villabø, Marianne A.; Narayanan, Martina K.; Treadwell, Kimberli; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Ginsburg, Golda; Suveg, Cindy; Albano, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Test changes in (a) coping efficacy and (b) anxious self-talk as potential mediators of treatment gains at 3-month follow-up in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Treatment Study (CAMS). Method Participants were 488 youth (ages 7-17; 50.4% male) randomized to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT; Coping cat program), pharmacotherapy (sertraline), their combination, or pill placebo. Participants met DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Coping efficacy (reported ability to manage anxiety provoking situations) was measured by youth and parent reports on the Coping Questionnaire, and anxious self-talk was measured by youth report on the Negative Affectivity Self-Statement Questionnaire. Outcome was measured using the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (completed by Independent Evaluators blind to condition). For temporal precedence, residualized treatment gains were assessed at 3-month follow-up. Results Residualized gains in coping efficacy mediated gains in the CBT, sertraline, and combination conditions. In the combination condition, some unique effect of treatment remained. Treatment assignment was not associated with a reduction in anxious self-talk, nor did anxious self-talk predict changes in anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The findings suggest that improvements in coping efficacy are a mediator of treatment gains. Anxious self-talk did not emerge as a mediator. PMID:26460572

  16. A review of mobile applications to help adolescent and young adult cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Kimberly M; Fizur, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review research articles utilizing mobile applications with adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. Materials and methods We identified articles via online searches and reference lists (eg, PsycInfo, PubMed). Articles were reviewed by two study team members for target population, stated purpose, technological utilization, sample size, demographic characteristics, and outcome data. Strengths and weaknesses of each study were described. Results Of 19 identified manuscripts, six met full inclusion criteria for this review (four smartphone applications and two tablet applications). One additional article that included an application not specific to oncology but included AYA patients with cancer within the target sample was also reviewed. Uses of these applications included symptom tracking, pain management, monitoring of eating habits following bone marrow transplant, monitoring of mucositis, and improving medication management. Utility results from pilot studies are presented. Conclusion Mobile applications are growing in number and increasingly available to AYAs with and without chronic illness. These applications may prove useful in helping to support AYAs throughout their cancer treatment and beyond. However, few applications provide empirical data supporting their utility. Numerous strengths and benefits of these applications include increased accessibility to educational resources and self-management strategies, more frequent physical and emotional symptom tracking, and increased access to peer support. Despite these strengths, numerous limitations are identified, highlighting the need for future research in this area. PMID:26316835

  17. Initiation and Generalization of Self-Instructional Skills in Adolescents with Autism and Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Katherine A; Ayres, Kevin A; Alexander, Jennifer; Ledford, Jennifer R; Shepley, Collin; Shepley, Sally B

    2016-04-01

    Self-instruction using videos or other supports on a mobile device is a pivotal skill and can increase independence for individuals with disabilities by decreasing a need for adult supports. This study evaluated the effects of progressive time delay (PTD) to teach four adolescents with autism and intellectual disability how to initiate self-instruction in the presence of a task direction for an untrained task. Participants were screened for imitating video models prior to the study and were taught to navigate to videos on an iPhone(®) in history training. A multiple probe design across settings embedded in a multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of PTD on initiation of self-instruction. All participants learned to self-instruct. Two participants generalized self-instruction to two novel settings. Two participants required instruction in two settings before generalizing to the third. Three participants generalized self-instruction in the presence of a task direction from the researcher to a task direction from their classroom teacher in all three settings. One participant generalized to a task direction presented by the classroom teacher in one setting, but not in the other two. All participants maintained self-instruction behaviors assessed 1 week after all participants met criteria in all settings. Self-instruction using videos or other supports on a mobile device is a pivotal skill and can increase independence for individuals with disabilities by decreasing a need for adult supports. PMID:26572658

  18. Design criteria for maglev structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, H.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1997-05-01

    Maglev systems represent an entirely new concept in transportation. They will not operate on nor share the right-of-way with any other system. It is important, therefore, that the guideways be designed and constructed so as to be economical, constructable, durable, adaptable, reliable, and readily maintained. Comparisons should be made with the current transportation systems, especially highways and railroads. Since most of the guideway will be elevated, the comparison should be with the bridges. The object of the comparisons should be to avoid the shortcomings of the other systems while building on their strengths. This paper develops in some detail design and construction criteria that will ensure a good, long-lived performance of the maglev guideway. The importance of beauty should have a low priority in comparison to the other design criteria. Clean, simple details meeting other criteria will ensure an acceptable appearance. These criteria were used in evaluating the four maglev concepts developed for the National Maglev Initiative.

  19. Latent Class Analysis of DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder Criteria Among Heavy-Drinking College Students.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    The DSM-5 has created significant changes in the definition of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Limited work has considered the impact of these changes in specific populations, such as heavy-drinking college students. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a person-centered approach that divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive latent classes, based on observable indicator variables. The present research was designed to examine whether there were distinct classes of heavy-drinking college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD and whether gender, perceived social norms, use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE), self-perceptions of drinking identity, psychological distress, and membership in a fraternity/sorority would be associated with class membership. Three-hundred and ninety-four college students who met DSM-5 criteria for an AUD were recruited from three different universities. Two distinct classes emerged: Less Severe (86%), the majority of whom endorsed both drinking more than intended and tolerance, as well as met criteria for a mild AUD; and More Severe (14%), the majority of whom endorsed at least half of the DSM-5 AUD criteria and met criteria for a severe AUD. Relative to the Less Severe class, membership in the More Severe class was negatively associated with DRSE and positively associated with self-identification as a drinker. There is a distinct class of heavy-drinking college students with a more severe AUD and for whom intervention content needs to be more focused and tailored. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26051027

  20. Adult Cancers in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Laurence, Valérie; Marples, Maria; Stark, Daniel P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of cancer seen in young people changes with increasing age, transitioning from childhood- to adult-type cancer in adolescence and the third decade. The risk factors, presentation and biology of cancer in young adults differ from those in the older adult population. Factors of particular significance in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) include genetic predisposition to adult-type cancer, diagnostic uncertainty, long-term morbidity and considerations of fertility. New systemic therapies are being introduced that can prolong life and even increase the chance of cure, but the impact on AYAs is uncertain, as these patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. Here, we discuss the management of AYAs with 3 of the most common cancers affecting adults, when they emerge in the AYA populations, and therefore are currently met by medical oncologists - breast cancer, colorectal cancer and melanoma. PMID:27595357

  1. Correctness criteria for process migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Chin; Liu, J. W. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two correctness criteria, the state consistency criterion and the property consistency criterion for process migration are discussed. The state machine approach is used to model the interactions between a user process and its environment. These criteria are defined in terms of the model. The idea of environment view was introduced to distinguish what a user process observes about its environment from what its environment state really is and argue that a consistent view of the environment must be maintained for every migrating process.

  2. Criteria for energy pricing policy

    SciTech Connect

    Siddayao, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of papers contributed by energy economists. Topics covered include: operationalising efficiency criteria in energy pricing policy; energy pricing policy framework and experience in developing countries; socio-economic goals in energy pricing policy: A framework for analysis; efficiency and equity criteria in energy pricing with practical application to LDC's in Asia; shadow-pricing indigenous energy: Its complexity and implications; and energy pricing in developing countries: Role of prices in investment allocation and consumer choices.

  3. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in the 12-step program associated with greater abstinence among treatment-seeking adults. This study examined the influence of SAD on clinical severity at intake, peer-helping during treatment, and outcomes in a large sample of adolescents court-referred to residential treatment. Methods Adolescents (N = 195; 52% female, 30% Black) aged 14 to 18 were prospectively assessed at treatment admission, treatment discharge, and 6 months after treatment discharge. Data were collected using rater-administered assessments, youth reports, clinician reports, medical charts, and electronic court records. The influence of SAD on peer-helping and outcomes was examined using hierarchical linear regression and event history methods. Results Forty-two percent of youths reported a persistent fear of being humiliated or scrutinized in social situations, and 15% met current diagnostic criteria for SAD. SAD onset preceded initial use for two-thirds of youths with SAD and substance dependency. SAD youths presented for treatment with greater clinical severity in terms of earlier age of first use (p < 0.01), greater lifetime use of heroin and polysubstance use (p < 0.05), incarceration history (p < 0.01), and lifetime trauma (p < 0.001). Twelve-step participation patterns during treatment did not differ between youths with and without SAD except for peer-helping, which was associated with reduced risk of relapse (p < 0.01) and incarceration (p < 0.05) in the 6 months posttreatment. Conclusions This study found evidence of an association between SAD and earlier age of first use, greater lifetime use of heroin, incarceration history, and

  4. Interactive effects of BDNF Val66Met genotype and trauma on limbic brain anatomy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Marusak, Hilary A; Kuruvadi, Nisha; Vila, Angela M; Shattuck, David W; Joshi, Shantanu H; Joshi, Anand A; Jella, Pavan K; Thomason, Moriah E

    2016-05-01

    Childhood trauma is a major precipitating factor in psychiatric disease. Emerging data suggest that stress susceptibility is genetically determined, and that risk is mediated by changes in limbic brain circuitry. There is a need to identify markers of disease vulnerability, and it is critical that these markers be investigated in childhood and adolescence, a time when neural networks are particularly malleable and when psychiatric disorders frequently emerge. In this preliminary study, we evaluated whether a common variant in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met; rs6265) interacts with childhood trauma to predict limbic gray matter volume in a sample of 55 youth high in sociodemographic risk. We found trauma-by-BDNF interactions in the right subcallosal area and right hippocampus, wherein BDNF-related gray matter changes were evident in youth without histories of trauma. In youth without trauma exposure, lower hippocampal volume was related to higher symptoms of anxiety. These data provide preliminary evidence for a contribution of a common BDNF gene variant to the neural correlates of childhood trauma among high-risk urban youth. Altered limbic structure in early life may lay the foundation for longer term patterns of neural dysfunction, and hold implications for understanding the psychiatric and psychobiological consequences of traumatic stress on the developing brain. PMID:26286685

  5. Incontinentia pigmenti diagnostic criteria update.

    PubMed

    Minić, S; Trpinac, D; Obradović, M

    2014-06-01

    In 1993 diagnostic criteria for incontinentia pigmenti (IP), a genodermatosis in which skin changes are usually combined with anomalies of other organs, were established. Approximately a decade ago, IKBKG gene mutation was discovered as a cause for IP. This finding has not been included in IP diagnosis so far. In addition, literature data pointed out a few other clinical findings as possible IP diagnostic criteria. Literature facts concerning IP diagnosis were analyzed. Different organ anomalies, their frequency and severity, were analyzed in the context of applicability as IP diagnostic criteria. Taking into account analyzed data from the literature, the proposal of updated IP diagnostic criteria was presented. We propose as major criteria one of the stages of IP skin lesions. As updated IP minor criteria in our proposal we included: dental, ocular; central nervous system (CNS), hair, nail, palate, breast and nipple anomalies; multiple male miscarriages, and IP pathohistological findings. In the diagnosis of IP, the presence of IKBKG mutation typical for IP, and existence of family relatives with diagnosed IP are taken into account. PMID:23802866

  6. Testing ATLAS Z+MET excess with LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Shirai, Satoshi; Terada, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    The ATLAS collaboration reported a 3σ excess in the search of events containing on- Z dilepton, jets, and large missing momentum (MET) in the 8 TeV LHC run. Motivated by this excess, many models of new physics have been proposed. Recently, the ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported new results for similar Z+MET channels in the 13 TeV run. In this paper, we comprehensively discuss the consistency between the proposed models and the LHC results of Run 1 and Run 2. We find that in models with heavy gluino production, there is generically some tension between the 8 TeV and 13 TeV results. On the other hand, models with light squark production provide relatively better fitting to both results.

  7. Operational Use of OGC Web Services at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    The Met Office has adopted the Service-Orientated Architecture paradigm to deliver services to a range of customers through Rich Internet Applications (RIAs). The approach uses standard Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) web services to provide information to web-based applications through a range of generic data services. "Invent", the Met Office beta site, is used to showcase Met Office future plans for presenting web-based weather forecasts, product and information to the public. This currently hosts a freely accessible Weather Map Viewer, written in JavaScript, which accesses a Web Map Service (WMS), to deliver innovative web-based visualizations of weather and its potential impacts to the public. The intention is to engage the public in the development of new web-based services that more accurately meet their needs. As the service is intended for public use within the UK, it has been designed to support a user base of 5 million, the analysed level of UK web traffic reaching the Met Office's public weather information site. The required scalability has been realised through the use of multi-tier tile caching: - WMS requests are made for 256x256 tiles for fixed areas and zoom levels; - a Tile Cache, developed in house, efficiently serves tiles on demand, managing WMS request for the new tiles; - Edge Servers, externally hosted by Akamai, provide a highly scalable (UK-centric) service for pre-cached tiles, passing new requests to the Tile Cache; - the Invent Weather Map Viewer uses the Google Maps API to request tiles from Edge Servers. (We would expect to make use of the Web Map Tiling Service, when it becomes an OGC standard.) The Met Office delivers specialist commercial products to market sectors such as transport, utilities and defence, which exploit a Web Feature Service (WFS) for data relating forecasts and observations to specific geographic features, and a Web Coverage Service (WCS) for sub-selections of gridded data. These are locally rendered as maps or

  8. Preliminary Results from the Mars Pathfinder ASI/MET Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Schofield, J. T.; Crisp, D.; Barnes, J. R.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Murphy, J. R.; Seiff, A.; Wilson, G.; Larsen, S.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder successfully landed in the Ares Vallis flood plain (19.3 N, 33.6 W) on July 4, 1997. The spacecraft carried a suite of instruments to record the structure of the atmosphere during the entry, descent, and landing as well as for monitoring meteorological phenomenon while on the surface. Collectively, these instruments are known as the ASI/MET experiment (Atmospheric Structure Investigation/Meteorology). In this paper we present preliminary results from the ASI/MET experiment. As of this writing, the spacecraft is healthy and continues to take daily meteorological measurements. We expect this will continue for almost one more earth year. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Remote Sensing of Volcanic ASH at the Met Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marenco, F.; Kent, J.; Adam, M.; Buxmann, J.; Francis, P.; Haywood, J.

    2016-06-01

    The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 has triggered the rapid development of volcanic ash remote sensing activities at the Met Office. Volcanic ash qualitative and quantitative mapping have been achieved using lidar on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) research aircraft, and using improved satellite retrieval algorithms. After the eruption, a new aircraft facility, the Met Office Civil Contingencies Aircraft (MOCCA), has been set up to enable a rapid response, and a network of ground-based remote sensing sites with lidars and sunphotometers is currently being developed. Thanks to these efforts, the United Kingdom (UK) will be much better equipped to deal with such a crisis, should it happen in the future.

  10. Optimization of the concentration optics of the Martian airborne dust sensor for MetNet space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; de Castro, A. J.; López, F.

    2012-06-01

    Martian atmosphere contains a significant and rapidly changing load of suspended dust that never drops to zero. The main component of Martian aerosol is micron-sized dust thought to be a product of soil weathering. Although airborne dust plays a key role in Martian climate, the basic physical properties of these aerosols are still poorly known. The scope of Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. MEIGA-MetNet payload is the Spanish contribution in MetNet. Infrared Laboratory of University Carlos III (LIR-UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of a micro-sensor for the characterization of airborne dust. This design must accomplish with a strict budget of mass and power, 45 g and 1 W respectively. The sensor design criteria have been obtained from a physical model specifically developed for optimizing IR local scattering. The model calculates the spectral power density scattered and detected between 1 and 5 μm by a certain particle distribution and sensor configuration. From model calculations a modification based on the insertion of a compound ellipsoidal concentrator (CEC) has appeared as necessary. Its implementation has multiplied up to 100 the scattered optical power detected, significantly enhancing the detection limits of the sensor.

  11. The MET receptor tyrosine kinase in invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, Silvia; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2007-11-01

    Various cytokines and soluble growth factors upon interaction with their membrane receptors are responsible for inducing cellular proliferation, differentiation, movement, and protection from anoikis (a planned suicide activated by normal cells in absence of attachment to neighboring cells or extracellular matrix (EMC)). Among those soluble factors a major position is exerted by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) together with its receptor MET and macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) in cooperation with its receptor RON. PMID:17607709

  12. Biomarkers that currently affect clinical practice: EGFR, ALK, MET, KRAS

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, M.D.; Kuruvilla, M.S.; Leighl, N.B.; Kamel–Reid, S.

    2012-01-01

    New drugs such as pemetrexed, the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and the Alk inhibitor crizotinib have recently enabled progress in the management of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc). More drugs, especially Met inhibitors, will follow. However, the benefits of these agents are not uniform across the spectrum of nsclc, and optimizing their utility requires some degree of subgrouping of nsclc by the presence or absence of certain biomarkers. The biomarkers of current or imminent value are EGFR and KRAS mutational status, ALK rearrangements, and MET immunohistochemistry. As a predictor of benefit for anti-egfr monoclonal antibodies, EGFR immunohistochemistry is also of potential interest. Some of the foregoing biomarkers (EGFR, ALK, MET) are direct drivers of the malignant phenotype. As such, they are, quite rationally, the direct targets of inhibitory drugs. However, KRAS, while definitely a driver, has resisted attempts at direct pharmacologic manipulation, and its main value might lie in its role as part of an efficient testing algorithm, because KRAS mutations appear to exclude EGFR and ALK mutations. The indirect value of KRAS in determining sensitivity to other targeted agents or to pemetrexed remains controversial. The other biomarkers (EGFR, ALK, MET) may also have indirect value as predictors of sensitivity to chemotherapy in general, to pemetrexed specifically, and to radiotherapy and molecularly targeted agents. These biomarkers have all enabled the co-development of new drugs with companion diagnostics, and they illustrate the paradigm that will govern progress in oncology in the immediate future. However, in nsclc, the acquisition of sufficient biopsy material remains a stubborn obstacle to the evolution of novel targeted therapies. PMID:22787409

  13. Astronaut Alan Shepard walks toward MET during first EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., foreground, Apollo 14 commander, walks toward the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET), out of view at right, during the first Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). An EVA checklist is attached to Shepard's left wrist. Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, is in the background working at a subpackage of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The cylindrical keg-like object directly under Mitchell's extended left hand is the Passive Seismic Experiment (PSE).

  14. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - < 95th percentile for age and sex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:25685291

  15. Dynamic changes of the endogenous cannabinoid and opioid mesocorticolimbic systems during adolescence: THC effects

    PubMed Central

    Ellgren, M.; Artmann, A.; Tkalych, O.; Gupta, A.; Hansen, H.S.; Hansen, S.H.; Devi, L.A.; Hurd, Y.L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical phase of active brain development often characterized by the initiation of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) use. Limited information is known regarding the endogenous cannabinoid system of the adolescent brain as well as related neurotransmitters that appear sensitive to cannabis exposure. We recently observed that adult rats pre-exposed to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) during adolescence self-administered higher amounts of heroin and had selective impairments of the enkephalin opioid system within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) implicated in reward-related behavior. To explore the ontogeny of the cannabinoid and opioid neuronal systems in association with adolescence THC exposure, rats were examined at different adolescent stages during an intermittent THC paradigm (1.5 mg/kg i.p. every third day) from postnatal days (PNDs) 28–49. Rat brains were examined 24 hours after injection at PND 29 (early adolescence), PND 38 (mid adolescence) and PND 50 (late adolescence) and analyzed for endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), Met-enkephalin, cannabinoid CB1 receptors and µ opioid receptors (µOR) in the NAc, caudate-putamen and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Of the markers studied, the endocannabinoid levels had the most robust alterations throughout adolescence and were specific to the PFC and NAc. Normal correlations between anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations in the NAc (positive) and PFC (negative) were reversed by THC. Other significant THC-induced effects were confined to the NAc — increased anandamide, decreased Met-enkephalin and decreased µORs. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of the mesocorticolimbic endocannabinoid system during adolescence and the selective mesocorticolimbic disturbance as a consequence of adolescent cannabis exposure. PMID:18674887

  16. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria.

    PubMed

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-07-28

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  17. Hepatocellular carcinoma beyond Milan criteria: Management and transplant selection criteria

    PubMed Central

    Elshamy, Mohammed; Aucejo, Federico; Menon, K V Narayanan; Eghtesad, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been established as a standard treatment in selected patients for the last two and a half decades. After initially dismal outcomes, the Milan criteria (MC) (single HCC ≤ 5 cm or up to 3 HCCs ≤ 3 cm) have been adopted worldwide to select HCC patients for LT, however cumulative experience has shown that MC can be too strict. This has led to the development of numerous expanded criteria worldwide. Morphometric expansions on MC as well as various criteria which incorporate biomarkers as surrogates of tumor biology have been described. HCC that presents beyond MC initially can be downstaged with locoregional therapy (LRT). Post-LRT monitoring aims to identify candidates with favorable tumor behavior. Similarly, tumor marker levels as response to LRT has been utilized as surrogate of tumor biology. Molecular signatures of HCC have also been correlated to outcomes; these have yet to be incorporated into HCC-LT selection criteria formally. The ongoing discrepancy between organ demand and supply makes patient selection the most challenging element of organ allocation. Further validation of extended HCC-LT criteria models and pre-LT treatment strategies are required. PMID:27478537

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance. PMID:23582695

  19. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC) can be a challenge. Clinical manifestations are non-specific, most neuroimaging findings are non-pathognomonic, and some serologic tests have low sensitivity or specificity. A set of diagnostic criteria was proposed in 2001 to avoid the over diagnosis of NCC that occurs in epidemiologic surveys, and to help clinicians evaluating patients with suspected NCC. The set included four stratified categories of criteria, including: (1) absolute: histological demonstration of cysticerci, cystic lesions showing the scolex on neuroimaging studies, and direct visualization of subretinal parasites by fundoscopic examination; (2) major: lesions highly suggestive of NCC on neuroimaging studies, positive serum enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, resolution of intracranial cystic lesions after cysticidal drug therapy, and spontaneous resolution of single enhancing lesions; (3) minor: lesions compatible with NCC on neuroimaging studies, suggestive clinical manifestations, positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ELISA for detection of anticysticercal antibodies or cysticercal antigens, and cysticercosis outside the nervous system; and (4) epidemiological: evidence of a household contact with Taenia solium infection, individuals coming from or living in cysticercosis endemic areas, and history of travel to disease-endemic areas. Interpretation of these criteria permits two degrees of diagnostic certainty: (1) definitive diagnosis, in patients who have one absolute criterion or in those who have two major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria; and (2) probable diagnosis, in patients who have one major plus two minor criteria, in those who have one major plus one minor and one epidemiological criteria, and in those who have three minor plus one epidemiological criteria. After 10 years of usage, this set has been proved useful in both, field studies, and hospital settings. Recent

  20. Multicenter Closed-Loop Insulin Delivery Study Points to Challenges for Keeping Blood Glucose in a Safe Range by a Control Algorithm in Adults and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes from Various Sites

    PubMed Central

    Zisser, Howard; Renard, Eric; Kovatchev, Boris; Cobelli, Claudio; Avogaro, Angelo; Nimri, Revital; Magni, Lalo; Buckingham, Bruce A.; Chase, H. Peter; Doyle, Francis J.; Lum, John; Calhoun, Peter; Kollman, Craig; Dassau, Eyal; Farret, Anne; Place, Jerome; Breton, Marc; Anderson, Stacey M.; Dalla Man, Chiara; Del Favero, Simone; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Filippi, Alessio; Scotton, Rachele; Phillip, Moshe; Atlas, Eran; Muller, Ido; Miller, Shahar; Toffanin, Chiara; Raimondo, Davide Martino; De Nicolao, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Control to Range Study was a multinational artificial pancreas study designed to assess the time spent in the hypo- and hyperglycemic ranges in adults and adolescents with type 1 diabetes while under closed-loop control. The controller attempted to keep the glucose ranges between 70 and 180 mg/dL. A set of prespecified metrics was used to measure safety. Research Design and Methods: We studied 53 individuals for approximately 22 h each during clinical research center admissions. Plasma glucose level was measured every 15–30 min (YSI clinical laboratory analyzer instrument [YSI, Inc., Yellow Springs, OH]). During the admission, subjects received three mixed meals (1 g of carbohydrate/kg of body weight; 100 g maximum) with meal announcement and automated insulin dosing by the controller. Results: For adults, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 159 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values 71–180 mg/dL was 66% overall (59% daytime and 82% overnight). For adolescents, the mean of subjects' mean glucose levels was 166 mg/dL, and mean percentage of values in range was 62% overall (53% daytime and 82% overnight). Whereas prespecified criteria for safety were satisfied by both groups, they were met at the individual level in adults only for combined daytime/nighttime and for isolated nighttime. Two adults and six adolescents failed to meet the daytime criterion, largely because of postmeal hyperglycemia, and another adolescent failed to meet the nighttime criterion. Conclusions: The control-to-range system performed as expected: faring better overnight than during the day and performing with variability between patients even after individualization based on patients' prior settings. The system had difficulty preventing postmeal excursions above target range. PMID:25003311

  1. HGF/Met and FOXM1 Form a Positive Feedback Loop and Render Pancreatic Cancer Cells Resistance to Met Inhibition and Aggressive Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiujie; Xia, Tian; Xie, Dacheng; Gao, Yong; Jia, Zhiliang; Wei, Daoyan; Wang, Liang; Huang, Suyun; Quan, Ming; Xie, Keping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling plays critical roles in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) development and progression and is considered a potential therapeutic target for this disease. However, the mechanism of aberrant activation of HGF/Met signaling and resistance to Met inhibition in PDA remains unclear. Experimental Design The mechanistic role of cross-talk between Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and HGF/Met signaling in promotion of PDA growth and resistance to Met inhibition was examined using cell culture, molecular biology and mouse models; and the relevance of our experimental and mechanistic findings were validated using human PDA tissues. Results Met was markedly overexpressed in both PDA cell lines and pancreatic tumor specimens, and the expression of Met correlated directly with that of FOXM1 in human tumor specimens. Mechanistically, FOXM1 bound to the promoter region of the Met gene and transcriptionally increased the expression of Met. Increased expression of FOXM1 enhanced the activation of HGF/Met signaling and its downstream pathways, including RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Furthermore, activation of HGF/Met signaling increased the expression and transcriptional activity of FOXM1, and the cross-talk between FOXM1 and HGF/Met signaling promoted PDA growth and resistance to Met inhibition. Conclusions Collectively, our findings identified a positive feedback loop formed by FOXM1 and HGF/Met and revealed that this loop is a potentially effective therapeutic target for PDA. PMID:26876216

  2. Absolute Quantitation of Met Using Mass Spectrometry for Clinical Application: Assay Precision, Stability, and Correlation with MET Gene Amplification in FFPE Tumor Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Daniel V. T.; Liao, Wei-Li; Thyparambil, Sheeno; Henderson, Les; Xu, Peng; Zhao, Lei; Rambo, Brittany; Hart, John; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Bengali, Kathleen; Uzzell, Jamar; Darfler, Marlene; Krizman, David B.; Cecchi, Fabiola; Bottaro, Donald P.; Karrison, Theodore; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hembrough, Todd; Burrows, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Background Overexpression of Met tyrosine kinase receptor is associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression, and particularly MET amplification, are predictive of response to Met-specific therapy in preclinical models. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is currently used to select for ‘high Met’ expressing tumors for Met inhibitor trials. IHC suffers from antibody non-specificity, lack of quantitative resolution, and, when quantifying multiple proteins, inefficient use of scarce tissue. Methods After describing the development of the Liquid-Tissue-Selected Reaction Monitoring-mass spectrometry (LT-SRM-MS) Met assay, we evaluated the expression level of Met in 130 FFPE gastroesophageal cancer (GEC) tissues. We assessed the correlation of SRM Met expression to IHC and mean MET gene copy number (GCN)/nucleus or MET/CEP7 ratio by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Proteomic mapping of recombinant Met identified 418TEFTTALQR426 as the optimal SRM peptide. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) for this peptide were 150 and 200 amol/µg tumor protein, respectively. The assay demonstrated excellent precision and temporal stability of measurements in serial sections analyzed one year apart. Expression levels of 130 GEC tissues ranged (<150 amol/µg to 4669.5 amol/µg. High correlation was observed between SRM Met expression and both MET GCN and MET/CEP7 ratio as determined by FISH (n = 30; R2 = 0.898). IHC did not correlate well with SRM (n = 44; R2 = 0.537) nor FISH GCN (n = 31; R2 = 0.509). A Met SRM level of ≥1500 amol/µg was 100% sensitive (95% CI 0.69–1) and 100% specific (95% CI 0.92–1) for MET amplification. Conclusions The Met SRM assay measured the absolute Met levels in clinical tissues with high precision. Compared to IHC, SRM provided a quantitative and linear measurement of Met expression, reliably distinguishing between non-amplified and amplified MET

  3. [Child and adolescent bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Stuppäck, Christoph; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Aichhorn, Monika; Hausmann, Armand

    2007-01-01

    The onset of bipolar disorders before the age of 10 is rare. First manifestation occurs most frequently between the age of 15 to 30. Children of a parent with bipolar disorder are at a fivefold risk for developing a bipolar disorder. Therefore, an elaborate family-history is essential for the assessment of potentially manic or depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Basically, for all age groups the same diagnostic criteria according to ICD 10 are applied. Due to the differing symptoms for children and adolescents the finding of a diagnosis is considerably harder than for adults. Manic episodes before the age of 10 are characterized by increased activity, more risk taking behaviour and elevated emotional instability. In adolescents, however, behavioural disturbance with antisocial behaviour and drug-abuse are more common. Thus, typical misdiagnosis as ADHD or conduct disorders for children and adolescents are frequent. Aggravating the complexity, in up to 90 % both differential-diagnosis may occur as comorbid disorders. Furthermore, psychotic symptoms are more common than in adults and dysphoria is more likely than euphoric or depressive mood. Asymptomatic intervals rarely exist, whereas "ups" and "downs" in rapid succession are prevailing (rapid cycling). An early diagnosis, leading specific treatment, is essential for the prognosis of bipolar disorders. Additionally, structural (CCT or MRI) and laboratory examination are essential to expel endocrine or brain-organic diseases. Besides psychotherapeutic and psychoeducative methods, always including parents and attached persons, the psychopharmacological treatment is a major part of a multimodal treatment. The available substances partly have been in use for years and are appropriate for youngsters. These include mood stabilizers like lithium, divalproex and carbamazepine, which provide besides their acute antimanic effects also relapse-prophylactic properties. In addition atypical antipsychotics like

  4. Wind/tornado design criteria, development to achieve required probabilistic performance goals

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, D.S.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes the strategy for developing new design criteria for a critical facility to withstand loading induced by the wind/tornado hazard. The proposed design requirements for resisting wind/tornado loads are based on probabilistic performance goals. The proposed design criteria were prepared by a Working Group consisting of six experts in wind/tornado engineering and meteorology. Utilizing their best technical knowledge and judgment in the wind/tornado field, they met and discussed the methodologies and reviewed available data. A review of the available wind/tornado hazard model for the site, structural response evaluation methods, and conservative acceptance criteria lead to proposed design criteria that has a high probability of achieving the required performance goals.

  5. The Reading Life Histories of Three Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Billye J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the reading lives of three adolescent male students who struggle in reading. The three students identified for this study are students who failed to meet the academic criteria for promotion from grade eight to grade nine as defined by the 2011 Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAKS) and were placed in grade nine by a school…

  6. Sport Participation among Adolescent Girls: Role Conflict or Multiple Roles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Alan D.; Chandler, Timothy J. L.

    1991-01-01

    Criteria for social status among adolescent females are studied for 627 female high school students (77.5 percent White) in upstate New York, focusing on participation in interscholastic athletics. Subjects exhibit multidimensional identities that differ in relation to their involvement in sports and social groups used as their points of…

  7. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  8. Motivating Adolescents to Reduce Their Fines in a Token Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Robert P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Subjected adolescents on 16-bed token economy ward of state hospital to 4 interventions in 7-phase experiment to reduce number of fines they received each day. No significant differences in average fines per day, number of residents meeting criteria, or mean number of zero-fine days per week were found across phases. (Author/NB)

  9. The relation of standardized mental health screening and categorical assessment in detained male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Colins, Olivier F; Grisso, Thomas; Mulder, Eva; Vermeiren, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Having an effective triage tool is an important step toward a careful use of the restricted time and qualified personnel to perform comprehensive psychiatric assessment in juvenile justice settings. The aims of this study were to examine the construct validity of the Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory-second version (MAYSI-2), and its likelihood to identify youths who might have a psychiatric disorder. Data from up to 781 male adolescents (mean age = 16.73 years) were gathered as part of the standardized mental health screening and assessment in two all-male Youth Detention Centers in the Netherlands. Categorical assessments were based on two structured diagnostic interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the area under the curve were calculated to evaluate the likelihood of the MAYSI-2 to identify youths with a psychiatric disorder. Youths with a disorder scored significantly higher on the corresponding MAYSI-2 subscale than youths without a disorder. In the total sample, 70 % of the youths with a disorder met the Caution cut-off criteria on at least one MAYSI-2 scale, while youths without a psychiatric disorder were very unlikely to meet cut-off criteria for multiple MAYSI-2 scales. Overall, the sensitivity was slightly better when analyses were repeated in groups of youths from various ethnic origins. The findings supported the construct validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 and suggested that the MAYSI-2 is a valid mental health screening tool that may serve relatively well as a triage tool. Its effectiveness, however, may differ between ethnic groups. PMID:25116035

  10. Criteria for Initial Appointment in Rank and Subsequent Promotion for Faculty in Two-Year Public Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orf, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of community colleges over the last five decades has not been met with a commensurate expansion of knowledge about policy development. In order to address this gap in knowledge, this study aimed to determine the prevalence of rank among two-year colleges in the United States; to identify the criteria used to determine rank upon hire for…

  11. 10 CFR 51.108 - Public hearings on Commission findings that inspections, tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CFR 52.103(b), the Commission will not admit any contentions on environmental issues, the adequacy of... finding under 10 CFR 52.103(g). materials licenses ..., tests, analyses, and acceptance criteria of combined licenses are met. 51.108 Section 51.108...

  12. Quality criteria for water, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    Section 304(a) (1) of the Clean Water Act 33 U.S.C. 1314(a) (1) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to publish and periodically update ambient water-quality criteria. These criteria are to accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge (a) on the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on health and welfare including, but not limited to, plankton, fish shellfish, wildlife, plant life, shorelines, beaches, aesthetics, and recreation that may be expected from the presence of pollutants in any body of water including ground water; (b) on the concentration and dispersal of pollutants, or their byproducts, through biological, physical, and chemical processes; and (c) on the effects of pollutants on biological community diversity, productivity, and stability, including information on the factors affecting rates of eutrophication and organic and inorganic sedimentation for varying types of receiving waters. In a continuing effort to provide those who use EPA's water-quality and human-health criteria with up-to-date criteria values and associated information, the document was assembled. The document includes summaries of all the contaminants for which EPA has developed criteria recommendations.

  13. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying. PMID:24877777

  14. Construct Validity of the Adolescent Borderline Personality Disorder: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bondurant, Helen; Greenfield, Brian; Tse, Sze Man

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Although the term borderline personality disorder (BPD) is used to describe adolescents in clinical settings, there is confusion as to what it comprises. To further elucidate that diagnosis, this article reviews its construct validity. Method Relevant publications appearing in PsychInfo (1872 to present) were reviewed for the purposes of this article. Results Thirty-six of the approximately sixty-five publications selected for consideration were included in this review. Conclusion The construct validity of adolescent BPD is supported by internal consistency (comparable to that of adults), group differences (ie this diagnosis segregates BPD from non-BPD adolescents), convergent validity (ie multiple measures of this disorder measure the same pathology) and concurrent validity, whereby these youth manifest functional impairment and distress. By contrast, the adolescent BPD criteria manifest less construct validity than the adult diagnosis in that its criteria did not uniformly predict the overall diagnosis, and showed more criterion overlap with other personality disorders and a broader pattern of axis II comorbidity. Further diminishing its construct validity, factor analysis suggested that adolescent BPD was not a single entity, and its low predictive validity was demonstrated by little diagnostic stability through adolescence into adulthood. PMID:19030500

  15. Radiation design criteria handbook. [design criteria for electronic parts applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Douglas, S.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation design criteria for electronic parts applications in space environments are provided. The data were compiled from the Mariner/Jupiter Saturn 1977 electronic parts radiation test program. Radiation sensitive device types were exposed to radiation environments compatible with the MJS'77 requirements under suitable bias conditions. A total of 189 integrated circuits, transistors, and other semiconductor device types were tested.

  16. Adolescent Learning and the Internet: Implications for School Leadership and Student Engagement in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert; Wing, Charlotte; Beckert, Troy

    2009-01-01

    Students were electronically polled about the influence of the Internet in their education and ways teachers could use this resource to motivate them and increase their learning. Responses from the 956 adolescents showed that the school quest to increase student engagement could more often be met through online assignments that facilitate…

  17. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  18. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…

  19. Breakfast and fast food consumption are associated with selected biomarkers in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marlatt, Kara L.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Dengel, Donald R.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Skipping breakfast and consuming fast food are related to the risk of obesity and are common adolescent behaviors. The relationship between these behaviors and biomarkers related to diabetes and CVD is understudied in this population. Methods: Data are from a study of the etiologic factors related to obesity risk in adolescents. Breakfast and fast food consumption were assessed using a self-report survey. Anthropometrics, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed. Multivariate analyses were used to examine the relationship between dietary behaviors and selected biomarkers, controlling for calories consumed, body mass index (BMI), and demographic covariates. Results: 367 adolescents (11 to 18-years; mean 14.7 ± 1.8 years) were assessed at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities from 2006–2008. Breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower BMI, body fat, insulin, HOMA-IR, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) cluster score, while fast food consumption was associated with higher BMI, body fat, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and MetS cluster score. Some gender differences were observed. Conclusion: Breakfast and fast food consumption appear to be related to important metabolic syndrome biomarkers for chronic disease in a sample of healthy adolescents. The importance of this finding needs to be validated by examining the stability of this pattern over time and to assess the pattern in other populations. PMID:26844187

  20. Coaching Heavy as a Disciplinary Outsider: Negotiating Disciplinary Literacy for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Instructional coaching runs the risk of being abandoned by policy makers and secondary schools if efficacy expectations related to adolescent literacy are not met (Knight, 2010; Walpole & McKenna, 2008). Research into coaching has examined the roles of coaches (Borman & Fenger, 2006; Smith, 2007) as well as the stances employed during…

  1. Gender Differences in the Structure and Support Characteristics of Black Adolescents' Social Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Deborah L.

    1987-01-01

    Examination of 390 Black American adolescents demonstrates that males and females experience very different structured forms of social support. Females report more frequent contact with network members, who were both male and female, slightly older, and met in private settings. Males report larger groups of intimate friends, who are overwhelmingly…

  2. Higher Levels of c-Met Expression and Phosphorylation Identify Cell Lines With Increased Sensitivity to AMG-458, a Novel Selective c-Met Inhibitor With Radiosensitizing Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Torossian, Artour; Sun, Yunguang; Du, Ruihong; Dicker, Adam P.; Lu Bo

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: c-Met is overexpressed in some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and tissues. Cell lines with higher levels of c-Met expression and phosphorylation depend on this receptor for survival. We studied the effects of AMG-458 on 2 NSCLC cell lines. Methods and Materials: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium assays assessed the sensitivities of the cells to AMG-458. Clonogenic survival assays illustrated the radiosensitizing effects of AMG-458. Western blot for cleaved caspase 3 measured apoptosis. Immunoblotting for c-Met, phospho-Met (p-Met), Akt/p-Akt, and Erk/p-Erk was performed to observe downstream signaling. Results: AMG-458 enhanced radiosensitivity in H441 but not in A549. H441 showed constitutive phosphorylation of c-Met. A549 expressed low levels of c-Met, which were phosphorylated only in the presence of exogenous hepatocyte growth factor. The combination of radiation therapy and AMG-458 treatment was found to synergistically increase apoptosis in the H441 cell line but not in A549. Radiation therapy, AMG-458, and combination treatment were found to reduce p-Akt and p-Erk levels in H441 but not in A549. H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458 after small interfering RNA knockdown of c-Met; there was no change in A549. After overexpression of c-Met, A549 became more sensitive, while H441 became less sensitive to AMG-458. Conclusions: AMG-458 was more effective in cells that expressed higher levels of c-Met/p-Met, suggesting that higher levels of c-Met and p-Met in NSCLC tissue may classify a subset of tumors that are more sensitive to molecular therapies against this receptor.

  3. FFTF fuel systems design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, D.S.; Baars, R.E.; Jackson, R.J.; Weber, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to first enumerate the design considerations that were given to the fuel system, then secondly, show how these design allowances, methods, and criteria compare to the subsequent irradiation data. This comparison will show that decisions made by the design team were generally correct and, if in error, tended to be conservative. The FFTF driver fuel assemblies addressed by this paper are composed of the duct, a spacer system, and 217 fuel pins. Each of these subcomponents is described as the criteria are discussed and important parameters noted.

  4. Inclusion relations among separability criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Plastino, A. R.; Casas, M.; Plastino, A.

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the application of different separability criteria by recourse to an exhaustive Monte Carlo exploration involving the pertinent state space of pure and mixed states. The corresponding chain of implications of different criteria is in such a way numerically elucidated. We also quantify, for a bipartite system of arbitrary dimension, the proportion of states rgr that can be distilled according to a definite criterion. Our work can be regarded as a complement to the recent review paper by Terhal B (2002 Theor. Comput. Sci. 287 313). Some questions posed there receive an answer here.

  5. MET17 and Hydrogen Sulfide Formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Spiropoulos, Apostolos; Bisson, Linda F.

    2000-01-01

    Commercial isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during fermentation, which has been attributed to variation in the ability to incorporate reduced sulfur into organic compounds. We transformed two commercial strains (UCD522 and UCD713) with a plasmid overexpressing the MET17 gene, which encodes the bifunctional O-acetylserine/O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAS/OAH SHLase), to test the hypothesis that the level of activity of this enzyme limits reduced sulfur incorporation, leading to H2S release. Overexpression of MET17 resulted in a 10- to 70-fold increase in OAS/OAH SHLase activity in UCD522 but had no impact on the level of H2S produced. In contrast, OAS/OAH SHLase activity was not as highly expressed in transformants of UCD713 (0.5- to 10-fold) but resulted in greatly reduced H2S formation. Overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity was greater in UCD713 when grown under low-nitrogen conditions, but the impact on reduction of H2S was greater under high-nitrogen conditions. Thus, there was not a good correlation between the level of enzyme activity and H2S production. We measured cellular levels of cysteine to determine the impact of overexpression of OAS/OAH SHLase activity on sulfur incorporation. While Met17p activity was not correlated with increased cysteine production, conditions that led to elevated cytoplasmic levels of cysteine also reduced H2S formation. Our data do not support the simple hypothesis that variation in OAS/OAH SHLase activity is correlated with H2S production and release. PMID:11010893

  6. The Involvement of Genes in Adolescent Depression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Liangwei; Yao, Shuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported on the roles of genetic factors in the development of depression in adolescents and young adults. However, there are few systematic reviews that update our understanding of adolescent depression with the biological findings identifying the roles of gene expression and/or polymorphism(s). This review systematically summarized the findings that clearly identified the contribution of a gene to the risk of depression in adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old and young adults between the ages of 20 and 25 years old. Data were obtained through searching PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. A total of 47 studies on early adolescence and three studies on young adults were included in the current review. Most articles studied genes in the serotonergic system (n = 26), dopaminergic system (n = 3), and the Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (n = 12). 92.3% of studies (24/26) identified positive associations of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with depressive illness or depressive symptoms. 83.3% of studies (10/12) found positive association between BDNF Val66Met genotype and adolescent depressive symptoms. More studies should be conducted on the 18 genes reported in a few studies to clarify their roles in the risk for adolescent depression. PMID:26733829

  7. Health information seeking behaviors of ethnically diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F H

    2014-08-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas' information seeking behavior framework to, examine the participants'' report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas' framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  8. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  9. Adolescent attraction to cults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, E

    1998-01-01

    This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures. PMID:9831888

  10. Post-Adolescent Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Search COPING & HEALING CARING FOR A CHILD: POST-ADOLESCENT ISSUES As your child reaches adulthood, there will ... intake. New issues that you and your post adolescent child may want to discus together with his/ ...

  11. Adolescent and School Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Adolescent and School Health Note: Javascript is disabled or ... behaviors now JAMA Viewpoint: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adolescents New MMWR Article Learn What State and Local ...

  12. Correlates of persistent postconcussional disorder: DSM-IV criteria versus ICD-10.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Stephen R; Boake, Corwin; Pedroza, Claudia; Brown, Sharon A; Levin, Harvey S; Goodman, Heather S; Merritt, Shirley G

    2008-04-01

    Controversy surrounding the causation of symptom complaints after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is reflected by the existence of alternative diagnostic criteria for postconcussional syndrome (PCS) in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and postconcussional disorder (PCD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4th edition (DSM-IV). Previous studies of persisting symptoms have employed various symptom checklists rather than uniform criteria-based diagnoses. This is the first prospective study of persisting symptom complaints using the formal diagnostic criteria for PCD and PCS and comparing these criteria sets in terms of prevalence, relationship to potential compensation, and emotional/functional status. In this prospective study, an unselected series of adults with uncomplicated MTBI (N = 139) was assessed at 6 months postinjury with a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of psychiatric symptoms/disorders, social support/community integration, health-related quality of life, and global outcome. In parallel analyses, participants with PCD/PCS were compared to those without the disorder. Potential compensation was an equally significant factor in both criteria sets. Persistent PCS criteria were met 3.1 times more frequently than persistent PCD criteria. Significant racial differences in fulfilling PCD/PCS criteria were found. No differences in emotional/functional status patterns or global outcome were found between the criteria sets except for minor dissimilarities in the social/community integration domain. The results demonstrate that despite large differences in the frequency of patients meeting the two diagnostic criteria sets, a clear basis for preferring either the PCD or PCS criteria remains to be determined. PMID:17852608

  13. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    PubMed

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss. PMID:6516934

  14. Selection Criteria for Communications Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuysen, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Provides criteria for selection of microcomputer communications software for asynchronous (serial) communication and for communication with host computers. The following features are discussed: (1) communication options; (2) transmitting data; (3) receiving data; (4) filtering; (5) translating; (6) special features; and (7) general features such…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF NUMERICAL NUTRIENT CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the numeric nutrient criteria program is to develop waterbody-type technical guidance manuals for assessing trophic state. EPA has published guidance for lakes and for rivers. EPA Region 1 is publishing New England-specific guidance in 2001 for lakes, ponds and ...

  16. Site Products. Performance Criteria, Interim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Performance criteria for the physical facilities of universities are reviewed to establish an understanding of the principles, policies and requirements that form the basis for an organized approach to building and site planning, development, design and construction. Guidelines are given emphasizing the designer's responsibility to analyze the…

  17. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  18. Adolescence and Mythology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2010-01-01

    The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…

  19. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  20. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…