With the advent of rapidly emerging technologies, researchers need to be cognizant of developments and applications in the area of social media as a topic of investigatory interest. To date, scholarly research on the topic of Facebook, a ubiquitous social media site, is rather extensive. This study on Facebook, using a bibliographic content…
Weinstein, Erica S.
This paper presents a review of 25 sources on school-based eating disorder prevention programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The sources used to collect the information include Search ERIC database, PsycINFO, InterScience, and Expanded Academic. A review of the literature concluded that the most effective method of implementing a…
Molinas, Catherine; Cazals, Laurent; Diene, Gwenaelle; Glattard, Melanie; Arnaud, Catherine; Tauber, Maithe
Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disease leading to severe complications mainly related to obesity. We strongly lack information on the natural history of this complex disease and on what factors are involved in its evolution and its outcome. One of the objectives of the French reference centre for Prader-Willi syndrome set-up in 2004 was to set-up a database in order to make the inventory of Prader-Willi syndrome cases and initiate a national cohort study in the area covered by the centre. Description the database includes medical data of children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome, details about their management, socio-demographic data on their families, psychological data and quality of life of the parents. The tools and organisation used to ensure data collection and data quality in respect of good clinical practice procedures are discussed, and main characteristics of our Prader-Willi population at inclusion are presented. Conclusion this database covering all the aspects of PWS clinical, psychological and social profiles, including familial psychological and quality of life will be a powerful tool for retrospective studies concerning this complex and multi factorial disease and could be a basis for the design of future prospective multicentric studies. The complete database and the Stata.do files are available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes and can be provided upon request to the corresponding author. PMID:18831731
Luberto, Christina M.; Bogenschutz, Lois H.; Pelley, Terri J.; Dusek, Jeffrey
Abstract Background: Complementary or integrative care therapies are promising adjunctive approaches to pain management for pediatric inpatients that are currently underused and understudied. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential benefits of integrative care therapies delivered to hospitalized children and adolescents at a large Midwestern academic pediatric medical center over a 1-year period. Methods: A retrospective chart review of an inpatient clinical database maintained by integrative care therapists over a 1-year period was used for the current study. Pre/post pain and relaxation scores associated with the delivery of inpatient integrative care therapies (primarily massage therapy and healing touch) were examined. Results: Five-hundred nineteen hospitalized children and adolescents were treated by integrative care therapists for primarily pain or anxiety needs. Patients had a mean age of 10.2 years (standard deviation, 7.0), 224 were female (43%), 383 were white (74%), and most (393 [77%]) received massage therapy. Mean pain and relaxation scores decreased significantly from pre- to post-therapy across all demographic and clinical subgroups (p≤.001). Conclusions: Although integrative care therapies are increasingly requested and offered in children's hospitals, provision of these approaches is driven primarily by consumer demand rather than evidence-informed practice. Future controlled studies should examine the incremental effects of integrative care therapies as an adjunct to conventional treatment, assess how these therapies work mechanistically, and determine whether they improve outcomes, such as pain and cost, for hospitalized children and adolescents. PMID:24175871
Mason, Michael; Cheung, Ivan; Walker, Leslie
This article illustrates the methodology of creating a comprehensive geospatial database in order to systematically understand the social ecology of risk and protection for urban youth. The challenges and future opportunities involved with this complex work were reviewed, and specific examples were provided to guide researchers. Data were collected from a Washington, DC adolescent substance abuse treatment sample to construct a geospatial database to evaluate urban youths' social environmental risk and resources. A geographic information systems (GIS) approach was adopted to integrate a large array of variables at different levels of geography. For example, risk factors included proximity to crime hotspots, and other known potential establishments with negative influence (such as liquor stores). We also used GIS to assess the subjects' accessibility to protective resources such as public libraries, recreational, parks, and police stations. Unique to our method was the collecting and mapping of each teen's activity locations (places they typically frequent). These data form "risk and protection exposure" estimates for each teen. Finally, we illustrated the specific methods for creating a dynamic geospatial database for urban youth and present future analytical approaches and challenges with these type of data.
Arlet, Vincent; Shilt, Jeffrey; Bersusky, Ernesto; Abel, Mark; Ouellet, Jean Albert; Evans, Davis; Menon, K V; Kandziora, Frank; Shen, Frank; Lamartina, Claudio; Adams, Marc; Reddi, Vasantha
Considerable variability exists in the surgical treatment and outcomes of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). This is due to the lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines and outcome measures. Although clinical trials have been extolled as the highest form of evidence for evaluating treatment efficacy, the disadvantage of cost, time, lack of feasibility, and ethical considerations indicate a need for a new paradigm for evidence based research in this spinal deformity. High quality clinical databases offer an alternative approach for evidence-based research in medicine. So, we developed and established Scolisoft, an international, multidimensional and relational database designed to be a repository of surgical cases for AIS, and an active vehicle for standardized surgical information in a format that would permit qualitative and quantitative research and analysis. Here, we describe and discuss the utility of Scolisoft as a new paradigm for evidence-based research on AIS. Scolisoft was developed using dot.net platform and SQL server from Microsoft. All data is deidentified to protect patient privacy. Scolisoft can be accessed at (www.scolisoft.org). Collection of high quality data on surgical cases of AIS is a priority and processes continue to improve the database quality. The database currently has 67 registered users from 21 countries. To date, Scolisoft has 200 detailed surgical cases with pre, post, and follow up data. Scolisoft provides a structured process and practical information for surgeons to benchmark their treatment methods against other like treatments. Scolisoft is multifaceted and its use extends to education of health care providers in training, patients, ability to mine important data to stimulate research and quality improvement initiatives of healthcare organizations.
Vettore, Mario Vianna; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke
This study investigated the association between oral and general health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status, and the relationship between health-related behaviors and toothbrushing among adolescents. The database used here was the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE), a cross-sectional population-based study in 2009 with students from 27 Brazilian State capitals. Socio-demographic and health-related behavior data were collected. The survey included 49,189 adolescents (47.5% males), the majority of whom were 14 years of age and enrolled in public schools. The associations between toothbrushing frequency and other health-related behaviors and socioeconomic status varied between boys and girls. Associations were observed between health-related habits and toothbrushing frequency in both sexes, but with variations according to socioeconomic status. Planning health promotion interventions for adolescents should take their individual characteristics and family and social context into account.
Karbasy, Kimiya; Ariadne, Petra; Gaglione, Stephanie; Nieuwesteeg, Michelle; Adeli, Khosrow
Summary Clinical laboratory reference intervals provide valuable information to medical practitioners in their interpretation of quantitative laboratory test results, and therefore are critical in the assessment of patient health and in clinical decision-making. The reference interval serves as a health-associated benchmark with which to compare an individual test result. Unfortunately, critical gaps currently exist in accurate and up-to-date pediatric reference intervals for accurate interpretation of laboratory tests performed in children and adolescents. These critical gaps in the available laboratory reference intervals have the clear potential of contributing to erroneous diagnosis or misdiagnosis of many diseases. To address these important gaps, several initiatives have begun internationally by a number of bodies including the KiGGS initiative in Germany, the Aussie Normals in Australia, the AACC-National Children Study in USA, the NORICHILD Initiative in Scandinavia, and the CALIPER study in Canada. In the present article, we will review the gaps in pediatric reference intervals, challenges in establishing pediatric norms in healthy children and adolescents, and the major contributions of the CALIPER program to closing the gaps in this crucial area of pediatric laboratory medicine. We will also discuss the recently published CALIPER reference interval database (www.caliperdatabase.com) developed to provide comprehensive age and gender specific pediatric reference intervals for a larger number of biochemical markers, based on a large and diverse healthy children cohort. The CALIPER database is based on a multiethnic population examining the influence of ethnicity on laboratory reference intervals. Thus the database has proved to be of global benefit and is being adopted by hospital laboratories worldwide. PMID:28356820
Lahti, Anniina; Harju, Aleksi; Hakko, Helinä; Riala, Kaisa; Räsänen, Pirkko
Despite the large amount of research on adolescent suicidality, there are few detailed studies illustrating the characteristics of child and adolescent completed suicide. Our study presents the characteristics of child and adolescent suicides occurring over a period of 25 years within a large geographical area in Northern Finland, with a special focus on gender differences. The study sample included all 58 suicides among children and adolescents (<18 years) occurring in the province of Oulu in Finland between 1988 and 2012. The data is based on documents pertaining to establish the cause of death from forensic autopsy investigations. A register linkage to the data from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR) was also made. 79% of the suicide victims were male. Violent suicide methods predominated in both genders (males 98%, females 83%). While symptoms of mental illness were common, only a minority (15% of males and 17% of females) had a previous history of psychiatric hospitalization. 17% of females but none of the males had been hospitalized previously due to self-poisoning. A greater proportion of females than males had a history of self-cutting (33% vs. 7%) and previous suicide attempts (25% vs. 4%). 48% of males and 58% of females were under the influence of alcohol at the time of their suicide, and alcohol intoxication was related to suicides during the night. One fifth of the adolescents screened positive for substances other than alcohol. The results of this study indicate that there are similarities but also some differences in the characteristics of male and female suicides in adolescents.
Carlo, Gustavo; Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Nielson, Matthew G
Despite the importance of understanding sympathy and prosocial behaviors, research on the development of these tendencies in adolescence remains relatively sparse. In the present study, we examined age trends and bidirectional longitudinal relations in sympathy and prosocial behaviors across early to middle adolescents. Participants were 500 12-year-olds at Time 1 (52% girls, 70% European American) who completed measures of sympathy and prosocial behaviors at 5 different time points, each approximately 1 year apart. Results showed significant bidirectional relations between sympathy and prosocial behaviors across all time points, and an initial decrease of prosocial behaviors followed by an increase into middle adolescence. The implications for prosocial developmental theories and research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Stattin, Håkan; Hussein, Oula; Özdemir, Metin; Russo, Silvia
Using a longitudinal design, we asked 2 age cohorts of adolescents (15- and 18-year-olds) whether they, during the last year, had experienced events that had increased their civic interest and about details of their experiences. Based on self-determination theory, we predicted that the adolescents who reported having experienced events of this kind had already been more interested and had had more positive feelings about politics much earlier in time, and that this original interest would have increased more over time, than that of other adolescents. Second, we proposed that the adolescents who had encountered events that triggered their civic interest would have been engaged in behaviors that reflected their needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence, much earlier in time, and that, over time, they would have increased these behaviors more than other adolescents. These 2 predictions were largely confirmed. As for the content of the events the adolescents reported, many of them concerned national and international issues experienced as threatening, and that challenged the adolescents' beliefs and morality. Overall, a previous interest in politics and engagement in exploratory behaviors that reflect the adolescents' psychological needs seem to play crucial roles in understanding why adolescents in their everyday life encounter events that trigger their civic interest. Further, the findings show that having had everyday experiences that trigger the adolescents' civic interests are associated with a later increase in political interest more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record
Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo
The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.
DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan
This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
Becht, Andrik I; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J
Identity formation is one of the key developmental tasks in adolescence. According to Erikson (1968) experiencing identity uncertainty is normative in adolescence. However, empirical studies investigating identity uncertainty on a daily basis are lacking. Hence, studying individual differences in daily certainty (i.e., identity commitment levels) and uncertainty (i.e., identity commitment fluctuations and identity reconsideration) in the identity formation process may advance our knowledge about the extent to which adolescents' identity uncertainty is part of normative identity development. Therefore, this longitudinal study examined heterogeneity in certainty and uncertainty dynamics of adolescents' daily identity formation using a longitudinal microlevel approach. Dutch adolescents (N = 494; Mage = 13.03 years at T1; 56.7% boys) reported on 2 key dimensions of identity formation (i.e., commitment and reconsideration) in both the educational and interpersonal domain on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year, across 5 successive years. Multivariate latent class growth analyses suggested both in the educational and interpersonal identity domain a class of adolescents displaying a "crisis-like" identity formation process, and an "identity synthesis" class. Classes revealed differential development of (global and school) anxiety, aggression, and best friend support. Taken together, the present study confirmed Erikson's notion that experiencing daily identity uncertainty is common during adolescence. However, a substantial amount of adolescents also showed a process toward identity maturation already during adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record
Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Trouteaud, Alex R; Matos Johnson, Jodien
This is the first study to explore whether mandated reporters who work with adolescent females, ages 10 to 17, recognize domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and associated risk factors. Because mandated reporters are required by law to report child abuse, neglect, and child exploitation, lack of specific DMST training or not believing DMST exists in communities continues to place young females at risk for revictimization. Results indicate that 60% of mandated reporters in the sample (N = 577) had no specific training on DMST. Furthermore, almost 25% of respondents did not believe DMST existed in their communities. Implications for practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Eiden, Rina D; Lessard, Jared; Colder, Craig R; Livingston, Jennifer; Casey, Meghan; Leonard, Kenneth E
A developmental cascade model for adolescent substance use beginning in infancy was examined in a sample of children with alcoholic and nonalcoholic parents. The model examined the role of parents' alcohol diagnoses, depression and antisocial behavior in a cascading process of risk via 3 major hypothesized pathways: first, via parental warmth/sensitivity from toddler to kindergarten age predicting higher parental monitoring in middle childhood through early adolescence, serving as a protective pathway for adolescent substance use; second, via child low self-regulation in the preschool years to a continuing externalizing behavior problem pathway leading to underage drinking and higher engagement with substance using peers; and third, via higher social competence from kindergarten age through middle childhood being protective against engagement with delinquent and substance using peers, and leading to lower adolescent substance use. The sample consisted of 227 intact families recruited from the community at 12 months of child age. Results were supportive for the first 2 pathways to substance use in late adolescence. Among proximal, early adolescent risks, engagement with delinquent peers and parent's acceptance of underage drinking were significant predictors of late adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. The results highlight the important protective roles of maternal warmth/sensitivity in early childhood to kindergarten age, parental monitoring in middle childhood, and of child self-regulation in the preschool period as reducing risk for externalizing behavior problems, underage drinking, and engagement with delinquent peers in early adolescence. Specific implications for the creation of developmentally fine-tuned preventive intervention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M
Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record
Vasilenko, Sara A
Research has demonstrated associations between adolescent sexual behavior and depressive symptoms, but no single study has examined individuals at different ages throughout adolescence and young adulthood in order to determine at what ages sexual behavior may be associated with higher or lower levels of depressive symptoms. Using nationally representative longitudinal data and an innovative method, the time-varying effect model (TVEM), which examines how the strength of an association changes over time, this study examines how nonmarital sexual intercourse is associated with depressive symptoms at different ages, which behaviors and contexts may contribute to these associations, and whether associations differ for male and female participants. Findings indicate that sexual behavior in adolescence is associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms, particularly for female adolescents, and this association is relatively consistent across different partner types and adolescent contexts. Associations between sexual behavior and depressive symptoms in young adulthood are more dependent on partner factors and adolescent contexts; sexual behavior in young adulthood is associated with fewer depressive symptoms for women who have sex with a single partner and for men whose parents did not strongly disapprove of adolescent sexual behavior. Findings suggest that delaying sexual behavior into young adulthood may have some benefits for mental health, although contextual and relationship factors also play a role. (PsycINFO Database Record
Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; Feenstra, Dineke; Hutsebaut, Joost
Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand. Therefore we investigated which items of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems-118 (SIPP-118) were developmentally sensitive throughout adolescence and adulthood and which could be considered more age-specific markers requiring other content or thresholds over age groups. Applying item response theory (IRT) we detected differential item functioning (DIF) in 36% of the items in matched samples of 639 adolescents versus 639 adults. The DIF across age groups mainly reflected a different degree of symptom expressions for the same underlying level of functioning. The threshold for exhibiting symptoms given a certain degree of personality dysfunction was lower in adolescence for areas of personality functioning related to the Self and Interpersonal domains. Some items also measured a latent construct of personality functioning differently across adolescents and adults. This suggests that several facets of the SIPP-118 do not solely measure aspects of personality pathology in adolescents, but likely include more developmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record
White, Rebecca M B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Perez-Brena, Norma; Burleson, Elizabeth
The ethnic and racial structuring of U.S. neighborhoods may have important implications for developmental competencies during adolescence, including the development of heritage and mainstream cultural orientations. In particular, living in highly concentrated Latino neighborhoods during early adolescence-which channels adolescents into related school environments-may promote retention of the ethnic or heritage culture, but it also may constrain adaptation to the mainstream U.S. culture. We tested these hypotheses longitudinally in a sample of 246 Mexican origin adolescents (50.8% girls) and their parents. Data were collected 4 times over 8 years, with adolescents averaging 12.5 (SD = .58) to 19.6 (SD = .66) years of age across the period of the study. Latino ethnic concentration in early adolescents' neighborhoods promoted the retention of Mexican cultural orientations; Latino ethnic concentration in middle schools undermined the development of mainstream U.S cultural orientations. Findings are discussed in terms of integrating cultural-developmental theory with mainstream neighborhood theory to improve understandings of neighborhood and school ethnic concentration effects on adolescent development. (PsycINFO Database Record
Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S; Krischer, Maya K
Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male adolescents in the United States and the United Kingdom, only one published study has addressed the factor structure of PCL:YV psychopathy in female adolescents, and no prior studies have addressed it outside of these countries. We used confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the factor structure underlying PCL:YV scores in 314 incarcerated (143 male, 171 female) and 193 in-school (99 male, 94 female) adolescents, ages 14 to 19 years. The 2-factor model provided adequate fit only for incarcerated male adolescents and the 4-factor model was problematic in all samples, but the 3-factor solution provided an adequate model in incarcerated and community male adolescents. None of the models provided consistently acceptable fit among female adolescents. Current findings provide evidence for the robustness of the 3-factor model of psychopathy in incarcerated and community male adolescent samples but raise doubts about the applicability of this model to female adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Wray-Lake, Laura; Syvertsen, Amy K; Flanagan, Constance A
Social responsibility can be defined as a set of prosocial values representing personal commitments to contribute to community and society. Little is known about developmental change-and predictors of that change-in social responsibility during adolescence. The present study used an accelerated longitudinal research design to investigate the developmental trajectory of social responsibility values and ecological assets across family, school, community, and peer settings that predict these values. Data come from a 3-year study of 3,683 U.S. adolescents enrolled in upper-level elementary, middle, and high schools in rural, semiurban, and urban communities. Social responsibility values significantly decreased from age 9 to 16 before leveling off in later adolescence. Family compassion messages and democratic climate, school solidarity, community connectedness, and trusted friendship, positively predicted within-person change in adolescents' social responsibility values. These findings held after accounting for other individual-level and demographic factors and provide support for the role of ecological assets in adolescents' social responsibility development. In addition, fair society beliefs and volunteer experience had positive between- and within-person associations with social responsibility values. The manuscript discusses theoretical and practical implications of the conclusion that declines in ecological assets may partly explain age-related declines in social responsibility values. (PsycINFO Database Record
Somerville, Leah H; Sasse, Stephanie F; Garrad, Megan C; Drysdale, Andrew T; Abi Akar, Nadine; Insel, Catherine; Wilson, Robert C
Although models of exploratory decision making implicate a suite of strategies that guide the pursuit of information, the developmental emergence of these strategies remains poorly understood. This study takes an interdisciplinary perspective, merging computational decision making and developmental approaches to characterize age-related shifts in exploratory strategy from adolescence to young adulthood. Participants were 149 12-28-year-olds who completed a computational explore-exploit paradigm that manipulated reward value, information value, and decision horizon (i.e., the utility that information holds for future choices). Strategic directed exploration, defined as information seeking selective for long time horizons, emerged during adolescence and maintained its level through early adulthood. This age difference was partially driven by adolescents valuing immediate reward over new information. Strategic random exploration, defined as stochastic choice behavior selective for long time horizons, was invoked at comparable levels over the age range, and predicted individual differences in attitudes toward risk taking in daily life within the adolescent portion of the sample. Collectively, these findings reveal an expansion of the diversity of strategic exploration over development, implicate distinct mechanisms for directed and random exploratory strategies, and suggest novel mechanisms for adolescent-typical shifts in decision making. (PsycINFO Database Record
Hertel, Andrew W; Mermelstein, Robin J
Adolescents who smoke are more likely to escalate their smoking frequency if they believe smoking is self-defining. Knowing factors that are associated with development of a smoker identity among adolescents who smoke may help to identify who will become a regular smoker. We investigated whether smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. For comparison, we also investigated whether social smoker identity development is associated with internal and external motives for smoking. Adolescents who smoke (n = 292) completed measures of smoker and social smoker identity, internal motives for smoking (negative affect coping, positive affect enhancement), and external motives for smoking (social fit) at baseline, 6-, 15-, and 24-month assessments of an ongoing longitudinal study of smoking patterns. We examined whether change in smoker and social smoker identity from 6 to 24 months was associated with change in motives at earlier assessment waves. We also explored whether gender moderated these relationships. Increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with smoker identity development among both males and females. Increases in social motives were associated with smoker identity development among males, and increases in negative affect coping motives were associated with social smoker identity development among females. Smoker and social smoker identities are signaled by negative affect coping as well as social motives for smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record
Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige
Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record
Day, Emma; Jones, Louise; Langner, Richard; Bluebond-Langner, Myra
Background: Policy guidance and bioethical literature urge the involvement of adolescents in decisions about their healthcare. It is uncertain how roles and expectations of adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals influence decision-making and to what extent this is considered in guidance. Aims: To identify recent empirical research on decision-making regarding care and treatment in adolescent cancer: (1) to synthesise evidence to define the role of adolescents, parents and healthcare professionals in the decision-making process and (2) to identify gaps in research. Design: A narrative systematic review of qualitative, quantitative and mixed-methods research. We adopted a textual approach to synthesis, using a theoretical framework of interactionism to interpret findings. Data Sources: The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, EMBASE and CINHAL were searched from 2001 through May 2015 for publications on decision-making for adolescents (13–19 years) with cancer. Results: Twenty-eight articles were identified. Adolescents and parents initially find it difficult to participate in decision-making due to a lack of options in the face of protocol-driven care. Parent and adolescent preferences for information and response to loss of control vary between individuals and over time. No studies indicate parental or adolescent preference for a high degree of independence in decision-making. Conclusion: Striving to make parents and adolescents fully informed or urge them towards more independence than they prefer may add to distress and confusion. This may interfere with their ability to participate in their preferred way in decisions about care and treatment. Future research should include analysis of on-ground interactions among parents, adolescents and clinicians across the trajectory. PMID:27160700
Underwood, Marion K; Ehrenreich, Samuel E
Many adolescents are heavily engaged with social media and text messaging (George & Odgers, 2015; Lenhart, 2015), yet few psychologists have studied what digital communication means for adolescents' relationships and adjustment. This article proposes that psychologists should embrace the careful study of adolescents' digital communication. We discuss theoretical frameworks for understanding adolescents' involvement with social media, present less widely recognized perils of intense involvement with social media, and highlight positive features of digital communication. Coconstruction theory suggests that adolescents help to create the content of digital communication that shapes their lives, and that there may be strong continuity between adolescents' offline and online lives (Subrahmanyam, Smahel, & Greenfield, 2006). However, psychological theories and research methods could further illuminate the power and the pain of adolescents' digital communication. Psychologists need to understand more about subtle but potentially serious risks that adolescents might face: The agony of victimization by even a single episode of cyberbullying and the pain of social exclusion and comparison resulting from vast amounts of time reading large social media feeds and seeing friends doing things without you and comparing your inner emotional experience to everyone else's highly groomed depictions of their seemingly marvelous lives. If we seek to understand developmental psychopathology and to help youth at risk, psychologists need to embrace careful study of the content of adolescents' online communication, parents need to talk with their children about their own online experiences and become familiar with social media themselves, and clinicians need to address adolescents' online social lives in prevention and treatment programs. (PsycINFO Database Record
Gregson, Kim D; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Pettit, Gregory S
The present study investigated longitudinal associations between behavioral and cognitive dimensions of parental social coaching (i.e., advice about how to behave or think about peer challenges) and young adolescents' peer acceptance, and whether such associations are moderated by youths' social skills. Time 1 (T1) participants included 123 young adolescents (M age = 12.03 years; 50% boys; 58.5% European American). Parents gave open-ended reports about their social coaching to hypothetical peer stress scenarios, which were coded from low to high quality on behavioral and cognitive dimensions. Parents and teachers reported on adolescent prosocial behavior (i.e., social-behavioral skills), and adolescents reported on their social appraisals and social self-efficacy (i.e., social-cognitive skills). At T1 (before the first year of middle school) and Time 2 (approximately 10 months later, after the first year of middle school), parents and teachers rated adolescent peer acceptance. Analyses revealed that parents' prosocial behavioral advice and benign cognitive framing independently predicted adolescents' higher peer acceptance prospectively (controlling for earlier levels of peer acceptance). Furthermore, adolescent social skills moderated links between coaching and peer acceptance. Specifically, adolescents with higher, but not lower, social-cognitive skills became more accepted in the context of higher-quality coaching, supporting a "capitalization" pattern, such that these youth may be better able to utilize coaching suggestions. Results underscore the utility of parents' behavioral advice and cognitive framing for adolescent peer adjustment across the middle school transition and suggest that optimal social-coaching strategies may depend in part on adolescent social skill level. (PsycINFO Database Record
Bo, Sune; Sharp, Carla; Fonagy, Peter; Kongerslev, Mickey
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been shown to be a valid and reliable diagnosis in adolescents and associated with a decrease in both general and social functioning. With evidence linking BPD in adolescents to poor prognosis, it is important to develop a better understanding of factors and mechanisms contributing to the development of BPD. This could potentially enhance our knowledge and facilitate the design of novel treatment programs and interventions for this group. In this paper, we outline a theoretical model of BPD in adolescents linking the original mentalization-based theory of BPD, with recent extensions of the theory that focuses on hypermentalizing and epistemic trust. We then provide clinical case vignettes to illustrate this extended theoretical model of BPD. Furthermore, we suggest a treatment approach to BPD in adolescents that focuses on the reduction of hypermentalizing and epistemic mistrust. We conclude with an integration of theory and practice in the final section of the paper and make recommendations for future work in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record
Albayrak, Ozgür; Föcker, Manuel; Wibker, Katrin; Hebebrand, Johannes
We aimed to determine the quantitative scientific publication output of child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological affiliations during 2005-2010 by country based on both, "PubMed" and "Scopus" and performed a bibliometric qualitative evaluation for 2009 using "PubMed". We performed our search by affiliation related to child and adolescent psychiatric/psychological institutions using "PubMed". For the quantitative analysis for 2005-2010, we counted the number of abstracts. For the qualitative analysis for 2009 we derived the impact factor of each abstract's journal from "Journal Citation Reports". We related total impact factor scores to the gross domestic product (GDP) and population size of each country. Additionally, we used "Scopus" to determine the number of abstracts for each country that was identified via "PubMed" for 2009 and compared the ranking of countries between the two databases. 61 % of the publications between 2005 and 2010 originated from European countries and 26 % from the USA. After adjustment for GDP and population size, the ranking positions changed in favor of smaller European countries with a population size of less than 20 million inhabitants. The ranking of countries for the count of articles in 2009 as derived from "Scopus" was similar to that identified via the "PubMed" search. The performed search revealed only minor differences between "Scopus" and "PubMed" related to the ranking of countries. Our data indicate a sharp difference between countries with a high versus low GDP with regard to scientific publication output in child and adolescent psychiatry/psychology.
Doi, Suhail; Clavarino, Alexandra
Adolescent obesity and depression are increasingly prevalent and are currently recognised as major public health concerns worldwide. The aim of this study is to evaluate the bi-directional associations between obesity and depression in adolescents using longitudinal studies. A systematic literature search was conducted using Pubmed (including Medline), PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, BIOSIS Preview and the Cochrane Library databases. According to the inclusion criteria, 13 studies were found where seven studies evaluated depression leading to obesity and six other studies examined obesity leading to depression. Using a bias-adjusted quality effects model for the meta-analysis, we found that adolescents who were depressed had a 70% (RR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.40, 2.07) increased risk of being obese, conversely obese adolescents had an increased risk of 40% (RR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.70) of being depressed. The risk difference (RD) of early adolescent depression leading to obesity is 3% higher risk than it is for obesity leading to depression. In sensitivity analysis, the association between depression leading to obesity was greater than that of obesity leading to depression for females in early adulthood compared with females in late adolescence. Overall, the findings of this study suggest a bi-directional association between depression and obesity that was stronger for female adolescents. However, this finding also underscores the importance of early detection and treatment strategies to inhibit the development of reciprocal disorders. PMID:27285386
Gibbons, Frederick X; Kingsbury, John H; Wills, Thomas A; Finneran, Stephanie D; Dal Cin, Sonya; Gerrard, Meg
This study examined impulsivity as a moderator of adolescents' reactions to positive versus negative portrayals of drinking in American movie clips. Impulsivity, along with willingness and intentions to drink in the future, were assessed in a pretest session. In the experimental sessions, adolescents viewed a series of clips that showed drinking associated with either positive outcomes (e.g., social facilitation) or negative outcomes (fights, arguments). A third group viewed clips with similar positive or negative outcomes, but no alcohol consumption. All participants then responded to an implicit measure of attentional bias regarding alcohol (a dot probe), followed by explicit alcohol measures (self-reports of willingness and intentions to drink). Hypotheses, based on dual-processing theories, were: (a) high-impulsive adolescents would respond more favorably than low-impulsive adolescents to the positive clips, but not the negative clips; and (b) this difference in reactions to the positive clips would be larger on the willingness than the intention measures. Results supported the hypotheses: Adolescents high in impulsivity reported the highest willingness to drink in the positive-clip condition, but were slightly less willing than others in the negative-clip condition. In addition, results on the dot probe task indicated that RTs to alcohol words were negatively correlated with changes in alcohol willingness, but not intention; that is, the faster their response to the alcohol words, the more their willingness increased. The results highlight the utility of a dual-processing perspective on media influence. (PsycINFO Database Record
Ilioi, Elena Cristiana; Golombok, Susan
BACKGROUND Adolescence is a transitional time for identity formation and relationships with parents. While people born through assisted reproduction techniques (ART) appear to be well adjusted in childhood, it is unclear whether these findings carry into adolescence, and whether diverse ART have different psychological outcomes. This review summarizes what is known about the psychological adjustment and family relationships of the growing number of children born through ART who are reaching adolescence. METHODS The Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO and Scopus databases were searched systematically for peer reviewed papers focusing on adolescent psychological adjustment and parent–adolescent relationships in families created by ART. Key search inclusion criteria included all papers published in English relating to adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years. RESULTS Seventeen publications with varied methodologies were identified by this review. Only papers relating to in vitro fertilization (IVF), egg donation and donor insemination were identified. Results were categorized according to ART that used the parents' own gametes (IVF) and those that involved reproductive donation (egg donation, and donor insemination). Compared with naturally conceived adolescents and standardized normative samples, adolescents born through all ARTs seemed to be equally well adjusted, and to have positive parent–adolescent relationships. Some differences were however identified based on the type of ART used. In particular, the sex of the parent and child, along with age and process of disclosure of the adolescent's conception were identified as key mediators of parent–adolescent relationships in families created by donor insemination. CONCLUSIONS The studies in this review indicate that children born through ART have positive parent–adolescent relationships and are well adjusted, with some slight differences based on different ART. The generalizability of findings may be limited
Widman, Laura; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Noar, Seth M.; Nesi, Jacqueline; Garrett, Kyla
Importance Parent-adolescent sexual communication has received considerable attention as one factor that can positively impact safer sex among youth; however, the evidence linking communication to youth contraceptive and condom use has not been empirically synthesized. Objective This meta-analysis examined the effect of parent-adolescent sexual communication on youth safer sex behavior and explored potential moderators of this association. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted of studies published through June 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, and Communication & Mass Media Complete databases and relevant review articles. Study Selection Studies were included if they: 1) sampled adolescents (mean sample age≤18); 2) included an adolescent report of sexual communication with parent(s); 3) measured safer sex behavior; and 4) were published in English. Data Extraction and Synthesis Correlation coefficients (r) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from studies and meta-analyzed using random-effects models. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was safer sex behavior, including use of contraceptives/birth control or condoms. Results Seventy-one independent effects representing over three decades of research on 25,314 adolescents (mean age = 15.1) were synthesized. Across studies, there was a small, significant weighted mean effect (r = .10, [95% CI:0.08–0.13]) linking parent-adolescent sexual communication to safer sex behavior, which was statistically heterogeneous (Q = 203.50, p < .001, I2 = 65.60). Moderation analyses revealed larger effects for communication with girls (r = .12) than boys (r = .04), and among youth who discussed sex with mothers (r = .14) compared to fathers (r = .03). Effects did not differ for contraceptive versus condom use, or among longitudinal versus cross-sectional studies, indicating parent sexual communication had a similar impact across study designs and outcomes. Several methodological issues were identified
Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P
Laboratory rodents can adopt the pain or fear of nearby conspecifics. This phenotype conceptually lies within the domain of empathy, a bio-psycho-social process through which individuals come to share each other's emotion. Using a model of cue-conditioned fear, we show here that the expression of vicarious fear varies with respect to whether mice are raised socially or in solitude during adolescence. The impact of the adolescent housing environment was selective: (a) vicarious fear was more influenced than directly acquired fear, (b) "long-term" (24-h postconditioning) vicarious fear memories were stronger than "short-term" (15-min postconditioning) memories in socially reared mice whereas the opposite was true for isolate mice, and (c) females were more fearful than males. Housing differences during adolescence did not alter the general mobility of mice or their vocal response to receiving the unconditioned stimulus. Previous work with this mouse model underscored a genetic influence on vicarious fear learning, and the present study complements these findings by elucidating an interaction between the adolescent social environment and vicarious experience. Collectively, these findings are relevant to developing models of empathy amenable to mechanistic exploitation in the laboratory. (PsycINFO Database Record
Farrell, Albert D; Sullivan, Terri N; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Le, Anh-Thuy H
This study evaluated the Problem Behavior Frequency Scale (PBFS), a self-report measure designed to assess adolescents' frequency of victimization, aggression, and other problem behaviors. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 5,532 adolescents from 37 schools at 4 sites. About half (49%) of participants were male; 48% self-identified as Black non-Hispanic; 21% as Hispanic, 18% as White non-Hispanic. Adolescents completed the PBFS and measures of beliefs and values related to aggression, and delinquent peer associations at the start of the 6th grade and over 2 years later. Ratings of participants' behavior were also obtained from teachers on the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 7-factor model that differentiated among 3 forms of aggression (physical, verbal, and relational), 2 forms of victimization (overt and relational), drug use, and other delinquent behavior. Support was found for strong measurement invariance across gender, sites, and time. The PBFS factors generally showed the expected pattern of correlations with teacher ratings of adolescents' behavior and self-report measures of relevant constructs. (PsycINFO Database Record
Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Cabral, Howard J; Heeren, Timothy C; Gerteis, Jessie; Appugliese, Danielle P; Heymann, Orlaith D; Lange, Allison V; Frank, Deborah A
Understanding behavioral resilience among at-risk adolescents may guide public policy decisions and future programs. We examined factors predicting behavioral resilience following intrauterine substance exposure in a prospective longitudinal birth-cohort study of 136 early adolescents (ages 12.4-15.9 years) at risk for poor behavioral outcomes. We defined behavioral resilience as a composite measure of lack of early substance use initiation (before age 14), lack of risky sexual behavior, or lack of delinquency. Intrauterine substance exposures included in this analysis were cocaine, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. We recruited participants from Boston Medical Center as mother-infant dyads between 1990 and 1993. The majority of the sample was African American/Caribbean (88%) and 49% female. In bivariate analyses, none and lower intrauterine cocaine exposure level predicted resilience compared with higher cocaine exposure, but this effect was not found in an adjusted model. Instead, strict caregiver supervision (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.90, 19.00], p = .002), lower violence exposure (AOR = 4.07, 95% CI [1.77, 9.38], p < .001), and absence of intrauterine tobacco exposure (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI [1.28, 10.74], p = .02) predicted behavioral resilience. In conclusion, caregiver supervision in early adolescence, lower violence exposure in childhood, and lack of intrauterine tobacco exposure predicted behavioral resilience among a cohort of early adolescents with significant social and environmental risk. Future interventions should work to enhance parental supervision as a way to mitigate the effects of adversity on high-risk groups of adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record
Defoe, Ivy N; Semon Dubas, Judith; Somerville, Leah H; Lugtig, Peter; van Aken, Marcel A G
Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the initiation and peak of many harmful risk-taking behaviors such as smoking, which is among the most addictive and deadliest behaviors. Generic metatheories like the theory of triadic influence (TTI) suggest that interrelated risk factors across multiple domains (i.e., intrapersonal and social/environmental) jointly contribute to adolescent smoking behavior. Yet, studies are lacking that investigate risk factors across different domains in the same study, which obscures whether each makes a unique contribution to the increase in smoking throughout adolescence or whether there is overlap across the domains. Hence, to fill this gap using a latent growth approach, the current accelerated longitudinal study investigated the collective contribution of multiple intrapersonal and social risk factors in the development of smoking behavior from ages 12 to 17 in 574 ethnically diverse Dutch adolescents. Results from the latent growth model showed that whereas the contribution of motivational-intrapersonal factors like sensation-seeking was no longer significant in the stringent multivariate model, higher levels of impulsivity (cognitive-intrapersonal) and overt peer pressure (social) at age 12 proved to be robust and unique predictors of linear increases in adolescent smoking up until age 17. Consistent with the TTI, adolescent smoking progression does not occur in isolation and the determinants are wide-ranging as they stem from both intrapersonal and social domains. Thus focusing on such confluence of intrapersonal and social risk factors via prevention programs from as young as age 12 might halt the deadly increase in smoking behavior throughout adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record
Price, Scott A.; Brahm, Nancy C.
BACKGROUND A diagnosis of schizophrenia requires development of a pharmacotherapy regimen that balances many factors in the therapeutic decision-making process. Patient age and the presence or absence of comorbid chemical dependency represent two factors. Comorbid chemical dependency can have a profound impact on the successful treatment of schizophrenia, making patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence a uniquely challenging population. There is little information regarding treatment of schizophrenia and chemical dependence in the pediatric population. Existing data from pediatric and adult populations may facilitate a well-guided and knowledgeable approach to treating pediatric dual diagnosis patients. METHODS A review of the literature for medication trials evaluating antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence as well as antipsychotic use in the treatment of the dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and chemical dependence was done. Databases for Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and PsycInfo were searched using the terms “addiction,” “adolescence,” “childhood,” “dual diagnosis,” “schizophrenia,” and “substance abuse.” Results were limited to English-language articles. RESULTS Seven articles were identified related to psychotic disorders and substance abuse in pediatric populations. Psychosis measurement instruments included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression. Mean improvements were insignificant in most cases. Medication trials included clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and molindone. Trial safety concerns included metabolic effects, increased prolactin levels, and akathisia. One study with random assignment to olanzapine was discontinued early because of substantial weight gain without evidence of superior efficacy. Clozapine treatment was associated with more adverse drug events. CONCLUSION There is a great need for
Jeon, Kwon Chan; Goodson, Patricia
Background. Documented trends in health-related risk behaviors among US adolescents have remained high over time. Studies indicate relationships among mutual friends are a major influence on adolescents' risky behaviors. Social Network Analysis (SNA) can help understand friendship ties affecting individual adolescents' engagement in these behaviors. Moreover, a systematic literature review can synthesize findings from a range of studies using SNA, as well as assess these studies' methodological quality. Review findings also can help health educators and promoters develop more effective programs. Objective. This review systematically examined studies of the influence of friendship networks on adolescents' risk behaviors, which utilized SNA and the Add Health data (a nationally representative sample). Methods. We employed the Matrix Method to synthesize and evaluate 15 published studies that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria, retrieved from the Add Health website and 3 major databases (Medline, Eric, and PsycINFO). Moreover, we assigned each study a methodological quality score (MQS). Results. In all studies, friendship networks among adolescents promoted their risky behaviors, including drinking alcohol, smoking, sexual intercourse, and marijuana use. The average MQS was 4.6, an indicator of methodological rigor (scale: 1-9). Conclusion. Better understanding of risky behaviors influenced by friends can be useful for health educators and promoters, as programs targeting friendships might be more effective. Additionally, the overall MQ of these reviewed studies was good, as average scores fell above the scale's mid-point.
van Geel, Mitch; Goemans, Anouk; Vedder, Paul
Several studies suggest that there are relations between children's or adolescents' self-injurious behaviors and peer victimization. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to study the relations between non-suicidal self-injury and peer victimization. Non-suicidal self-injury focuses on self-injurious behaviors without suicidal intent, that result in immediate tissue damage and are not socially sanctioned within one's culture or for display. Using a meta-analysis, effect sizes of existing studies can be statistically summarized, and publication bias and moderators can be analyzed. The databases PsycINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC and ProQuest were searched for relevant articles. Articles were only included if they focused on children or adolescents, if they focused on non-clinical samples, and if they focused on self-injuring behaviors as opposed to thoughts or ideation. We found nine studies with fourteen independent samples and a total of 20,898 adolescents and children reporting on the relation between peer victimization and non-suicidal self-injury. Our analysis showed positive and significant relations between non-suicidal self-injury and peer victimization. Further analyses showed an absence of publication bias. Younger children that were victimized reported significantly more non-suicidal self-injury than older children. By preventing peer victimization we may potentially prevent non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents.
Mewton, Louise; Kessler, Ronald C; Slade, Tim; Hobbs, Megan J; Brownhill, Louise; Birrell, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Andrews, Gavin
The 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) is a screener for psychological distress that has robust psychometric properties among adults. Given that a significant proportion of adolescents experience mental illness, there is a need for measures that accurately and reliably screen for mental disorders in this age group. This study examined the psychometric properties of the K6 in a large general population sample of adolescents (N = 4,434; mean age = 13.5 years; 44.6% male). Factor analyses were conducted to examine the dimensionality of the K6 in adolescents and to investigate sex-based measurement invariance. This study also evaluated the K6 as a predictor of scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997). The K6 demonstrated high levels of internal consistency, with the 6 items loading primarily on 1 factor. Consistent with previous research, females reported higher mean levels of psychological distress when compared with males. The identification of sex-based measurement noninvariance in the item thresholds indicated that these mean differences most likely represented reporting bias in the K6 items rather than true differences in the underlying psychological distress construct. The K6 was a fair to good predictor of abnormal scores on the SDQ, but predictive utility was relatively low among males. Future research needs to focus on refining and augmenting the K6 scale to maximize its utility in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record
Conway, Christopher C; Zinbarg, Richard E; Mineka, Susan; Craske, Michelle G
The developmental trajectories of emotional disorder symptoms during adolescence remain elusive, owing in part to a shortage of intensive longitudinal data. In the present study, we charted the temporal course of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression-which posits an overarching negative affect dimension and specific anhedonia and anxious arousal dimensions-over adolescence and emerging adulthood to construct a developmental map of the core dimensions of emotional disorders. We recruited 604 high school juniors, overselecting those at high risk for emotional disorders, and assessed the tripartite symptom domains 5 times annually. Latent curve modeling revealed that negative affect and anxious arousal declined over follow up, whereas anhedonia did not. Moreover, the correlation in rate of change varied across pairs of symptom domains. Change in negative affect was moderately correlated with change in anxious arousal, but change in anhedonia was not significantly related to change in any other domain. Symptom trajectories, and the pattern of covariation among trajectories, were equivalent across gender and comorbidity status. We discuss implications of these findings for developmental models of anxiety and depression, as well as transdiagnostic frameworks for emotional disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record
Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E; Martin, Carol Lynn; Granger, Kristen L
During adolescence, gender identity (GI) develops through a dialectic process of personal reflection and with input from the social environment. Peers play an important role in the socialization of gendered behavior, but no studies to-date have assessed peer influences on GI. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine peer influences on four aspects of adolescents' GI in racially and ethnically diverse 7th- and 8th-grade students (N = 670; 49.5% boys, M age = 12.64) using a longitudinal social network modeling approach. We hypothesized stronger peer influence effects on between-gender dimensions of GI (intergroup bias and felt pressure for gender conformity) than on within-gender dimensions of GI (typicality and contentedness). Consistent with expectations, we found significant peer influence on between-gender components of GI-intergroup bias among 7th and 8th graders as well as felt pressure for gender conformity among 8th graders. In contrast, within-gender components of GI showed no evidence of peer influence. Importantly, these peer socialization effects were evident even when controlling for tendencies to select friends who were similar on gender, gender typicality, and contentedness (8th graders only). Employing longitudinal social network analyses provides insights into and clarity about the roles of peers in gender development. (PsycINFO Database Record
Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona
The present study examined sympathetic and parasympathetic indices of autonomic nervous system reactivity as moderators of the prospective association between parental management of peers via directing of youths' friendships and peer adjustment in a sample of typically developing adolescents. Participants included 246 adolescents at Time 1 (T1) [47% boys; 66% European American (EA), 34% African American (AA)] and 226 adolescents at Time 2 (T2; 45% boys; 67% EA, 33% AA). Adolescents were approximately 16 and 17 years old at T1 and T2, respectively. To address study aims, a multiinformant, multimethod longitudinal design was utilized. Skin conductance level (SCL) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured during a baseline period and challenge task (star-tracing). Reactivity was computed as a difference score between the task and baseline period. Results from path models revealed that higher levels of mother-reported parental directing predicted decreases in adolescent-reported peer rejection and friends' deviant behavior from T1 to T2 at relatively low levels of physiological arousal in response to challenge (i.e., low SCL reactivity, RSA augmentation). Further, exploratory analyses indicated that directing was associated with decreases in friends' deviant behavior and peer rejection particularly among boys who exhibited lower levels of physiological arousal, but increases in friends' deviant behavior among boys who exhibited higher levels of arousal reflected in RSA withdrawal only. Overall, findings are consistent with prior studies revealing the benefits of parental behavioral control for underaroused youth, contributing to the growing literature on the interplay of parenting and physiological factors in the adolescent peer domain. (PsycINFO Database Record
Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra
Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record
Jugert, Philipp; Titzmann, Peter F
This longitudinal study aimed to differentiate between acculturative and developmental processes by (a) comparing levels and change rates in victimization among ethnic German immigrants and native German adolescents in Germany and Russian Jewish immigrants in Israel, and (b) testing whether interindividual differences in victimization among immigrant youth can be explained by the same general factors as in native groups or by migration-specific factors. In addition, we tested whether or not acculturative and developmental processes interact. The sample comprised 1,300 ethnic German immigrants, 820 native German adolescents, and 1,535 Russian Jewish adolescents. The participants (15.36-years-old) completed 3 annual assessments. Two-part latent growth models showed similar levels and rates of change among all 3 ethnic groups. Interindividual differences in victimization were largely explained by the same general factors across all ethnic groups but acculturation-related hassles explained additional variance among immigrant youth. Acculturation and development interacted such that the protective effect of age did not set in until 3-5 years of residence among both immigrant groups. Results suggest that developmental pathways to victimization are very similar among immigrant and native youth once immigrants successfully have managed the phase transition of resettlement. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike
The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Kleibeuker, Sietske W; Stevenson, Claire E; van der Aar, Laura; Overgaauw, Sandy; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C; Crone, Eveline A
Prior research suggests that adolescence is a time of enhanced sensitivity for practice and learning. In this study we tested the neural correlates of divergent thinking training in 15- to 16-year-old adolescents relative to an age-matched active control group. All participants performed an alternative uses task, a valid measure to test divergent thinking, while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images were acquired before and after a training program. In between the 2 scanning sessions the experimental group completed 2 weeks of divergent thinking training (8 sessions) and the control group completed 2 weeks of rule switching training (8 session). A Group × Time interaction demonstrated stable divergent thinking performance for the experimental group, whereas in the control group performance declined. Generating alternative uses (experimental task condition) relative to generating ordinary characteristics of objects (control task condition) was associated with increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), angular gyrus (AG), and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Test-retest analyses showed that within-individuals-activation in these regions was stable over time in both groups. Changes in alternative uses fluency over time, however, were positively associated with changes in superior lateral PFC activation over time. Together, the results indicate that core brain regions for creativity (SMG, AG, and MTG) are consistently recruited in adolescence, and that changes in performance are associated with changes in activation in lateral PFC. (PsycINFO Database Record
Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R
Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record
Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk
normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.
Background Psychostimulants are first line of therapy for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. The evidence suggests that up to 30% of those prescribed stimulant medications do not show clinically significant outcomes. In addition, many children and adolescents experience side-effects from these medications. As a result, parents are seeking alternate interventions for their children. Complementary and alternative medicine therapies for behavioural disorders such as AD/HD are increasing with as many as 68% of parents having sought help from alternative practitioners, including chiropractors. Objective The review seeks to answer the question of whether chiropractic care can reduce symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. Methods Electronic databases (Cochrane CENTRAL register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Index to Chiropractic Literature) were searched from inception until July 2009 for English language studies for chiropractic care and AD/HD. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to select studies. All randomised controlled trials were evaluated using the Jadad score and a checklist developed from the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) guidelines. Results The search yielded 58 citations of which 22 were intervention studies. Of these, only three studies were identified for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD cohorts. The methodological quality was poor and none of the studies qualified using inclusion criteria. Conclusions To date there is insufficient evidence to evaluate the efficacy of chiropractic care for paediatric and adolescent AD/HD. The claim that chiropractic care improves paediatric and adolescent AD/HD, is only supported by low levels of scientific evidence. In the interest of paediatric and adolescent health, if chiropractic care for AD/HD is to continue, more rigorous scientific research needs to
Askeland, Kristin Gärtner; Sivertsen, Børge; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; La Greca, Annette M; Tell, Grethe S; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Hysing, Mari
Internationally adopted adolescents are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about problematic alcohol and drug use, which are important indicators of maladjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the level of problematic alcohol and drug use in internationally adopted adolescents compared to their nonadopted peers. The study is based on data from the youth@hordaland-survey, which was conducted in Hordaland County, Norway, in the spring of 2012. All adolescents born from 1993 to 1995 residing in Hordaland at the time of the study were invited to participate. Information on adoption was obtained from the Central Adoption Registry and linked to self-report data from the youth@hordaland-survey. Among 10,200 participants, 45 were identified as internationally adopted. No significant differences were found between international adoptees and their peers regarding whether or not they had tried alcohol or illicit drugs or their patterns of drinking behavior. However, adopted adolescents had a higher mean score on a measure of problematic alcohol and drug use compared to their nonadopted peers. The difference was attenuated and no longer significant when adjusting for measures of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Results from a structural equation model indicated a full mediation effect of mental health problems on the association between adoption status and problematic alcohol and drug use. Our findings indicate that internationally adopted adolescents experience more problematic alcohol and drug use than their nonadopted peers, and the difference can largely be explained by mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
Wang, Cheng; Hipp, John R; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M
Friendship tie choices in adolescent social networks coevolve simultaneously with youths' cigarette smoking and drinking. We estimate direct and multiplicative relationships between both peer influence and peer selection with salient parental factors affecting both friendship tie choice and the use of these 2 substances. We utilize 1 sample of 12 small schools and a single large school extracted from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Using a Stochastic Actor-Based modeling approach over 3 waves, we find: (a) a peer selection effect, as adolescents nominated others as friends based on cigarette and alcohol use levels across samples; (b) a peer influence effect, as adolescents adapted their smoking and drinking behaviors to those of their best friends across samples; (c) reciprocal effect between cigarette and alcohol usage in the small school sample; (d) a direct effect of parental support and the home smoking environment on adolescent friendship tie choice in the small school sample; (e) a direct effect of the home smoking environment on smoking across samples; (f) a direct effect of the home drinking environment on alcohol use across samples; and (g) a direct effect of parental monitoring on alcohol use across samples. We observed an interaction between parental support and peer influence in affecting drinking, and an interaction between the home drinking environment and peer influence on drinking, in the small school sample. Our findings suggested the importance of delineating direct and synergistic pathways linking network processes and parental influence as they affect concurrent cigarette and alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record
Sellström, Eva; Bremberg, Sven
Growing up in a poor neighbourhood has negative effects on children and adolescents. In the literature it has been concluded that the risk of low birth weight, childhood injury and abuse, and teenage pregnancy or criminality double in poor areas. However, the validity of such studies has been questioned, as they have been associated with ecological or individualistic fallacies. Studies using multilevel technique might thus contribute important knowledge in this field. The present review clarifies the importance of neighbourhood contextual factors in child and adolescent health outcomes, through considering only studies using multilevel technique. Keyword searching of the Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts, and Social Citation Index databases was performed. Original studies using multilevel technique to examine the effect of neighbourhood characteristics on child and adolescent health outcomes, and focusing on populations in high-income countries were included. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and social climate were shown to have small to moderate effects on child health outcomes, i.e. birth weight, injuries, behavioural problems, and child maltreatment. On average, 10% of variation in health outcomes was explained by neighbourhood determinants, after controlling for important individual and family variables. This review demonstrates that interventions in underprivileged neighbourhoods can reduce health risks to children, especially in families that lack resources. An analysis of methodological fallacies indicates that observed effects and effect sizes can be underestimated, and that interventions may well have greater impact than this review was able to establish.
Mattos, Laurel A; Schmidt, Adam T; Henderson, Craig E; Hogue, Aaron
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate a unique subset of youth with externalizing psychopathology who have a severe pattern of aggressive behavior and tend to have worse outcomes in treatment. However, little research has addressed how CU traits relate to different components of psychotherapy, such as the therapeutic alliance. The current study examined the role of CU traits in predicting therapeutic alliance in 59 adolescents (M age = 15.3, 51% female, 64% Hispanic American, 15% African American) who were part of a larger randomized naturalistic trial of outpatient behavioral psychotherapy. Multilevel regression analysis further investigated the role of therapeutic alliance in predicting treatment outcome (as measured by self-reported delinquency) and the moderating role of CU traits. Results suggested that regardless of the severity of their externalizing problems, youth with higher levels of CU traits reported more positive ratings of therapeutic alliance. In addition, a positive therapeutic alliance predicted reductions in delinquent behavior, and this association was even stronger for youth higher in CU traits. Our results suggest that CU traits are related to improvement in the formation of the therapeutic alliance among youth with externalizing psychopathology, perhaps because these youth lack many of the social and emotional deficits that other youth with conduct problems possess. Adolescents high in CU traits should not be viewed as untreatable. Indeed, the therapeutic alliance may be an important mechanism for affecting meaningful change in these adolescents' lives. (PsycINFO Database Record
Thabrew, Hiran; McDowell, Heather; Given, Katherine; Murrell, Kathryn
Children and adolescents with long-term physical conditions (LTPCs) are at greater risk of developing psychosocial problems. Screening for such problems may be undertaken using validated psychometric instruments to facilitate early intervention. A systematic review was undertaken to identify clinically utilized and psychometrically validated instruments for identifying depression, anxiety, behavior problems, substance use problems, family problems, and multiple problems in children and adolescents with LTPCs. Comprehensive searches of articles published in English between 1994 and 2014 were completed via Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, and by examining reference lists of identified articles and previous related reviews. Forty-four potential screening instruments were identified, described, and evaluated against predetermined clinical and psychometric criteria. Despite limitations in the evidence regarding their clinical and psychometric validity in this population, a handful of instruments, available at varying cost, in multiple languages and formats, were identified to support targeted, but not universal, screening for psychosocial problems in children and adolescents with LTPCs. PMID:28255576
Carona, Carlos; Silva, Neuza; Moreira, Helena
Research on the quality of life (QL) of children/adolescents with psychological disorders has flourished over the last few decades. Given the developmental challenges of QL measurements in pediatric populations, the aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which a developmental approach to QL assessment has been applied to pedopsychiatric QL research. A systematic literature search was conducted in three electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, SocINDEX) from 1994 to May 2014. Quantitative studies were included if they assessed the self- or proxy-reported QL of children/adolescents with a psychological disorder. Data were extracted for study design, participants, QL instruments and informants, and statistical approach to age-related specificities. The systematic review revealed widespread utilization of developmentally appropriate QL instruments but less frequent use of both self and proxy reports and an inconsistent approach to age group specificities. Methodological guidelines are discussed to improve the developmental validity of QL research for children/adolescents with mental disorders.
Sung, Lillian; Stark, Daniel; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosenberg, Abby R.
Purpose Peripheral neuropathy is an important, yet poorly studied, side effect of pediatric cancer treatment. There are many measures of patient-reported peripheral neuropathy in adults but very few in children. We aimed to systematically review and summarize reliable and valid patient-reported peripheral neuropathy scales used in pediatrics. Methods Four major electronic databases (Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO) were reviewed for studies that measured peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients. Studies eligible for inclusion were those that described use of any patient-reported scale of peripheral neuropathy among children, adolescents, and young adults with any underlying diagnosis (not limited to cancer). Results From a total of 765 articles retrieved, 5 met eligibility criteria and were included. One was a neuropathy symptom score used in patients with diabetes, and the remaining four were in oncology patients and all were based on the total neuropathy score. All involved objective assessments conducted by trained professionals; none relied purely on patient report. Conclusions There are no validated instruments that consist solely of a patient-reported outcome measure of neuropathy in pediatrics and adolescents. Because the clinical evaluation of neuropathy requires specialized training, it is not generalizable in large studies conducted in many diverse institutions. Future studies should validate adult patient-reported neuropathy scales in pediatric and adolescent populations, or develop novel instruments designed for this population. PMID:27037813
Baum, Linda J; Archer, Robert P; Forbey, Johnathan D; Handel, Richard W
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted between the years 1992 and 2007 using the PsycINFO Database. Results indicate the publication of 277 articles, books, book chapters, monographs, and dissertation abstracts on the MMPI-A. This was compared with the results of a comparable search for the MACI, which yielded 84 citations. The literature was further explored by determining the content of the topic areas addressed for both instruments. A particular focus was placed on the utility of the instruments with juvenile justice populations; scale means, standard deviations, and effect sizes calculated from this literature were examined. Results indicate that the use of the MMPI-A is supported by a substantial literature and a growing research base is also available for the MACI. Both instruments appear to provide useful results in juvenile justice settings.
Differences in Utilization Patterns among Medications in Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a 36-Month Retrospective Study Using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Claims Database
We evaluated the differences in utilization patterns including persistence and adherence among medications in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study was performed using data from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment claims database from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Our study sample consisted of 10,343 children and adolescents with ADHD who were not given their newly prescribed medication in 360 days before the initial claim in 2010. Data were followed up from the initiation of treatment with ADHD medications in 2010 to December 31, 2013. Discontinuation rates for 4 ADHD medications in our sample ranged from 97.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 99.4% for atomoxetine using refill gap more than 30 days and from 56.7% for immediate-release methylphenidate to 62.3% for extended-release methylphenidate using refill gap more than 60 days. In the number of discontinued, we found significant differences among medications using refill gap more than 30 days. Among 4 ADHD medications, extended-release methylphenidate and atomoxetine had more days than immediate-release methylphenidate and osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate. In logistic regression analyses, extended-release methylphenidate, osmotic-controlled oral delivery system methylphenidate, and atomoxetine showed less discontinuation compared to immediate-release methylphenidate group when a refill gap more than 30 days was used. In logistic regression analysis of adherence, we could not find any differences among 4 medication types. We suggest that the utilization patterns should be assessed regularly in order to improve future outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:27478341
Biofuel Database (Web, free access) This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.
Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa
Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record
Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M
This study investigated early adolescent friendship selection and social influence with regard to academic motivation (self-efficacy and intrinsic value), engagement (effortful and disruptive behavior), and achievement (GPA calculated from report card grades) among 6th graders (N = 587, 50% girls at Wave 1; N = 576, 52% girls at Wave 2) followed from fall to spring within 1 academic year. A stochastic actor-based model of social network analysis was used to overcome methodological limitations of prior research on friends, peer groups, and academic adjustment. Evidence that early adolescents sought out friends who were similar to themselves (selection) was found in regard to academic self-efficacy, and a similar trend was found for achievement. Evidence that friends became more similar to their friends over time (influence) was found for all aspects of academic adjustment except academic self-efficacy. Collectively, results indicate that selection effects were not as pervasive as influence effects in explaining similarity among friends in academic adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Williams, Monnica T; Jahn, Matthew E
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a serious condition that remains understudied in ethnoracial minority populations. The presence of OCD and the individual, familial, and cultural factors that influence this condition can interfere with healthy development and cause lifelong disability. To date, there has not been a single published research article focused on OCD in African American youth. Ethnic and racial minorities with OCD are underrepresented or altogether absent from treatment centers and research studies, although evidence suggests that OCD may be particularly persistent in these populations. This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious communities. Implications of findings are discussed. There is an urgent need for research to understand the needs of African American children and adolescents with OCD. (PsycINFO Database Record
Becht, Andrik I; Branje, Susan J T; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Maciejewski, Dominique F; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Denissen, Jaap J A; Meeus, Wim H J
The aim of this study was to assess measurement invariance of adolescents' daily reports on identity across time and sex. Adolescents (N = 497; mean age = 13.32 years at Time 1, 56.7% boys) from the general population reported on their identity commitments, exploration in depth and reconsideration on a daily basis for 3 weeks within 1 year across 5 years. We used the single-item version of the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitments Scale (UMICS; Klimstra et al., 2010), a broad measure of identity-formation processes covering both interpersonal and educational identity domains. This study tested configural, metric, scalar, and strict measurement invariance across days within weeks, across sex, across weeks within years, and across years. Results indicated that daily diary reports show strict measurement invariance across days, across weeks within years, across years, and across boys and girls. These results support the use of daily diary methods to assess identity at various time intervals ranging from days to years and across sex. Results are discussed with regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record
Foy, David W.; Ritchie, Iya K.; Conway, Alison H.
Background While males constitute the majority, female adolescent offenders are a sizeable minority of the overall delinquent population. Further, those females who become involved in delinquent activities appear to be doing so at a younger age, and they are involved in a wide range of criminal activities, including violent offenses. Objective The goal of this article is to consolidate an empirical base for our current knowledge about female juvenile offenders’ trauma-related mental health and rehabilitation issues. Method We searched for studies using PILOTS, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost electronic databases. Results Accordingly, we present a review of findings from 33 recent studies showing consistently high rates of trauma exposure, PTSD, and common comorbidities among female adolescent offenders. We also examined recent literature on risk and protective factors for female delinquency, as well as treatments for offenders, and found that there was some early representation of trauma and PTSD as important variables to be considered in etiology and treatment. Conclusion Future plans for addressing the mental health needs of female offenders should be better informed by these recent findings about widespread trauma exposure and related psychological consequences. PMID:22893830
The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…
Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Cliff, Dylan P; Barnett, Lisa M; Okely, Anthony D
The mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) has been purported as contributing to children's physical, cognitive and social development and is thought to provide the foundation for an active lifestyle. Commonly developed in childhood and subsequently refined into context- and sport-specific skills, they include locomotor (e.g. running and hopping), manipulative or object control (e.g. catching and throwing) and stability (e.g. balancing and twisting) skills. The rationale for promoting the development of FMS in childhood relies on the existence of evidence on the current or future benefits associated with the acquisition of FMS proficiency. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between FMS competency and potential health benefits in children and adolescents. Benefits were defined in terms of psychological, physiological and behavioural outcomes that can impact public health. A systematic search of six electronic databases (EMBASE, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus and SportDiscus®) was conducted on 22 June 2009. Included studies were cross-sectional, longitudinal or experimental studies involving healthy children or adolescents (aged 3-18 years) that quantitatively analysed the relationship between FMS competency and potential benefits. The search identified 21 articles examining the relationship between FMS competency and eight potential benefits (i.e. global self-concept, perceived physical competence, cardio-respiratory fitness [CRF], muscular fitness, weight status, flexibility, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviour). We found strong evidence for a positive association between FMS competency and physical activity in children and adolescents. There was also a positive relationship between FMS competency and CRF and an inverse association between FMS competency and weight status. Due to an inadequate number of studies, the relationship between FMS competency and the remaining benefits was classified as
Mosnaim, Giselle S.; Pappalardo, Andrea A.; Resnick, Scott E.; Codispoti, Christopher D.; Bandi, Sindhura; Nackers, Lisa; Malik, Rabia N.; Vijayaraghavan, Vimala; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.
Background Factors at multiple ecological levels, including the child, family, home, medical care, and community, impact adolescent asthma outcomes. Objective This systematic review characterizes behavioral interventions at the child, family, home, medical system, and community level to improve asthma management among adolescents. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, SCOPUS, OVID, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference review databases was conducted from January 1, 2000 through August 10, 2014. Articles were included if the title or abstract included asthma AND intervention AND (Education OR self-management OR behavioral OR technology OR trigger reduction); and the mean/median age of participants was between eleven and sixteen years. We compared populations, intervention characteristics, study designs, outcomes, settings, and intervention levels across studies to evaluate behavioral interventions to improve asthma management for adolescents. Results Of 1230 articles identified and reviewed, 24 articles (21 unique studies) met inclusion criteria. Promising approaches to improving adherence to daily controller medications include: objective monitoring of inhaled corticosteroid adherence with allergist/immunologist feedback on medication taking behavior and school nurse directly observed therapy. Efficacy at increasing asthma self-management skills was demonstrated using group interactive learning in the school setting. This systematic review is not a meta-analysis, thus limiting its quantitative assessment of studies. Publication bias may also limit our findings. Conclusions Novel strategies to objectively increase controller medication adherence for adolescents include allergist/immunologist feedback and school nurse directly observed therapy. Schools, the most common setting across studies in this review, provide the opportunity for group interactive learning to improve asthma knowledge and self-management skills. PMID:26563672
Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T
Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p < .02). Further analyses revealed significant indirect effects of language extremity on attitudes and intentions through perceived control with adult, but not peer sources (both p < .05). These perceptions were associated with more negative marijuana attitudes and diminished usage intentions when adults used moderate (vs. extreme) language in their favorable ad commentaries (both p < .05). The findings may facilitate development of more effective prevention methods that emphasize the importance of the role of perceived control in persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M
Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record
Different kinds of pictorial databases are described with respect to aims, user groups, search possibilities, storage, and distribution. Some specific examples are given for databases used for the following purposes: (1) labor markets for artists; (2) document management; (3) telling a story; (4) preservation (archives and museums); (5) research;…
This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...
Morina, Nexhmedin; Koerssen, Rachel; Pollet, Thomas V
This meta-analysis aimed at determining the efficacy of psychological and psychopharmacological interventions for children and adolescents suffering from symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A search using the Medline, PsycINFO, and PILOTS databases was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for pediatric PTSD. The search resulted in 41 RCTs, of which 39 were psychological interventions and two psychopharmacological interventions. Results showed that psychological interventions are effective in treating PTSD, with aggregated effect sizes of Hedge's g=0.83 when compared to waitlist and g=0.41 when compared to active control conditions at posttreatment. Trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy was the most researched form of intervention and resulted in medium to large effect sizes when compared to waitlist (g=1.44) and active control conditions (g=0.66). Experimental conditions were also more effective than control conditions at follow-up. Interventions were further effective in reducing comorbid depression symptoms, yet the obtained effect sizes were small to medium only. The findings indicate that psychological interventions can effectively reduce PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents. There is very little evidence to support use of psychopharmacological interventions for pediatric PTSD.
Anderson, Sara; Donlan, Alice E; McDermott, Elana R; Zaff, Jonathan F
Adolescence can be characterized as a time when aggression, delinquency, and violence (taken together as antisocial behavior) increase. Adolescents who engage in antisocial behavior increase local crime and can create unsafe conditions for families. Understanding the protective factors that mitigate antisocial behavior can help to inform prevention practices. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (n = 1,072, 51.40% female, 39.18% Hispanic, 32.28% Black), we examined how self-control, social support, and neighborhood characteristics were associated with these behaviors. Using latent profile analyses, we categorized neighborhoods based on several dimensions, including violence, disadvantage, and collective efficacy. Then, we examined how self-control and social support were associated with antisocial behavior within and across neighborhoods. Results suggested that self-control was a protective feature in only some types of disadvantaged and dangerous neighborhoods. We discuss findings in terms of implications for programs and policies to mitigate youth violence and delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record
Casey, Erin A; Storer, Heather L; Herrenkohl, Todd I
Although research has identified factors that support and hinder proactive bystander behaviors among adolescents, less is known about the more specific bystander responses viewed by youth as feasible, or whether these responses are likely to be ultimately helpful in the context of bullying and teen dating violence (TDV). Goals of this exploratory study were to describe specific bystander behaviors that adolescents perceive as possible for addressing bullying and TDV among peers, to assess the potential impact of these behaviors, and to examine similarities and differences in bystander behaviors across these forms of aggression. In focus groups with 113 14- to 18-year-old youth, participants identified more possible responses to bullying than to TDV, and more options for supporting victims of aggression than for interrupting perpetrators. Although many bystander responses identified by youth are promising for lessening the impact of bullying and TDV, some, such as "advising" victims of TDV and physically confronting perpetrators are likely not safe or helpful and may cause more harm than good. Findings point to the importance of better understanding how youth perceive their options as bystanders, and providing coaching to respond to peer aggression in specific ways that maximize their own and others' safety and well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record
Levant, Ronald F; McDermott, Ryon C; Hewitt, Amber A; Alto, Kathleen M; Harris, Kyle T
Confirmatory factor analysis of responses to the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r) from 384 middle school students (163 boys, 221 girls) indicated that the best fit to the data was a bifactor model incorporating the hypothesized 3-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general factor. Specifically, each item-level indicator loaded simultaneously on 2 factors: a general traditional masculinity ideology factor and a specific factor corresponding to 1 of the 3 hypothesized masculine norms for adolescents: Emotionally Detached Dominance, Toughness, and Avoidance of Femininity. Invariance testing across gender supported metric invariance for the general factor only. Although item loadings on the general factor were similar across boys and girls, the specific factor loadings varied substantially, with many becoming nonsignificant in the presence of the general factor for girls. A structural regression analysis predicting latent variables of the Meanings of Adolescent Masculinity Scale (MAMS), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Discipline, School Difficulties, and Positive Behavior Scale (DSDPBS) indicated that the general factor was a strong predictor of MAMS for both genders and DSDPBS for girls. Findings indicate that the MRNI-A-r general factor is a valid and reliable indicator of overall internalization of traditional masculinity ideology in adolescents; however, the specific factors may have different meanings for boys as compared with girls and lack validity in the presence of the general factor. These findings are consistent with a developmental perspective of gender ideology that views adolescence as a time when a differentiated cognitive schema of masculine norms is beginning to develop. (PsycINFO Database Record
Graphical representations of adolescents' psychophysiological reactivity to social stressor tasks: Reliability and validity of the Chernoff Face approach and person-centered profiles for clinical use.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Aldao, Amelia; Qasmieh, Noor; Dunn, Emily J; Lipton, Melanie F; Hartman, Catharina; Youngstrom, Eric A; Dougherty, Lea R; Lerner, Matthew D
Low-cost methods exist for measuring physiology when clinically assessing adolescent social anxiety. Two barriers to widespread use involve lack of (a) physiological expertise among mental health professionals, and (b) techniques for modeling individual-level physiological profiles. We require a "bridge approach" for interpreting physiology that does not require users to have a physiological background to make judgments, and is amenable to developing individual-level physiological profiles. One method-Chernoff Faces-involves graphically representing data using human facial features (eyes, nose, mouth, face shape), thus capitalizing on humans' abilities to detect even subtle variations among facial features. We examined 327 adolescents from the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) study who completed baseline social anxiety self-reports and physiological assessments within the social scenarios of the Groningen Social Stressor Task (GSST). Using heart rate (HR) norms and Chernoff Faces, 2 naïve coders made judgments about graphically represented HR data and HR norms. For each adolescent, coders made 4 judgments about the features of 2 Chernoff Faces: (a) HR within the GSST and (b) aged-matched HR norms. Coders' judgments reliably and accurately identified elevated HR relative to norms. Using latent class analyses, we identified 3 profiles of Chernoff Face judgments: (a) consistently below HR norms across scenarios (n = 193); (b) above HR norms mainly when speech making (n = 35); or (c) consistently above HR norms across scenarios (n = 99). Chernoff Face judgments displayed validity evidence in relation to self-reported social anxiety and resting HR variability. This study has important implications for implementing physiology within adolescent social anxiety assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record
Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.
Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Fanti, Kostas A; Sikki, Maria; Patrick, Christopher J
This study examined associations of psychopathy facets of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition with clinically relevant variables and physiological reactivity to affective stimuli. These associations were examined after accounting for developmental associations with adolescent psychopathic traits, namely callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity. Psychopathic traits were assessed during adolescence using the Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Inventory of Callous Unemotional traits and during young adulthood via the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. Clinical variables (N = 99, Mage = 15.91, 53% female), as well as affective and physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance, startle modulation) to violent and erotic videos (N = 88, Mage = 19.92, 50% female) were also assessed during adulthood. After accounting for adolescent psychopathic traits, boldness was associated with high cognitive reappraisal and low anxiety, fear, and hostility, and meanness was related to callous-unemotional traits, hostility, less sympathy to victims, and less use of cognitive reappraisal. Disinhibition, by contrast, was associated with impulsivity, increased anxiety, and hostile and aggressive tendencies, as well as conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder symptoms, and cognitive suppression. In addition, evidence was found for different physiological measures operating as biological indicators of these distinctive dimensions, with reduced resting heart rate and cardiac reactivity to violent stimuli indicative of boldness, above and beyond adolescent psychopathic traits, and low startle potentiation for violent stimuli indicative of callous-unemotional traits and meanness. These findings provide evidence for the value of a multidomain approach for clarifying neurobiological mechanisms of psychopathic tendencies that can inform prevention and treatment efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record
Piasecki, Thomas M; Hedeker, Donald; Dierker, Lisa C; Mermelstein, Robin J
Mood processes are theorized to play a role in the initiation and progression of smoking behavior. Available work using real-time assessments in samples of young smokers, including several reports from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns (SECASP) study, has indicated that smoking events acutely improve mood and that escalating smoking frequency may stabilize mood. However, prior analyses have not specifically evaluated within-person change in nicotine dependence, which is conceptually distinguishable from frequent smoking and may be associated with unique mood consequences. The current investigation addressed this question using data from 329 adolescent SECASP participants (9th or 10th grade at recruitment) who contributed mood reports via ecological momentary assessment in up to four 1-week bursts over the course of 24 months. Mixed-effects location scale analyses revealed that within-person increases in scores on the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale were associated with elevations in negative mood level and increased variability of both positive and negative moods. These effects remained when within-person changes in smoking frequency were covaried and were not fully attributable to a subgroup of youth who rapidly escalated their smoking frequency over time. The findings indicate that adolescents tend to show increasing levels of positive mood states, decreasing levels of negative mood, and diminishing mood variability between ages 16 to 18, but progression of nicotine dependence may counteract some of these developmental gains. Emergence of withdrawal symptoms is a likely explanation for the adverse mood effects associated with dependence progression. (PsycINFO Database Record
Chronic illness may be a risk factor for low self-esteem; however, previous meta-analyses are inconclusive whether children with a chronic illness have lower self-esteem than their healthy peers. The goal of the present study was to summarize available research in order to compare the self-esteem of children and adolescents with a chronic illness with that of healthy children. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to integrate the results of 621 empirical studies that compare levels of self-esteem of children with a chronic physical illness with healthy peers or general test norms. Studies were identified via the electronic databases Adolesc, Embase, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PSNYDEX, PSYCINFO, and cross-referencing. Children with chronic illnesses have lower self-esteem than healthy peers or test norms (g = -0.18 standard deviation units). The lowest levels of self-esteem were observed in children with chronic fatigue syndrome and chronic headaches. Lower levels of self-esteem in children with a chronic illness were found in girls than in boys, in adolescents than in children, in children from developing or threshold countries, when results were collected from observer ratings rather than child reports, in studies published in the 1990s, and when children with chronic illnesses were directly compared with healthy children instead of test norms. Paediatricians, parents, and teachers should promote experiences of success and positive peer-relations, which are important sources of self-esteem. In addition, psychosocial interventions for children with chronic illnesses should be offered for children with reduced self-esteem.
Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...
Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik
Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.
Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…
Weaver, Andrew J.; Flannelly, Kevin J.; Strock, Adrienne L.
An electronic search of Medline and PsycInfo produced 29 studies that specifically investigated the effects of religion on adolescent tobacco use. Independent (religion) and dependent (tobacco use) variables and variables controlled for in statistical analyses were categorized. Twenty-two of the 29 studies reported at least one significant effect…
SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access) These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.
Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower
Slobodskaya, Helena R
This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record
Yoon, Eunju; Adams, Kristen; Clawson, Angela; Chang, Hanna; Surya, Shruti; Jérémie-Brink, Gihane
Drawing on the current conceptualization of acculturation/enculturation as bilinear, multidimensional processes proceeding in interaction with surrounding contexts, this study examined ethnic identity development and cultural integration of 13 adolescents from East Asian immigrant families. Five domains emerged via the Consensual Qualitative Research method: ethnic/cultural identity and socialization; bicultural living; racial context-racism and stereotypes; family context-parental expectation; and peer context-friendship/dating. Overall, the participants experienced a cultural split and discontinuity between the 2 worlds of home and ethnic community versus school and society in general. They received strong ethnic socialization messages from family and ethnic community. Although most participants experienced hurtful racial discrimination, they used passive coping (e.g., dismiss, minimize, defend perpetrators). The model minority stereotype was prevalent and deeply engrained in many aspects of their lives including ethnic identity development, cultural socialization messages from mainstream society, discrimination experiences, and academic/occupational demands imposed by self, parents, peers, and society. Although they appreciated parents' high expectations of academic/occupational success, they felt pressured and desired to have space and independence. Friendship/dating patterns reflected ethnic identity development as well as contextual influence. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Galuschka, Katharina; Ise, Elena; Krick, Kathrin; Schulte-Körne, Gerd
Children and adolescents with reading disabilities experience a significant impairment in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills. Given the emotional and academic consequences for children with persistent reading disorders, evidence-based interventions are critically needed. The present meta-analysis extracts the results of all available randomized controlled trials. The aims were to determine the effectiveness of different treatment approaches and the impact of various factors on the efficacy of interventions. The literature search for published randomized-controlled trials comprised an electronic search in the databases ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Cochrane, and an examination of bibliographical references. To check for unpublished trials, we searched the websites clinicaltrials.com and ProQuest, and contacted experts in the field. Twenty-two randomized controlled trials with a total of 49 comparisons of experimental and control groups could be included. The comparisons evaluated five reading fluency trainings, three phonemic awareness instructions, three reading comprehension trainings, 29 phonics instructions, three auditory trainings, two medical treatments, and four interventions with coloured overlays or lenses. One trial evaluated the effectiveness of sunflower therapy and another investigated the effectiveness of motor exercises. The results revealed that phonics instruction is not only the most frequently investigated treatment approach, but also the only approach whose efficacy on reading and spelling performance in children and adolescents with reading disabilities is statistically confirmed. The mean effect sizes of the remaining treatment approaches did not reach statistical significance. The present meta-analysis demonstrates that severe reading and spelling difficulties can be ameliorated with appropriate treatment. In order to be better able to provide evidence-based interventions to children and adolescent with reading disabilities
Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E
Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record
Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.
De Los Reyes, Andres; Augenstein, Tara M; Wang, Mo; Thomas, Sarah A; Drabick, Deborah A G; Burgers, Darcy E; Rabinowitz, Jill
Child and adolescent patients may display mental health concerns within some contexts and not others (e.g., home vs. school). Thus, understanding the specific contexts in which patients display concerns may assist mental health professionals in tailoring treatments to patients' needs. Consequently, clinical assessments often include reports from multiple informants who vary in the contexts in which they observe patients' behavior (e.g., patients, parents, teachers). Previous meta-analyses indicate that informants' reports correlate at low-to-moderate magnitudes. However, is it valid to interpret low correspondence among reports as indicating that patients display concerns in some contexts and not others? We meta-analyzed 341 studies published between 1989 and 2014 that reported cross-informant correspondence estimates, and observed low-to-moderate correspondence (mean internalizing: r = .25; mean externalizing: r = .30; mean overall: r = .28). Informant pair, mental health domain, and measurement method moderated magnitudes of correspondence. These robust findings have informed the development of concepts for interpreting multi-informant assessments, allowing researchers to draw specific predictions about the incremental and construct validity of these assessments. In turn, we critically evaluated research on the incremental and construct validity of the multi-informant approach to clinical child and adolescent assessment. In so doing, we identify crucial gaps in knowledge for future research, and provide recommendations for "best practices" in using and interpreting multi-informant assessments in clinical work and research. This article has important implications for developing personalized approaches to clinical assessment, with the goal of informing techniques for tailoring treatments to target the specific contexts where patients display concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record
Cogo, Elise; Sampson, Margaret; Ajiferuke, Isola; Manheimer, Eric; Campbell, Kaitryn; Daniel, Raymond; Moher, David
This project aims to assess the utility of bibliographic databases beyond the three major ones (MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane CENTRAL) for finding controlled trials of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Fifteen databases were searched to identify controlled clinical trials (CCTs) of CAM not also indexed in MEDLINE. Searches were conducted in May 2006 using the revised Cochrane highly sensitive search strategy (HSSS) and the PubMed CAM Subset. Yield of CAM trials per 100 records was determined, and databases were compared over a standardized period (2005). The Acudoc2 RCT, Acubriefs, Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL) and Hom-Inform databases had the highest concentrations of non-MEDLINE records, with more than 100 non-MEDLINE records per 500. Other productive databases had ratios between 500 and 1500 records to 100 non-MEDLINE records—these were AMED, MANTIS, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Health and Alt HealthWatch. Five databases were found to be unproductive: AGRICOLA, CAIRSS, Datadiwan, Herb Research Foundation and IBIDS. Acudoc2 RCT yielded 100 CAM trials in the most recent 100 records screened. Acubriefs, AMED, Hom-Inform, MANTIS, PsycINFO and CINAHL had more than 25 CAM trials per 100 records screened. Global Health, ICL and Alt HealthWatch were below 25 in yield. There were 255 non-MEDLINE trials from eight databases in 2005, with only 10% indexed in more than one database. Yield varied greatly between databases; the most productive databases from both sampling methods were Acubriefs, Acudoc2 RCT, AMED and CINAHL. Low overlap between databases indicates comprehensive CAM literature searches will require multiple databases. PMID:19468052
deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher
This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.
Forti-Buratti, M Azul; Saikia, Rupalim; Wilkinson, Esther L; Ramchandani, Paul G
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of psychological treatments for depression in pre-adolescent children, a disorder affecting 1-2 % of children in this age range. A systematic review of studies of psychological interventions to treat depressive disorder in pre-adolescent children (aged up to 12-years-old) was carried out. The primary outcome was level of depressive symptoms. Studies were found using Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE and Web of Knowledge databases and selected on several criteria. Only randomised controlled trials were included. Where individual studies covered a broader age range (usually including adolescents up to age 18 years), authors of those studies were contacted and requested to provide individual patient level data for those aged 12 years and younger. 2822 abstracts were reviewed, and from these 124 full text articles were reviewed, yielding 7 studies for which we were able to access appropriate data for this review. 5 of these studies evaluated cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). Combined results from these studies suggest that there is a lack of evidence that CBT is better than no treatment [standard mean difference -0.342 (95 % confidence interval -0.961, 0.278)], although the number of participants included in the trials was relatively small. The evidence for efficacy of family therapy and psychodynamic therapy is even more limited. The very limited number of participants in randomised controlled trials means that there is inconclusive evidence for the psychological treatment of depression in children aged 12 years and below. Given the prevalence and significant impact of this disorder, there is an urgent need to establish the effectiveness or otherwise of psychological intervention.
Viljoen, Jodi L; Shaffer, Catherine S; Gray, Andrew L; Douglas, Kevin S
Although many adolescent risk assessment tools include an emphasis on dynamic factors, little research has examined the extent to which these tools are capable of measuring change. In this article, we outline a framework to evaluate a tool's capacity to measure change. This framework includes the following: (a) measurement error and reliable change, and (b) sensitivity (i.e., internal, external, and relative sensitivity). We then used this framework to evaluate the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) and Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI). Research assistants conducted 509 risk assessments with 146 adolescents on probation (101 male, 45 female), who were assessed every 3 months over a 1-year period. Internal sensitivity (i.e., change over time) was partially supported in that a modest proportion of youth showed reliable changes over the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. External sensitivity (i.e., the association between change scores and reoffending) was also partially supported. In particular, 22% of the associations between change scores and any and violent reoffending were significant at a 6-month follow-up. However, only 1 change score (i.e., peer associations) remained significant after the Bonferroni correction was applied. Finally, relative sensitivity was not supported, as the SAVRY and YLS/CMI was not more dynamic than the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). Specifically, the 1-year rank-order stability coefficients for the SAVRY, YLS/CMI, and PCL:YV Total Scores were .78, .75, and .76, respectively. Although the SAVRY and YLS/CMI hold promise, further efforts may help to enhance sensitivity to short-term changes in risk. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lopez-Vergara, Hector I; Spillane, Nichea S; Merrill, Jennifer E; Jackson, Kristina M
Studies on adolescent drinking have not always been able to distinguish between initiation and escalation of drinking, because many studies include samples in which initiation has already occurred; hence, initiation and escalation are often confounded. The present study draws from a dual-process theoretical framework to investigate: if changes in the likelihood of drinking initiation and escalation are predicted by a tendency toward rash action when experiencing positive and negative emotions (positive and negative urgency) and whether trait positive and negative affect moderate such effects. Alcohol naïve adolescents (n = 944; age M = 12.16, SD = .96; 52% female) completed 6 semiannual assessments of trait urgency and affect (Wave 1) and alcohol use (Waves 2-6). A 2-part random-effects model was used to estimate changes in the likelihood of any alcohol use versus escalation in the volume of use among initiators. Main effects suggest a significant association between positive affect and change in level of alcohol use among initiators, such that lower positive affect predicted increased alcohol involvement. This main effect was qualified by a significant interaction between positive urgency and positive affect predicting changes in the escalation of drinking, such that the effect of positive urgency was augmented for those high on trait positive affect, though only at extremely high levels of positive affect. Results suggest risk factors in the development of drinking depend on whether initiation or escalation is investigated. A more nuanced understanding of the early developmental phases of alcohol involvement can inform prevention and intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record
Shirokizawa, Yoshiko; Abe, Atsushi
Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of DNA database in October 1988. This database is composed of EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Library and Genetic Sequence Data Bank. The authors outline the database system, data items and search commands. Examples of retrieval session are presented.
Dute, Denise Jantine; Breda, João
Background European adolescents and students tend to have low levels of physical activity and eat unhealthy foods, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, which poses a public health challenge. Mobile apps play an important role in their daily lives, suggesting their potential to be used in health-promoting strategies. Objective This review aimed to explore how mobile apps can contribute to the promotion of healthy nutrition, physical activity, and prevention of overweight in adolescents and students. For the apps identified, the review describes the content, the theoretical mechanisms applied, and lessons learned. Methods The databases Scopus, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for English-language publications from January 2009 to November 2013. Studies were included if (1) the primary component of the intervention involves an app; (2) the intervention targets healthy nutrition, or physical activity, or overweight prevention; and (3) the target group included adolescents or students (aged 12-25 years). Results A total of 15 studies were included, which describe 12 unique apps. Ten of these apps functioned as monitoring tools for assessing dietary intake or physical activity levels. The other apps used a Web-based platform to challenge users to exercise and to allow users to list and photograph their problem foods. For 5 apps, the behavioral theory underpinning their development was clearly specified. Frequently applied behavior change techniques are prompting self-monitoring of behavior and providing feedback on performance. Apps can function self-contained, but most of them are used as part of therapy or to strengthen school programs. From the age of 10 years users may be capable of using apps. Only 4 apps were developed specifically for adolescents. All apps were tested on a small scale and for a short period. Conclusions Despite large potential and abundant usage by young people, limited research is available on apps and health
Olson, Lars E.
"Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…
This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…
SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access) The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.
van Grieken, Amy; Ezendam, Nicole P M; Paulis, Winifred D; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Raat, Hein
The objectives of this meta-analysis were to provide an overview of the evidence regarding the effects of interventions, implemented in the school- and general population setting, aiming to prevent excessive sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents on (1) the amount of sedentary behaviour and (2) BMI. Differences in effects on sedentary behaviour and BMI between single health behaviour interventions (sedentary behaviour only) and multiple health behaviour interventions were explored. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Thirty-four (R)CT studies evaluating 33 general population interventions, published between 1990 and April 2011, aiming to decrease sedentary behaviour in normal weight children or adolescents (0-18 years) were included. Intervention duration ranged from 7 days to 4 years. Mean change in sedentary behaviour and BMI from baseline to post-intervention was calculated using a random effects model. Results showed significant decreases for the amount of sedentary behaviour and BMI. For sedentary behaviour the post-intervention mean difference was -17.95 min/day (95%CI:-26.61;-9.28); the change-from-baseline mean difference was -20.44 min/day (95%CI:-30.69;-10.20). For BMI the post-intervention mean difference was -0.25 kg/m² (95%CI:-0.40;-0.09); the change-from-baseline mean difference was -0.14 kg/m² (95%CI:-0.23;-0.05). No differences were found between single and multiple health behaviour interventions. Interventions in the school- and general population setting aiming to reduce only sedentary behaviour and interventions targeting multiple health behaviours can result in significant decreases in sedentary behaviour. Studies need to increase follow-up time to estimate the sustainability of the intervention effects found.
Jiang, Yu; Lin, Can; Meng, Weiyi; Yu, Clement; Cohen, Aaron M; Smalheiser, Neil R
We recently designed and deployed a metasearch engine, Metta, that sends queries and retrieves search results from five leading biomedical databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Because many articles are indexed in more than one of these databases, it is desirable to deduplicate the retrieved article records. This is not a trivial problem because data fields contain a lot of missing and erroneous entries, and because certain types of information are recorded differently (and inconsistently) in the different databases. The present report describes our rule-based method for deduplicating article records across databases and includes an open-source script module that can be deployed freely. Metta was designed to satisfy the particular needs of people who are writing systematic reviews in evidence-based medicine. These users want the highest possible recall in retrieval, so it is important to err on the side of not deduplicating any records that refer to distinct articles, and it is important to perform deduplication online in real time. Our deduplication module is designed with these constraints in mind. Articles that share the same publication year are compared sequentially on parameters including PubMed ID number, digital object identifier, journal name, article title and author list, using text approximation techniques. In a review of Metta searches carried out by public users, we found that the deduplication module was more effective at identifying duplicates than EndNote without making any erroneous assignments.
Jiang, Yu; Lin, Can; Meng, Weiyi; Yu, Clement; Cohen, Aaron M.; Smalheiser, Neil R.
We recently designed and deployed a metasearch engine, Metta, that sends queries and retrieves search results from five leading biomedical databases: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Because many articles are indexed in more than one of these databases, it is desirable to deduplicate the retrieved article records. This is not a trivial problem because data fields contain a lot of missing and erroneous entries, and because certain types of information are recorded differently (and inconsistently) in the different databases. The present report describes our rule-based method for deduplicating article records across databases and includes an open-source script module that can be deployed freely. Metta was designed to satisfy the particular needs of people who are writing systematic reviews in evidence-based medicine. These users want the highest possible recall in retrieval, so it is important to err on the side of not deduplicating any records that refer to distinct articles, and it is important to perform deduplication online in real time. Our deduplication module is designed with these constraints in mind. Articles that share the same publication year are compared sequentially on parameters including PubMed ID number, digital object identifier, journal name, article title and author list, using text approximation techniques. In a review of Metta searches carried out by public users, we found that the deduplication module was more effective at identifying duplicates than EndNote without making any erroneous assignments. PMID:24434031
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.
This collection of annotated bibliographies focuses on the social skills of adolescents, and is drawn from a national database of current programs and literature regarding adolescents with chronic illnesses and other disabilities. Bibliographic materials listed include documents and articles selected from the database of the National Center for…
databases: Eric Biosis 1981 NTIS Social Scisearch Agricola 79 Psycinfo Chem Ind Notes Federal Index Claims/U.S. Patent Claims/U.S. Patent A Scisearch 84...CAT Enviro Perio Bib Intl Pharm ABS Life Sciences Collection Conf Papers Index PTS A/DM&T Scisearch 81-81 USPSD Scisearch 78-80 CIS Agricola 70-78... Business World Patents Index World Patents Index Remarc 1900-1939 Remarc 1940-1959 Remarc 1960-1969 Remarc 1970+ LC Marc Books in Print Wiley Catalog Online
EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...
The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...
Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.
The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.
Burnham, Judy F
The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.
Leftwich, Heidi K; Alves, Marcus Vinicius Ortega
Adolescent pregnancy, although on the decline, represents a significant public health concern. Often adolescents present late to prenatal care, either from lack of knowledge, fear of consequences, limited access, stigma, or all of the above. Although multifaceted, there are many risks both to mother and child that are increased in adolescent pregnancy. Many are unintended and are at risk for repeat adolescent pregnancy, especially within the first 2 years. Risks include but are not limited to: low birth weight, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and preeclampsia, as well as feelings of social isolation, delayed or neglected educational goals, and maternal depression.
Hayase, Shuichi; Okano, Keiko
Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of JICST Crystal Structure Database (JICST CR) in this January (1990). This database provides the information of atomic positions in a crystal and related informations of the crystal. The database system and the crystal data in JICST CR are outlined in this manuscript.
Mueller, Christian E.; Prout, H. Thompson
Issues with adolescents with intellectual disabilities have received little attention in the research literature. This study compared adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities on several indices of psychosocial adjustment. The participants were selected from a large longitudinal database and comparisons were made at three points in…
Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy
OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202
The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community.
Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.
"Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…
Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda
Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)
Research has suggested that the incidence of loneliness peaks at adolescence and decreases with age. Changes in the determinants of loneliness during adolescence were investigated for grade 8, grade 11, and university students. Subjects (N=410) completed a written questionnaire which included ten items from the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the…
Examines recent empirical evidence to test theories postulated in separate works by G. Stanley Hall and Anna Freud that adolescents must experience psychological turbulence in the transition to adulthood. Concludes that turmoil is no longer a necessary condition of adolescence and that those who do experience it need psychiatric attention.…
Mehlhorn, Hendrik; Lange, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe; Schreiber, Falk
Knowledge found in biomedical databases, in particular in Web information systems, is a major bioinformatics resource. In general, this biological knowledge is worldwide represented in a network of databases. These data is spread among thousands of databases, which overlap in content, but differ substantially with respect to content detail, interface, formats and data structure. To support a functional annotation of lab data, such as protein sequences, metabolites or DNA sequences as well as a semi-automated data exploration in information retrieval environments, an integrated view to databases is essential. Search engines have the potential of assisting in data retrieval from these structured sources, but fall short of providing a comprehensive knowledge except out of the interlinked databases. A prerequisite of supporting the concept of an integrated data view is to acquire insights into cross-references among database entities. This issue is being hampered by the fact, that only a fraction of all possible cross-references are explicitely tagged in the particular biomedical informations systems. In this work, we investigate to what extend an automated construction of an integrated data network is possible. We propose a method that predicts and extracts cross-references from multiple life science databases and possible referenced data targets. We study the retrieval quality of our method and report on first, promising results. The method is implemented as the tool IDPredictor, which is published under the DOI 10.5447/IPK/2012/4 and is freely available using the URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5447/IPK/2012/4.
Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…
Kim, Kyungun; Ok, Gina; Jeon, Soeun; Kang, Minsoo; Lee, Sukho
Controversial results reported in past research pertaining to the effectiveness of sport-based physical activity interventions on weight loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents using a meta-analysis. Academic Search Complete, Education Source, ERIC, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO and SportDiscus databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2015. Eighteen studies met following inclusion criteria: sport-based intervention studies; subjects aged 6-18 years; reported body weight; published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. The mean intervention duration was 17.72 weeks. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.52 (Cohen's d (ES) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.95, P = 0.021), using a random effects model. Moderator analyses results showed that the Q statistic for the sport type (individual sport or team sport, Qbetween (Qb) = 14.52, df = 1, P = 0.001) and diet control (Qbetween (Qb) = 8.85, df = 1, P = 0.001), explained the heterogeneity of ESs. Our study showed that there was a moderate overall effect of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight reduction. The team sport type (ES = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.66) and diet control group (ES = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.26, 1.41) appeared to be more effective in reducing body weight.
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...
The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.
SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access) Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).
MacLean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Egan, Matt; Der, Geoff; Adamson, Joy; Hunt, Kate
For asthma and psychological morbidity, it is well established that higher prevalence among males in childhood is replaced by higher prevalence among females by adolescence. This review investigates whether there is evidence for a similar emerging female 'excess' in relation to a broad range of physical morbidity measures. Establishing whether this pattern is generalised or health outcome-specific will further understandings of the aetiology of gender differences in health. Databases (Medline; Embase; CINAHL; PsycINFO; ERIC) were searched for English language studies (published 1992-2010) presenting physical morbidity prevalence data for males and females, for at least two age-bands within the age-range 4-17 years. A three-stage screening process (initial sifting; detailed inspection; extraction of full papers), was followed by study quality appraisals. Of 11 245 identified studies, 41 met the inclusion criteria. Most (n = 31) presented self-report survey data (five longitudinal, 26 cross-sectional); 10 presented routinely collected data (GP/hospital statistics). Extracted data, supplemented by additional data obtained from authors of the included studies, were used to calculate odds ratios of a female excess, or female:male incident rate ratios as appropriate. To test whether these changed with age, the values were logged and regressed on age in random effects meta-regressions. These showed strongest evidence of an emerging/increasing female excess for self-reported measures of headache, abdominal pain, tiredness, migraine and self-assessed health. Type 1 diabetes and epilepsy, based on routinely collected data, did not show a significant emerging/increasing female excess. For most physical morbidity measures reviewed, the evidence broadly points towards an emerging/increasing female excess during the transition to adolescence, although results varied by morbidity measure and study design, and suggest that this may occur at a younger age than previously thought.
The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.
NIST Mugshot Identification Database (MID) (PC database for purchase) NIST Special Database 18 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated mugshot identification systems. The database consists of three CD-ROMs, containing a total of 3248 images of variable size using lossless compression. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.
Zhulin, Igor B.
Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. Finally, the purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists.
Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493
Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette; Shafer, Robert W.
Two important databases are often used in HIV genetic research, the HIV Sequence Database in Los Alamos, which collects all sequences and focuses on annotation and data analysis, and the HIV RT/Protease Sequence Database in Stanford, which collects sequences associated with the development of viral resistance against anti-retroviral drugs and focuses on analysis of those sequences. The types of data and services these two databases offer, the tools they provide, and the way they are set up and operated are described in detail. PMID:12875108
Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.
Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018
The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.
David Nix, Lisa Simirenko
The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.
SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access) The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.
Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.
Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…
SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access) The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.
SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access) This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.
SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access) The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.
Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...
Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William
A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.
Norton, M. Jay
Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…
SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access) IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.
Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size…
Cook, Mary N.; Peterson, John; Sheldon, Christopher
Depression in adolescence and adulthood is common, afflicting up to 20 percent of these populations. It represents a significant public health concern and is associated with considerable suffering and functional impairment. Adolescent-onset depression tends to be a particularly malignant and recalcitrant condition, increasing the likelihood of recurrence and chronicity in adulthood. Clinical presentations for various medical and psychiatric conditions, as well as reactions to psychosocial stressors, can mimic or confound the picture of depression in adolescents. Therefore, careful assessment and differential diagnosis is essential. Effective treatments, both pharmacological and psychosocial in nature, exist, and so early detection and intervention is paramount. This article presents an overview of optimal prevention, assessment, and clinical decision-making strategies for managing depression in adolescents. PMID:19855857
Grant, L M; Demetriou, E
The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.
Renou, S; Hergueta, T; Flament, M; Mouren-Simeoni, M-C; Lecrubier, Y
Structured diagnostic interviews, which evolved along the development of classification's systems, are now widely used in adult psychiatry, in the fields of clinical trials, epidemiological studies, academic research as well as, more recently, clinical practice. These instruments improved the reliability of the data collection and interrater reliability allowing greater homogenisation of the subjects taking part in clinical research, essential factor to ensure the reproducibility of the results. The diagnostic instruments, conversely to the clinical traditional diagnostic processes allow a systematic and exhaustive exploration of disorders, diagnostic criteria but also severity levels, and duration. The format of the data collection, including the order of exploration of the symptoms, is fixed. The formulation of the questions is tested to be univocal, in order to avoid confusions. In child and adolescent, researches in pharmacology and epidemiology increased a lot in the last decade and the standardisation of diagnostic procedures is becoming a key feature. This Article aims to make an assessment, a selection, and a description of the standardized instruments helping psychiatric diagnosis currently available in the field of child and adolescent's psychiatry. Medline and PsycINFO databases were exhaustively checked and the selection of the instruments was based on the review of four main criteria: i) compatibility with international diagnostic systems (DSM IV and/or ICD-10); ii) number of disorders explored; iii) peer reviewed Journals and iv) richness of psychometric data. After the analysis of the instruments described or mentioned in the literature, 2 structured interviews [the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) and the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS)] and 4 diagnostic semi-structured interviews [the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (Kiddie-SADS), the Diagnostic Interview for
Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle
Aim of database The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Study population The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14–15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past 5 years. Main variables An important part of the geriatric approach is the interdisciplinary collaboration. Indicators, therefore, reflect the combined efforts directed toward the geriatric patient. The indicators include Barthel index, body mass index, de Morton Mobility Index, Chair Stand, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. Descriptive data Descriptive patient-related data include information about home, mobility aid, need of fall and/or cognitive diagnosing, and categorization of cause (general geriatric, orthogeriatric, or neurogeriatric). Conclusion The National Database of Geriatrics covers ∼90% of geriatric admissions in Danish hospitals and provides valuable information about a large and increasing patient population in the health care system. PMID:27822120
The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.
Baycin Hizal, Deniz; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joseph; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; Krag, Sharon S; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Zhang, Hui
Protein glycosylation serves critical roles in the cellular and biological processes of many organisms. Aberrant glycosylation has been associated with many illnesses such as hereditary and chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and immunological disorders. Emerging mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that enable the high-throughput identification of glycoproteins and glycans have accelerated the analysis and made possible the creation of dynamic and expanding databases. Although glycosylation-related databases have been established by many laboratories and institutions, they are not yet widely known in the community. Our study reviews 15 different publicly available databases and identifies their key elements so that users can identify the most applicable platform for their analytical needs. These databases include biological information on the experimentally identified glycans and glycopeptides from various cells and organisms such as human, rat, mouse, fly and zebrafish. The features of these databases - 7 for glycoproteomic data, 6 for glycomic data, and 2 for glycan binding proteins are summarized including the enrichment techniques that are used for glycoproteome and glycan identification. Furthermore databases such as Unipep, GlycoFly, GlycoFish recently established by our group are introduced. The unique features of each database, such as the analytical methods used and bioinformatical tools available are summarized. This information will be a valuable resource for the glycobiology community as it presents the analytical methods and glycosylation related databases together in one compendium. It will also represent a step towards the desired long term goal of integrating the different databases of glycosylation in order to characterize and categorize glycoproteins and glycans better for biomedical research.
SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase) The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.
Suzuki, Kazuaki; Shimura, Kazuki; Monma, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Masao; Morishita, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenji
The Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of JICST/NRIM Materials Strength Database for Engineering Steels and Alloys (JICST ME) in this March (1990). This database has been developed under the joint research between JICST and the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM). It provides material strength data (creep, fatigue, etc.) of engineering steels and alloys. It is able to search and display on-line, and to analyze the searched data statistically and plot the result on graphic display. The database system and the data in JICST ME are described.
Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Junah; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H
Genome duplication, widespread in flowering plants, is a driving force in evolution. Genome alignments between/within genomes facilitate identification of homologous regions and individual genes to investigate evolutionary consequences of genome duplication. PGDD (the Plant Genome Duplication Database), a public web service database, provides intra- or interplant genome alignment information. At present, PGDD contains information for 47 plants whose genome sequences have been released. Here, we describe methods for identification and estimation of dates of genome duplication and speciation by functions of PGDD.The database is freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/.
regard to future implications to study identity processes, both on smaller and larger time intervals. (PsycINFO Database Record
Meschel, S. V.
Provides exploration into types of numeric databases available (also known as source databases, nonbibliographic databases, data-files, data-banks, fact banks); examines differences and similarities between bibliographic and numeric databases; identifies disciplines that utilize numeric databases; and surveys representative examples in the…
The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...
SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access) The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.
Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane
The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.
Pangalos, G; Khair, M; Bozios, L
A methodology for the enhancement of database security in a hospital environment is presented in this paper which is based on both the discretionary and the mandatory database security policies. In this way the advantages of both approaches are combined to enhance medical database security. An appropriate classification of the different types of users according to their different needs and roles and a User Role Definition Hierarchy has been used. The experience obtained from the experimental implementation of the proposed methodology in a major general hospital is briefly discussed. The implementation has shown that the combined discretionary and mandatory security enforcement effectively limits the unauthorized access to the medical database, without severely restricting the capabilities of the system.
EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.
The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.
Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.
The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.
Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.
The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)
The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.
Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.
A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.
Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D
The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.
Talbot, C; Cuticchia, A J
This unit concentrates on the data contained within two human genome databasesGDB (Genome Database) and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)and includes discussion of different methods for submitting and accessing data. An understanding of electronic mail, FTP, and the use of a World Wide Web (WWW) navigational tool such as Netscape or Internet Explorer is a prerequisite for utilizing the information in this unit.
SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase) Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.
Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer
Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012.
Murray, ShaTerea R.
This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.
Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke
The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317
Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D
Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.
Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485
Shay, Johanna Y.
The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.
Seth, Puja; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lovvorn, Amy E
This paper provides a critical narrative review of the scientific literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behavior as well as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents, aged 14-24 years. Intimate partner violence has been associated with a number of high risk sexual behavior, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, earlier sexual debut, consuming substances while engaging in sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections among adolescents. An electronic search of the literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science and articles from January 2000 - June 2013 were reviewed. Search terms included a combination of keywords for IPV, HIV/STI risk, and adolescents. The findings from the review indicated that IPV was associated with inconsistent condom use, STIs, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and other HIV/STI-associated risk factors among adolescents. HIV/STI interventions for female adolescents often focus on increasing behavioral and cognitive skills, specifically condom negotiation. However, within the context of an abusive relationship, it becomes challenging for adolescents to enact these skills, where this behavior could potentially place them at greater risk. Components that address violence are necessary within HIV prevention programming. Additionally, integration of IPV screening within healthcare settings is important along with a combined approach that merges resources from healthcare, social, and community-level settings.
Reviews the best and worst in databases on disk, CD-ROM, and online, and offers judgments and observations on database characteristics. Two databases are praised and three are criticized. (Author/JMV)
Campos-Melady, Marita; Smith, Jane Ellen; Meyers, Robert J; Godley, Susan H; Godley, Mark D
included, between-therapists adherence was found to be predictive of a decrease in client substance use. This study adds to the evidence that competence in the delivery of treatment is associated with better client treatment outcomes. Adherence may be associated with better treatment outcomes as it was in follow-up completers. Future research should investigate the nature of the relationship between protocol-specific adherence and competence and client outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.
The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.
Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle
The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.
The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.
Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.
Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.
Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.
The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.
Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.
With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.
Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.
With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...
Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon
The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.
Williams-Evans, Shiphrah A; Myers, Joy Sher'ron
The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the rising occurrences of adolescent violence in the American school systems and how various theories can be used to assist in understanding this phenomenon. The authors have become increasingly interested in this topic, after direct involvement in the summer of 2001. There were a number of students who were attending summer school as a result of consistent out-of-school suspensions for violent acts. The procedure to process through the system with these students was to suspend them, resulting in the student subsequently failing their present grade. The school was located in a community known for its high rate of violence and criminal activity. Various types of adolescent violence exist in our schools. Studies have reported that violent adolescents may come from familial environments that are full of social and interpersonal conflicts (Gray & Foshee, 1999). This paper discusses the development of a research plan to investigate the number and type of adolescent violent occurrences in a southern middle school setting.
Stronski Huwiler, S M; Remafedi, G
Homosexuality has existed in all civilizations, but societal disapproval and cultural taboos have negatively influenced its recognition. A significant percentage of youths identify themselves as homosexual, and even more experience sex with the same sex or are confused about sexual feelings. A unifying etiological theory attributes the expression of sexual orientation to genes that shape the central nervous system's development, organization, and structure via prenatal sex steroids. Environmental factors may influence the expression of genetic potential. Several models of psychosocial development describe initial stages of awareness and confusion about same-sex attractions, followed by acknowledgement of homosexuality, disclosure to others, and eventual integration of sexual identity into a comprehensive sense of self. Stressors related to isolation, stigma, and violence may predispose homosexual adolescents to impaired social, emotional, and physical health, resulting in depression and suicide, school problems, substance abuse, running away eating disorders, risky sexual behavior, and illegal conduct. As with all adolescents, the overall goals in the care of homosexual youth are to promote normal adolescent development, social and emotional well-being, and physical health. A comprehensive, multidisciplinary approach is required to address medical, mental health, and psychosocial issues within the context of the adolescents' community and culture.
Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data
The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.
Hulo, Nicolas; Bairoch, Amos; Bulliard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; De Castro, Edouard; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J. A.
The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at . PMID:16381852
Pangalos, G J
Users of medical information systems need confidence in the security of the system they are using. They also need a method to evaluate and compare its security capabilities. Every system has its own requirements for maintaining confidentiality, integrity and availability. In order to meet these requirements a number of security functions must be specified covering areas such as access control, auditing, error recovery, etc. Appropriate confidence in these functions is also required. The 'trust' in trusted computer systems rests on their ability to prove that their secure mechanisms work as advertised and cannot be disabled or diverted. The general framework and requirements for medical database security and a number of parameters of the evaluation problem are presented and discussed. The problem of database security evaluation is then discussed, and a number of specific proposals are presented, based on a number of existing medical database security systems.
Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.
The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600
Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E
The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.
Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.
Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288
Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.
Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community
In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.
The outline of JICST factual database (JOIS-F), which JICST has started from January, 1988, and its online service are described in this paper. First, the author mentions the circumstances from 1973, when its planning was started, to the present, and its relation to "Project by Special Coordination Founds for Promoting Science and Technology". Secondly, databases, which are now under development aiming to start its services from fiscal 1988 or fiscal 1989, of DNA, metallic material intensity, crystal structure, chemical substance regulations, and so forth, are described. Lastly, its online service is briefly explained.
THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify Region 7 subject to Maximum Achievable Control Technologiy (MACT) standards. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 4) for Healthy Communities & Ecosystems, which are to reduce chemical and/or pesticide risks at facilities.
Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola
Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local
Schulze, Waltraud X; Yao, Qiuming; Xu, Dong
Phosphorylation is the most studied posttranslational modification involved in signal transduction in stress responses, development, and growth. In the recent years large-scale phosphoproteomic studies were carried out using various model plants and several growth and stress conditions. Here we present an overview of online resources for plant phosphoproteomic databases: PhosPhAt as a resource for Arabidopsis phosphoproteins, P3DB as a resource expanding to crop plants, and Medicago PhosphoProtein Database as a resource for the model plant Medicago trunculata.
Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…
Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus
Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089
A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata was cooperatively compiled from Federal and State agency data sets and enables the user to conduct geographic and analytical studies on mine impacts on the public and environment.
Wright, J. T.; Fakhouri, O.; Marcy, G. W.; Han, E.; Feng, Y.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A.; Anderson, J.; Piskunov, N.
We present a database of well-determined orbital parameters of exoplanets, and their host stars’ properties. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 427 planets orbiting 363 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form online through the Exoplanets Data Explorer table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanet Data Explorer plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots, giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the different selection biases between radial velocity and transit surveys, and that the multiplanet systems show a distinct semimajor-axis distribution from apparently singleton systems.
Simmons, Edlyn S.
Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…
SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access) All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.
The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.
Llorens, Jose; Trenor, Asuncion
Discusses the use of MARC format in relational databases and addresses problems of incompatibilities. A solution is presented that is in accordance with Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards and is based on experiences at the library of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). (four references) (EA)
Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...
SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access) All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.
Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due
The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217
Food composition is the determination of what is in the foods we eat and is the critical bridge between nutrition, health promotion and disease prevention and food production. Compilation of data into useable databases is essential to the development of dietary guidance for individuals and populat...
Martinez, J. J.
MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.
Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce
With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.
SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access) All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.
Miller, David A., Jr.
JDD Inc, is a maintenance and custodial contracting company whose mission is to provide their clients in the private and government sectors "quality construction, construction management and cleaning services in the most efficient and cost effective manners, (JDD, Inc. Mission Statement)." This company provides facilities support for Fort Riley in Fo,rt Riley, Kansas and the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field here in Cleveland, Ohio. JDD, Inc. is owned and operated by James Vaughn, who started as painter at NASA Glenn and has been working here for the past seventeen years. This summer I worked under Devan Anderson, who is the safety manager for JDD Inc. in the Logistics and Technical Information Division at Glenn Research Center The LTID provides all transportation, secretarial, security needs and contract management of these various services for the center. As a safety manager, my mentor provides Occupational Health and Safety Occupation (OSHA) compliance to all JDD, Inc. employees and handles all other issues (Environmental Protection Agency issues, workers compensation, safety and health training) involving to job safety. My summer assignment was not as considered "groundbreaking research" like many other summer interns have done in the past, but it is just as important and beneficial to JDD, Inc. I initially created a database using a Microsoft Excel program to classify and categorize data pertaining to numerous safety training certification courses instructed by our safety manager during the course of the fiscal year. This early portion of the database consisted of only data (training field index, employees who were present at these training courses and who was absent) from the training certification courses. Once I completed this phase of the database, I decided to expand the database and add as many dimensions to it as possible. Throughout the last seven weeks, I have been compiling more data from day to day operations and been adding the
Sitzmann, Markus; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich
We have used the Chemical Structure DataBase (CSDB) of the NCI CADD Group, an aggregated collection of over 150 small-molecule databases totaling 103.5 million structure records, to conduct tautomerism analyses on one of the largest currently existing sets of real (i.e. not computer-generated) compounds. This analysis was carried out using calculable chemical structure identifiers developed by the NCI CADD Group, based on hash codes available in the chemoinformatics toolkit CACTVS and a newly developed scoring scheme to define a canonical tautomer for any encountered structure. CACTVS’s tautomerism definition, a set of 21 transform rules expressed in SMIRKS line notation, was used, which takes a comprehensive stance as to the possible types of tautomeric interconversion included. Tautomerism was found to be possible for more than 2/3 of the unique structures in the CSDB. A total of 680 million tautomers were calculated from, and including, the original structure records. Tautomerism overlap within the same individual database (i.e. at least one other entry was present that was really only a different tautomeric representation of the same compound) was found at an average rate of 0.3% of the original structure records, with values as high as nearly 2% for some of the databases in CSDB. Projected onto the set of unique structures (by FICuS identifier), this still occurred in about 1.5% of the cases. Tautomeric overlap across all constituent databases in CSDB was found for nearly 10% of the records in the collection. PMID:20512400
Hobden, Karen; Forney, Jason Curtis; Durham, Kathleen Wyszacki; Toro, Paul
The effectiveness of five tracking strategies (collateral contacts, Internet databases, driver's records, letters, and community visits) used in attempting to locate homeless and housed adolescents 4.5 years after they were first contacted was examined and compared. The study sample comprised 401 adolescents (252 homeless and 149 matched housed)…
Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru
JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.
McDonald, Catherine C.; Richmond, Therese R.
Urban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services, and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, and aggression. Twenty six empirical research articles from 1997–2007 met inclusion criteria for review. Findings indicate an influence of community violence exposure on mental health symptoms, particularly posttraumatic stress and aggression. Mediators and moderators for community violence exposure and mental health symptoms help explain relationships. Limitations in the literature are the lack of consistency in measurement and analysis of community violence exposure, including assessment of proximity and time frame of exposure, and in analysis of victimization and witnessing of community violence. Knowledge about identification of urban adolescents exposed to chronic community violence and who experience mental health symptoms is critical to mental health nursing practice and research. PMID:19012675
LeJeune, Brenna C; Zimet, Gregory D; Azzouz, Faouzi; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Aalsma, Matthew C
The impact of religiosity in adolescent romantic partnerships on sexual behavior was assessed. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health reciprocated couples database using religious- and relationship-oriented variables to predict sexual involvement in 374 couples (748 participants). We found that individual- and couple-based religiosity impacted sexual behavior. These findings provide evidence for dyad religiosity as a component involved in the expression of sexual behavior in romantic relationships. The current results highlight the importance of incorporating a broad social perspective in order to understand the expression of adolescent sexual behavior.
Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C
Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.
Fidelis, K; Adzhubej, A; Kryshtafovych, A; Daniluk, P
The phenomenal success of the genome sequencing projects reveals the power of completeness in revolutionizing biological science. Currently it is possible to sequence entire organisms at a time, allowing for a systemic rather than fractional view of their organization and the various genome-encoded functions. There is an international plan to move towards a similar goal in the area of protein structure. This will not be achieved by experiment alone, but rather by a combination of efforts in crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and computational modeling. Only a small fraction of structures are expected to be identified experimentally, the remainder to be modeled. Presently there is no organized infrastructure to critically evaluate and present these data to the biological community. The goal of the Protein Model Database project is to create such infrastructure, including (1) public database of theoretically derived protein structures; (2) reliable annotation of protein model quality, (3) novel structure analysis tools, and (4) access to the highest quality modeling techniques available.
The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.
Alluri, Ram K; Leland, Hyuma; Heckmann, Nathanael
Recent changes in healthcare and advances in technology have increased the use of large-volume national databases in surgical research. These databases have been used to develop perioperative risk stratification tools, assess postoperative complications, calculate costs, and investigate numerous other topics across multiple surgical specialties. The results of these studies contain variable information but are subject to unique limitations. The use of large-volume national databases is increasing in popularity, and thorough understanding of these databases will allow for a more sophisticated and better educated interpretation of studies that utilize such databases. This review will highlight the composition, strengths, and weaknesses of commonly used national databases in surgical research.
Leland, Hyuma; Heckmann, Nathanael
Recent changes in healthcare and advances in technology have increased the use of large-volume national databases in surgical research. These databases have been used to develop perioperative risk stratification tools, assess postoperative complications, calculate costs, and investigate numerous other topics across multiple surgical specialties. The results of these studies contain variable information but are subject to unique limitations. The use of large-volume national databases is increasing in popularity, and thorough understanding of these databases will allow for a more sophisticated and better educated interpretation of studies that utilize such databases. This review will highlight the composition, strengths, and weaknesses of commonly used national databases in surgical research. PMID:27867945
The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.
The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.
Freedman, I.; Raugh, A. C.; Cheng, E. S.
A project to store and convert external astronomical survey maps to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft pixelization is described. Established software is reused in order to reduce development costs. The proposed packages and systems include the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), Interactive Data Language Astronomy Library (IDL), the FITSIO data transfer package and the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). The software structure of the astronomical databases, projected conversion schemes, quality assurance procedures and outstanding problems will be discussed.
Rao, S K; Shenbaga, S
There is a growing consensus among pharmaceutical companies that more product and customer-specific approaches to marketing and selling a new drug can result in substantial increases in sales. Marketers and researchers taking a proactive micro-marketing approach to identifying, profiling, and communicating with target customers are likely to facilitate such approaches and outcomes. This article provides a working framework for creating customer databases that can be effectively mined to achieve a variety of such marketing and sales force objectives.
The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.
Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene
Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097
The Information Bulletin on Variable Stars is a bulletin fully available in electronic form. We are working on converting the text, tables and figures of the papers published into a database, and, at the same time, making them accessible and addressable. IBVS Data Service will provide information on variable stars --- like finding charts, light curves --- and will be VO compatible. Other services could link to individual figures, data files, etc. this way.
The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.
Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B
Aim The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients. PMID:27822116
unified database (UDB) program was to develop an automated system that would be useful to those responsible for the design , development, testing, and...weapon system design . Baekgound The Air Force is concerned with the lack of adequate logistics consideration during the weapon system design process. To...produce a weapon system with optimal cost and mission effectiveness, logistics factors must be considered very early and throughout the system design
The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.
The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.
Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C
The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.
The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.
Rasmussen, Robert; Bennett, Matthew
The State Analysis Database Tool software establishes a productive environment for collaboration among software and system engineers engaged in the development of complex interacting systems. The tool embodies State Analysis, a model-based system engineering methodology founded on a state-based control architecture (see figure). A state represents a momentary condition of an evolving system, and a model may describe how a state evolves and is affected by other states. The State Analysis methodology is a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models and states, and defining goal-based operational plans consistent with the models. Requirements, models, and operational concerns have traditionally been documented in a variety of system engineering artifacts that address different aspects of a mission s lifecycle. In State Analysis, requirements, models, and operations information are State Analysis artifacts that are consistent and stored in a State Analysis Database. The tool includes a back-end database, a multi-platform front-end client, and Web-based administrative functions. The tool is structured to prompt an engineer to follow the State Analysis methodology, to encourage state discovery and model description, and to make software requirements and operations plans consistent with model descriptions.
Groom, Colin R.; Bruno, Ian J.; Lightfoot, Matthew P.; Ward, Suzanna C.
The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal–organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719
Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Matham, Murukeshan Vadakke
Imaging of physically inaccessible parts of the body such as the colon at micron-level resolution is highly important in diagnostic medical imaging. Though flexible endoscopes based on the imaging fiber bundle are used for such diagnostic procedures, their inherent honeycomb-like structure creates fiber pixelation effects. This impedes the observer from perceiving the information from an image captured and hinders the direct use of image processing and machine intelligence techniques on the recorded signal. Significant efforts have been made by researchers in the recent past in the development and implementation of pixelation removal techniques. However, researchers have often used their own set of images without making source data available which subdued their usage and adaptability universally. A database of pixelated images is the current requirement to meet the growing diagnostic needs in the healthcare arena. An innovative fiber pixelated image database is presented, which consists of pixelated images that are synthetically generated and experimentally acquired. Sample space encompasses test patterns of different scales, sizes, and shapes. It is envisaged that this proposed database will alleviate the current limitations associated with relevant research and development and would be of great help for researchers working on comb structure removal algorithms.
Dominick, Wayne D.; Weathers, Peggy G.
This overview of potential for utilizing database management systems (DBMS) within numeric database environments highlights: (1) major features, functions, and characteristics of DBMS; (2) applicability to numeric database environment needs and user needs; (3) current applications of DBMS technology; and (4) research-oriented and…
Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological interventions for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, adolescents and adults: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis
Cortese, Samuele; Adamo, Nicoletta; Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Hayes, Adrian J; Bhatti, Sahar; Carucci, Sara; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Atkinson, Lauren Z; Banaschewski, Tobias; Simonoff, Emily; Zuddas, Alessandro; Barbui, Corrado; Purgato, Marianna; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Shokraneh, Farhad; Xia, Jun; Coghill, David
Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a major public health issue. Pharmacological treatments play an important role in the multimodal treatment of ADHD. Currently, there is a lack of up-to-date and comprehensive evidence on how available ADHD drugs compare and rank in terms of efficacy and tolerability, in children or adolescents as well as in adults. We will conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA), integrating direct and indirect comparisons from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), to rank pharmacological treatments for ADHD according to their efficacy and tolerability profiles. Methods and analysis We will search a broad range of electronic databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC and Web of Science, with no date or language restrictions. We will also search for unpublished studies using international clinical trial registries and contacting relevant drug companies. We will identify and include available parallel-group, cross-over and cluster randomised trials that compare methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, amphetamine derivatives (including lisdexamfetamine), atomoxetine, clonidine, guanfacine, bupropion or modafinil (as oral therapy) either with each other or to placebo, in children, adolescents or adults with ADHD. Primary outcomes will be efficacy (indicated by reduction in severity of ADHD core symptoms measured on a standardised scale) and tolerability (the proportion of patients who left a study early due to side effects). Secondary outcomes will be global functioning, acceptability (proportion of patients who left the study early by any cause) and changes in blood pressure and body weight. NMA will be conducted in STATA within a frequentist framework. The quality of RCTs will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and the quality of the evidence will be assessed using the GRADE approach. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Ethics and
Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert
The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data
SRD 149 NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (Web, free access) The NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (WebHTS) provides evaluated thermal, mechanical, and superconducting property data for oxides and other nonconventional superconductors.
The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources).
Adams, P A; Hax, J C
Data intensive science is offering new challenges and opportunities for Information Technology and traditional relational databases in particular. Database filesystems offer the potential to store Level Zero data and analyze Level 1 and Level 3 data within the same database system . Scientific data is typically composed of both unstructured files and scalar data. Oracle SecureFiles is a new database filesystem feature in Oracle Database 11g that is specifically engineered to deliver high performance and scalability for storing unstructured or file data inside the Oracle database. SecureFiles presents the best of both the filesystem and the database worlds for unstructured content. Data stored inside SecureFiles can be queried or written at performance levels comparable to that of traditional filesystems while retaining the advantages of the Oracle database.
SRD 103 NIST ThermoData Engine Database (PC database for purchase) ThermoData Engine is the first product fully implementing all major principles of the concept of dynamic data evaluation formulated at NIST/TRC.
The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.
Baker, Barton D.
This slide presentation reviews the characteristics of the Hydrogen Sensor database. The database is the result of NASA's continuing interest in and improvement of its ability to detect and assess gas leaks in space applications. The database specifics and a snapshot of an entry in the database are reviewed. Attempts were made to determine the applicability of each of the 65 sensors for ground and/or vehicle use.
A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...
NIST Scientific and Technical Document Database (PC database for purchase) The images in NIST Special Database 20 contain a very rich set of graphic elements from scientific and technical documents, such as graphs, tables, equations, two column text, maps, pictures, footnotes, annotations, and arrays of such elements.
Heller, R H
Prudent examination and knowing how to ask the "right questions" can enable hospital marketers and planners to find the most accurate and appropriate database. The author compares the comprehensive AMA physician database with the less expensive MEDEC database to determine their strengths and weaknesses.
Discusses a database used by honors high school U.S. history students learning about the Spanish-American War. Reports that the students compiled the database. Includes some of the historical background of the war, questions for study, a database key, and a table showing U.S. senators' votes relating to the War. (SG)
Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott
As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as
Hyter, Yvette D.; Rivers, Kenyatta O.; DeJarnette, Glenda
Purpose: A systematic review and synthesis was performed on published articles and dissertations produced between 1970 and 2013 that focused on selected pragmatic language behaviors of African American children and adolescents. Methods: Electronic databases and hand searches of articles located in the databases were used to identify the published…
Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.
Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…
This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.
Vincent, D. A.
The relationship of databases to information services, and the range of information services users and their needs for information is explored and discussed. It is argued that for database information to be valuable to a broad range of users, it is essential that access methods be provided that are relatively unstructured and natural to information services users who are interested in the information contained in databases, but who are not willing to learn and use traditional structured query languages. Unless this ease of use of databases is considered in the design and application process, the potential benefits from using database systems may not be realized.
National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) is the most recent national land cover product created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. NLCD 2011 provides - for the first time - the capability to assess wall-to-wall, spatially explicit, national land cover changes and trends across the United States from 2001 to 2011. As with two previous NLCD land cover products NLCD 2011 keeps the same 16-class land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently across the United States at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. NLCD 2011 is based primarily on a decision-tree classification of circa 2011 Landsat satellite data. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Homer, C., J. Dewitz, L. Yang, S. Jin, P. Danielson, G. Xian, J. Coulston, N. Herold, J. Wickham , and K. Megown. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the Conterminous United States – Representing a Decade of Land Cover Change Information. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD, USA, 81(0): 345-354, (2015).
Arcot, Divya K.
Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.
Eidietis, N. W.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Granetz, R. S.; Kawano, Y.; Lehnen, M.; Lister, J. B.; Pautasso, G.; Riccardo, V.; Tanna, R. L.; Thornton, A. J.; ITPA Disruption Database Participants, The
A multi-device database of disruption characteristics has been developed under the auspices of the International Tokamak Physics Activity magneto-hydrodynamics topical group. The purpose of this ITPA disruption database (IDDB) is to find the commonalities between the disruption and disruption mitigation characteristics in a wide variety of tokamaks in order to elucidate the physics underlying tokamak disruptions and to extrapolate toward much larger devices, such as ITER and future burning plasma devices. In contrast to previous smaller disruption data collation efforts, the IDDB aims to provide significant context for each shot provided, allowing exploration of a wide array of relationships between pre-disruption and disruption parameters. The IDDB presently includes contributions from nine tokamaks, including both conventional aspect ratio and spherical tokamaks. An initial parametric analysis of the available data is presented. This analysis includes current quench rates, halo current fraction and peaking, and the effectiveness of massive impurity injection. The IDDB is publicly available, with instruction for access provided herein.
Chan, Agnes P; Pertea, Geo; Cheung, Foo; Lee, Dan; Zheng, Li; Whitelaw, Cathy; Pontaroli, Ana C; SanMiguel, Phillip; Yuan, Yinan; Bennetzen, Jeffrey; Barbazuk, William Brad; Quackenbush, John; Rabinowicz, Pablo D
Maize is a staple crop of the grass family and also an excellent model for plant genetics. Owing to the large size and repetitiveness of its genome, we previously investigated two approaches to accelerate gene discovery and genome analysis in maize: methylation filtration and high C(0)t selection. These techniques allow the construction of gene-enriched genomic libraries by minimizing repeat sequences due to either their methylation status or their copy number, yielding a 7-fold enrichment in genic sequences relative to a random genomic library. Approximately 900,000 gene-enriched reads from maize were generated and clustered into Assembled Zea mays (AZM) sequences. Here we report the current AZM release, which consists of approximately 298 Mb representing 243,807 sequence assemblies and singletons. In order to provide a repository of publicly available maize genomic sequences, we have created the TIGR Maize Database (http://maize.tigr.org). In this resource, we have assembled and annotated the AZMs and used available sequenced markers to anchor AZMs to maize chromosomes. We have constructed a maize repeat database and generated draft sequence assemblies of 287 maize bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone sequences, which we annotated along with 172 additional publicly available BAC clones. All sequences, assemblies and annotations are available at the project website via web interfaces and FTP downloads.
NSTec Environmental Restoration
One of the advantages of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is that most of the geologic and hydrologic features such as hydrogeologic units (HGUs), hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs), and faults, which are important aspects of flow and transport modeling, are exposed at the surface somewhere in the vicinity of the NTS and thus are available for direct observation. However, due to access restrictions and the remote locations of many of the features, most Underground Test Area (UGTA) participants cannot observe these features directly in the field. Fortunately, National Security Technologies, LLC, geologists and their predecessors have photographed many of these features through the years. During fiscal year 2009, work was done to develop an online photograph database for use by the UGTA community. Photographs were organized, compiled, and imported into Adobe® Photoshop® Elements 7. The photographs were then assigned keyword tags such as alteration type, HGU, HSU, location, rock feature, rock type, and stratigraphic unit. Some fully tagged photographs were then selected and uploaded to the UGTA website. This online photograph database provides easy access for all UGTA participants and can help “ground truth” their analytical and modeling tasks. It also provides new participants a resource to more quickly learn the geology and hydrogeology of the NTS.
Robinson, James; Marsh, Steven G E
The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/) is a set of specialist databases related to the study of polymorphic genes in the immune system. IPD currently consists of four databases: IPD-KIR, contains the allelic sequences of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs); IPD-MHC, a database of sequences of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of different species; IPD-HPA, alloantigens expressed only on platelets; and IPD-ESTAB, which provides access to the European Searchable Tumour Cell Line Database, a cell bank of immunologically characterized melanoma cell lines. The IPD project works with specialist groups or nomenclature committees who provide and curate individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. The IPD project stores all the data in a set of related databases. Those sections with similar data, such as IPD-KIR and IPD-MHC, share the same database structure.
Devenish, Bethany; Hooley, Merrilyn; Mellor, David
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a significant risk factor for negative adolescent development outcomes. Identifying the pathways between SES and these outcomes may inform interventions for adolescents from this demographic. We conducted a systematic literature review of eight databases for studies investigating pathways between SES and adolescent psychosocial outcomes. A total of 59 articles met inclusion criteria. Significant risk factors identified include economic stress, chaos in the home, and violence in the community. These risk factors appear to be mediated through parent depression, conflict between parents, parenting practices, and adolescent resilience. Interventions focusing on the identified risk factors are recommended.
Looijenga, Leendert H J
Data are lacking on the role of histological risk factors (such as embryonal carcinoma and lymphovascular invasion) for occult metastasis in adolescents with testicular germ cell tumours. Investigators of a pilot study have now retrospectively reviewed a testis cancer database to identify risk stratification criteria in this population.
Atherson, Martin J.; Metcalf, James
A large national database (U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2001) was analyzed for age, sex, race/ethnicity and television viewing among American adolescents aged 12-18 years. Body Mass Indices (BMI) were calculated from self-reported height and weight. Ninety-fifth percentile and above was classified as obese; [less…
Schlegel, Alice; Hewlett, Bonnie L.
Adolescence researchers can turn to anthropology to learn the methods of ethnography and cultural comparisons, and they can mine its large database of information on cultures worldwide. But anthropology's single most important contribution is the concept of culture, the mosaic of a group's learned and shared, or at least understood, beliefs,…
Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.
The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…
Hargrove, Patricia M.; Pittelko, Stephen; Fillingane, Evan; Rustman, Emily; Lund, Bonnie
The purpose of this research was to compare selected speech and paralinguistic skills of speakers with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing peers and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing preexisting databases to students to facilitate graduate research. In a series of three studies, conversational samples of 12 adolescents with…
Revised by Sloan, Jan; Henry, Christopher D.; Hopkins, Melanie; Ludington, Steve; Original database by Zartman, Robert E.; Bush, Charles A.; Abston, Carl
The National Geochronological Data Base (NGDB) was established by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and organize published isotopic (also known as radiometric) ages of rocks in the United States. The NGDB (originally known as the Radioactive Age Data Base, RADB) was started in 1974. A committee appointed by the Director of the USGS was given the mission to investigate the feasibility of compiling the published radiometric ages for the United States into a computerized data bank for ready access by the user community. A successful pilot program, which was conducted in 1975 and 1976 for the State of Wyoming, led to a decision to proceed with the compilation of the entire United States. For each dated rock sample reported in published literature, a record containing information on sample location, rock description, analytical data, age, interpretation, and literature citation was constructed and included in the NGDB. The NGDB was originally constructed and maintained on a mainframe computer, and later converted to a Helix Express relational database maintained on an Apple Macintosh desktop computer. The NGDB and a program to search the data files were published and distributed on Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) in standard ISO 9660 format as USGS Digital Data Series DDS-14 (Zartman and others, 1995). As of May 1994, the NGDB consisted of more than 18,000 records containing over 30,000 individual ages, which is believed to represent approximately one-half the number of ages published for the United States through 1991. Because the organizational unit responsible for maintaining the database was abolished in 1996, and because we wanted to provide the data in more usable formats, we have reformatted the data, checked and edited the information in some records, and provided this online version of the NGDB. This report describes the changes made to the data and formats, and provides instructions for the use of the database in geographic
Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.
The rapidly increasing volume and complexity of MG&G data, and the growing demand from funding agencies and the user community that it be easily accessible, demand that we improve our approach to data management in order to reach a broader user-base and operate more efficient and effectively. We have chosen an approach based on industry-standard relational database management systems (RDBMS) that use community-wide data specifications, where there is a clear and well-documented external interface that allows use of general purpose as well as customized clients. Rapid prototypes assembled with this approach show significant advantages over the traditional, custom-built data management systems that often use "in-house" legacy file formats, data specifications, and access tools. We have developed an effective database prototype based a public domain RDBMS (PostgreSQL) and metadata standard (FGDC), and used it as a template for several ongoing MG&G database management projects - including ADGRAV (Antarctic Digital Gravity Synthesis), MARGINS, the Community Review system of the Digital Library for Earth Science Education, multibeam swath bathymetry metadata, and the R/V Maurice Ewing onboard acquisition system. By using standard formats and specifications, and working from a common prototype, we are able to reuse code and deploy rapidly. Rather than spend time on low-level details such as storage and indexing (which are built into the RDBMS), we can focus on high-level details such as documentation and quality control. In addition, because many commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and public domain data browsers and visualization tools have built-in RDBMS support, we can focus on backend development and leave the choice of a frontend client(s) up to the end user. While our prototype is running under an open source RDBMS on a single processor host, the choice of standard components allows this implementation to scale to commercial RDBMS products and multiprocessor servers as
The area of multicultural counseling is a sub-field of the counseling profession and research in this specialty has proliferated at a rapid pace over the past 20 years. In order to gauge emergent trends in multicultural counseling, researchers have conducted content analyses of scholarly documents like journals and books. A related methodology…
Backinger, C; Fagan, P; Matthews, E; Grana, R
Data sources:Data were collected from published literature. Searches for adolescent prevention were conducted using PubMed, PsycInfo, and ERIC; and for cessation, PubMed, and two major reviews that span January 1978 to May 2002. PubMed, PsychInfo, and SCCI were searched for young adults from January 1990 to May 2002. Study selection:Data included smoking prevention studies published from January 1990 to May 2002 and conducted in the USA; all identified smoking cessation studies for adolescents. Young adult data were limited to initiation and cessation studies. Data extraction:Extraction of data was by consensus of the authors. Data synthesis:Results of the review are qualitative in nature using a consensus approach of the authors. Conclusions:School based curricula alone have been generally ineffective in the long term in preventing adolescents from initiating tobacco use but are effective when combined with other approaches such as media and smoke-free policies. Prevention research should consider multiple approaches and the social conditions that influence the development of youth problem behaviours including tobacco use. Because youth smoking cessation has been understudied to date, scientifically rigorous adolescent smoking cessation studies need to be conducted with attention to high risk smokers and less than daily smokers. Tobacco prevention and cessation for young adults needs focused attention. Prevention and cessation programmes need to address other tobacco products in addition to cigarettes. PMID:14645940
Background Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health problem in the past decade and has large short- and long-term consequences on their health. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of longitudinal cohort studies that have analyzed the association between the parent–child relationship (PCR) and change in alcohol use during adolescence. Methods A search of the literature from 1985 to July 2011 was conducted in Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE in order to identify longitudinal, general population studies regarding the influence of the PCR on alcohol use during adolescence. The studies were screened, and the quality of the relevant studies was assessed. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. Results Twenty-eight relevant studies were identified. Five studies found that a negative PCR was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Another seven papers only found this association for certain subgroups such as boys or girls, or a specific age group. The remaining sixteen studies did not find any association. Conclusions We found weak evidence for a prospective association between the PCR and adolescent alcohol use. Further research to the association of the PCR with several types of alcohol use (e.g., initiation or abuse) and to the potential reversed causality of the PCR and alcohol use is required. PMID:23083405
Sakharkar, Kishore R; Chow, Vincent T K
With the complete sequencing of multiple genomes, there have been extensions in the methods of sequence analysis from single gene/protein-based to analyzing multiple genes and proteins simultaneously. Therefore, there is a demand of user-friendly software tools that will allow mining of these enormous datasets. PPD is a WWW-based database for comparative analysis of protein lengths in completely sequenced prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. PPD's core objective is to create protein classification tables based on the lengths of proteins by specifying a set of organisms and parameters. The interface can also generate information on changes in proteins of specific length distributions. This feature is of importance when the user's interest is focused on some evolutionarily related organisms or on organisms with similar or related tissue specificity or life-style. PPD is available at: PPD Home.
Downward, James G.
This document represents the final report for the View Generated Database (VGD) project, NAS7-1066. It documents the work done on the project up to the point at which all project work was terminated due to lack of project funds. The VGD was to provide the capability to accurately represent any real-world object or scene as a computer model. Such models include both an accurate spatial/geometric representation of surfaces of the object or scene, as well as any surface detail present on the object. Applications of such models are numerous, including acquisition and maintenance of work models for tele-autonomous systems, generation of accurate 3-D geometric/photometric models for various 3-D vision systems, and graphical models for realistic rendering of 3-D scenes via computer graphics.
The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp
Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang
Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111
Bolser, Dan M.; Chibon, Pierre-Yves; Palopoli, Nicolas; Gong, Sungsam; Jacob, Daniel; Angel, Victoria Dominguez Del; Swan, Dan; Bassi, Sebastian; González, Virginia; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Hwang, Seungwoo; Romano, Paolo; Edwards, Rob; Bishop, Bryan; Eargle, John; Shtatland, Timur; Provart, Nicholas J.; Clements, Dave; Renfro, Daniel P.; Bhak, Daeui; Bhak, Jong
Biology is generating more data than ever. As a result, there is an ever increasing number of publicly available databases that analyse, integrate and summarize the available data, providing an invaluable resource for the biological community. As this trend continues, there is a pressing need to organize, catalogue and rate these resources, so that the information they contain can be most effectively exploited. MetaBase (MB) (http://MetaDatabase.Org) is a community-curated database containing more than 2000 commonly used biological databases. Each entry is structured using templates and can carry various user comments and annotations. Entries can be searched, listed, browsed or queried. The database was created using the same MediaWiki technology that powers Wikipedia, allowing users to contribute on many different levels. The initial release of MB was derived from the content of the 2007 Nucleic Acids Research (NAR) Database Issue. Since then, approximately 100 databases have been manually collected from the literature, and users have added information for over 240 databases. MB is synchronized annually with the static Molecular Biology Database Collection provided by NAR. To date, there have been 19 significant contributors to the project; each one is listed as an author here to highlight the community aspect of the project. PMID:22139927
Choudhry, Muhammad Naghman; Ahmad, Zafar; Verma, Rajat
Background: Scoliosis refers to deviation of spine greater than 10 degrees in the coronal plane. Idiopathic Scoliosis is the most common spinal deformity that develops in otherwise healthy children. The sub types of scoliosis are based on the age of the child at presentation. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) by definition occurs in children over the age of 10 years until skeletal maturity. Objective: The objective of this review is to outline the features of AIS to allow the physician to recognise this condition and commence early treatment, thereby optimizing patient outcome. Method: A thorough literature search was performed using available databases, including Pubmed and Embase, to cover important research published covering AIS. Conclusion: AIS results in higher incidence of back pain and discontent with body image. Curves greater than 50 degrees in thoracic region and greater than 30 degrees in lumbar region progress at a rate of 0.5 to 1 degree per year into adulthood. Curves greater than 60 degrees can lead to pulmonary functional deficit. Therefore once the disease is recognized, effective treatment should be instituted to address the deformity and prevention of its long-term sequelae. PMID:27347243
This article details the reasons behind adolescents' attraction to cults. It is recommended that parents, teachers, and counselors familiarize themselves with the warning signs. Suggestions are offered on how to make adolescents less vulnerable to cult overtures.
Williams, Paula G; Holmbeck, Grayson N; Greenley, Rachel Neff
In this article, a biopsychosocial model of adolescent development is used as an organizing framework for a review of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention research with adolescent populations. During adolescence many critical health behaviors emerge, affecting future disease outcomes in adulthood. In addition, most of the predominant causes of morbidity and mortality in adolescence are unique to this period of development, indicating that health-focused interventions must be tailored specifically to adolescents. Moreover, it is during adolescence that lifelong patterns of self-management of and adjustment to chronic health conditions are established. Thus, an increased focus on adolescence in health psychology research is important both to improve the health of adolescents per se and to optimize health trajectories into adulthood.
Ryukyu Ridge 9 salinity, temperature, c532, "K" & bb from aBeta, Kd488, and Chl_a profiles Sept 1987 NORDA Sargasso Sea 13 K490 & Temperature...Optics Database (WOOD)1. The database shall be easy to use, Internet accessible, and frequently updated with data from recent at- sea measurements...The database shall be capable of supporting a wide range of applications, such as environmental assessments, sea test planning, and Navy applications
SRD 84 FIZ/NIST Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) (PC database for purchase) The Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD) is produced cooperatively by the Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe(FIZ) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The ICSD is a comprehensive collection of crystal structure data of inorganic compounds containing more than 140,000 entries and covering the literature from 1915 to the present.
Sun, Si-Jia; Yang, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Ming-Ou
Recently, Jakobi et al. (Phys Rev A 83, 022301, 2011) suggested the first practical private database query protocol (J-protocol) based on the Scarani et al. (Phys Rev Lett 92, 057901, 2004) quantum key distribution protocol. Unfortunately, the J-protocol is just a cheat-sensitive private database query protocol. In this paper, we present an idealized relativistic quantum private database query protocol based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. Also, we prove that the protocol is secure in terms of the user security and the database security.
Baker, Erich J.
Databases are, at their core, abstractions of data and their intentionally derived relationships. They serve as a central organizing metaphor and repository, supporting or augmenting nearly all bioinformatics. Behavioral domains provide a unique stage for contemporary databases, as research in this area spans diverse data types, locations, and data relationships. This chapter provides foundational information on the diversity and prevalence of databases, how data structures support the various needs of behavioral neuroscience analysis and interpretation. The focus is on the classes of databases, data curation, and advanced applications in bioinformatics using examples largely drawn from research efforts in behavioral neuroscience. PMID:23195119
Kantak, Anil V.; Rucker, James
The Propagation Models Database is designed to allow the scientists and experimenters in the propagation field to process their data through many known and accepted propagation models. The database is an Excel 5.0 based software that houses user-callable propagation models of propagation phenomena. It does not contain a database of propagation data generated out of the experiments. The database not only provides a powerful software tool to process the data generated by the experiments, but is also a time- and energy-saving tool for plotting results, generating tables and producing impressive and crisp hard copy for presentation and filing.
Anastasopoulos, Dimitris; Soumaki, Eugenia; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris
The article begins with a brief exploration of the various aspects of adolescent's psychic qualities as these are described in Greek mythology. It is argued that myths are an integral part of the way that adolescence is perceived and myths play an important role in adolescents' psychic and external world, as well as in their mythological thinking.…
Understanding the nature of brain development in adolescence helps explain why adolescents can vacillate so often between mature and immature behavior. Early and middle adolescence, in particular, are times of heightened vulnerability to risky and reckless behavior because the brain's reward center is easily aroused, but the systems that control…
The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…
Daniel, William A., Jr.
Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…
Maryland State Department of Education, 2008
Periodically, Maryland's sixth, eighth, tenth, and twelfth graders are surveyed to determine the nature, extent, and trend of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. The "2007 Maryland Adolescent Survey (MAS)" presents the latest findings regarding ATOD use by Maryland's adolescents and compares State and local…
Strasburgber, Victor C., Ed.; Comstock, George A., Ed.
In the 1990s, the media represent the single most easily modifiable influence on children and adolescents. This series of articles offers medically oriented practitioners a review of current research on the influence of the media on children and adolescents. The 13 articles are: (1) "Children, Adolescents, and the Media: Five Crucial…
Williams, Anthony J
The internet has rapidly become the first port of call for all information searches. The increasing array of chemistry-related resources that are now available provides chemists with a direct path to the information that was previously accessed via library services and was limited by commercial and costly resources. The diversity of the information that can be accessed online is expanding at a dramatic rate, and the support for publicly available resources offers significant opportunities in terms of the benefits to science and society. While the data online do not generally meet the quality standards of manually curated sources, there are efforts underway to gather scientists together and 'crowdsource' an improvement in the quality of the available data. This review discusses the types of public compound databases that are available online and provides a series of examples. Focus is also given to the benefits and disruptions associated with the increased availability of such data and the integration of technologies to data mine this information.
Eccleston, Christopher; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Bartlett, Jess; Palermo, Tonya M
Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include interventions directed at the parent only or at parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to improve parent, child, and family outcomes. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 8, 2012, (Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychological therapies that include parents of children and adolescents with chronic illnesses including painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury (TBI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), skin diseases, or gynaecological disorders. We also aimed to evaluate the adverse events related to implementation of psychological therapies for this population. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies and the quality of outcomes using the GRADE assessment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Databases were searched to July 2014. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness compared to an active control, waiting list, or treatment as usual control group. Data collection and analysis Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from included studies. We analysed data using two categories. First, we analysed data by each individual medical condition collapsing across all treatment classes at two time points. Second, we analysed data by each individual treatment class; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy (FT), problem solving therapy (PST) and multisystemic therapy
Julihn, Annika; Ekbom, Anders; Modéer, Thomas
The influence of child and parental migration background on the risk of approximal caries increment in Swedish adolescents was investigated. This retrospective longitudinal register-based cohort study included all 13-yr-old adolescents (n = 18,142) who were resident in the County of Stockholm, Sweden, in 2000, and followed them up to 19 yr of age. At follow-up, 15,538 subjects were examined. Caries data [decayed, missing, and filled teeth/surfaces (DMFT/S)], were collected from a dental database. Socio-demographic determinants were collected from Swedish National Registers. After adjustments for socio-demographic confounders, logistic regression analysis revealed that adolescents with foreign-born parents, irrespective of whether the child was born in Sweden or abroad, exhibited a significantly elevated risk for approximal caries increment (DMFSa > 0), and developed, on average, 0.53 and 1.14 more approximal caries lesions, respectively, compared with their counterparts with Swedish-born parents. Furthermore, adolescents born in eastern Europe exhibited an increased risk for approximal caries increment (DMFSa > 0) and developed, on average, 1.06 more approximal caries lesions compared with Swedish-born adolescents. In conclusion, parental migration background must be considered as a risk factor for caries development during adolescence, irrespective of whether or not the adolescent was born in Sweden.
Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Apers, Silke; Moons, Philip
The present study examined associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD) using a longitudinal trajectory approach. Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven. A total of 429 adolescents (M age = 16 at T1) participated in the present study, comprising four measurement waves spanning approximately 3 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify trajectory classes of parenting and perceived health. Whereas adolescents from democratic households reported the most favorable health outcomes, adolescents from authoritarian, overprotective, and psychologically controlling families (all characterized by relatively high levels of psychological control) showed an increased risk for poor perceived health over time. Hence, the present study found substantial developmental associations between parenting and perceived health in adolescents with CHD. Future research should investigate whether working on the parent-adolescent relationship can foster patients' health.
de Vries, Arjen P.
Investigates the role of data management in multimedia digital libraries, and its implications for the design of database management systems. Introduces the notions of content abstraction and content independence. Proposes a blueprint of a new class of database technology, which supports the basic functionality for the management of both content…
Porter, P.E., Westinghouse Hanford
This document includes a cassette tape that contains the Hanford specific files that make up the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database as of May 10, 1996. The cassette tape also includes the delta files that delineate the differences between this revision and revision 3 (April 10, 1996) of the Hanford Site Technical Baseline Database.
SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access) A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
Reader, J.; Kramida, A. E.; Ralchenko, Yu.
We describe recent work at NIST to develop and maintain databases for spectra, transition probabilities, and energy levels of atoms that are astrophysically important. Our programs to critically compile these data as well as to develop a new database to compare plasma calculations for atoms that are not in local thermodynamic equilibrium are also summarized.
This discussion of the design of data files for databases to be created by secondary school students uses AppleWorks software as an example. Steps needed to create and use a database are explained, the benefits of group activity are described, and other possible projects are listed. (LRW)
Chatterjee, A.; Segev, A.
Many important information systems applications require access to data stored in multiple heterogeneous databases. This paper examines a problem in inter-database data manipulation within a heterogeneous environment, where conventional techniques are no longer useful. To solve the problem, a broader definition for join operator is proposed. Also, a method to probabilistically estimate the accuracy of the join is discussed.
Access to database information in libraries will increase as licenses for tape loading of data onto public access catalogs becomes more widespread. Institutions with adequate storage capacity will have full text databases, and the adoption of the Z39.50 standard, which allows differing computer systems to interface with each other, will increase…
Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.
This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.
Craig, N.; Chen, T.; Hawkins, I.; Fruscione, A.
The EUVE survey database contains fundamental science data for 9000 potential source locations (pigeonholes) in the sky. The first release of the Bright Source List is now available to the public through an interface with the NASA Astrophysical Data System. We describe the database schema design and the EUVE source categorization algorithm that compares sources to the ROSAT Wide Field Camera source list.
Pasterczyk, Catherine E.
Discusses ways in which using mathematical symbols to search online bibliographic databases in scientific and technical areas can improve search results. The representations used for Greek letters, relations, binary operators, arrows, and miscellaneous special symbols in the MathSci, Inspec, Compendex, and Chemical Abstracts databases are…
Kowalski, Kazimierz; Hackett, Timothy P.
Demonstrates a means for estimating the number of retrieved items using well-established selective dissemination of information (SDI) profiles in the SCI, INSPEC, ISMEC, CAS, and PASCAL databases. A correlation between individual database size and number of retrieved documents in technical fields is also examined. (17 references) (LAE)
Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others
This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…
Freitas, Tracey; Chain, Patrick; Lo, Chien-Chi; Li, Po-E
One major challenge in the field of shotgun metagenomics is the accurate identification of the organisms present within the community, based on classification of short sequence reads. Though microbial community profiling methods have emerged to attempt to rapidly classify the millions of reads output from contemporary sequencers, the combination of incomplete databases, similarity among otherwise divergent genomes, and the large volumes of sequencing data required for metagenome sequencing has led to unacceptably high false discovery rates (FDR). Here we present the application of a novel, gene-independent and signature-based metagenomic taxonomic profiling tool with significantly smaller FDR, which is also capable of classifying never-before seen genomes into the appropriate parent taxa.The algorithm is based upon three primary computational phases: (I) genomic decomposition into bit vectors, (II) bit vector intersections to identify shared regions, and (III) bit vector subtractions to remove shared regions and reveal unique, signature regions.In the Decomposition phase, genomic data is first masked to highlight only the valid (non-ambiguous) regions and then decomposed into overlapping 24-mers. The k-mers are sorted along with their start positions, de-replicated, and then prefixed, to minimize data duplication. The prefixes are indexed and an identical data structure is created for the start positions to mimic that of the k-mer data structure.During the Intersection phase -- which is the most computationally intensive phase -- as an all-vs-all comparison is made, the number of comparisons is first reduced by four methods: (a) Prefix restriction, (b) Overlap detection, (c) Overlap restriction, and (d) Result recording. In Prefix restriction, only k-mers of the same prefix are compared. Within that group, potential overlap of k-mer suffixes that would result in a non-empty set intersection are screened for. If such an overlap exists, the region which intersects is
Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani S.
In June 1991, a paper at the fifteenth NASA Propagation Experimenters Meeting (NAPEX 15) was presented outlining the development of a database for propagation models. The database is designed to allow the scientists and experimenters in the propagation field to process their data through any known and accepted propagation model. The architecture of the database also incorporates the possibility of changing the standard models in the database to fit the scientist's or the experimenter's needs. The database not only provides powerful software to process the data generated by the experiments, but is also a time- and energy-saving tool for plotting results, generating tables, and producing impressive and crisp hard copy for presentation and filing.
Ott, Mary A; Sucato, Gina S
A working knowledge of contraception will assist the pediatrician in both sexual health promotion as well as treatment of common adolescent gynecologic problems. Best practices in adolescent anticipatory guidance and screening include a sexual health history, screening for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, counseling, and if indicated, providing access to contraceptives. Pediatricians' long-term relationships with adolescents and families allow them to help promote healthy sexual decision-making, including abstinence and contraceptive use. Additionally, medical indications for contraception, such as acne, dysmenorrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding, are frequently uncovered during adolescent visits. This technical report provides an evidence base for the accompanying policy statement and addresses key aspects of adolescent contraceptive use, including the following: (1) sexual history taking, confidentiality, and counseling; (2) adolescent data on the use and side effects of newer contraceptive methods; (3) new data on older contraceptive methods; and (4) evidence supporting the use of contraceptives in adolescent patients with complex medical conditions.
Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. TES on Mars Global Surveyor and THEMIS on Mars Odyssey have in many ways changed our views of Mars. The PFS instrument on the ESA Mars Express mission has collected spectra since the beginning of 2004. In spring 2006 the VIRTIS experiment started its operation on the ESA Venus Express mission, allowing for the first time to map the surface of Venus using the 1 µm emission from the surface. The MERTIS spectrometer is included in the payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. The BED contains currently entries for plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, common martian analogues (JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, palagonites, montmorillonite) and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 3 to 50 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample, the spectra of four well defined particle size separates (¡25 µm , 25-63 µm, 63-125 µm, 125-250 µm) are measured with a 4 cm-1 spectral resolution. These size separates have been selected as typical representations for most of the planetary surfaces. Following an ongoing upgrade of the Planetary Emmissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR in Berlin measurements can be obtained at temperatures up to 500° C - realistic for the dayside conditions
Suggs, Rob; Anthea, Coster
A database of properties of meteors, and software that provides access to the database, are being developed as a contribution to continuing efforts to model the characteristics of meteors with increasing accuracy. Such modeling is necessary for evaluation of the risk of penetration of spacecraft by meteors. For each meteor in the database, the record will include an identification, date and time, radiant properties, ballistic coefficient, radar cross section, size, density, and orbital elements. The property of primary interest in the present case is density, and one of the primary goals in this case is to derive densities of meteors from their atmospheric decelerations. The database and software are expected to be valid anywhere in the solar system. The database will incorporate new data plus results of meteoroid analyses that, heretofore, have not been readily available to the aerospace community. Taken together, the database and software constitute a model that is expected to provide improved estimates of densities and to result in improved risk analyses for interplanetary spacecraft. It is planned to distribute the database and software on a compact disk.
Kostoff, Ronald N.; Eberhart, Henry J.
Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or police records, patents, journals, or papers, etc. (any text information that can be computer stored). Database tomography features a full text, user interactive technique enabling the user to identify areas of interest, establish relationships, and map trends for a deeper understanding of an area of interest. Database tomography concepts and applications have been reported in journals and presented at conferences. One important feature of the database tomography algorithm is that it can be used on a database of any size, and will facilitate the users ability to understand the volume of content therein. While employing the process to identify research opportunities it became obvious that this promising technology has potential applications for business, science, engineering, law, and academe. Examples include evaluating marketing trends, strategies, relationships and associations. Also, the database tomography process would be a powerful component in the area of competitive intelligence, national security intelligence and patent analysis. User interests and involvement cannot be overemphasized.
Dias, Ricardo J.; Lourenço, João M.
Software Transactional Memory is a concurrency control technique gaining increasing popularity, as it provides high-level concurrency control constructs and eases the development of highly multi-threaded applications. But this easiness comes at the expense of restricting the operations that can be executed within a memory transaction, and operations such as terminal and file I/O are either not allowed or incur in serious performance penalties. Database I/O is another example of operations that usually are not allowed within a memory transaction. This paper proposes to combine memory and database transactions in a single unified model, benefiting from the ACID properties of the database transactions and from the speed of main memory data processing. The new unified model covers, without differentiating, both memory and database operations. Thus, the users are allowed to freely intertwine memory and database accesses within the same transaction, knowing that the memory and database contents will always remain consistent and that the transaction will atomically abort or commit the operations in both memory and database. This approach allows to increase the granularity of the in-memory atomic actions and hence, simplifies the reasoning about them.
Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi
The metagenomic data obtained from marine environments is significantly useful for understanding marine microbial communities. In comparison with the conventional amplicon-based approach of metagenomics, the recent shotgun sequencing-based approach has become a powerful tool that provides an efficient way of grasping a diversity of the entire microbial community at a sampling point in the sea. However, this approach accelerates accumulation of the metagenome data as well as increase of data complexity. Moreover, when metagenomic approach is used for monitoring a time change of marine environments at multiple locations of the seawater, accumulation of metagenomics data will become tremendous with an enormous speed. Because this kind of situation has started becoming of reality at many marine research institutions and stations all over the world, it looks obvious that the data management and analysis will be confronted by the so-called Big Data issues such as how the database can be constructed in an efficient way and how useful knowledge should be extracted from a vast amount of the data. In this review, we summarize the outline of all the major databases of marine metagenome that are currently publically available, noting that database exclusively on marine metagenome is none but the number of metagenome databases including marine metagenome data are six, unexpectedly still small. We also extend our explanation to the databases, as reference database we call, that will be useful for constructing a marine metagenome database as well as complementing important information with the database. Then, we would point out a number of challenges to be conquered in constructing the marine metagenome database.
Medical database security is a particularly important issue for all Healthcare establishments. Medical information systems are intended to support a wide range of pertinent health issues today, for example: assure the quality of care, support effective management of the health services institutions, monitor and contain the cost of care, implement technology into care without violating social values, ensure the equity and availability of care, preserve humanity despite the proliferation of technology etc.. In this context, medical database security aims primarily to support: high availability, accuracy and consistency of the stored data, the medical professional secrecy and confidentiality, and the protection of the privacy of the patient. These properties, though of technical nature, basically require that the system is actually helpful for medical care and not harmful to patients. These later properties require in turn not only that fundamental ethical principles are not violated by employing database systems, but instead, are effectively enforced by technical means. This document reviews the existing and emerging work on the security of medical database systems. It presents in detail the related problems and requirements related to medical database security. It addresses the problems of medical database security policies, secure design methodologies and implementation techniques. It also describes the current legal framework and regulatory requirements for medical database security. The issue of medical database security guidelines is also examined in detailed. The current national and international efforts in the area are studied. It also gives an overview of the research work in the area. The document also presents in detail the most complete to our knowledge set of security guidelines for the development and operation of medical database systems.
Bellmore, J. Ryan; Vittum, Katherine; Duda, Jeff J.; Greene, Samantha L.
This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2014 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.
Zou, Dong; Ma, Lina; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Zhang
The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.
Long-term, prospective databasing of multiple sclerosis (MS) information provides a useful resource for natural history studies. Furthermore, it is the only way to address the question of whether early treatment eliminates or delays the inevitable and irreversible clinical worsening that is the hallmark of the late phase of the illness. Due to the variable nature of MS, it is useful to monitor large numbers of individuals over time. The limitations of single databases may be overcome by regional, national or international pooling of data. In this paper, the Italian Multiple Sclerosis Database Network (MSDN) and the international web-based MSBase registry are described.
Hearne, C.; Cui, Zhan; Parsons, S.; Hajnal, S.
We are developing a laboratory notebook system known as the Genetics Deductive Database. Currently our prototype provides storage for biological facts and rules with flexible access via an interactive graphical display. We have introduced a formal basis for the representation and reasoning necessary to order genome map data and handle the uncertainty inherent in biological data. We aim to support laboratory activities by introducing an experiment planner into our prototype. The Genetics Deductive Database is built using new database technology which provides an object-oriented conceptual model, a declarative rule language, and a procedural update language. This combination of features allows the implementation of consistency maintenance, automated reasoning, and data verification.
Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.
The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.
Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.
This report describes a database of sedimentary characteristics of tsunami deposits derived from published accounts of tsunami deposit investigations conducted shortly after the occurrence of a tsunami. The database contains 228 entries, each entry containing data from up to 71 categories. It includes data from 51 publications covering 15 tsunamis distributed between 16 countries. The database encompasses a wide range of depositional settings including tropical islands, beaches, coastal plains, river banks, agricultural fields, and urban environments. It includes data from both local tsunamis and teletsunamis. The data are valuable for interpreting prehistorical, historical, and modern tsunami deposits, and for the development of criteria to identify tsunami deposits in the geologic record.
Fahey, Mark R; Jones, Nicholas A; Hadri, Bilel
A library tracking database has been developed and put into production at the National Institute for Computational Sciences and the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (both located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.) The purpose of the library tracking database is to track which libraries are used at link time on Cray XT5 Supercomputers. The database stores the libraries used at link time and also records the executables run in a batch job. With this data, many operationally important questions can be answered such as which libraries are most frequently used and which users are using deprecated libraries or applications. The infrastructure design and reporting mechanisms are presented along with collected production data.
Blackett, Robert E.; ,
The Utah Geological Survey complied a preliminary database consisting of over 800 records on thermal wells and springs in Utah with temperatures of 20??C or greater. Each record consists of 35 fields, including location of the well or spring, temperature, depth, flow-rate, and chemical analyses of water samples. Developed for applications on personal computers, the database will be useful for geochemical, statistical, and other geothermal related studies. A preliminary map of thermal wells and springs in Utah, which accompanies the database, could eventually incorporate heat-flow information, bottom-hole temperatures from oil and gas wells, traces of Quaternary faults, and locations of young volcanic centers.
EPA announced the release of the final report, Freshwater Biological Traits Database. This report discusses the development of a database of freshwater biological traits. The database combines several existing traits databases into an online format. The database is also...
Provides reviews of 10 online databases: Consumer Reports; Public Opinion Online; Encyclopedia of Associations; Official Airline Guide Adventure Atlas and Events Calendar; CENDATA; Hollywood Hotline; Fearless Taster; Soap Opera Summaries; and Human Sexuality. (LRW)
Bard, J B; Davies, J A
There is now a rapidly expanding population of interlinked developmental biology databases on the World Wide Web that can be readily accessed from a desk-top PC using programs such as Netscape or Mosaic. These databases cover popular organisms (Arabidopsis, Caenorhabditis, Drosophila, zebrafish, mouse, etc.) and include gene and protein sequences, lists of mutants, information on resources and techniques, and teaching aids. More complex are databases relating domains of gene expression to embryonic anatomy and these range from existing text-based systems for specific organs such as kidney, to a massive project under development, that will cover gene expression during the whole of mouse embryogenesis. In this brief article, we review selected examples of databases currently available, look forward to what will be available soon, and explain how to gain access to the World Wide Web.
As part of EPA's Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program (Program), the University of Maryland designed and developed the Supersites Integrated Relational Database (SIRD). Measurement data in SIRD include comprehensive air quality data from the 7 Supersite program locations f...
The traits database was compiled for a project on climate change effects on river and stream ecosystems. The traits data, gathered from multiple sources, focused on information published or otherwise well-documented by trustworthy sources.
The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.
DOE’s Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database provides up-to-date information on marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, both in the U.S. and around the world. The database includes wave, tidal, current, and ocean thermal energy, and contains information on the various energy conversion technologies, companies active in the field, and development of projects in the water. Depending on the needs of the user, the database can present a snapshot of projects in a given region, assess the progress of a certain technology type, or provide a comprehensive view of the entire marine and hydrokinetic energy industry. Results are displayed as a list of technologies, companies, or projects. Data can be filtered by a number of criteria, including country/region, technology type, generation capacity, and technology or project stage. The database was updated in 2009 to include ocean thermal energy technologies, companies, and projects.
The concern for the consequences of adolescent pregnancy are discussed. Childbirth among unmarried teenagers results in a higher incidence of low birth weight babies, a higher infant mortality and morbidity rate, a higher percentage of childbirth complications, a decreased likelihood of completing school, a higher risk of unemployment and welfare dependency, limited vocational opportunities, larger families, and vulnerability to psychological problems and distress. In 1988, 66% of all births to teens occurred outside of marriage. Out of wedlock live births to teens 14 years rose from 80.8% in 1970 to 92.5% in 1986, and for teens 15-19 years, 29.5% to 60.8%. 70% have a repeat pregnancy within the 1st year following their 1st childbirth. 50% have a 2nd child within 3 years. Most 2nd pregnancies occur in teenagers who are not using effective contractive methods, and the pregnancy is frequently unplanned and unwanted. The factors affecting the rate of 2nd pregnancy are age, race, marital status, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers tend to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, and childbearing compounds the poverty. Aid to families with dependent children 50% of payments were to teen mothers for the birth of their 1st child. Teen fathers are usually low income providers. The public costs are high. Some teen fathers abandon their children after birth, but many are interested in supporting their child. Specific programs to help prepare fathers are needed. Teenage mothers are stressed by child care arrangements, living arrangements, employment, school, relationships with peers, relationships with parents, housework and errands, health, finances, job counseling, community services, and child care information. Parents play an important role in guiding sexual involvement and early childbearing, and need to understand why teens get pregnant and to keep channels of communication open. Teens are influenced by media, peer pressure, lack of self-esteem, unhappiness
Contraception is a pillar in reducing adolescent pregnancy rates. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians develop a working knowledge of contraception to help adolescents reduce risks of and negative health consequences related to unintended pregnancy. Over the past 10 years, a number of new contraceptive methods have become available to adolescents, newer guidance has been issued on existing contraceptive methods, and the evidence base for contraception for special populations (adolescents who have disabilities, are obese, are recipients of solid organ transplants, or are HIV infected) has expanded. The Academy has addressed contraception since 1980, and this policy statement updates the 2007 statement on contraception and adolescents. It provides the pediatrician with a description and rationale for best practices in counseling and prescribing contraception for adolescents. It is supported by an accompanying technical report.
Black, Amanda Y; Fleming, Nathalie A; Rome, Ellen S
Adolescent pregnancy remains a public health issue with significant medical, emotional, and societal consequences for the adolescent mother, her child, and her family. Teenage pregnancies are at higher risk of many adverse outcomes, including preterm delivery, low birth weight, and neonatal and infant mortality. Teen pregnancy and motherhood may have detrimental effects on the teen mother and her child; antenatal and postpartum care need to be adapted to meet the special needs of pregnant adolescents because standard obstetrical environments may not do so. This comprehensive review of adolescent pregnancy will highlight global statistics, factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy, social implications of adolescent pregnancy, obstetrical and neonatal outcomes, and the importance of multidisciplinary antenatal and postnatal care.
Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.
Dubernet, M. L.; Zwölf, C. M.; Moreau, N.; Ba, Y. A.
The VAMDC Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates Atomic and Molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and a political organisation. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of spectra and for the modeling of media of many fields of astrophysics. This paper presents how the VAMDC Consortium is organised in order to publish atomic and molecular data for astrophysics.
THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints received by Region 7. It contains information about the complaint along with how the complaint was addressed. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 1) for Clean Air & Global Climate Change, which are to achieve healthier outdoor air.
NOTES EL CT a Distribution unlimited UL 13. ABSTRACT (Mmmuum 200 we~ The Ariel project has culminated in several advancements in active database...4] Moez Chaabouni. A top-level discrimination network for database rule systems. Master’s thesis, Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Wright State... Moez Chaabouni. The IBS-tree: A data structure for finding all intervals that overlap a point. Technical Report WSU-CS-90-11, Dept. of Computer
This global database provides records for 104,000 generating units in over 220 countries. These units include installed and projected facilities, central stations and distributed plants operated by utilities, independent power companies and commercial and self-generators. Each record includes information on: geographic location and operating company; technology, fuel and boiler; generator manufacturers; steam conditions; unit capacity and age; turbine/engine; architect/engineer and constructor; and pollution control equipment. The database is issued quarterly.
Pan, Y.; Lin, W.
Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are of interest in biogeomagnetism, rock magnetism, microbiology, biomineralization, and advanced magnetic materials because of their ability to synthesize highly ordered intracellular nano-sized magnetic minerals, magnetite or greigite. Great strides for MTB studies have been made in the past few decades. More than 600 articles concerning MTB have been published. These rapidly growing data are stimulating cross disciplinary studies in such field as biogeomagnetism. We have compiled the first online database for MTB, i.e., Database of Magnestotactic Bacteria (DMTB, http://database.biomnsl.com). It contains useful information of 16S rRNA gene sequences, oligonucleotides, and magnetic properties of MTB, and corresponding ecological metadata of sampling sites. The 16S rRNA gene sequences are collected from the GenBank database, while all other data are collected from the scientific literature. Rock magnetic properties for both uncultivated and cultivated MTB species are also included. In the DMTB database, data are accessible through four main interfaces: Site Sort, Phylo Sort, Oligonucleotides, and Magnetic Properties. References in each entry serve as links to specific pages within public databases. The online comprehensive DMTB will provide a very useful data resource for researchers from various disciplines, e.g., microbiology, rock magnetism and paleomagnetism, biogeomagnetism, magnetic material sciences and others.
Duldig, M. L.; Watts, D. J.
The Australian Antarctic Division has agreed to host the international GLE database. Access to the database is via a world-wide-web interface and initially covers all GLEs since the start of the 22nd solar cycle. Access restriction for recent events is controlled by password protection and these data are available only to those groups contributing data to the database. The restrictions to data will be automatically removed for events older than 2 years, in accordance with the data exchange provisions of the Antarctic Treaty. Use of the data requires acknowledgment of the database as the source of the data and acknowledgment of the specific groups that provided the data used. Furthermore, some groups that provide data to the database have specific acknowledgment requirements or wording. A new submission format has been developed that will allow easier exchange of data, although the old format will be acceptable for some time. Data download options include direct web based download and email. Data may also be viewed as listings or plots with web browsers. Search options have also been incorporated. Development of the database will be ongoing with extension to viewing and delivery options, addition of earlier data and the development of mirror sites. It is expected that two mirror sites, one in North America and one in Europe, will be developed to enable fast access for the whole cosmic ray community.
Smith, Dean Lance
The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.
Lock, James; La Via, Maria C
This Practice Parameter reviews evidence-based practices for the evaluation and treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. Where empirical support is limited, clinical consensus opinion is used to supplement systematic data review. The Parameter focuses on the phenomenology of eating disorders, comorbidity of eating disorders with other psychiatric and medical disorders, and treatment in children and adolescents. Because the database related to eating disorders in younger patients is limited, relevant literature drawn from adult studies is included in the discussion.
Ayhan, Aynur Bütün; Simşek, Sükran; Aral, Neriman; Baran, Gülen
The goal of this study was to characterize loneliness among adolescents with respect to socioeconomic level, sex, and mothers' and fathers' education. General information about the 400 adolescents and their families were obtained. The UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered. Results of a hierarchical multiple regression showed that mothers' educational level explained a slight but statistically significant amount of variance in adolescents' loneliness scores while sex, socioeconomic level and fathers' educational level did not.
SRD 71 NIST Electron Inelastic-Mean-Free-Path Database (PC database, no charge) This database provides values of electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) for use in quantitative surface analyses by AES and XPS.
This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article.
Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss
Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. Providing confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand.
The recent trend in suicide mortality has made it the second-most-common cause of death in adolescence. The recognition of depressed adolescents, especially males, is made difficult by their low utilization of health services and by the variety of modes of presentation. The family physician's ability to play an effective role in helping the depressed adolescent and preventing the occurrence of suicide depends on the establishment of rapport, obtaining a detailed history, and being prepared to offer continuity of care. In most depressed adolescents there is limited need for hospitalization, medication or psychiatric treatment. PMID:21267225
Resnick, M D
The range of pregnancy options available to adolescents each have significant ramifications for future educational and economic achievement. The changing societal context of adolescent pregnancy decision-making are described, and the characteristics of adolescents who choose to terminate their pregnancy, parent their child, or place for adoption are examined. The role of significant others in decision-making and the implications of mandatory parental involvement in pregnancy decision-making is discussed, as well as the roles of schools in promoting the well-being and potential of adolescents considering pregnancy decisions.
Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for children result in weight loss or stabilisation in the short term, preventing relapse after weight loss remains an important challenge. Weight loss maintenance approaches in childhood are thought to be promising, but a structured overview of these maintenance interventions is lacking. The aim of the systematic review described in this protocol is to provide an overview of reports published about maintenance interventions in childhood overweight and obesity following initial treatment, in order to guide future directions in the development of maintenance programs for childhood obesity. Methods/design The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, and SocINDEX will be searched for this review. Reference lists of eligible study reports will be scanned for relevant references. Article selection including risk of bias assessment will be performed independently in an unblinded standardised manner by three authors. All reports describing a maintenance intervention in overweight or obese children with a mean or median age of <18 years who have followed a treatment program, regardless of the type of intervention, will be included. Data extraction will be performed using a predesigned pilot-tested data extraction sheet that covers participant characteristics, details about the treatment preceding the maintenance intervention, and the maintenance intervention itself. Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS or BMI-Z-score) will be used to compare studies. If possible, a meta-analysis will be performed using the inverse-variance random-effects method. Studies that are not included in the meta-analysis will be described in a narrative way in tables and/or in the text. Discussion This systematic review will
Robinson, James; Halliwell, Jason A; Hayhurst, James D; Flicek, Paul; Parham, Peter; Marsh, Steven G E
The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) was developed to provide a centralized system for the study of polymorphism in genes of the immune system. Through the IPD project we have established a central platform for the curation and publication of locus-specific databases involved either directly or related to the function of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in a number of different species. We have collaborated with specialist groups or nomenclature committees that curate the individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. IPD consists of five core databases, with the IMGT/HLA Database as the primary database. Through the work of the various nomenclature committees, the HLA Informatics Group and in collaboration with the European Bioinformatics Institute we are able to provide public access to this data through the website http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/. The IPD project continues to develop with new tools being added to address scientific developments, such as Next Generation Sequencing, and to address user feedback and requests. Regular updates to the website ensure that new and confirmatory sequences are dispersed to the immunogenetics community, and the wider research and clinical communities.
Robinson, James; Halliwell, Jason A.; Hayhurst, James D.; Flicek, Paul; Parham, Peter; Marsh, Steven G. E.
The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) was developed to provide a centralized system for the study of polymorphism in genes of the immune system. Through the IPD project we have established a central platform for the curation and publication of locus-specific databases involved either directly or related to the function of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in a number of different species. We have collaborated with specialist groups or nomenclature committees that curate the individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. IPD consists of five core databases, with the IMGT/HLA Database as the primary database. Through the work of the various nomenclature committees, the HLA Informatics Group and in collaboration with the European Bioinformatics Institute we are able to provide public access to this data through the website http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/. The IPD project continues to develop with new tools being added to address scientific developments, such as Next Generation Sequencing, and to address user feedback and requests. Regular updates to the website ensure that new and confirmatory sequences are dispersed to the immunogenetics community, and the wider research and clinical communities. PMID:25414341
Gerstein, M; Krebs, W
We describe a database of macromolecular motions meant to be of general use to the structural community. The database, which is accessible on the World Wide Web with an entry point at http://bioinfo.mbb.yale.edu/MolMovDB , attempts to systematize all instances of protein and nucleic acid movement for which there is at least some structural information. At present it contains >120 motions, most of which are of proteins. Protein motions are further classified hierarchically into a limited number of categories, first on the basis of size (distinguishing between fragment, domain and subunit motions) and then on the basis of packing. Our packing classification divides motions into various categories (shear, hinge, other) depending on whether or not they involve sliding over a continuously maintained and tightly packed interface. In addition, the database provides some indication about the evidence behind each motion (i.e. the type of experimental information or whether the motion is inferred based on structural similarity) and attempts to describe many aspects of a motion in terms of a standardized nomenclature (e.g. the maximum rotation, the residue selection of a fixed core, etc.). Currently, we use a standard relational design to implement the database. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of the information kept in the database makes it an ideal application for an object-relational approach, and we are moving it in this direction. Specifically, in terms of storing complex information, the database contains plausible representations for motion pathways, derived from restrained 3D interpolation between known endpoint conformations. These pathways can be viewed in a variety of movie formats, and the database is associated with a server that can automatically generate these movies from submitted coordinates. PMID:9722650
Donelson, Ken, Ed.
This issue of the Arizona English Bulletin contains articles discussing literature that adolescents read and literature that they might be encouraged to read. Thus there are discussions both of literature specifically written for adolescents and the literature adolescents choose to read. The term adolescent is understood to include young people in…
The proportion of women aged 15-19 in Colombia who are mothers declined from 14% in 1985 to 10% in 1990, but the actual number of cases increased due to population growth. Some 1,780,000 adolescents who have had children or are pregnant require family planning services. An additional, unknown number of adolescent pregnancies are terminated by abortion. It is estimated that 95% of adolescent pregnancies diagnosed or followed by PROFAMILIA's center for young people were unwanted. Reasons for making family planning services available to adolescents include the ever young age at initiation of sexual activity, the very low rates of contraceptive usage among sexually active adolescents, the lack of information of adolescents concerning reproduction and contraception, and their fear and guilt surrounding their sexual activity and contraceptive usage. Obstetrical services appear reluctant to furnish adolescent mothers with information on contraception, and the pharmacists and their employees who provide such information may not be aware of contraindications for this age group or whether adolescents are adequately instructed in use of the method. The rising age at marriage increases the span of time that adolescents are at risk of unwanted pregnancy. Adolescents who are well informed about sexuality and contraception and trained in decision making, self-esteem, and responsible parenthood are likely to postpone sexual activity. Information on contraception and family planning services needs to be made available to adolescents in a way that will actually motivate use. Information on sex and contraception should be made available at puberty and should include the form of use, contraindications, and advantages and disadvantages of all methods appropriate to adolescents. Orientation and assistance in selecting the best method should be individually tailored and should be provided in schools or other places accessible to young people, in a language they can understand. Rhythm and
Carey, George B; Tan, Yi-Hung Carol; Bokhary, Ujala; Itkonen, Michelle; Szeto, Kyle; Wallace, James; Campbell, Nicholas; Hensing, Thomas; Salgia, Ravi
Objective: An increasing amount of clinical data is available to biomedical researchers, but specifically designed database and informatics infrastructures are needed to handle this data effectively. Multiple research groups should be able to pool and share this data in an efficient manner. The Chicago Thoracic Oncology Database Consortium (CTODC) was created to standardize data collection and facilitate the pooling and sharing of data at institutions throughout Chicago and across the world. We assessed the CTODC by conducting a proof of principle investigation on lung cancer patients who took erlotinib. This study does not look into epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, but rather it discusses the development and utilization of the database involved. Methods: We have implemented the Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project (TOPDP) Microsoft Access, the Thoracic Oncology Research Program (TORP) Velos, and the TORP REDCap databases for translational research efforts. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) were created to document the construction and proper utilization of these databases. These SOPs have been made available freely to other institutions that have implemented their own databases patterned on these SOPs. Results: A cohort of 373 lung cancer patients who took erlotinib was identified. The EGFR mutation statuses of patients were analyzed. Out of the 70 patients that were tested, 55 had mutations while 15 did not. In terms of overall survival and duration of treatment, the cohort demonstrated that EGFR-mutated patients had a longer duration of erlotinib treatment and longer overall survival compared to their EGFR wild-type counterparts who received erlotinib. Discussion: The investigation successfully yielded data from all institutions of the CTODC. While the investigation identified challenges, such as the difficulty of data transfer and potential duplication of patient data, these issues can be resolved
Picardi, Ernesto; Regina, Teresa Maria Rosaria; Brennicke, Axel; Quagliariello, Carla
The RNA Editing Database (REDIdb) is an interactive, web-based database created and designed with the aim to allocate RNA editing events such as substitutions, insertions and deletions occurring in a wide range of organisms. The database contains both fully and partially sequenced DNA molecules for which editing information is available either by experimental inspection (in vitro) or by computational detection (in silico). Each record of REDIdb is organized in a specific flat-file containing a description of the main characteristics of the entry, a feature table with the editing events and related details and a sequence zone with both the genomic sequence and the corresponding edited transcript. REDIdb is a relational database in which the browsing and identification of editing sites has been simplified by means of two facilities to either graphically display genomic or cDNA sequences or to show the corresponding alignment. In both cases, all editing sites are highlighted in colour and their relative positions are detailed by mousing over. New editing positions can be directly submitted to REDIdb after a user-specific registration to obtain authorized secure access. This first version of REDIdb database stores 9964 editing events and can be freely queried at http://biologia.unical.it/py_script/search.html.
Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi
During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists.
Johnson, Kristofer; Harden, Jennifer
Database Collaborator's Meeting; Fairbanks, Alaska, 4 March 2009; Soil carbon pools in northern high-latitude regions and their response to climate changes are highly uncertain, and collaboration is required from field scientists and modelers to establish baseline data for carbon cycle studies. The Global Change Program at the U.S. Geological Survey has funded a 2-year effort to establish a soil carbon network and database for Alaska based on collaborations from numerous institutions. To initiate a community effort, a workshop for the development of an Alaska soil carbon database was held at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The database will be a resource for spatial and biogeochemical models of Alaska ecosystems and will serve as a prototype for a nationwide community project: the National Soil Carbon Network (http://www.soilcarb.net). Studies will benefit from the combination of multiple academic and government data sets. This collaborative effort is expected to identify data gaps and uncertainties more comprehensively. Future applications of information contained in the database will identify specific vulnerabilities of soil carbon in Alaska to climate change, disturbance, and vegetation change.
Fung, David C Y
Disease- and locus-specific variant databases have been a valuable resource to clinical and research geneticists. With the recent rapid developments in technologies, the number of DNA variants detected in a typical molecular genetics laboratory easily exceeds 1,000. To keep track of the growing inventory of DNA variants, many laboratories employ information technology to store the data as well as distributing the data and its associated information to clinicians and researchers via the Web. While it is a valuable resource, the hosting of a web-accessible database requires collaboration between bioinformaticians and biologists and careful planning to ensure its usability and availability. In this chapter, a series of tutorials on building a local DNA variant database out of a sample dataset will be provided. However, this tutorial will not include programming details on building a web interface and on constructing the web application necessary for web hosting. Instead, an introduction to the two commonly used methods for hosting web-accessible variant databases will be described. Apart from the tutorials, this chapter will also consider the resources and planning required for making a variant database project successful.
Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi
During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286
Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.
The study focused on non-medical steroid use by adolescents according to data obtained from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, professional literature, 30 key informants knowledgeable in steroid issues, and 72 current or former steroid users. The findings indicated: (1) over 250,000 adolescents, primarily males, used or have used steroids, and…
This author acknowledges that teachers agree that "adolescents aren't always interested in the topics adults consider important for them to learn." It is easy for adults who have forgotten the wonder and uncertainty of the adolescent years to declare that students today are more uninterested in school and undisciplined in life than…
Examination of 352 Dutch secondary school students reveals that adolescents with high-level education who endorse adolescent rebellion have a more distinctly left-wing profile--in both their political party preferences and their political views--than those with low-level education, who more often ratified political intolerance. (BJV)
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 1999 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent heath and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
WRITTEN FOR PARENTS, THIS BOOKLET DESCRIBES THE BRAIN INJURED ADOLESCENT AND THE PROBLEMS AND EXPERIENCES FACED BY THE ADOLESCENT AND HIS PARENTS. EIGHTEEN QUESTIONS ASKED BY PARENTS OF THESE CHILDREN ARE DISCUSSED. THE AREAS COVERED ARE-- (1) SOCIAL EXPERIENCES, (2) GUIDED INDEPENDENCE, (3) SOCIAL SKILLS, (4) SUCCESS EXPERIENCES, (5) LEISURE TIME…
Drury, Stacy S.
Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.
White, Aaron M.
Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, a period during which an individual acquires the skills necessary to survive on his or her own, away from parents or other caregivers. Adolescence can be a very confusing time. They experience changes in sleep, diet, mood, weight and attitude and a decreased pleasure from daily activities.…
Uttermohlen, T. L.
The author, born with a severe visual impairment, addresses the tendency of adolescents with visual impairments to try to hide the disability and "pass" as unimpaired with their peers. It is suggested that these adolescents be helped to find a comfortable balance between taking excessive risks and allowing visual impairment or blindness to be an…
Brooks, Ashley; Larkin, Elizabeth M. Gaier; Kishore, Sonal; Frank, Scott
Objective: To examine public health implications of adolescent use of cigars only, cigarettes only, and both cigarettes and cigars. Methods: A cross-sectional health risk survey was administered to a random sample of 4486 high school students in a Midwestern county. Results: More adolescents reported using both cigarettes and cigars (10.6%) than…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Padilla, Teresita M., Ed.
This document comprises the two 2000 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Hofmann, Adele D.
Examining historical shifts in the nature of parental authority, minors' rights, and sexual morality along with accompanying shifts in adolescent coital behavior, the author, a physician and Director of the Adolescent Medical Unit at New York's Bellevue Hospital, concludes that greater sexual freedom is a mark of social advance requiring a new…
Casey, B. J.; Getz, Sarah; Galvan, Adriana
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document comprises the two 2001 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue contains news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Villanueva, Carmelita L., Ed.; Espada-Carlos, Lichelle Dara, Ed.
This document consists of the two 2002 issues of a UNESCO newsletter addressing topics related to adolescent well-being in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly reproductive and sexual health. Each issue includes news from the region on various initiatives related to adolescent health and education, as well as Web links and publications on the…
Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry
This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…
Hanna, Jennie L.
Adolescents are often described as egocentric, but a major source of this external behavior is the internal fear of adolescents have about feeling invisible, being different, and even their own mortality. Facing this fear through a curricular focus on death can help to combat this behavior. This can be accomplished through novel studies of books…
In order to counteract widespread stereotyping of adolescents and to provide a historical perspective on the lives of youth in Great Britain, this report compiles statistical data in six areas regarding adolescents and youth. Chapter 1, "Population, Families and Households," presents information on the population of the United Kingdom…
Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…
Mercer, Jane R.
"Adolescent Prejudice" by Glock, Wuthnow, Piliavin, and Spencer was the central focus for the conference at which this paper was presented. The first objective of this paper was to discuss the implications of that research paper for the social systems characteristics of schools. It was observed that to a considerable extent adolescents form ethnic…
Rice, Kenneth G.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich
A large school-based sample of 9th-grade adolescents (N = 875) completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (APS-R; Slaney, Mobley, Trippi, Ashby, & Johnson, 1996). Decision rules and cut-scores were developed and replicated that classify adolescents as one of two kinds of perfectionists (adaptive or maladaptive) or as nonperfectionists. A…
Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.
This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…
James, Michael A.
Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)
Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)
McArthur, A G; Morrison, H G; Nixon, J E; Passamaneck, N Q; Kim, U; Hinkle, G; Crocker, M K; Holder, M E; Farr, R; Reich, C I; Olsen, G E; Aley, S B; Adam, R D; Gillin, F D; Sogin, M L
The Giardia genome project database provides an online resource for Giardia lamblia (WB strain, clone C6) genome sequence information. The database includes edited single-pass reads, the results of BLASTX searches, and details of progress towards sequencing the entire 12 million-bp Giardia genome. Pre-sorted BLASTX results can be retrieved based on keyword searches and BLAST searches of the high throughput Giardia data can be initiated from the web site or through NCBI. Descriptions of the genomic DNA libraries, project protocols and summary statistics are also available. Although the Giardia genome project is ongoing, new sequences are made available on a bi-monthly basis to ensure that researchers have access to information that may assist them in the search for genes and their biological function. The current URL of the Giardia genome project database is www.mbl.edu/Giardia.
Gibney, Gretchen; Baxevanis, Andreas D
One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two basic protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An alternate protocol builds upon the first basic protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The support protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.
Baxevanis, Andreas D
One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two Basic Protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An Alternate Protocol builds upon the first Basic Protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The Support Protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.
Gibney, Gretchen; Baxevanis, Andreas D
One of the most widely used interfaces for the retrieval of information from biological databases is the NCBI Entrez system. Entrez capitalizes on the fact that there are pre-existing, logical relationships between the individual entries found in numerous public databases. The existence of such natural connections, mostly biological in nature, argued for the development of a method through which all the information about a particular biological entity could be found without having to sequentially visit and query disparate databases. Two basic protocols describe simple, text-based searches, illustrating the types of information that can be retrieved through the Entrez system. An alternate protocol builds upon the first basic protocol, using additional, built-in features of the Entrez system, and providing alternative ways to issue the initial query. The support protocol reviews how to save frequently issued queries. Finally, Cn3D, a structure visualization tool, is also discussed.
Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Hertel, Peter S.; Maggiora, Debra R.; Oncina, Carlos A.
This report describes the development of a stratospheric emissions effects database (SEED) of aircraft fuel burn and emissions from projected Year 2015 subsonic aircraft fleets and from projected fleets of high-speed civil transports (HSCT's). This report also describes the development of a similar database of emissions from Year 1990 scheduled commercial passenger airline and air cargo traffic. The objective of this work was to initiate, develop, and maintain an engineering database for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burn and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons (as CH4) have been calculated on a 1-degree latitude x 1-degree longitude x 1-kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files. This report describes the assumptions and methodology for the calculations and summarizes the results of these calculations.
Barg, M. I.; Stobie, E. B.; Ferro, A. J.; O'Neil, E. J.
In the spring of 2000, at the request of the ADASS Program Organizing Committee (POC), we began organizing information from previous ADASS conferences in an effort to create a centralized database. The beginnings of this database originated from data (invited speakers, participants, papers, etc.) extracted from HyperText Markup Language (HTML) documents from past ADASS host sites. Unfortunately, not all HTML documents are well formed and parsing them proved to be an iterative process. It was evident at the beginning that if these Web documents were organized in a standardized way, such as XML (Extensible Markup Language), the processing of this information across the Web could be automated, more efficient, and less error prone. This paper will briefly review the many programming tools available for processing XML, including Java, Perl and Python, and will explore the mapping of relational data from our MySQL database to XML.
Likens, William C.
The design and implementation of the database system are described with specific reference to data available from the Build-1 version and techniques for its utilization. The review of the initial documents for the Life Support Database is described in terms of title format and sequencing, and the users are defined as participants in NASA-sponsored life-support research. The software and hardware selections are based respectively on referential integrity and compatibility, and the implementation of the user interface is achieved by means of an applications-programming tool. The current Beta-Test implementation of the system includes several thousand acronyms and bibliographic references as well as chemical properties and exposure limits, equipment, construction materials, and mission data. In spite of modifications in the database the system is found to be effective and a potentially significant resource for the aerospace community.
The DOE International Energy Storage Database has more than 400 documented energy storage projects from 34 countries around the world. The database provides free, up-to-date information on grid-connected energy storage projects and relevant state and federal policies. More than 50 energy storage technologies are represented worldwide, including multiple battery technologies, compressed air energy storage, flywheels, gravel energy storage, hydrogen energy storage, pumped hydroelectric, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and thermal energy storage. The policy section of the database shows 18 federal and state policies addressing grid-connected energy storage, from rules and regulations to tariffs and other financial incentives. It is funded through DOE’s Sandia National Laboratories, and has been operating since January 2012.
Snell, J R; Green, R; Stott, G; Van Baerle, S
This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of anatomical structures can be used in conjunction with gross dissection in teaching normal anatomy to first year students in the professional curriculum. The computer model gives students the opportunity to "discover" relationships between anatomical structures that may have been destroyed or may not be obvious in the gross dissection. By using a digital database, the student will have the ability to view and manipulate anatomical structures in ways that are not available through interactive video disk (IVD). IVD constrains the student to preselected views and sections stored on the disk.
The National Residential Efficiency Measures Database is a publicly available, centralized resource of residential building retrofit measures and costs for the U.S. building industry. With support from the U.S. Department of Energy, NREL developed this tool to help users determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for improving energy efficiency of existing homes. Software developers who require residential retrofit performance and cost data for applications that evaluate residential efficiency measures are the primary audience for this database. In addition, home performance contractors and manufacturers of residential materials and equipment may find this information useful. The database offers the following types of retrofit measures: 1) Appliances, 2) Domestic Hot Water, 3) Enclosure, 4) Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), 5) Lighting, 6) Miscellaneous.
Jewison, Timothy; Knox, Craig; Neveu, Vanessa; Djoumbou, Yannick; Guo, An Chi; Lee, Jacqueline; Liu, Philip; Mandal, Rupasri; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Sinelnikov, Igor; Wilson, Michael; Wishart, David S.
The Yeast Metabolome Database (YMDB, http://www.ymdb.ca) is a richly annotated ‘metabolomic’ database containing detailed information about the metabolome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Modeled closely after the Human Metabolome Database, the YMDB contains >2000 metabolites with links to 995 different genes/proteins, including enzymes and transporters. The information in YMDB has been gathered from hundreds of books, journal articles and electronic databases. In addition to its comprehensive literature-derived data, the YMDB also contains an extensive collection of experimental intracellular and extracellular metabolite concentration data compiled from detailed Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) metabolomic analyses performed in our lab. This is further supplemented with thousands of NMR and MS spectra collected on pure, reference yeast metabolites. Each metabolite entry in the YMDB contains an average of 80 separate data fields including comprehensive compound description, names and synonyms, structural information, physico-chemical data, reference NMR and MS spectra, intracellular/extracellular concentrations, growth conditions and substrates, pathway information, enzyme data, gene/protein sequence data, as well as numerous hyperlinks to images, references and other public databases. Extensive searching, relational querying and data browsing tools are also provided that support text, chemical structure, spectral, molecular weight and gene/protein sequence queries. Because of S. cervesiae's importance as a model organism for biologists and as a biofactory for industry, we believe this kind of database could have considerable appeal not only to metabolomics researchers, but also to yeast biologists, systems biologists, the industrial fermentation industry, as well as the beer, wine and spirit industry. PMID:22064855
Boulanger, Damien; Gautron, Benoit; Thouret, Valérie; Fontaine, Alain
IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) is a European Research Infrastructure which aims at the provision of long-term, regular and spatially resolved in situ observations of the atmospheric composition. IAGOS observation systems are deployed on a fleet of commercial aircraft. The IAGOS database is an essential part of the global atmospheric monitoring network. It contains IAGOS-core data and IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) data. The IAGOS Database Portal (http://www.iagos.fr, email@example.com) is part of the French atmospheric chemistry data center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). The new IAGOS Database Portal has been released in December 2015. The main improvement is the interoperability implementation with international portals or other databases in order to improve IAGOS data discovery. In the frame of the IGAS project (IAGOS for the Copernicus Atmospheric Service), a data network has been setup. It is composed of three data centers: the IAGOS database in Toulouse; the HALO research aircraft database at DLR (https://halo-db.pa.op.dlr.de); and the CAMS data center in Jülich (http://join.iek.fz-juelich.de). The CAMS (Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service) project is a prominent user of the IGAS data network. The new portal provides improved and new services such as the download in NetCDF or NASA Ames formats, plotting tools (maps, time series, vertical profiles, etc.) and user management. Added value products are available on the portal: back trajectories, origin of air masses, co-location with satellite data, etc. The link with the CAMS data center, through JOIN (Jülich OWS Interface), allows to combine model outputs with IAGOS data for inter-comparison. Finally IAGOS metadata has been standardized (ISO 19115) and now provides complete information about data traceability and quality.
Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rossau, Henriette Knold; Nakano, Anne; Foghmar, Sussie; Eichhorst, Regina; Prescott, Eva; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Soja, Anne Merete Boas; Gislason, Gunnar H; Larsen, Mogens Lytken; Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Gustafsson, Ida; Thomsen, Kristian K; Boye Hansen, Lene; Hammer, Signe; Viggers, Lone; Christensen, Bo; Kvist, Birgitte; Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; May, Ole
Aim of database The Danish Cardiac Rehabilitation Database (DHRD) aims to improve the quality of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) to the benefit of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Study population Hospitalized patients with CHD with stenosis on coronary angiography treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or medication alone. Reporting is mandatory for all hospitals in Denmark delivering CR. The database was initially implemented in 2013 and was fully running from August 14, 2015, thus comprising data at a patient level from the latter date onward. Main variables Patient-level data are registered by clinicians at the time of entry to CR directly into an online system with simultaneous linkage to other central patient registers. Follow-up data are entered after 6 months. The main variables collected are related to key outcome and performance indicators of CR: referral and adherence, lifestyle, patient-related outcome measures, risk factor control, and medication. Program-level online data are collected every third year. Descriptive data Based on administrative data, approximately 14,000 patients with CHD are hospitalized at 35 hospitals annually, with 75% receiving one or more outpatient rehabilitation services by 2015. The database has not yet been running for a full year, which explains the use of approximations. Conclusion The DHRD is an online, national quality improvement database on CR, aimed at patients with CHD. Mandatory registration of data at both patient level as well as program level is done on the database. DHRD aims to systematically monitor the quality of CR over time, in order to improve the quality of CR throughout Denmark to benefit patients. PMID:27822083
Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.; Vervaeck, A.
The global CATDAT damaging earthquakes and secondary effects (tsunami, fire, landslides, liquefaction and fault rupture) database was developed to validate, remove discrepancies, and expand greatly upon existing global databases; and to better understand the trends in vulnerability, exposure, and possible future impacts of such historic earthquakes. Lack of consistency and errors in other earthquake loss databases frequently cited and used in analyses was a major shortcoming in the view of the authors which needed to be improved upon. Over 17 000 sources of information have been utilised, primarily in the last few years, to present data from over 12 200 damaging earthquakes historically, with over 7000 earthquakes since 1900 examined and validated before insertion into the database. Each validated earthquake includes seismological information, building damage, ranges of social losses to account for varying sources (deaths, injuries, homeless, and affected), and economic losses (direct, indirect, aid, and insured). Globally, a slightly increasing trend in economic damage due to earthquakes is not consistent with the greatly increasing exposure. The 1923 Great Kanto (214 billion USD damage; 2011 HNDECI-adjusted dollars) compared to the 2011 Tohoku (>300 billion USD at time of writing), 2008 Sichuan and 1995 Kobe earthquakes show the increasing concern for economic loss in urban areas as the trend should be expected to increase. Many economic and social loss values not reported in existing databases have been collected. Historical GDP (Gross Domestic Product), exchange rate, wage information, population, HDI (Human Development Index), and insurance information have been collected globally to form comparisons. This catalogue is the largest known cross-checked global historic damaging earthquake database and should have far-reaching consequences for earthquake loss estimation, socio-economic analysis, and the global reinsurance field.
Vidhya, Gopalakrishnan; Anusha, Bhaskar
Diabetic retinopathy, is a microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and is a major cause of adult blindness. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is not well understood. Results from epidemiological studies of diabetic patients suggest that there are familial predispositions to diabetes and to diabetic retinopathy. Therefore the main purpose of this database is to help both scientists and doctors in studying the candidate genes responsible for causing diabetic retinopathy. For each candidate gene official symbol, chromosome map, number of exons, GT-AG introns, motif, polymorphic variation and 3D structure are given respectively. In addition to molecular class and function of these genes, this database also provides links to download the corresponding nucleotide and amino acid sequences in FASTA format which may be further used for computational approaches. Therefore this database will increase the understanding of the genetics underlying the development or progression of diabetic retinopathy and will have an impact on future diagnostic, prevention and intervention strategies. Availability The database is freely available at http: diaretinopathydatabase.com PMID:24966527
Fortenberry, J Dennis
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan.
Holzer, L; Halfon, O; Thoua, V
Recent progress in neuroscience has yielded major findings regarding brain maturation during adolescence. Unlike the body, which reaches adult size and morphology during this period, the adolescent brain is still maturing. The prefrontal cortex appears to be an important locus of maturational change subserving executive functions that may regulate emotional and motivational issues. The recent expansion of the adolescent period has increased the lag between the onset of emotional and motivational changes activated by puberty and the completion of cognitive development-the maturation of self-regulatory capacities and skills that are continuing to develop long after puberty has occurred. This "disconnect" predicts risk for a broad set of behavioral and emotional problems. Adolescence is a critical period for high-level cognitive functions such as socialization that rely on maturation of the prefrontal cortex. Intervention during the period of adolescent brain development provides opportunities and requires an interdisciplinary approach.
Wright, Evelyn L.; Hosom, John-Paul; ,
The seismic data analysis (SDA) software system facilitates generation of marine seismic reflector databases composed of reflector depths, travel times, root-mean-square and interval velocities, geographic coordinates, and identifying information. System processes include digitizing of seismic profiles and velocity semblance curves, merging of velocity and navigation data with profile travel-time data, calculation of reflector depths in meters, profile and map graphic displays, data editing and smoothing, and entry of finalized data into a comprehensive database. An overview of concepts, file structures, and programs is presented.
Greene, Richard J.; Hield, Christopher
Data exploration systems apply machine learning techniques, multivariate statistical methods, information theory, and database theory to databases to identify significant relationships among the data and summarize information. The result of applying data exploration systems should be a better understanding of the structure of the data and a perspective of the data enabling an analyst to form hypotheses for interpreting the data. This paper argues that data exploration systems need a minimum amount of domain knowledge to guide both the statistical strategy and the interpretation of the resulting patterns discovered by these systems.
CD-ROM has rapidly evolved as a new information medium with large capacity, In the U.S. it is predicted that it will become two hundred billion yen market in three years, and thus CD-ROM is strategic target of database industry. Here in Japan the movement toward its commercialization has been active since this year. Shall CD-ROM bussiness ever conquer information market as an on-disk database or electronic publication? Referring to some cases of the applications in the U.S. the author views marketability and the future trend of this new optical disk medium.
We have developed as web-based database containing spectra of diatomic moiecuies. All data is computed from first principles, and if a user requests data for a molecule/ion that is not in the database, new calculations are automatically carried out on that species. Rotational, vibrational, and electronic transitions are included. Different levels of accuracy can be selected from qualitatively correct to the best calculations that can be carried out. The user can view and modify spectroscopic constants, view potential energy curves, download detailed high temperature linelists, or view synthetic spectra.
Finkelman, R.B.; Gross, P.M.K.
Domestic and worldwide coal use will be influenced by concerns about the effects of coal combustion on the local, regional and global environment. Reliable coal quality data can help decision-makers to better assess risks and determine impacts of coal constituents on technological behavior, economic byproduct recovery, and environmental and human health issues. The US Geological Survey (USGS) maintains an existing coal quality database (COALQUAL) that contains analyses of approximately 14,000 col samples from every major coal-producing basin in the US. For each sample, the database contains results of proximate and ultimate analyses; sulfur form data; and major, minor, and trace element concentrations for approximately 70 elements
John, L. M.; Drake, J.
The publicly accessible databases for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer include: the EUVE Archive mailserver; the CEA ftp site; the EUVE Guest Observer Mailserver; and the Astronomical Data System node. The EUVE Performance Assurance team is responsible for verifying that these public EUVE databases are working properly, and that the public availability of EUVE data contained therein does not infringe any data rights which may have been assigned. In this poster, we describe the Quality Assurance (QA) procedures we have developed from the approach of QA as a service organization, thus reflecting the overall EUVE philosophy of Quality Assurance integrated into normal operating procedures, rather than imposed as an external, post facto, control mechanism.
Koh, Bibiana D.; Rueter, Martha A.
Although most adopted children are well adjusted, research has consistently found that adopted adolescents are at an increased risk for externalizing behaviors. The present investigation tested a model whereby parent-adolescent negative emotionality traits, adolescent conflict, and adoption status contribute to adolescent externalizing behaviors.…
NIST Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1 (PC database for purchase) NIST has produced a new document image database for evaluating document analysis and recognition technologies and information retrieval systems. NIST Special Database 25 contains page images from the 1994 Federal Register and much more.
Klausmeier, Jane A.
This digest provides a brief explanation of what a database is; explains how a database can be used; identifies important factors that should be considered when choosing database management system software; and provides citations to sources for finding reviews and evaluations of database management software. The digest is concerned primarily with…
Palounek, Andrea P. T
The WMC Database is ultimately envisioned to hold a collection of experimental data, design information, and information from computational models. This project was a first attempt at using the Database to access experimental data and extract information from it. This evaluation shows that the Database concept is sound and robust, and that the Database, once fully populated, should remain eminently usable for future researchers.
Anderson, Margaret B.
This paper discusses the present status of the bibliographic database industry, reviews the development of online databases of interest to the petroleum industry, and considers future developments in online searching and their effect on libraries and information centers. Three groups of databases are described: (1) databases developed by the…
Weymouth, Bridget B.; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51% girls, 91% European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships. PMID:26346035
Weymouth, Bridget B; Buehler, Cheryl
Early adolescence is characterized by increases in parent-adolescent hostility, yet little is known about what predicts these changes. Utilizing a fairly large sample (N = 416, 51 % girls, 91 % European American), this study examined the conjoint and unique influences of adolescent social anxiety symptoms and parental intrusiveness on changes in parent-adolescent hostility across early adolescence. Higher mother and father intrusiveness were associated with increased mother- and father-adolescent hostility. An examination of reciprocal effects revealed that mother- and father-adolescent hostility predicted increased mother and father intrusiveness. Significant associations were not substantiated for adolescent social anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that intrusive parenting has important implications for subsequent parent-adolescent interactions and that similar patterns may characterize some aspects of mother- and father-adolescent relationships.
SRD 159 NLTE4 Plasma Population Kinetics Database (Web database for purchase) This database contains benchmark results for simulation of plasma population kinetics and emission spectra. The data were contributed by the participants of the 4th Non-LTE Code Comparison Workshop who have unrestricted access to the database. The only limitation for other users is in hidden labeling of the output results. Guest users can proceed to the database entry page without entering userid and password.
Fong, Elizabeth N.; And Others
This report discusses an iterative methodology for logical database design (LDD). The methodology includes four phases: local information-flow modeling, global information-flow modeling, conceptual schema design, and external schema modeling. These phases are intended to make maximum use of available information and user expertise, including the…
Describes how data from English language teaching (ELT) classroom research can be exploited in teacher development activities. The contribution data-based activities can make to teacher development is outlined, and examples that illustrate the principles underlying their design are presented. A case is made for using such activities to facilitate…
Discusses issues of database security and integrity, including computer crime and vandalism, human error, computer viruses, employee and user access, and personnel policies. Suggests some precautions to minimize system vulnerability such as careful personnel screening, audit systems, passwords, and building and software security systems. (JKP)
Mehl, Michael; Curtarolo, Stefano; Hicks, David; Toher, Cormac; Levy, Ohad; Hart, Gus
For many years the Naval Research Laboratory maintained an online graphical database of crystal structures for a wide variety of materials. This database has now been redesigned, updated and integrated with the AFLOW framework for high throughput computational materials discovery (http://materials.duke.edu/aflow.html). For each structure we provide an image showing the atomic positions; the primitive vectors of the lattice and the basis vectors of every atom in the unit cell; the space group and Wyckoff positions; Pearson symbols; common names; and Strukturbericht designations, where available. References for each structure are provided, as well as a Crystallographic Information File (CIF). The database currently includes almost 300 entries and will be continuously updated and expanded. It enables easy search of the various structures based on their underlying symmetries, either by Bravais lattice, Pearson symbol, Strukturbericht designation or commonly used prototypes. The talk will describe the features of the database, and highlight its utility for high throughput computational materials design. Work at NRL is funded by a Contract with the Duke University Department of Mechanical Engineering.
Schellenberg, Stephen J.
The role of the professional evaluator within a school district is essentially to provide data for use in informed decision making. In School District 4J in Eugene, Oregon, this role involves performing tasks in three basic categories: (1) maintaining and interpreting ongoing databases, (2) finding and analyzing information to answer specific…
Knight, P.; Timmins, G.
Discusses advantages and limitations of database software in meeting the educational objectives of history instruction; reviews five currently available computer programs (FACTFILE, QUEST, QUARRY BANK 1851, Census Analysis, and Beta Base); highlights major considerations that arise in designing such programs; and describes their classroom use.…
Dobb, Linda S.
Discussion of technostress in libraries focuses on a database crash at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Steps taken to restore the data are explained, strategies for handling technological accidents are suggested, the impact on library staff is discussed, and a 10-item annotated bibliography on technostress is provided.…
Overton, C.; Davidson, S. B.; Buneman, P.; Tannen, V.
The goal of this project was to develop tools to facilitate data transformations between heterogeneous data sources found throughout biomedical applications. Such transformations are necessary when sharing data between different groups working on related problems as well as when querying data spread over different databases, files and software analysis packages.
Defines the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) full text, and reviews its past, present, and future uses in libraries. Discusses advantages, disadvantages, and uses of searchable and nonsearchable full-text databases. Also comments on full-text CD-ROM products and on technological advancements made by library vendors. (JMV)
The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...
Caivano, Jose L.
The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.
user can obtain values computed from empirical algorithms (e.g., beam attenuation estimated from diffuse attenuation and backscatter data). Error ...from empirical algorithms (e.g., beam attenuation estimated from diffuse attenuation and backscatter data). Error estimates will also be provided for...properties, including diffuse attenuation, beam attenuation, and scattering. The database shall be easy to use, Internet accessible, and frequently updated
Moser, Danielle E.
The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.
Lodish, Erica K.
Because of the increasing importance of online databases, school library media specialists are encouraged to introduce students to online searching. Four books that would help media specialists gain a basic background are reviewed and it is noted that although they are very technical, they can be adapted to individual needs. (EM)
Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H
Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish
Rezaei Mahdiraji, Alireza; Baumann, Peter Peter
Unstructured meshes are used in several application domains such as earth sciences (e.g., seismology), medicine, oceanography, cli- mate modeling, GIS as approximate representations of physical objects. Meshes subdivide a domain into smaller geometric elements (called cells) which are glued together by incidence relationships. The subdivision of a domain allows computational manipulation of complicated physical structures. For instance, seismologists model earthquakes using elastic wave propagation solvers on hexahedral meshes. The hexahedral con- tains several hundred millions of grid points and millions of hexahedral cells. Each vertex node in the hexahedrals stores a multitude of data fields. To run simulation on such meshes, one needs to iterate over all the cells, iterate over incident cells to a given cell, retrieve coordinates of cells, assign data values to cells, etc. Although meshes are used in many application domains, to the best of our knowledge there is no database vendor that support unstructured mesh features. Currently, the main tool for querying and manipulating unstructured meshes are mesh libraries, e.g., CGAL and GRAL. Mesh li- braries are dedicated libraries which includes mesh algorithms and can be run on mesh representations. The libraries do not scale with dataset size, do not have declarative query language, and need deep C++ knowledge for query implementations. Furthermore, due to high coupling between the implementations and input file structure, the implementations are less reusable and costly to maintain. A dedicated mesh database offers the following advantages: 1) declarative querying, 2) ease of maintenance, 3) hiding mesh storage structure from applications, and 4) transparent query optimization. To design a mesh database, the first challenge is to define a suitable generic data model for unstructured meshes. We proposed ImG-Complexes data model as a generic topological mesh data model which extends incidence graph model to multi
Mathias, Stephen L; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I
Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical-protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical-protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure-target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure-target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. 'drugs'). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database
Mathias, Stephen L.; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J.; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I.
Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical–protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical–protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure–target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure–target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. ‘drugs’). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD
Reynolds, A. P.; Parmar, A. N.
The EXOSAT database provides on-line access to the results and data products (spectra, images, and lightcurves) from the EXOSAT mission as well as access to data and logs from a number of other missions (such as EINSTEIN, COS-B, ROSAT, and IRAS). In addition, a number of familiar optical, infrared, and x ray catalogs, including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) guide star catalog are available. The complete database is located at the EXOSAT observatory at ESTEC in the Netherlands and is accessible remotely via a captive account. The database management system was specifically developed to efficiently access the database and to allow the user to perform statistical studies on large samples of astronomical objects as well as to retrieve scientific and bibliographic information on single sources. The system was designed to be mission independent and includes timing, image processing, and spectral analysis packages as well as software to allow the easy transfer of analysis results and products to the user's own institute. The archive at ESTEC comprises a subset of the EXOSAT observations, stored on magnetic tape. Observations of particular interest were copied in compressed format to an optical jukebox, allowing users to retrieve and analyze selected raw data entirely from their terminals. Such analysis may be necessary if the user's needs are not accommodated by the products contained in the database (in terms of time resolution, spectral range, and the finesse of the background subtraction, for instance). Long-term archiving of the full final observation data is taking place at ESRIN in Italy as part of the ESIS program, again using optical media, and ESRIN have now assumed responsibility for distributing the data to the community. Tests showed that raw observational data (typically several tens of megabytes for a single target) can be transferred via the existing networks in reasonable time.
Ricci, Giampaolo; Bellini, Federica; Dondi, Arianna; Patrizi, Annalisa; Pession, Andrea
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder that typically occurs during childhood especially in the first year of life, with a variable frequency from 10% to 30%. Recent studies have shown that in Europe among 10–20% of children with AD suffer from this disorder also in adolescence. AD is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical onset in the first years of life and with a 10–30% prevalence among young children. AD prevalence in adolescence has been estimated around 5–15% in European countries. AD persists from childhood through adolescence in around 40% of cases and some risk factors have been identified: female sex, sensitization to inhalant and food allergens, allergic asthma and/or rhinoconjunctivitis, the practice of certain jobs. During adolescence, AD mainly appears on the face and neck, often associated with overinfection by Malassezia, and on the palms and soles. AD persistence during adolescence is correlated with psychological diseases such as anxiety; moreover, adolescents affected by AD might have problems in the relationship with their peers. Stress and the psychological problems represent a serious burden for adolescents with AD and cause a significant worsening of the patients' quality of life (QoL). The pharmacological treatment is similar to other age groups. Educational and psychological approaches should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:25386309
Hong, Jun Sung; Voisin, Dexter R; Cho, Sujung; Smith, Douglas C; Resko, Stella M
Urban African-American youth residing in poorly resourced communities are at a heightened risk of peer victimization, which consequently increases their likelihood of risky behaviors such as substance use. The present study examined whether there was a direct relationship between peer victimization and substance use and whether it was mediated by negative peer norms, internalizing problems, and bullying perpetration. African-American youth (n = 638) completed a self-administered questionnaire on age, biological sex, socioeconomic status, lifetime substance use, peer victimization and bullying perpetration, negative peer norms, and internalizing problems. There were no direct effects between peer victimization and substance use. However, negative peer norms and bullying were both independently associated with substance use, although internalizing problems were not significant. In addition, peer victimization increased the odds of internalizing problems. Social services must be expended in low-income communities to effectively address peer victimization and substance use among urban African-American youth. (PsycINFO Database Record
name (which should in theory be reserved for table names). In general, this type of nomenclature is confusing for database design and obfuscates the...an encounter with the below pseudo SQL Sales table when a customer purchases multiple products with a single order. 34 DRDC CORA TN 2013-157...CREATE TABLE Sales ( customer_name, product_id ); A.5 Fifth Normal Form Fifth normal form (5NF), also known as
access synchron- ization in a database system. The report develops the theory that supports the correctness of such analysis and algorithms. An...IiThe thesis develops the theory that supports the correctness of such analy- sis and algorithms. An implementation scheme for the proposed algorithm, the...encouraged development of many new algorithms. <For example, Ellis77, Lamport78, Rosenkrantz78, Thomas79, Bernstein8l.> A survey and comparison of theories
Tonkin, Roger S
The prevalence of marijuana use by adolescents has fluctuated in recent decades, but, overall, has increased significantly. In a study of adolescent health status and risk behaviours among students in grades 7 to 12 in British Columbia, it was found that the patterns of marijuana use had changed, especially among early adolescents. An earlier age of onset of use and an increased frequency of use were noted. The present paper examines the clinical and psychosocial implications of early age of onset of marijuana use, and reports important differences in risky behaviours between users and nonusers. The prevailing attitude that marijuana is a ‘safe, recreational’ drug is challenged. PMID:20046275
Peretti, P O; Carter, R; McClinton, B
Graffiti has been studied for many years from many viewpoints. They have been used to explain accounts of people, styles of life, and assumed relationships. The present paper reports an attempt to analyze graffiti as outward manifestations of adolescent personality. Results suggested that different forms of graffiti could be interpreted from five characterizations of early adolescent personality: sexual maturity, self-identity, idealism, iconoclasm, and rebelliousness. Significant differences were found between boys and girls in numbers of inscriptions for each category. Further, the graffiti were analyzed in relation to early adolescent stages of development.
McDonough, Patrick Henry; Schwartz, Robert A
Adolescent androgenic alopecia is pattern hair loss occurring in boys and girls younger than 18 years, whereas early-onset androgenic alopecia refers to pattern hair loss before 35 years of age. A number of studies published in the last decade have helped to elucidate the prevalence of adolescent androgenic alopecia, have clarified the genetic as well as physiologic mechanisms underlying hair loss, and have revealed the associated psychologic and systemic morbidities. This article provides an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of adolescent androgenic alopecia.
Roussopoulos, Nicholas; Sellis, Timos
We investigated a number of design and performance issues of interoperable database management systems (DBMS's). The major results of our investigation were obtained in the areas of client-server database architectures for heterogeneous DBMS's, incremental computation models, buffer management techniques, and query optimization. We finished a prototype of an advanced client-server workstation-based DBMS which allows access to multiple heterogeneous commercial DBMS's. Experiments and simulations were then run to compare its performance with the standard client-server architectures. The focus of this research was on adaptive optimization methods of heterogeneous database systems. Adaptive buffer management accounts for the random and object-oriented access methods for which no known characterization of the access patterns exists. Adaptive query optimization means that value distributions and selectives, which play the most significant role in query plan evaluation, are continuously refined to reflect the actual values as opposed to static ones that are computed off-line. Query feedback is a concept that was first introduced to the literature by our group. We employed query feedback for both adaptive buffer management and for computing value distributions and selectivities. For adaptive buffer management, we use the page faults of prior executions to achieve more 'informed' management decisions. For the estimation of the distributions of the selectivities, we use curve-fitting techniques, such as least squares and splines, for regressing on these values.
Enright, Robert D.; And Others
To assess adolescent egocentrism-sociocentrism, an instrument was devised to measure Elkind's constructs (the imaginary audience, the personal fable, and general self-absorption), plus nonsocial focuses and political focuses. Subjects were ten males and ten females each from three age groups: sixth-grade, eighth-grade, and college. (Author/SJL)
Brion-Meisels, Steven; And Others
This teacher's manual is one volume in a six volume curriculum for the secondary level, designed to provide a systematic, group-oriented approach to decision-making in areas crucial to adolescent development: sexuality and social relationships, drug (substance) use and abuse, work, juvenile law, and people and government. An introductory section…
Paillère Martinot, M-L; Lemaitre, H; Artiges, E; Miranda, R; Goodman, R; Penttilä, J; Struve, M; Fadai, T; Kappel, V; Poustka, L; Conrod, P; Banaschewski, T; Barbot, A; Barker, G J; Büchel, C; Flor, H; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Lawrence, C; Loth, E; Mann, K; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Rietschel, M; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Schumann, G; Martinot, J-L; L, Reed; S, Williams; A, Lourdusamy; S, Costafreda; A, Cattrell; C, Nymberg; L, Topper; L, Smith; S, Havatzias; K, Stueber; C, Mallik; TK, Clarke; D, Stacey; Wong C, Peng; H, Werts; S, Williams; C, Andrew; S, Desrivieres; S, Zewdie; I, Häke; N, Ivanov; A, Klär; J, Reuter; C, Palafox; C, Hohmann; C, Schilling; K, Lüdemann; A, Romanowski; A, Ströhle; E, Wolff; M, Rapp; R, Brühl; A, Ihlenfeld; B, Walaszek; F, Schubert; C, Connolly; J, Jones; E, Lalor; E, McCabe; A, Ní Shiothcháin; R, Whelan; R, Spanagel; F, Leonardi-Essmann; W, Sommer; S, Vollstaedt-Klein; F, Nees; S, Steiner; M, Buehler; E, Stolzenburg; C, Schmal; F, Schirmbeck; P, Gowland; N, Heym; C, Newman; T, Huebner; S, Ripke; E, Mennigen; K, Muller; V, Ziesch; C, Büchel; U, Bromberg; L, Lueken; J, Yacubian; J, Finsterbusch; N, Bordas; S, de Bournonville; Z, Bricaud; Briand F, Gollier; J, Massicotte; JB, Poline; H, Vulser; Y, Schwartz; C, Lalanne; V, Frouin; B, Thyreau; J, Dalley; A, Mar; N, Subramaniam; D, Theobald; N, Richmond; M, de Rover; A, Molander; E, Jordan; E, Robinson; L, Hipolata; M, Moreno; M, Arroyo; D, Stephens; T, Ripley; H, Crombag; Y, Pena; M, Lathrop; D, Zelenika; S, Heath; D, Lanzerath; B, Heinrichs; T, Spranger; B, Fuchs; C, Speiser; F, Resch; J, Haffner; P, Parzer; R, Brunner; A, Klaassen; I, Klaassen; P, Constant; X, Mignon; T, Thomsen; S, Zysset; A, Vestboe; J, Ireland; J, Rogers
Abnormalities in white-matter (WM) microstructure, as lower fractional anisotropy (FA), have been reported in adolescent-onset bipolar disorder and in youth at familial risk for bipolarity. We sought to determine whether healthy adolescents with subthreshold bipolar symptoms (SBP) would have early WM microstructural alterations and whether those alterations would be associated with differences in gray-matter (GM) volumes. Forty-two adolescents with three core manic symptoms and no psychiatric diagnosis, and 126 adolescents matched by age and sex, with no psychiatric diagnosis or symptoms, were identified after screening the IMAGEN database of 2223 young adolescents recruited from the general population. After image quality control, voxel-wise statistics were performed on the diffusion parameters using tract-based spatial statistics in 25 SBP adolescents and 77 controls, and on GM and WM images using voxel-based morphometry in 30 SBP adolescents and 106 controls. As compared with healthy controls, adolescents with SBP displayed lower FA values in a number of WM tracts, particularly in the corpus callosum, cingulum, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, uncinate fasciculi and corticospinal tracts. Radial diffusivity was mainly higher in posterior parts of bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi and right cingulum. As compared with controls, SBP adolescents had lower GM volume in the left anterior cingulate region. This is the first study to investigate WM microstructure and GM morphometric variations in adolescents with SBP. The widespread FA alterations in association and projection tracts, associated with GM changes in regions involved in mood disorders, suggest altered structural connectivity in those adolescents. PMID:23628983
Grawert, Felix; Kobras, Sebastian; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Coufal, Hans J.; Hanssen, Holger; Riedel, Marc; Jefferson, C. Michael; Jurich, Mark C.
Holographic data storage allows the simultaneous search of an entire database by performing multiple optical correlations between stored data pages and a search argument. We have recently developed fuzzy encoding techniques for this fast parallel search and demonstrated a holographic data storage system that searches digital data records with high fidelity. This content-addressable retrieval is based on the ability to take the two-dimensional inner product between the search page and each stored data page. We show that this ability is lost when the correlator is defocussed to avoid material oversaturation, but can be regained by the combination of a random phase mask and beam confinement through total internal reflection. Finally, we propose an architecture in which spatially multiplexed holograms are distributed along the path of the search beam, allowing parallel search of large databases.
Cort, B.; Perkins, B.; Cort, G.
The NMT-5 Criticality Database maintains criticality-related data and documentation to ensure the safety of workers handling special nuclear materials at the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The database contains pertinent criticality safety limit information for more than 150 separate locations at which special nuclear materials are handled. Written in 4th Dimension for the Macintosh, it facilitates the production of signs for posting at these areas, tracks the history of postings and related authorizing documentation, and generates in Microsoft Word a current, comprehensive representation of all signs and supporting documentation, such as standard operating procedures and signature approvals. It facilitates the auditing process and is crucial to full and effective compliance with Department of Energy regulations. It has been recommended for installation throughout the Nuclear Materials Technology Division at Los Alamos.
The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation. In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.
The Majorana Demonstrator is an ultra-low background physics experiment searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. The Majorana Parts Tracking Database is used to record the history of components used in the construction of the Demonstrator. The tracking implementation takes a novel approach based on the schema-free database technology CouchDB. Transportation, storage, and processes undergone by parts such as machining or cleaning are linked to part records. Tracking parts provides a great logistics benefit and an important quality assurance reference during construction. In addition, the location history of parts provides an estimate of their exposure to cosmic radiation.more » In summary, a web application for data entry and a radiation exposure calculator have been developed as tools for achieving the extreme radio-purity required for this rare decay search.« less
Bochkov, Valery V.; Shumko, Sergiy
32-bit database application with multidocument interface for Windows has been developed to calculate absolute energy distributions of observed spectra. The original database contains wavelength calibrated observed spectra which had been already passed through apparatus reductions such as flatfielding, background and apparatus noise subtracting. Absolute energy distributions of observed spectra are defined in unique scale by means of registering them simultaneously with artificial intensity standard. Observations of sequence of spectrophotometric standards are used to define absolute energy of the artificial standard. Observations of spectrophotometric standards are used to define optical extinction in selected moments. FFT algorithm implemented in the application allows performing convolution (deconvolution) spectra with user-defined PSF. The object-oriented interface has been created using facilities of C++ libraries. Client/server model with Windows Socket functionality based on TCP/IP protocol is used to develop the application. It supports Dynamic Data Exchange conversation in server mode and uses Microsoft Exchange communication facilities.
Reardon, John E.; Violett, Duane L., Jr.
The AFAS Database System was developed to provide the basic structure of a comprehensive database system for the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Structures and Dynamics Laboratory Aerophysics Division. The system is intended to handle all of the Aerophysics Division Test Facilities as well as data from other sources. The system was written for the DEC VAX family of computers in FORTRAN-77 and utilizes the VMS indexed file system and screen management routines. Various aspects of the system are covered, including a description of the user interface, lists of all code structure elements, descriptions of the file structures, a description of the security system operation, a detailed description of the data retrieval tasks, a description of the session log, and a description of the archival system.
Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.
The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.
Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.
The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.
Greydanus, D E; Railsback, L D
This article reviews the difficult but complex subject of abortion in adolescents. Methods of abortion are outlined and additional aspects are presented: psychological effects, counseling issues, and legal parameters. It is our conclusion that intense efforts should be aimed at education of youth about sexuality and prevention of pregnancy, utilizing appropriate contraceptive services. When confronted with a youth having an unwanted pregnancy, all legal options need to be carefully explored: delivery, adoption, or abortion. The decision belongs to the youth and important individuals in her environment. Understanding developmental aspects of adolescence will help the clinician deal with the pregnant teenagers. If abortion is selected, a first trimester procedure is best. Finally, physicians are urged to be aware of the specific, ever changing legal dynamics concerning this subject which are present in their states. Abortion is a phenomenon which has become an emotional but undeniably important aspect of adolescent sexuality and adolescent health care, in this country and around the world.
Joffe, A; Radius, S M
Health counseling is a fundamental aspect of health care for adolescents and is a natural extension of the concept of anticipatory guidance. It is a dynamic process involving active participation by adolescents. Pediatricians are a valued source of health-relevant information, but must also recognize how their attitudes and beliefs can affect the counseling process. Knowledge of the multitude of changes occurring during adolescence and an understanding of the role of health-risking behaviors in meeting various developmental needs are critical to successful counseling. Particular attention must be focused on ways to help adolescents develop the skills necessary to maintain health-promoting lifestyles and to resist peer pressure to engage in health-risking behaviors.
Clear, specific information about sexual behavior and its consequences is frequently not provided to adolescents by their families, schools and communities. The "sex education" that many receive comes from misinformed or uninformed peers.
Green, Maurice R.
Describes characteristics of borderline adolescents and reviews diagnostic issues. Uses two case studies to illustrate general treatment strategies that could be useful to clinicians in mental health programs and family courts. (JAC)
Young, Thomas J.
This article, aimed at professionals in the field of adolescent psychology, briefly reviews the use of phencyclidine (PCP), its pharmacology, clinical effects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. (Author/BN)
KIDA (for KInetic Database for Astrochemistry) is a project initiated by different communities in order to 1) improve the interaction between astrochemists and physico-chemists and 2) simplify the work of modeling the chemistry of astrophysical environments. Here astrophysical environments stand for the interstellar medium and planetary atmospheres. Both types of environments use similar chemical networks and the physico-chemists who work on the determination of reaction rate coefficients for both types of environment are the same.
Hansen, Erik; Larsson, Heidi; Nørgaard, Mette; Thind, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard
Aim of database The aim of the Danish Bladder Cancer Database (DaBlaCa-data) is to monitor the treatment of all patients diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer (BC) in Denmark. Study population All patients diagnosed with BC in Denmark from 2012 onward were included in the study. Results presented in this paper are predominantly from the 2013 population. Main variables In 2013, 970 patients were diagnosed with BC in Denmark and were included in a preliminary report from the database. A total of 458 (47%) patients were diagnosed with non-muscle-invasive BC (non-MIBC) and 512 (53%) were diagnosed with muscle-invasive BC (MIBC). A total of 300 (31%) patients underwent cystectomy. Among the 135 patients diagnosed with MIBC, who were 75 years of age or younger, 67 (50%) received neoadjuvent chemotherapy prior to cystectomy. In 2013, a total of 147 patients were treated with curative-intended radiation therapy. Descriptive data One-year mortality was 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15–21). One-year cancer-specific mortality was 25% (95% CI: 22–27%). One-year mortality after cystectomy was 14% (95% CI: 10–18). Ninety-day mortality after cystectomy was 3% (95% CI: 1–5) in 2013. One-year mortality following curative-intended radiation therapy was 32% (95% CI: 24–39) and 1-year cancer-specific mortality was 23% (95% CI: 16–31) in 2013. Conclusion This preliminary DaBlaCa-data report showed that the treatment of MIBC in Denmark overall meet high international academic standards. The database is able to identify Danish BC patients and monitor treatment and mortality. In the future, DaBlaCa-data will be a valuable data source and expansive observational studies on BC will be available. PMID:27822081
Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael
Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346
Brosens, Dimitri; Vankerkhoven, François; Ignace, David; Wegnez, Philippe; Noé, Nicolas; Heughebaert, André; Bortels, Jeannine; Dekoninck, Wouter
Abstract FORMIDABEL is a database of Belgian Ants containing more than 27.000 occurrence records. These records originate from collections, field sampling and literature. The database gives information on 76 native and 9 introduced ant species found in Belgium. The collection records originated mainly from the ants collection in Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), the ‘Gaspar’ Ants collection in Gembloux and the zoological collection of the University of Liège (ULG). The oldest occurrences date back from May 1866, the most recent refer to August 2012. FORMIDABEL is a work in progress and the database is updated twice a year. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through this url: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource.do?r=formidabel. The dataset is also retrievable via the GBIF data portal through this link: http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/14697 A dedicated geo-portal, developed by the Belgian Biodiversity Platform is accessible at: http://www.formicidae-atlas.be Purpose: FORMIDABEL is a joint cooperation of the Flemish ants working group “Polyergus” (http://formicidae.be) and the Wallonian ants working group “FourmisWalBru” (http://fourmiswalbru.be). The original database was created in 2002 in the context of the preliminary red data book of Flemish Ants (Dekoninck et al. 2003). Later, in 2005, data from the Southern part of Belgium; Wallonia and Brussels were added. In 2012 this dataset was again updated for the creation of the first Belgian Ants Atlas (Figure 1) (Dekoninck et al. 2012). The main purpose of this atlas was to generate maps for all outdoor-living ant species in Belgium using an overlay of the standard Belgian ecoregions. By using this overlay for most species, we can discern a clear and often restricted distribution pattern in Belgium, mainly based on vegetation and soil types. PMID:23794918
Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Pewett, Tiffany; Riedel, Adric R.; Silverstein, Michele L.; Slatten, Kenneth J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Recons Team
The REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS, www.recons.org) Team has been mapping the solar neighborhood since 1994. Nearby stars provide the fundamental framework upon which all of stellar astronomy is based, both for individual stars and stellar populations. The nearest stars are also the primary targets for extrasolar planet searches, and will undoubtedly play key roles in understanding the prevalence and structure of solar systems, and ultimately, in our search for life elsewhere.We have built the RECONS 25 Parsec Database to encourage and enable exploration of the Sun's nearest neighbors. The Database, slated for public release in 2015, contains 3088 stars, brown dwarfs, andexoplanets in 2184 systems as of October 1, 2014. All of these systems have accurate trigonometric parallaxes in the refereed literature placing them closer than 25.0 parsecs, i.e., parallaxes greater than 40 mas with errors less than 10 mas. Carefully vetted astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic data are incorporated intothe Database from reliable sources, including significant original data collected by members of the RECONS Team.Current exploration of the solar neighborhood by RECONS, enabled by the Database, focuses on the ubiquitous red dwarfs, including: assessing the stellar companion population of ~1200 red dwarfs (Winters), investigating the astrophysical causes that spread red dwarfs of similar temperatures by a factor of 16 in luminosity (Pewett), and canvassing ~3000 red dwarfs for excess emission due to unseen companions and dust (Silverstein). In addition, a decade long astrometric survey of ~500 red dwarfs in the southern sky has begun, in an effort to understand the stellar, brown dwarf, and planetary companion populations for the stars that make up at least 75% of all stars in the Universe.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.
Klein, T.L.; Evans, K.V.; deWitt, E.H.
This database is a compilation of published and some unpublished isotopic and fission track age determinations in central Colorado. The compiled area extends from the southern Wyoming border to the northern New Mexico border and from approximately the longitude of Denver on the east to Gunnison on the west. Data for the tephrochronology of Pleistocene volcanic ash, carbon-14, Pb-alpha, common-lead, and U-Pb determinations on uranium ore minerals have been excluded.
Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Chuong
A database of various propagation phenomena models that can be used by telecommunications systems engineers to obtain parameter values for systems design is presented. This is an easy-to-use tool and is currently available for either a PC using Excel software under Windows environment or a Macintosh using Excel software for Macintosh. All the steps necessary to use the software are easy and many times self explanatory.
Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Choung
A database of various propagation phenomena models that can be used by telecommunications systems engineers to obtain parameter values for systems design is presented. This is an easy-to-use tool and is currently available for either a PC using Excel software under Windows environment or a Macintosh using Excel software for Macintosh. All the steps necessary to use the software are easy and many times self-explanatory; however, a sample run of the CCIR rain attenuation model is presented.
Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Chuong
A database of various propagation phenomena models that can be used by telecommunications systems engineers to obtain parameter values for systems design is presented. This is an easy-to-use tool and is currently available for either a PC using Excel software under Windows environment or a Macintosh using Excel software for Macintosh. All the steps necessary to use the software are easy and many times self explanatory.
Kyrpides, Nikos; Liolios, Dinos; Chen, Amy; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Hugenholtz, Philip; Markowitz, Victor; Bernal, Alex
Since its inception in 1997, GOLD has continuously monitored genome sequencing projects worldwide and has provided the community with a unique centralized resource that integrates diverse information related to Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryotic and more recently Metagenomic sequencing projects. As of September 2007, GOLD recorded 639 completed genome projects. These projects have their complete sequence deposited into the public archival sequence databases such as GenBank EMBL,and DDBJ. From the total of 639 complete and published genome projects as of 9/2007, 527 were bacterial, 47 were archaeal and 65 were eukaryotic. In addition to the complete projects, there were 2158 ongoing sequencing projects. 1328 of those were bacterial, 59 archaeal and 771 eukaryotic projects. Two types of metadata are provided by GOLD: (i) project metadata and (ii) organism/environment metadata. GOLD CARD pages for every project are available from the link of every GOLD_STAMP ID. The information in every one of these pages is organized into three tables: (a) Organism information, (b) Genome project information and (c) External links. [The Genomes On Line Database (GOLD) in 2007: Status of genomic and metagenomic projects and their associated metadata, Konstantinos Liolios, Konstantinos Mavromatis, Nektarios Tavernarakis and Nikos C. Kyrpides, Nucleic Acids Research Advance Access published online on November 2, 2007, Nucleic Acids Research, doi:10.1093/nar/gkm884]
The basic tables in the GOLD database that can be browsed or searched include the following information:
1 Heng Tan, Visual Basic /SQL Server Primer, ETN Press, Montoursville, PA (1995), p. 46. Removable Hard Drives 500-CD...the user and the server, the Acoustic Signal Processing Branch has developed an innovative user-friendly Visual Basic front-end program. Residing on...Microsoft Visual Basic , Professional Edition, Version 6.0 was selected as the development language for the database user-interface program
Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah
The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late
Sanfilippo, J S
Oral contraceptive (OC) options for adolescents are provides. Clarification for those desiring a birth control method is necessary and the benefits of decreased acne and dysmenorrhea with low dose OCs should be stressed along with the importance of compliance. A community effort is suggested to communicate the sexual and contraceptive alternatives, including abstinence and outercourse (sexual stimulation to orgasm without intercourse). Attention is given to concerns associated with teenage sexual activity, prevention of adolescent pregnancy, contraceptive options for the adolescent patient, adolescent attitudes toward birth control OCs, management of the adolescent OC user, manipulation of steroid components of OCs to respond to adolescent concerns, and other hormonal contraceptive options such as minipills or abstinence. The text is supplemented with tables: the % of US women by single years of age for 1971, 1976, 1979, and 1982; comparative pregnancy and abortion rates for the US and 5 other countries; federal cost for teen childbearing; adolescent nonhormonal contraceptive methods (advantages, disadvantages, and retail cost); checklist to identify those at risk for noncompliance with OCs; hormonal side effects of OCs; risks from OCs to adolescents; and benefits of OCs. Concern about adolescent pregnancy dates back to Aristotle. A modern profile shows girls form single-parent families are sexually active at an earlier age, adolescent mothers produce offspring who repeat the cycle, victims of sexual abuse are more likely to be sexually active, and teenagers in foster care are 4 times more likely to be sexually active and 8 times more likely to become pregnant. Prevention involves a multifaceted approach. OCs are the most appropriate contraceptive choice for adolescents. Frequency of intercourse is closely associated with OC use after approximately 15 months of unprotected sexual activity. At risk for noncompliance variables are scales of personality development
Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun
Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.
Artemenko, Natalia V; McDonald, Andrew G; Davey, Gavin P; Rudd, Pauline M
Glycans are crucial to the functioning of multicellular organisms. They may also play a role as mediators between host and parasite or symbiont. As many proteins (>50%) are posttranslationally modified by glycosylation, this mechanism is considered to be the most widespread posttranslational modification in eukaryotes. These surface modifications alter and regulate structure and biological activities/functions of proteins/biomolecules as they are largely involved in the recognition process of the appropriate structure in order to bind to the target cells. Consequently, the recognition of glycans on cellular surfaces plays a crucial role in the promotion or inhibition of various diseases and, therefore, glycosylation itself is considered to be a critical protein quality control attribute for commercial therapeutics, which is one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical industry. With the development of glycobiology as a separate discipline, a number of databases and tools became available in a similar way to other well-established "omics." Alleviating the recognized shortcomings of the available tools for data storage and retrieval is one of the highest priorities of the international glycoinformatics community. In the last decade, major efforts have been made, by leading scientific groups, towards the integration of a number of major databases and tools into a single portal, which would act as a centralized data repository for glycomics, equipped with a number of comprehensive analytical tools for data systematization, analysis, and comparison. This chapter provides an overview of the most important carbohydrate-related databases and glycoinformatic tools.
Sampieri, Katia; Meloni, Ilaria; Scala, Elisa; Ariani, Francesca; Caselli, Rossella; Pescucci, Chiara; Longo, Ilaria; Artuso, Rosangela; Bruttini, Mirella; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Speciale, Caterina; Causarano, Vincenza; Hayek, Giuseppe; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Mari, Francesca
Rett syndrome is the second most common cause of severe mental retardation in females, with an incidence of approximately 1 out of 10,000 live female births. In addition to the classic form, a number of Rett variants have been described. MECP2 gene mutations are responsible for about 90% of classic cases and for a lower percentage of variant cases. Recently, CDKL5 mutations have been identified in the early onset seizures variant and other atypical Rett patients. While the high percentage of MECP2 mutations in classic patients supports the hypothesis of a single disease gene, the low frequency of mutated variant cases suggests genetic heterogeneity. Since 1998, we have performed clinical evaluation and molecular analysis of a large number of Italian Rett patients. The Italian Rett Syndrome (RTT) database has been developed to share data and samples of our RTT collection with the scientific community (http://www.biobank.unisi.it). This is the first RTT database that has been connected with a biobank. It allows the user to immediately visualize the list of available RTT samples and, using the "Search by" tool, to rapidly select those with specific clinical and molecular features. By contacting bank curators, users can request the samples of interest for their studies. This database encourages collaboration projects with clinicians and researchers from around the world and provides important resources that will help to better define the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Rett syndrome.
Tian, Lixun; Liao, Ningfang; Chai, Ali
This paper is to introduce Common hyperspectral image database with a demand-oriented Database design method (CHIDB), which comprehensively set ground-based spectra, standardized hyperspectral cube, spectral analysis together to meet some applications. The paper presents an integrated approach to retrieving spectral and spatial patterns from remotely sensed imagery using state-of-the-art data mining and advanced database technologies, some data mining ideas and functions were associated into CHIDB to make it more suitable to serve in agriculture, geological and environmental areas. A broad range of data from multiple regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is supported, including ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, thermal infrared, and fluorescence. CHIDB is based on dotnet framework and designed by MVC architecture including five main functional modules: Data importer/exporter, Image/spectrum Viewer, Data Processor, Parameter Extractor, and On-line Analyzer. The original data were all stored in SQL server2008 for efficient search, query and update, and some advance Spectral image data Processing technology are used such as Parallel processing in C#; Finally an application case is presented in agricultural disease detecting area.
Snell, J. R.; Green, R.; Stott, G.; Van Baerle, S.
This paper describes the Veterinary Digital Anatomical Database Project. The purpose of the project is to investigate the construction and use of digitally stored anatomical models. We will be discussing the overall project goals and the results to date. Digital anatomical models are 3 dimensional, solid model representations of normal anatomy. The digital representations are electronically stored and can be manipulated and displayed on a computer graphics workstation. A digital database of anatomical structures can be used in conjunction with gross dissection in teaching normal anatomy to first year students in the professional curriculum. The computer model gives students the opportunity to "discover" relationships between anatomical structures that may have been destroyed or may not be obvious in the gross dissection. By using a digital database, the student will have the ability to view and manipulate anatomical structures in ways that are not available through interactive video disk (IVD). IVD constrains the student to preselected views and sections stored on the disk. Images Figure 1 PMID:1807707
Martins, João; Marques, Adilson; Sarmento, Hugo; Carreiro da Costa, Francisco
This article examined qualitative studies of adolescents' perspectives about the facilitators and barriers of physical activity, published from 2007 to 2014. A systematic review of "Web of Science", "EBSCO", "Psychinfo" and "ERIC" databases was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.
This collection of annotated bibliographies focuses on a broad spectrum of legal issues, and is drawn from a national database of current programs and literature regarding adolescents with chronic illnesses and other disabilities. Bibliographic materials listed include documents and articles concerning the following: consent and confidentiality…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.
This annotated bibliography focuses on issues of self-esteem in adolescents with disabilities, which is seen as closely related to development of critical social skills. References have been drawn from the National Center for Youth with Disabilities' National Resource Library, a database about youth with chronic illnesses and disabilities. The…
Little research exists on the nature of the interactions between gifted students and the use of technology. Furthermore, no research has investigated the phenomenon of gifted adolescents using one internet-based program, the Renzulli Learning System (RLS). Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile with a matching database that provides…
Rojewski, Jay W.; Lee, In Heok; Hill, Roger B.
Variations in the school-based career exploration activities of Korean high school students were examined. Data represented 5,227 Korean adolescents in Grade 11 contained in the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005, a nationally representative longitudinal database administered by the Korean Educational Development Institute. Latent class…
Parker, Ben; Turner, William
Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…
Romeo, Renee; Byford, Sarah; Knapp, Martin
Background: Recognition has grown over recent years of the need for economic information on the impacts of child and adolescent mental health problems and the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Methods: A range of electronic databases were examined using a predefined search strategy to identify economic studies which focused on services,…
Sadeghi, Saeid; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Kelishadi, Roya; Heidari, Kamal
Background: Although the overwhelming majority of Iranian adolescents are well-adjusted, a substantial group exhibits high levels of maladjustment and deficient functioning. Escalation of criminal violence among the youth population has become a major public policy issue and a serious public health problem. In reviewing a 10-year literature, this article aimed to describe and propose primary assumptions regarding the correlates of aggressive and violent behaviors in Iranian adolescents and youth. Methods: Bibliographic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar along with Iranian databases including PubMed, IranMedex, Magiran, Irandoc, Psychoinfo, and Emrofor Scientific Information Database, and Magiran constituted the databases which we searched for the relevant literature. Overall 98 articles met the inclusion criteria, allowing us to initiate the discussion. Results: Reportedly, prevalence of violence and aggression among the Iranian adolescents and youth ranged from 30% to 65.5% while males being 2½ times more affected than females. The role of gender, family environment, family size, socioeconomic status, and victimization in perpetuating the circumstances was apparent. Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of violence and aggression among Iranian youth and adolescents is a warning sign and a great challenge to the social system. Reviewed studies suffer from certain methodological and conceptual limitations. Undertaking community-based studies to estimate the actual extent of the problem is warranted. PMID:26157572
Senderowitz, J; Paxman, J M
There is growing concern over the adverse health, social, economic, and demographic effects of adolescent fertility. Morbidity and mortality rates ar significantly higher for teenage mothers and their infants, and early initiation of childbearing generally means truncated education, lower future family income, and larger completed family size. Adolescent fertility rates, which largely reflect marriage patterns, range from 4/1000 in Mauritania; in sub-Saharan Africa, virtually all rates are over 100. In most countries, adolescent fertility rates are declining due to rising age at marriage, increased educational and economic opportunities for young women, changes in social customs, increased use of contraception, and access to abortion. However, even if fertility rates were to decline dramatically among adolescent women in developing countries, their sheer numbers imply that their fertility will have a major impact on world population growth in the years ahead. The number of women in the world ages 15-19 years is expected to increase from 245 million in 1985 to over 320 million in the years 2020; 82% of these women live in developing countries. As a result of more and earlier premarital sexual activity, fostered by the lengthening gap between puberty and marriage, diminished parental and social controls, and increasing peer and media pressure to be sexually active, abortion and out-of-wedlock childbearing are increasing among teenagers in many developed and rapidly urbanizing developing countries. Laws and policies regarding sex education in the schools and access to family planning services by adolescents can either inhibit or support efforts to reduce adolescent fertility. Since contraceptive use is often sporadic and ineffective among adolescents, family planning services are crucial. Such programs should aim to reduce adolescents' dependence on abortion through preventive measures and increase awareness of the benefits of delayed sexual activity. Similarly, sex