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Sample records for adolescents reported higher

  1. Brief report: parent-adolescent informant discrepancies of social skill importance and social skill engagement for higher-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Camilla M; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-10-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents reported that social skills were less important. Additionally, adolescents reported that they engaged in social skills more frequently than parents reported them to be engaging in social skills. Parents, but not adolescents, reported a discrepancy between importance and engagement, such that the importance of social skills was rated higher than the frequency of adolescent engagement in social skills. These results suggest that social skills interventions for individuals with ASD may need to target awareness of social skill importance and accurate monitoring of social skill engagement.

  2. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  3. Are Adolescents Who Report Prior Sexual Abuse at Higher Risk for Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, David Y.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The reproductive and sexual histories of 200 sexually active females, ages 13 through 18, were assessed. Forty adolescents reported sexual abuse, and compared to nonabused peers, they were more often trying to conceive, had boyfriends pressuring them to conceive, and had fears about infertility. No intergroup differences were found in median age…

  4. Parent-adolescent report correspondence on adolescent substance abuse among teens in residential rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    McGillicuddy, Neil B; Eliseo-Arras, Rebecca K

    2012-04-01

    Research on the correspondence between adolescent and parent reports of adolescent substance abuse has typically been conducted on adolescent outpatient treatment samples, or on non-treatment samples. In the current study, fifty adolescents receiving residential substance abuse treatment, and their parents were assessed separately regarding the teen's substance use (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drugs) during the 90 days preceding adolescent treatment entry. Correspondence between reporters was for the most part fair to excellent, with observed discrepancies generally due to parents providing lower estimates of use than did adolescents. Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher discrepancy between reporters occurred when the parent was younger, when the parent encountered fewer problems due to the teen's substance use, when the adolescent attended more probation or parole meetings, the fewer the number of days the adolescent was incarcerated, and the fewer days the adolescent lived at home prior to treatment. Results from exploratory analyses suggest that parents and adolescents are more discrepant when the assessment occurs later in the adolescent's treatment program. Overall, results suggest that in the absence of a cooperative teen, parental report of the adolescent's previous substance use could serve as a good proxy among families in which the adolescent is entering residential substance abuse treatment.

  5. Agreement between Parent and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillicuddy, Neil; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.; Burke-Storer, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the correspondence between parent and adolescent reports of the adolescent's substance use in a population of parents concerned about, and experiencing problems resulting from, their teen's substance use. Seventy-five parents and their adolescents (76% not in treatment; 24% in treatment) were interviewed separately regarding…

  6. Michigan Early Adolescent Survey: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Joanne; And Others

    This document contains the final report from the Michigan Early Adolescent Survey, a study undertaken to: (1) develop a profile of Michigan early adolescents that focused on out-of-school time and included biological, psychological, and sociological information; (2) develop a profile of families which included early adolescents; (3) assess the…

  7. Higher Order Language Competence and Adolescent Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Nancy J.; Farnia, Fataneh; Im-Bolter, Nancie

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinic and community-based epidemiological studies have shown an association between child psychopathology and language impairment. The demands on language for social and academic adjustment shift dramatically during adolescence and the ability to understand the nonliteral meaning in language represented by higher order language…

  8. Brief report: Agreement between parent and adolescent autonomy expectations and its relationship to adolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J Carola; Cumsille, Patricio; Martínez, M Loreto

    2016-12-01

    While disagreement in autonomy expectations between parents and their adolescent children is normative, it may also compromise adolescent adjustment. This study examines the association between parents' and adolescents' agreement on autonomy expectations by cognitive social domains and adolescent adjustment. A sample of 211 Chilean dyads of adolescents (57% female, Mage = 15.29 years) and one of their parents (82% mothers, Mage = 44.36 years) reported their expectations for the age at which adolescents should decide on their own regarding different issues in their life. Indexes of parent-adolescent agreement on autonomy expectations were estimated for issues of personal and prudential domains. Greater agreement in the prudential than in the personal domain was observed. For boys and girls, higher agreement in adolescent-parent autonomy expectations in the personal domain was associated with lower substance use. A negative association between level of agreement in adolescent-parent autonomy expectations in the prudential domain and externalizing behaviors and substance use was found.

  9. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth.

  10. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Holly C.; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S. Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A.; McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13–17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β = 0.50, 95% CI 0.12–0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β = 0.85, 95% CI 0.30–1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09–30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  11. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  12. Illinois Higher Education Annual Report, May 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report presents information about the state of higher education in Illinois. Higher education entered the year 2000 with a full agenda and ended it as the top-rated system of higher education in a new national report card, "Measuring Up 2000" (National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education). Illinois received "A's in…

  13. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point.

  14. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  15. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  16. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  17. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  18. Self-Reported bruxism and associated factors in Israeli adolescents.

    PubMed

    Emodi Perlman, A; Lobbezoo, F; Zar, A; Friedman Rubin, P; van Selms, M K A; Winocur, E

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the epidemiological characteristics of sleep and awake bruxism (SB and AB) in adolescents. The aims of the study were: to assess the prevalence rates of self-reported SB and AB in Israeli adolescents; to determine the associations between SB/AB and several demographical, exogenous and psychosocial factors in Israeli adolescents; and to investigate the possible concordance between SB and AB. The study made use of a questionnaire. The study population included 1000 students from different high schools in the centre of Israel. Prevalence of self-reported SB and AB in the Israeli adolescents studied was 9·2% and 19·2%, respectively. No gender difference was found regarding the prevalence of SB and AB. Multiple variable regression analysis revealed that the following predicting variables were related to SB: temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002) and feeling stressed (P = 0·001). The following predicting variables were related to AB: age (P = 0·018), temporomandibular joint sounds (P = 0·002), oro-facial pain (P = 0·006), and feeling stressed (P = 0·002) or sad (P = 0·006). A significant association was found between SB and AB; that is, an individual reporting SB had a higher probability of reporting AB compared with an individual who did not report SB (odds ratio = 5·099). Chewing gum was the most common parafunction reported by adolescents. The results of this study demonstrate that self-reports of AB and SB are common in the Israeli adolescents population studied and are not related to gender. The significant correlation found between SB and AB may be a confounding bias that affects proper diagnosis of bruxism through self-reported questionnaires only.

  19. 2016 Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska's Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Nebraska Higher Education Progress Report is the 12th annual progress report designed to provide the Nebraska Legislature with comparative statistics to monitor and evaluate progress toward achieving three key priorities for Nebraska's postsecondary education system. These priorities were developed by the 2003 LR 174 Higher Education Task…

  20. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results, 2011. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report, issued by the Connecticut Department of Higher Education, reports on trends in higher education for the year 2011. Six goals are presented, each with at least two indicators. Each indicator is broken down into the following subsections: About This Indicator; Highlights; and In the Future. Most indicators also include statistical…

  1. Illinois Higher Education Annual Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report presents information about the state of higher education in Illinois. In November 2000, the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education issued the first National Report Card that gave Illinois an overall grade-point-average of 88.8, the best in the United States. Nevertheless, the state could not rest on its laurels, and…

  2. Higher Education Accountability Report 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report is one of several efforts designed to monitor outcomes in Washington's higher education system, and fulfills the biennial requirement that the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) inform the higher education and fiscal committees of the legislature of progress toward goals. The portrait that emerges from this review of…

  3. Risk Factors for Adolescent Pregnancy Reports among African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Johnson, Shari; C. Winn, Donna-Marie; Coie, John D.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lochman, John

    2004-01-01

    This study examined childhood and adolescent risk factors for males' reports of getting someone pregnant during adolescence. These questions were examined in an urban sample of 335 African American males involved in a prospective, longitudinal study. Childhood aggression significantly predicted reported pregnancies during adolescence. Boys who…

  4. Orthogonal Higher Order Factor Structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales--Fifth Edition for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Orthogonal higher-order factor structure of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales-Fifth Edition (SB-5; Roid, 2003a) for child and adolescent samples is reported. Multiple criteria for factor extraction unanimously supported extraction of only one dimension and a unidimensional model. However, following results from DiStefano and Dombrowski (2006)…

  5. Mental Health and Functional Outcomes of Maternal and Adolescent Reports of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Frances; Lifford, Kate J.; Thomas, Hollie V.; Thapar, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of maternal and self-ratings of adolescent depression by investigating the extent to which these reports predicted a range of mental health and functional outcomes 4 years later. The potential influence of mother's own depressed mood on her ratings of adolescent depression and suicidal ideation on adolescent outcome…

  6. The Vanishing Higher-Education Reporter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmire, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As the Internet continues to drain readers and advertising, newspapers are left with no choice but to cut back on coverage. Many papers have settled on higher education as an expendable beat. At the National Education Writers Association, which represents education reporters and editors around the country, the e-mail list for elementary- and…

  7. Self-Report Stability of Adolescent Cigarette Use across Ten Years of Panel Study Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…

  8. Frontal EEG/ERP correlates of attentional processes, cortisol and motivational states in adolescents from lower and higher socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Weinberg, Joanne; Oberlander, Tim F.; Grunau, Ruth E.; Hertzman, Clyde; Maggi, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) and other electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence show that frontal brain areas of higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) children are recruited differently during selective attention tasks. We assessed whether multiple variables related to self-regulation (perceived mental effort) emotional states (e.g., anxiety, stress, etc.) and motivational states (e.g., boredom, engagement, etc.) may co-occur or interact with frontal attentional processing probed in two matched-samples of fourteen lower-SES and higher-SES adolescents. ERP and EEG activation were measured during a task probing selective attention to sequences of tones. Pre- and post-task salivary cortisol and self-reported emotional states were also measured. At similar behavioural performance level, the higher-SES group showed a greater ERP differentiation between attended (relevant) and unattended (irrelevant) tones than the lower-SES group. EEG power analysis revealed a cross-over interaction, specifically, lower-SES adolescents showed significantly higher theta power when ignoring rather than attending to tones, whereas, higher-SES adolescents showed the opposite pattern. Significant theta asymmetry differences were also found at midfrontal electrodes indicating left hypo-activity in lower-SES adolescents. The attended vs. unattended difference in right midfrontal theta increased with individual SES rank, and (independently from SES) with lower cortisol task reactivity and higher boredom. Results suggest lower-SES children used additional compensatory resources to monitor/control response inhibition to distracters, perceiving also more mental effort, as compared to higher-SES counterparts. Nevertheless, stress, boredom and other task-related perceived states were unrelated to SES. Ruling out presumed confounds, this study confirms the midfrontal mechanisms responsible for the SES effects on selective attention reported previously and here reflect genuine cognitive

  9. Parent-Reported Predictors of Adolescent Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Lagle, Kristy; Killen, Joel D.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify parent-reported risk factors for adolescent panic attacks. Method: Structured diagnostic interviews were obtained from 770 parents of participants in a school-based risk factor study for adolescent panic. Parent-reported risk factors assessed included characteristics of the child (negative affect, separation anxiety disorder…

  10. Visualizing higher order finite elements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elements into regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which the algorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomial approximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analytical solution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and momentum. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate. Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and these coefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of freedom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution. Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increasing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number of finite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some types of simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedom than increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation has determined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools do not exist for visual inspection of the solution. This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finite element simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicial regions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. The requirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the places where the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacing algorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.

  11. Disclosure and Monitoring as Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Agreement in Reports of Early Adolescent Rule-Breaking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; LaFleur, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    The current study tested whether greater monitoring by mothers and greater disclosure by early adolescents was linked to greater agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule-breaking behavior. In doing so, the article demonstrated how polynomial regression analyses can be used to test hypotheses in which informant discrepancies serve as the dependent variable. Data were obtained from 218 mother-adolescent dyads (M adolescent age = 11.5 years, 51% female, 49% European American, 47% African American). Mothers and early adolescents provided reports of their perceptions of maternal monitoring (i.e., solicitation and control through rules), adolescent disclosure, and adolescent rule-breaking behavior. Polynomial regression models tested monitoring and disclosure as moderators of the association between mothers' and adolescents' reports of the adolescents' rule-breaking behavior. Mothers' reports of rule-breaking behavior were more strongly associated with adolescents' reports of their own rule-breaking behavior when mothers reported engaging in more solicitation or control through rules. There was less agreement in mothers' and adolescents' reports of rule breaking when adolescents reported that their mothers engaged in more solicitation. Adolescent disclosure did not moderate agreement in reported rule-breaking behavior. Greater monitoring by mothers may reduce the discrepancy in mother-adolescent reports of rule-breaking behavior. Findings also demonstrate the greater validity of polynomial regression approaches over difference scores when testing hypotheses with informant agreement as the outcome.

  12. Brief Report: Development of the Adolescent Empathy and Systemizing Quotients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent versions of the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and Systemizing Quotient (SQ) were developed and administered to n = 1,030 parents of typically developing adolescents, aged 12-16 years. Both measures showed good test-retest reliability and high internal consistency. Girls scored significantly higher on the EQ, and boys scored significantly higher…

  13. Brief report: Physical health of adolescent perpetrators of sibling aggression.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen; Sharp, Erin Hiley; Rebellon, Cesar

    2015-12-01

    We describe adolescents' perpetration of sibling aggression and its link to physical health two years later. In-school surveys at Time 1 (N = 331) and Time 2 (two-years later, N = 283) were administered to adolescents (at Time 1, Mage = 15.71 years, SD = .63; 52% female) living in the United States querying about perpetration of aggression toward a sibling closest in age and perceived physical health. The majority of adolescents perpetrated aggression towards their sibling (74%). Adolescents who were part of brother-brother pairs reported the most aggression. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that perpetrating sibling aggression more often at Time 1 was predictive of lower physical health at Time 2 controlling for Time 1 physical health and demographic characteristics. Perpetration of aggression toward a sibling is common and has negative health consequences in late adolescence suggesting this issue should be targeted to improve adolescents' sibling dynamics and physical health.

  14. Brief Report: Emotional Intelligence, Victimisation and Bullying in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently…

  15. Agreement between parent- and self-reports of Algerian adolescents' behavioral and emotional problems.

    PubMed

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger than those observed in many other cultures (e.g., intraclass correlation coefficient=0.60 and Pearson r=0.65 for Total Problems). On the whole, cross-informant agreement did not vary significantly as a function of problem type, identity of the parental informant, gender and age of the adolescent. Similar to all studied cultures, adolescents on average reported more problems than their parents reported about them, but the discrepancies were smaller than in all previous societies. Mean YSR/CBCL score discrepancies indicated higher YSR scores for several scales, but variability across dyads was large, and many dyads showed the opposite pattern.

  16. Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

    2014-07-01

    Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys.

  17. Improved anamnestic response among adolescents boosted with a higher dose of the hepatitis B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Sandra S; Groeger, Justina; Helgenberger, Louisa; Auerbach, Steven B; Bialek, Stephanie R; Hu, Dale J; Drobeniuc, Jan

    2010-04-01

    Some hepatitis B vaccine booster studies have suggested waning of vaccine-induced immunity in adolescents vaccinated starting at birth. Those studies, however, used a pediatric formulation of the hepatitis B vaccine as a booster to detect anamnestic response. We compared adolescents boosted with an adult dose of hepatitis B vaccine with those boosted with a pediatric dose. Among adolescents who had lost protective antibody levels against hepatitis B, a higher proportion had an anamnestic response when boosted with the adult dose (60.0% vs. 43.8%). Thus, higher antigen concentrations may be required to elicit an adequate immune memory response. Despite improved anamnestic response, our study still raises concerns about whether children immunized in early infancy will remain protected from hepatitis B as they age into adulthood.

  18. Higher Education Regulations Study: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In the "Higher Education Opportunity Act" of 2008, Congress charged the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance with conducting a review and analysis of regulations affecting higher education to determine the extent to which regulations are overly burdensome and need to be streamlined, improved, or eliminated. Specifically, Congress…

  19. Are There Effects of Intrauterine Cocaine Exposure on Delinquency during Early Adolescence? A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gerteis, Jessie; Chartrand, Molinda; Martin, Brett; Cabral, Howard J.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Frank, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To ascertain whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) is associated with early adolescent delinquent behavior, after accounting for prenatal exposures to other psychoactive substances and relevant psychosocial factors. Methods Ninety-three early adolescents (12.5–14.5 years old) participating since birth in a longitudinal study of IUCE reported delinquent acts via an audio computer assisted self interview (ACASI). Level of IUCE and exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana were determined by maternal report, maternal and infant urine assays, and infant meconium assays at birth. Participants reported their exposure to violence on the Violence Exposure Scale for Children – Revised (VEX-R) at ages 8.5, 9.5, 11 years and during early adolescence, and the strictness of supervision by their caregivers during early adolescence. Results Of the 93 participants, 24 (26%) reported ≥3 delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. In the final multivariate model (including level of IUCE and cigarette exposure, childhood exposure to violence, and caregiver strictness/supervision) ≥ 3 delinquent behaviors were not significantly associated with level of IUCE but were significantly associated with intrauterine exposure to half a pack or more of cigarettes per day and higher levels of childhood exposure to violence, effects substantially unchanged after control for early adolescent violence exposure. Conclusions In this cohort, prospectively ascertained prenatal exposure to cigarettes and childhood exposure to violence are associated with self-reported delinquent behaviors during early adolescence. Contrary to initial popular predictions, intrauterine cocaine is not a strong predictor of adolescent delinquent behaviors in this cohort. PMID:21558951

  20. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: A content analysis of media reports

    PubMed Central

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S.; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes. PMID:26015405

  1. Adolescent suicide in Ghana: a content analysis of media reports.

    PubMed

    Quarshie, Emmanuel Nii-Boye; Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Peprah, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is now a major health concern for many countries. However, there is paucity of systematic studies and lack of official statistics on adolescent suicide in Ghana. Mass media coverage of adolescent suicide (even though crude), at least, may reflect the reality of the phenomenon. With an ecological orientation, this study used qualitative content analysis to analyse the pattern of 44 media reports of adolescent suicide in Ghana from January 2001 through September 2014. Results showed that hanging was the dominant method used. The behaviour usually takes place within or near the adolescent's home environment. The act was often attributed to precursors within the microsystem (family and school) of the deceased. This study serves a seminal function for future empirical studies aimed at deeper examination of the phenomenon in order to inform prevention programmes.

  2. Brief report: The role of three dimensions of sexual well-being in adolescents' life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Vasilenko, Sara A; McPherson, Jenna L; Gutierrez, Estefania; Rodriguez, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Guided by theoretical (Brooks-Gunn & Paikoff, 1997) and empirical work (Horne & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2005), this cross-sectional study examined whether sexual well-being (sexual self-acceptance, importance of mutual consent, importance of safe sex) was associated with life satisfaction among Mexican adolescents, and whether these associations were moderated by gender, age, and familism. Mexican adolescents (54% girls, 72% middle schoolers, 30% sexually active) completed surveys. Findings indicated that a greater belief in the importance of safe sex was associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. Greater sexual self-acceptance was associated with life satisfaction, and familism moderated this association. This association was stronger among adolescents who reported low familism. This study contributes to the understanding of sexual adolescent well-being and psychological adjustment in Mexico, an understudied cultural context.

  3. Parent and adolescent reports of parenting when a parent has a history of depression: associations with observations of parenting.

    PubMed

    Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Dunbar, Jennifer P; Watson, Kelly H; Reising, Michelle M; Seehuus, Martin; Compas, Bruce E

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined the congruence of parent and adolescent reports of positive and negative parenting with observations of parent-adolescent interactions as the criterion measure. The role of parent and adolescent depressive symptoms in moderating the associations between adolescent or parent report and observations of parenting also was examined. Participants were 180 parents (88.9 % female) with a history of clinical depression and one of their 9-to-15 year old children (49.4 % female). Parents and adolescents reported on parenting skills and depressive symptoms, and parenting was independently observed subsequently in the same session. Findings indicated adolescent report of positive, but not negative, parenting was more congruent with observations than parent report. For negative parenting, depressive symptoms qualified the relation between the parent or adolescent report and independent observations. For parents, higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with more congruence with observed parenting (supporting a depressive realism hypothesis) whereas an opposite trend emerged for adolescents (providing some supporting evidence for a depression-distortion hypothesis).

  4. Catering Management in Higher Education. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This study identified the key management issues for senior managers and heads of catering services in higher education in developing and reviewing catering services. The study was conducted with the involvement of 76 universities and colleges with evidence drawn from questionnaires covering the Excellence Model's 9 criteria, an Expert Working…

  5. [Judicial and administrative consequences of reporting of adolescents in danger].

    PubMed

    Rey, C; Alvin, P

    1995-05-01

    Adolescent victims of abuse or neglect are regularly reported to social agencies and legal authorities. However, decisions following reports often remain unknown, leaving the question of the reporting's relevance open. POPULATION AND METHODS--Forty-one consecutive written reports sent to child protective services were reviewed, and their content analysed. These services were then contacted by telephone, in order to gather information on outcome. RESULTS--Forty-one reports concerned 40 adolescents (32 girls, 8 boys); 36 of whom had been admitted to our adolescent medicine ward. The most common reason for admission was a suicide attempt (20 cases). Thirty-nine reports were destined to legal authorities, while two to social agencies. The reason for reporting was physical or sexual abuse in more than half of the cases. In twenty-five cases, the main request was a separation from the family. Eighteen adolescents were lost from our medical follow-up after reporting. Thirty-two reports to legal authorities had led to a hearing by a juvenile judge answered favorably in two-thirds of the cases, after a mean period of 26 days. All the subjects for whom a separation from the family was not requested in the report remained at home. CONCLUSION--A simple telephone call is enough to gather information about the following of reports and enables an evaluation of the relevancy of its requests. The interface between the health care and legal systems needs improving through better coordination. Pediatricians should be leaders in this field.

  6. Brief report: sexual sensation seeking and its relationship to risky sexual behaviour among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.

  7. Assessing the congruence of transition preparedness as reported by parents and their adolescents with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Caprice; Huang, I-Chan; Hinojosa, Melanie; Baker, Kimberly; Sloyer, Phyllis

    2013-02-01

    Several studies have investigated how prepared adolescents are to transition to adult health care and barriers to transition for adolescents with special health care needs. The majority of these studies, however, have only assessed these experiences from the parents' point of view. Our study aims to assess the congruence of adolescents and parents reported transition planning and the factors associated with planning. A secondary data analysis was conducted using telephone survey data. Data were collected from parents and adolescents with special health care needs who received health care through Florida's Title V public insurance program. The final sample included 376 matched pairs of adolescent-parent surveys. To assess health care transition planning, respondents were asked if discussions had occurred with the adolescents' doctor, nurse, or with each other. Parents reported higher levels of planning than adolescents. Results show the lowest level of agreement between the parent and adolescent reports (κ < 0.2) and the highest level of agreement when parents and adolescents were asked if they discussed transition with each other (κ = 0.19). Regression results suggest that older adolescents are more prepared (vs. younger) and that adolescents whose parents have lower educational attainment are less prepared for transition. Results from this study suggest that there may be miscommunication around discussions related to transition, although further research is warranted. It is important to ensure that adolescents, not just parents, have a thorough understanding of transition since they will ultimately be responsible for their own health care once they reach adulthood.

  8. Sexual Force at Sexual Debut. Swedish Adolescents with Disabilities at Higher Risk than Adolescents without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunnberg, Elinor; Bostrom, Margareta Linden; Berglund, Mats

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study are first to compare the incidence of force on the first occasion of sexual intercourse reported by participants with disabilities to that of students without disabilities; second to determine whether there are significant differences in mental health, substance abuse, and school performance as reported by participants…

  9. Higher daily physical activity is associated with higher osteocalcin levels in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Saydi E.; Frohnert, Brigitte I.; Thomas, William; Kelly, Aaron S.; Nathan, Brandon M.; Polgreen, Lynda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exercise stimulates bone remodeling and improves insulin sensitivity (Si), even without associated weight loss. Osteocalcin (OCN), a bone-derived protein, is associated with improved Si. Purpose We examined how daily physical activity is associated with OCN and Si. Methods Physical activity was measured through questionnaires completed in Minneapolis from 2010 to 2012. A physical activity score (PAQsum) was calculated to quantify physical activity (range 1–5). OCN and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) were measured by ELISA. Si was measured by the insulin modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test. Results The mean PAQsum value was 2.4 ± 0.8 in 47 participants (12–17.9 years old). PAQsum was positively associated with OCN (p = 0.006). Participants with PAQsum <  2 had significantly lower OCN levels compared to participants with PAQsum >  2 (p < 0.02). Obesity did not modify the association between PAQsum and OCN. There was no statistically significant association between PAQsum and Si or between OCN and Si, even after adjustment for percent body fat. Conclusions OCN is higher in more physically active individuals. More research is needed to clarify the relationship between OCN, physical activity and Si. PMID:26236583

  10. Unexpected suicide and irrational thinking in adolescence: a case report.

    PubMed

    Akcan, Ramazan; Arslan, M Mustafa; Çekin, Necmi; Karanfil, Ramazan

    2011-08-01

    This report aims to draw attention to the fragility of adolescents' mind and irrational thinking in adolescence that might lead to suicide due to unusual experiences, by presenting a case of completed suicide with its unusual etiology. The victim, a 13 years old boy, had a quarrel with his mother as she sacrificed his pet, a cock, to prepare for dinner. Because of this, the victim had denied to join the family for dinner and wanted to be alone. While the family having dinner, a passing by neighbor realized that the victim was suspended with a ligature around his neck, in the backyard of the house. Meaningfully, there were feathers of cock in pants pockets of the deceased, in the corpse examination. Adolescents are experiencing dramatic physical and emotional changes, and being oversensitive and fragile in that period of life. Thus, a life experience that is tolerable to adults might badly affect adolescents and lead to suicide which is incomprehensible to them.

  11. Brief report: Emotional intelligence, victimisation and bullying in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Justine; Stough, Con; Hansen, Karen; Downey, Luke A

    2012-02-01

    In order to better understand bullying behaviours we examined for the first time the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) of adolescents, bullying behaviours and peer victimisation. The sample consisted of 68 adolescents from a secondary college. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which assessed their EI, how frequently they engaged in bullying behaviours and how often they were the target of peer victimisation. Results of the study indicated that the EI dimensions of Emotions Direct Cognition and Emotional Management and Control, significantly predicted the propensity of adolescents to be subjected to peer victimisation. The EI dimension of Understanding the Emotions of Others was found to be negatively related with bullying behaviours. It was concluded that anti-bullying programs in schools could be improved by addressing deficits in EI in adolescents who bully others as well as those who are at a greater risk of being subjected to peer victimisation.

  12. Adolescent Vocational Exploration. Final Evaluation Report 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAGI Educational Services, Inc., Larchmont, NY.

    The 1985 evaluation of the Adolescent Vocational Exploration Program (AVE) found that this New York State Department of Labor intervention and pre-employment project has been successful in increasing young people's chances of gaining employment and functioning productively in the labor market. Primarily for 14- and 15-year-olds, AVE seeks to…

  13. Estimating Genetic and Environmental Influences on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Differing Effects on Higher and Lower Levels of Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Richard; Slomkowski, Cheryl; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth; Stroud, Laura; Niaura, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    We estimate the relative effect sizes of genetic and environmental influences on both higher and lower levels of depressive symptoms with attention to persistence over a 1-year period in the genetically informative subsample of adolescents participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Shared environmental…

  14. Safety and Sex Practices among Nebraska Adolescents. Technical Report 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina

    This report describes a range of adolescent behaviors related to their safety and the safety of others. The behaviors reported here range from ordinary safety precautions such as only swimming in supervised areas and wearing helmets when riding a motorcycle to less talked about behaviors such as using condoms during sexual intercourse and carrying…

  15. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  16. Reports of Self-Harm and Social Stressors among Early Adolescents: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teufel, James A.; Brown, Stephen L.; Birch, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined reports of self-harm by early adolescents as well as associations between salient interpersonal stressors and self-harm. While attending health education centers located in Illinois, Indiana, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania, early adolescents (n = 737) responded to a questionnaire measuring stressors, coping, and self-harm.…

  17. Adolescents' reports of physical violence by peers in residential care settings: an ecological examination.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2014-03-01

    Physical victimization by peers was examined among 1,324 Jewish and Arab adolescents, aged 11 to 19, residing in 32 residential care settings (RCS) for children at-risk in Israel. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to examine the relationships between physical victimization and adolescents' characteristics (age, gender, self-efficacy, adjustment difficulties, maltreatment by staff, and perceived social climate) as well as institution-level characteristics (care setting type, size, structure, and ethnic affiliation). For this study, we define physical violence as being grabbed, shoved, kicked, punched, hit with a hand, or hit with an object. Over 50% (56%) of the adolescents surveyed reported having experienced at least one form of physical violence by peers. Boys and younger adolescents were more likely to be victimized than girls and older adolescents. The results show that adolescents with adjustment difficulties or low social self-efficacy, and adolescents who perceive an institution's staff as strict and/or had experienced maltreatment by staff, are vulnerable groups for peer victimization. Lower levels of victimization were found in RCS with a familial element than in traditional group settings. Institutions with high concentrations of young people with adjustment difficulties and violent staff behaviors had higher levels of violence among residents. Applying an ecological perspective to an investigation of peer victimization in RCS enables the identification of risk factors at adolescent and institution levels. This type of examination has implications for child welfare practice and policy that can help in the development of prevention and intervention methods designed to tackle the involvement in violence of youth in care.

  18. Perceived and Police Reported Neighborhood Crime: Linkages to Adolescent Activity Behaviors and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Choo, Tse; Larson, Nicole; Van Riper, David; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Inadequate physical activity and obesity during adolescence are areas of public health concern. Questions exist about the role of neighborhoods in the etiology of these problems. This research addressed the relationships of perceived and objective reports of neighborhood crime to adolescent physical activity, screen media use, and BMI. Methods Socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents (N=2,455, 53.4% female) from 20 urban, public middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota responded to a classroom survey in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study. Body mass index (BMI) was measured by research staff. Participants’ mean age was 14.6 (SD=2.0); 82.7% represented racial/ethnic groups other than non-Hispanic white. Linear regressions examined associations between crime perceived by adolescents and crime reported to police and the outcomes of interest (BMI z-scores, physical activity, and screen time). Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and school. Results BMI was positively associated with perceived crime among girls and boys and with reported crime in girls. For girls, there was an association between higher perceived crime and increased screen time; for boys, between higher reported property crime and reduced physical activity. Perceived crime was associated with reported crime, both property and personal, in both genders. Conclusions Few prior studies of adolescents have studied the association between both perceived and reported crime and BMI. Community-based programs for youth should consider addressing adolescents’ safety concerns along with other perceived barriers to physical activity. Interventions targeting actual crime rates are also important. PMID:26206444

  19. Item-level discordance in parent and adolescent reports of parenting behavior and its implications for adolescents' mental health and relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Laura K; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of discordance between parents' and children's ratings of the child's mental health symptoms or of parenting behavior until recently has been treated as a problem of reliability. More recent work has sought to identify factors that may influence discordance, yet much remains to be learned about why informants' ratings of developmental phenomena are discordant and the meaning of such discordance. This study examined the extent to which discordance can be treated as a measure of the difference between two equally valid perceptions, and as such an indicator of the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. One category of concordance and three patterns of discordance were derived from item-level differences in ratings of affection, control, and punitiveness provided by a diverse sample (53% female; 46% Hispanic-American, 35% African-American, 15% European-American, 4% another race/ethnicity) of 484 adolescents aged 12-20 years (M = 15.67, SD = 1.72) and their parents. Over and above adolescents' and parents' independent ratings of parenting, the discordance between these ratings was found to predict adolescent reports of anxiety and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. This was particularly true when adolescents and parents were discordant in their ratings of affection and when adolescents rated their parents higher on affection than did parents themselves. Implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Adolescent Health in Hawai'i: The Adolescent Health Network's Teen Health Advisor Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Health, Honolulu. Maternal and Child Health Branch.

    This publication reports on a survey to develop a profile of adolescent health in Hawaii in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies. The survey covered: general health status; family, peer, and school problems; depression and suicide; use of licit and illicit substances; sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases; and…

  1. Overview of State Policies Related to Adolescent Parenthood. A Report of the Adolescent Parenthood Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Sharon J.; And Others

    To help state policy makers and program developers, researchers gathered information on government policies regarding adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. Data were compiled through a questionnaire survey of health, education, and social service agencies in the federal government and all 50 states. The report describes federal programs relevant to…

  2. Results through Productivity Report for Ohio Public Higher Education, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In April 2004, the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy (CHEE) recommended that the Ohio Board of Regents submit a biennial report to the Governor and the General Assembly in connection with the budget process. This report is the second such report. The purposes of this report are to provide policy makers and the public with…

  3. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Nebraska. Technical Report 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.

    This report on adolescent tobacco use in Nebraska focuses on grades 8 and 10. The results presented are based on over time; (2) the changing nature of tobacco use from smoking to use as a chew or snuff; (3) the viewing of smoking and chewing as one health issue of tobacco exposure; (4) definition of a smoker for purposes of this study; (5) data…

  4. Lower neighborhood quality in adolescence predicts higher mesolimbic sensitivity to reward anticipation in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Marlen Z.; Allen, Joseph P.; Coan, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory suggests that adult reward sensitivity should be best explained by childhood, but not current, socioeconomic conditions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 83 participants from a larger longitudinal sample completed the monetary incentive delay (MID) task in adulthood (~25 years old). Parent-reports of neighborhood quality and parental SES were collected when participants were 13 years of age. Current income level was collected concurrently with scanning. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality, but neither lower current income nor parental SES, was associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary gain in putative mesolimbic reward areas. Lower adolescent neighborhood quality was also associated with heightened sensitivity to the anticipation of monetary loss activation in visuo-motor areas. Lower current income was associated with heightened sensitivity to anticipated loss in occipital areas and the operculum. We tested whether externalizing behaviors in childhood or adulthood could better account for neighborhood quality findings, but they did not. Findings suggest that neighborhood ecology in adolescence is associated with greater neural reward sensitivity in adulthood above the influence of parental SES or current income and not mediated through impulsivity and externalizing behaviors. PMID:27838595

  5. Patterns of Higher Education Institutions in the UK. Tenth Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This report is the tenth in a series published annually by Universities UK, with the support of GuildHE, updating and expanding a rich variety of data which help us to understand higher education in the UK. Since its first report in 2001, the "Patterns" series has examined the trends in UK higher education at both the sector and…

  6. Cross-Informant Agreement between Parent-Reported and Adolescent Self-Reported Problems in 25 Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie A.; Ginzburg, Sofia; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Almqvist, Fredrik; Begovac, Ivan; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Chahed, Myriam; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Minaei, Asghar; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Petot, Djaouida; Petot, Jean-Michel; Pomalima, Rolando; Rudan, Vlasta; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Valverde, Jose; van der Ende, Jan; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zhang, Eugene Yuqing; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    We used population sample data from 25 societies to answer the following questions: (a) How consistently across societies do adolescents report more problems than their parents report about them? (b) Do levels of parent-adolescent agreement vary among societies for different kinds of problems? (c) How well do parents and adolescents in different…

  7. Truth or consequences: the intertemporal consistency of adolescent self-report on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2009-06-01

    Surveys are the primary information source about adolescents' health risk behaviors, but adolescents may not report their behaviors accurately. Survey data are used for formulating adolescent health policy, and inaccurate data can cause mistakes in policy creation and evaluation. The author used test-retest data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (United States, 2000) to compare adolescents' responses to 72 questions about their risk behaviors at a 2-week interval. Each question was evaluated for prevalence change and 3 measures of unreliability: inconsistency (retraction and apparent initiation), agreement measured as tetrachoric correlation, and estimated error due to inconsistency assessed with a Bayesian method. Results showed that adolescents report their sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco histories more consistently than other risk behaviors in a 2-week period, opposite their tendency over longer intervals. Compared with other Youth Risk Behavior Survey topics, most sex, drug, alcohol, and tobacco items had stable prevalence estimates, higher average agreement, and lower estimated measurement error. Adolescents reported their weight control behaviors more unreliably than other behaviors, particularly problematic because of the increased investment in adolescent obesity research and reliance on annual surveys for surveillance and policy evaluation. Most weight control items had unstable prevalence estimates, lower average agreement, and greater estimated measurement error than other topics.

  8. Combining Service and Learning in Higher Education: Learn and Serve America, Higher Education. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Maryann J.; Ondaatje, Elizabeth H.; Zakaras, Laura

    As mandated by the U.S. Congress, this report evaluates the Learn and Serve America program's effects on higher education students (service providers), service recipients, and higher education institutions, and assesses the program's return on investment. An introduction summarizes the policy debate and reviews the study objectives and approach.…

  9. Adolescent Dieting and Weight Loss Practices in Nebraska. Technical Report 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry-Hunnicutt, Christina; Newman, Ian M.

    This report describes the dieting practices of 796 Nebraskans in grades 8 and 10. The results presented in this report are based on questions from the 1989 National Adolescent Health Survey administered to a total of 1,689 adolescents. These topics are covered: (1) incidence of dieting in adolescent males and females; (2) methods used by dieters…

  10. Goals for Oklahoma Higher Education. Self-Study of Higher Education in Oklahoma; Report 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffelt, John J.; And Others

    This report contains the findings, conclusions and recommendations that emerged from a study of "Functions and Goals of Oklahoma Higher Education." Many individuals and groups were involved in the process which culminated in this report, including a 600-member citizens' group, a special 140-member citizens' advisory committee, several…

  11. Brief report: Performing on the stage, the field, or both? Australian adolescent extracurricular activity participation and self-concept.

    PubMed

    Blomfield, Corey J; Barber, Bonnie L

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation. In general, participation in any type of extracurricular activity was associated with a higher social and academic self-concept, and general self-worth, compared to no participation. Adolescents who participated in both sports and non-sports also reported a more positive social self-concept and general self-worth, compared to those who only participated in one of the activity types. This research provides support for extracurricular activities as a context facilitative of positive self-concept, and demonstrates the importance of a mixed participation profile for an adolescent's self-concept.

  12. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Annual Report, 1993-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    This annual report of the Alabama Commission on Higher Education describes new academic programs approved, allied health programs, off-campus instruction, computer-based articulation, rising junior exam, the Academic Common Market, educational technologies, Governor's Conference on Higher Education, Eminent Scholars Program, Meharry Medical…

  13. Scottish Access Students in Higher Education. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This document is the final report on the experiences of mature students who had entered higher education through the Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP), a one-year course designed to provide an alternative route into higher education for adults and which utilizes a supportive environment plus an incremental, modular approach and small-group…

  14. Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education: FY 1995 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    The annual report on the state of Missouri higher education provides information on system finance, operations, and planning at the state level. First, highlights are identified in the areas of: enhancements, a new state technical college, Missouri Student Loan Program innovations, performance funding, and a new blueprint for higher education. An…

  15. Annual Report on Higher Education in New Mexico, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Santa Fe.

    The 1986 report of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education first outlines responsibilities of the Commission and developments concerning the Board of Educational Finance and then considers the climate for higher education reform in New Mexico, including economic changes, career changes that require retraining and skill upgrading, and…

  16. Early Neurodevelopment and Self-Reported Adolescent Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in a National Canadian Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    North, C. Rebecca; Wild, T. Cam; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Colman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the mental health outcomes of young children who experience developmental delay. The objective of this study was to assess whether delay in attaining developmental milestones was related to depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Method The sample included 3508 Canadian children who participated in a nationally representative prospective cohort study. The person most knowledgeable about the child reported on attainment of developmental milestones spanning several developmental domains at ages 2–3. The children were followed into adolescence and self-reported depressive and anxious symptoms were used from adolescents ages 12–13. An overall assessment of developmental milestones as well as a supplementary analysis of specific categories of developmental milestones was conducted. Results Cohort members who displayed delayed developmental milestones in early childhood were more likely to experience higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms as adolescents. However, there was no interaction between delayed developmental milestones and stressful life events. In the supplementary analysis, two developmental domains (self-care and speech/communication) were associated with higher levels of depressive and anxious symptoms in adolescence. Conclusion Delay in attainment of early developmental milestones is significantly associated with adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. PMID:23437245

  17. Minnesota Higher Education Facilities Authority: 1999 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Higher Education Facilities Authority, Saint Paul.

    This annual report reviews fiscal year 1999 for institutions serviced by the Minnesota Higher Education Facilities Authority. The report notes a slight decline in new financing activity, although the $87.7 million financed during the 1999 fiscal year was the second highest annual total for the Authority. Following some introductory material, the…

  18. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This statistics report provides a comprehensive snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector for the year 2013, by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data sourced from the main higher education statistics collections managed by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training. The report provides…

  19. Sociodemographic, sociocultural, and individual predictors of reported feelings of meaninglessness among South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to predict adolescents' sense of meaninglessness about South Africa's sociopolitical situation from sociodemographic, individual level, and sociocultural factors. The participants comprised 39 male and 64 female students from three schools in Cape Town, and had a mean age of 15.2 yr. (SD= 1.8 yr.). They completed an adaptation of Neal and Groat's Meaninglessness scale and measures of sociodemographic (age, sex, and parental occupation, household amenities, and household hunger as proxy measures of socioeconomic status), sociocultural (cultural pride and an adaptation of McClosky and Schaar's anomy scale), and individual level (depression, general life satisfaction, and knowledge of HIV status) factors. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the adolescents with higher reported scores for meaninglessness about South Africa's sociopolitical situation reported lower socioeconomic status, a stronger sense of anomy, and more symptoms of depression.

  20. Adolescent Coping Profiles Differentiate Reports of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  1. Exploring Differences in Youth and Parent Reports of Antisociality among Adolescent Sexual and Nonsexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skilling, Tracey A.; Doiron, James M.; Seto, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent of, and explored several possible explanations for, the discrepancies found between adolescent and parent reports of conduct problems in adolescent sexual and nonsexual offenders. We found that adolescent sexual offenders scored lower on measures of conduct problems than did nonsexual offenders, whether on the basis…

  2. Is Parenting Child's Play? Kids Count in Missouri Report on Adolescent Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count report presents current information on adolescent pregnancy rates in Missouri. Part 1, "Overview of Adolescent Pregnancy in Missouri," discusses the changing pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates for 15- to 19-year-old adolescents, racial differences in pregnancy risk, regional differences suggesting a link between…

  3. Racial/Ethnic differences in the educational expectations of adolescents: does pursuing higher education mean something different to latino students compared to white and black students?

    PubMed

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y; Milan, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents' academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49 % Latino, 23 % White, 22 % Black, and 6 % other; 51 % female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in 5 years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education.

  4. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This report reviews the research on fund raising in higher education in the United States. It considers such questions as: What are the costs of fund raising? What is known of donor motivation? and What is the connection between successful intercollegiate athletics and successful fund raising? Research findings indicating the consistent…

  5. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. The Prevalence of Self-Reported Health Problems and Haemoglobin Status of Sudanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moukhyer, M. E.; de Vries, N. K.; Bosma, H.; van Eijk, J. Th. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe self-reported health problems and haemoglobin status among 1200 Sudanese adolescents (53.2% females, 46.8% males). Many adolescents report their general health as excellent and good (84%). A large number, however, report separate physical and psychological complaints. Report of psychological complaints is equal for both…

  7. Under- and Over-Reporting of Energy Intake in Slovenian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobe, Helena; Krzisnik, Ciril; Mis, Natasa Fidler

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine under- and over-reporting of energy intake (EI) among adolescents and to compare relative food and nutrient intakes of under-reporters (UR), over-reporters (OR), and the whole population to acceptable reporters (AR). Design: All adolescents completed food frequency questionnaires at regional health centers, and a subgroup…

  8. Developmental Co-Ordination Disorder (DCD) in Adolescents and Adults in Further and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Amanda; Sugden, David; Beveridge, Sally; Edwards, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the strengths and weaknesses and needs of students with developmental co-ordination disorder (DCD). This paper describes a cohort of 93 UK students currently studying at further or higher education and who have reported motor difficulties present since childhood. The study group consisted of 21 reporting to have DCD…

  9. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy in adolescence: Interrelations between facial electromyography and self-reported trait and state measures.

    PubMed

    Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings.

  10. [Sigmoid diverticulitis in adolescent. Case report].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Salazar, Carlos; Orozco-Tapia, Luis Manuel; de la Concha Blankenagel, Erika; Gallardo-Ramírez, Mario Alberto; Blas-Franco, Miguel; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad diverticular colónica en niños y adolescentes es poco frecuente y sólo existen reportes de casos aislados en la bibliografía. La mayoría de los casos reportados se asocian con divertículos verdaderos congénitos y enfermedades genéticas de producción de la colágena. Caso clínico: paciente femenina de 13 años de edad, que ingresó a la División de Cirugía General y Endoscópica con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda complicada. En la laparotomía se encontró enfermedad diverticular complicada de colon sigmoides. Se le practicó sigmoidectomía y colorrecto-anastomosis. El reporte histopatológico evidenció perforación de pseudodivertículo de colon sigmoides y peritonitis. La paciente fue dada de alta del hospital 72 horas posteriores a la cirugía, sin complicaciones. Conclusión: existen sólo reportes de casos aislados de niños y adolescentes con diverticulitis colónica, y su etiología no ha sido aún debidamente establecida. Esta paciente tuvo diverticulitis de sigmoides, similar a la enfermedad en adultos, sin padecimientos genéticos concomitantes. El caso es una excepción a lo reportado en la bibliografía de las diverticulitis en niños y adolescentes.

  11. Poor peer relations predict parent- and self-reported behavioral and emotional problems of adolescents with gender dysphoria: a cross-national, cross-clinic comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; VanderLaan, Doug P; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-06-01

    This study is the third in a series to examine behavioral and emotional problems in children and adolescents with gender dysphoria in a comparative analysis between two clinics in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. In the present study, we report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) data on adolescents assessed in the Toronto clinic (n = 177) and the Amsterdam clinic (n = 139). On the CBCL and the YSR, we found that the percentage of adolescents with clinical range behavioral and emotional problems was higher when compared to the non-referred standardization samples but similar to the referred adolescents. On both the CBCL and the YSR, the Toronto adolescents had a significantly higher Total Problem score than the Amsterdam adolescents. Like our earlier studies of CBCL data of children and Teacher's Report Form data of children and adolescents, a measure of poor peer relations was the strongest predictor of CBCL and YSR behavioral and emotional problems in gender dysphoric adolescents.

  12. Minnesota Measures: 2014 Report on Higher Education Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, John; Bak, Leonid; Djurovich, Alexandra; Edlund, Melissa; Fergus, Meredith; Grimes, Tricia; Trost, Jennifer; Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a resource of accurate, timely and comprehensive facts about higher education in Minnesota. It includes comparisons over time as well as national and peer institution comparisons to add context for the interpretation of the data. It is expected to be used by a number of stakeholder groups such as legislators, educators and…

  13. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first release of selected data held and analysed by The Tertiary Education Quality Standards Agency (TEQSA) for its regulatory purposes that provides a complete view of the sector that has not previously been disseminated. As the national regulator of all Australian higher education providers, TEQSA is in a unique position in…

  14. The NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams Becker, S.; Estrada, V.; Freeman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The "NMC Horizon Report: 2015 Higher Education Edition" is a collaborative effort between the New Media Consortium (NMC) and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI). This 12th edition describes annual findings from the NMC Horizon Project, an ongoing research project designed to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have…

  15. Minnesota Measures: 2009 Report on Higher Education Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now in its third year, "Minnesota Measures" provides policymakers and educators with a statewide look at higher education effectiveness in the context of broad state objectives and national and international performance comparisons. Findings are reported across five goals: (1) Improve success of all students, particularly students from…

  16. Measuring Up 2008: The National Report Card on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000, the "Measuring Up" report cards have evaluated the progress of the nation and individual states in providing Americans with education and training beyond high school through the bachelor's degree. The purpose of the series is to assist the nation and the states in improving higher education opportunity and effectiveness.…

  17. Management of Security Services in Higher Education. National Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, Cardiff.

    This report, the seventh in a series from the Value for Money Steering Group, identifies the key management issues for governors, senior managers, and heads of security services at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom in developing and reviewing security services to ensure that they are effective and provide value for money.…

  18. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board 2002 Statewide Annual Licensure Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Community and Technical Colleges.

    This report provides the licensure examination results for two-year technical associate degrees and one-year certificate programs leading to professions requiring licensure or certification. The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board uses this information as part of its overall assessment of the effectiveness of vocational education programs at…

  19. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board 2000 Statewide Annual Licensure Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, Austin. Div. of Community and Technical Colleges.

    This report provides the licensure examination results for two-year technical associate degrees and one-year certificate programs at community and technical colleges in Texas. The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board recognizes the success rate for licensure as an integral part of the overall success of many technical programs. The following…

  20. Quality Assurance in Transnational Higher Education. ENQA Workshop Report 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul; Bergan, Sjur; Cassar, Daniela; Hamilton, Marlene; Soinila, Michele; Sursock, Andree; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka; Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present report is the product of an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Bologna Seminar "Quality Assurance in Transnational Education: from words to action" hosted by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK) in London in December, 2008. The seminar discussed the current trends in Transnational…

  1. Annual Report on Higher Education in New Mexico, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Commission on Higher Education.

    This annual report provides a statement of the mission of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education and an overview of its major initiatives and accomplishments, reflecting the Commission's emphasis on achieving the policy goals set forth in a 1988 strategic plan and a 1990 management plan. It analyzes, via text and tables, the following…

  2. The Effects of a Multi-Component Higher-Functioning Autism Anti-Stigma Program on Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniland, Jessica J.; Byrne, Mitchell K.

    2013-01-01

    A six-session higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program incorporating descriptive, explanatory and directive information was delivered to adolescent boys and the impact upon knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions towards peers with autism was evaluated. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 395) from…

  3. Life Skills for Adolescents Project. Final Report. September 1, 1985 through August 31, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis-Small, Lucretia

    This document contains the final report on the Life Skills for Adolescents Project in northwestern Texas. The report is in the form of a process evaluation of progress toward achieving the project goal of enabling adolescents leaving substitute care to be better prepared to manage their own lives. The report describes the efforts of the project…

  4. Adolescent care

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Andrée; Maheux, Brigitte; Frappier, Jean-Yves; Haley, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate how often family physicians see adolescents with mental health problems and how they manage these problems. DESIGN Mailed survey completed anonymously. SETTING Province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS All 358 French-speaking family physicians who practise primarily in local community health centres (CLSCs), including physicians working in CLSC youth clinics, and 749 French-speaking practitioners randomly selected from private practice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Frequency with which physicians saw adolescents with mental health problems, such as depression, suicidal thoughts, behavioural disorders, substance abuse, attempted suicide, or suicide, during the last year or since they started practice. RESULTS Response rate was 70%. Most physicians reported having seen adolescents with mental health problems during the last year. About 10% of practitioners not working in youth clinics reported seeing adolescents with these disorders at least weekly. Anxiety was the most frequently seen problem. A greater proportion of physicians working in youth clinics reported often seeing adolescents for all the mental health problems examined in this study. Between 8% and 33% of general practitioners not working in youth clinics said they had not seen any adolescents with depression, behavioural disorders, or substance abuse. More than 80% of physicians had seen adolescents who had attempted suicide, and close to 30% had had adolescent patients who committed suicide. CONCLUSION Family physicians play a role in adolescent mental health care. The prevalence of mental health problems seems higher among adolescents who attend youth clinics. Given the high prevalence of these problems during adolescence, we suggest on the basis of our results that screening for these disorders in primary care could be improved. PMID:17279202

  5. Correlates of Self-Report of Rape Among Male School Adolescents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunfowokan, Adesola A; Olagunju, Oluwayemisi E; Olajubu, Aanuoluwapo O; Faremi, Funmilola A; Oloyede, Ajoke S; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2016-02-01

    This study examined male adolescents' self-report of rape of adolescent girls and the socio-demographic variables that correlated with self-report of rape. Descriptive-correlational design was used and the study was conducted in five public senior secondary schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Three hundred and thirty-eight male adolescents participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings from the study revealed the mean age of the adolescent males to be 16 years, with the majority (73%) of them in the middle adolescent stage. Six percent of the adolescent males reported they had raped an adolescent girl in the past. Among the boys who reported rape, 55% reported they had raped their sexual partners, and 55% reported they had perpetrated gang rape. Smoking (p = .0001), alcohol consumption (p = .001), and birth order (p = .006) predicted self-report of rape. The coefficient of birth order showed that odds of self-report of rape by first-born male increases by 6 times compared with other children. Study findings also provided evidence that adolescent males are moving from lone rape to gang rape in intimate partner relationships. Male adolescents are important group to target in rape prevention programs.

  6. Identifying disordered eating behaviours in adolescents: how do parent and adolescent reports differ by sex and age?

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Savani; Allen, Karina; Hodsoll, John; O'Daly, Owen G; Campbell, Iain C; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Artiges, Eric; Nees, Frauke; Orfanos, Dimitri Papadopoulos; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Mennigen, Eva; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2017-01-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of disordered eating cognitions and behaviours across mid-adolescence in a large European sample, and explored the extent to which prevalence ratings were affected by informant (parent/adolescent), or the sex or age of the adolescent. The Development and Well-Being Assessment was completed by parent-adolescent dyads at age 14 (n = 2225) and again at age 16 (n = 1607) to explore the prevalence of 7 eating disorder symptoms (binge eating, purging, fear of weight gain, distress over shape/weight, avoidance of fattening foods, food restriction, and exercise for weight loss). Informant agreement was assessed using kappa coefficients. Generalised estimating equations were performed to explore the impact of age, sex and informant on symptom prevalence. Slight to fair agreement was observed between parent and adolescent reports (kappa estimates between 0.045 and 0.318); however, this was largely driven by agreement on the absence of behaviours. Disordered eating behaviours were more consistently endorsed amongst girls compared to boys (odds ratios: 2.96-5.90) and by adolescents compared to their parents (odds ratios: 2.71-9.05). Our data are consistent with previous findings in epidemiological studies. The findings suggest that sex-related differences in the prevalence of disordered eating behaviour are established by mid-adolescence. The greater prevalence rates obtained from adolescent compared to parent reports may be due to the secretive nature of the behaviours and/or lack of awareness by parents. If adolescent reports are overlooked, the disordered behaviour may have a greater opportunity to become more entrenched.

  7. Validity of Self-reported Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed

    DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adolescents consuming alcohol and using drugs have markedly greater HIV/STI risk and are a priority population for intervention. Accurate measurement of sexual risk behavior is critical for understanding individual's risk for HIV/STI, transmission dynamics of HIV/STI, and evaluating the efficacy of interventions designed reduce HIV/STI risk. However, significant challenges to accurately measuring adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are well-documented. Recent advances in microbiology, such as the use of less invasive specimen collection for DNA assays, can assist researchers in more accurately measuring adolescents' sexual risk behavior. However, the majority of studies of adolescents' sexual risk rely solely on self-reported behavior; therefore, methods to improve the validity of adolescents' self-reported sexual behavior are needed. In addition, integrating biologic measures to complement self-reported measures are recommended, when appropriate and feasible.

  8. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA.

  9. Exposure to Maternal Gestational Diabetes Is Associated With Higher Cardiovascular Responses to Stress in Adolescent Indians

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R.; Jones, Alexander; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Osmond, Clive; Karat, Samuel C.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Fall, Caroline H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Altered endocrinal and autonomic nervous system responses to stress may link impaired intra-uterine growth with later cardiovascular disease. Objective: To test the hypothesis that offspring of gestational diabetic mothers (OGDM) have high cortisol and cardiosympathetic responses during the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Design: Adolescents from a birth cohort in India (n = 213; mean age, 13.5 y), including 26 OGDM, 22 offspring of diabetic fathers (ODF), and 165 offspring of nondiabetic parents (controls) completed 5 minutes each of public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of two unfamiliar “evaluators” (TSST-C). Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured at baseline and at regular intervals after the TSST-C. Heart rate, blood pressure (BP), stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were measured continuously at baseline, during the TSST-C, and for 10 minutes after the test using a finger cuff; the beat-to-beat values were averaged for these periods. Results: Cortisol and cardiosympathetic parameters increased from baseline during stress (P < .001). OGDM had greater systolic BP (mean difference, 5.6 mm Hg), cardiac output (0.5 L/min), and stroke volume (4.0 mL) increases and a lower total peripheral resistance rise (125 dyn · s/cm5) than controls during stress. ODF had greater systolic BP responses than controls (difference, 4.1 mm Hg); there was no difference in other cardiosympathetic parameters. Cortisol responses were similar in all three groups. Conclusions: Maternal diabetes during pregnancy is associated with higher cardiosympathetic stress responses in the offspring, which may contribute to their higher cardiovascular disease risk. Further research may confirm stress-response programming as a predictor of cardiovascular risk in OGDM. PMID:25478935

  10. [Urethrovesical foreign body in adolescent boys: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Kuwada, Masaomi; Chihara, Yoshitomo; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Kagebayashi, Yoriaki; Nakai, Yasushi; Samma, Shoji

    2009-09-01

    Two cases with a urethrovesical foreign body in adolescent boys are reported. Case 1 was a 12-year-old boy with a stretched safety pin, 7 cm in length, in the urethra. This was probably introduced by him. Case 2 was a 14-year-old boy with a self-introduced metallic bar, 5 cm in length, in the urinary bladder. The foreign bodies were endoscopically removed. Both of the boys had grown in fatherless families. In Case 1, his father had died in a traffic accident while trying to save the patient at the age of 5 years. In case 2, the parents had been divorced. These episodes could have resulted in mental instability in the boys, which possibly led to the self-introduction of the foreign body. Urethrovesical foreign bodies are not rare. However, a foreign body in adolescents under 15 years of age is very rarely reported. It is incumbent upon urologists to thoroughly investigate the psychological conditions in such cases, and to properly judge whether psychiatric cares and follow-up are necessary.

  11. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  12. Comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moje, Elizabeth Birr

    2010-01-01

    The author begins her comments on "Reviewing Adolescent Literacy Reports: Key Components and Critical Questions" by commending the authors for taking on this rather massive project. The project required not only locating and reading the many lengthy reports that exist on adolescent literacy but also sifting through the numerous claims, ideas, and…

  13. Does self-reported physical activity associate with high blood pressure in adolescents when adiposity is adjusted for?

    PubMed

    Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males.

  14. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression—younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime—were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed. PMID:24392266

  15. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression-younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime-were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed.

  16. Hepatitis B vaccination of adolescents: a report on the national program in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zamiri, Nima; Gooya, Mohammad Mehdi; Tehrani, Alireza; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran B

    2010-12-01

    Since 2007, Iran's Ministry of Health carried out a nationwide hepatitis-B vaccination campaign for 17-year-old adolescents in four stages. We report the outcomes of the second and third stages targeting adolescents born during 1990 and 1991. The National Committee for Hepatitis selected a passive approach--media education--for mass vaccination. (A community mobilization strategy, for example, would be termed active.) The target populations in 2008 and 2009 included 1 709 337 and 1 673 571 adolescents. In each year, Iran organized three rounds of vaccination throughout the country. At the end of each round, data were collected and sent to Ministry of Health for analysis. The overall coverage rate was 74.9 per cent for one dose of vaccination, and 62.76 per cent for all three doses in 2008; 75.7 per cent and 55.6 per cent, respectively in 2009. Coverage rates in rural areas were significantly higher (P<0.001). The media education approach achieved acceptable outcomes in current campaign. Constant performance monitoring, and perhaps a new catch-up vaccination campaign are warranted to expand coverage.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Educational Expectations of Adolescents: Does Pursuing Higher Education Mean Something Different to Latino Students Compared to White and Black Students?

    PubMed Central

    Turcios-Cotto, Viana Y.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    There are striking disparities in the academic achievement of American youth, with Latino students being a particularly vulnerable population. Adolescents’ academic expectations have been shown to predict educational outcomes, and thus are an important factor in understanding educational disparities. This article examines racial/ethnic differences in the future expectations of adolescents, with a particular focus on how expectations about higher education may differ in frequency and meaning for Latino youth. Participants included 375 urban ninth-grade students (49% Latino, 23% White, 22% Black, and 6% other; 51% female) who gave written descriptions of how they pictured their lives in five years. Responses were subsequently coded for content and themes. Results demonstrate that Latino youth were less likely to picture themselves attending college when compared to Black and White youth, and more likely to hold social goals, such as starting their own family. Ethnic/racial differences also were found in the themes present in responses, with Latino and Black students more likely than White students to describe individuation and materialistic goals, and to give more unrealistic responses. For Latino youth only, higher education goals were associated significantly with individuation themes. In addition, for Latino youth, adolescents who wished to pursue higher education reported more depressive symptoms and emotional distress than those who did not picture going to college, whereas the opposite pattern was evident for Black and White youth. These differences may reflect cultural values, such as familismo. Practice implications include the importance of culturally tailoring programs aimed at promoting higher education. PMID:23111844

  18. Are parents reliable in reporting child victimization? Comparison of parental and adolescent reports in a matched Chinese household sample.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-06-01

    There is ongoing debate about the reliability of parental reports on child victimization. Some studies have shown that they are useful, whereas some others have provided contrary evidence suggesting that parents are not accurate in reporting child victimization, especially when they are the one who inflicted the violence. This study aimed to (a) examine the reliability of parental reports of adolescents' experiences of victimization, including that inflicted by parents as well as others, by comparing them with self-reports using a parent-child matched sample from China; and (b) explore the possible reasons underlying any disagreement between the parental and adolescent reports. A total of 2,624 parent-adolescent pairs were recruited during 2009 and 2010 in 6 cities in China. Parents were asked to report the victimization experiences of their child using of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire, and these reports were matched with the adolescents' self-reports of victimization. Low levels of parent-adolescent agreement in reporting were found (Cohen's kappa=.04-.29). Except for sexual violence, parents were significantly less likely to report all types of victimization. Overall, lower levels of agreement were found in the reporting of (a) less severe types of victimization, (b) victimization outside the family, and (c) victimization involving parents as perpetrators. Intimate partner violence between parents was significantly associated with discrepancies between reports. The findings suggest that parents might not be reliable as a single source of information on certain types of adolescent victimization.

  19. Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinquart, Martin; Pfeiffer, Jens P.

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared psychological adjustment of 158 adolescents with vision impairment and 158 sighted adolescents with a matched-pair design using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adolescent self-reports and teacher reports on emotional problems, peer problems, and total difficulties showed higher scores in students with…

  20. SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL TEAR OF THE KNEE EXTENSOR MECHANISM IN A PRE-ADOLESCENT: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires; Giordano, Vincenzo; Albuquerque, Maria Isabel Pires; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; do Amaral, Ney Pecegueiro; Barretto, João Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent. PMID:27047882

  1. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships.

  2. Brief Report: Do Delinquency and Community Violence Exposure Explain Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescent Gang Members?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and…

  3. Brief Report: Perceptions of Positive and Negative Support--Do They Differ for Pregnant/Parenting Adolescents and Nonpregnant, Nonparenting Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Sedahlia Jasper; Hockaday, Cathy; McCarville, Pamela Cooper

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to examine perceptions of type, source, and amount of social support reported by pregnant and/or parenting (PP) and nonpregnant, nonparenting (NPNP) adolescents. Greater support generally was reported by NPNP than by PP adolescents. The groups did not differ with respect to their perceptions of types of support reported on…

  4. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms.

  5. Kids Having Kids. A Special Report on the Costs of Adolescent Childbearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Rebecca A., Ed.

    This report represents a synthesis of research conducted on the consequences of adolescent childbearing for adolescent mothers, their children, the fathers of their children, and the United States. Each year, nearly one million teenagers in the United States become pregnant. About one-third of these 15- to 19-year-old females abort their…

  6. An Analysis of Two Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report for a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed adolescent fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and 27 in Chicago, Illinois. Data were…

  7. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  8. From Access to Usage: The Divide of Self-Reported Digital Skills among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Zhi-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the PISA data in 2003 and 2006, this paper develops a hierarchical linear model to identify multi-level explanatory variables of the divide of adolescents' self-reported digital skills. At the country-level, the study finds a generally negative relationship between the ICT penetration rate of a country and adolescents' digital skills,…

  9. Online Activities of Urban Malaysian Adolescents: Report of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kok Eng; Yen Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee; Guan Saw, Kim

    2012-01-01

    The literacy practices of many communities today show new ways of meaning making in the contemporary, technological and digital culture. A number of Malaysian adolescents belong to this culture. This pilot study reports the preliminary findings of a larger study aimed at describing the online activities of Malaysian adolescents. Fifty-four…

  10. Brief Report: An Online Support Intervention--Perceptions of Adolescents with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…

  11. Psychosocial Factors in Adolescent and Young Adult Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms: Causal or Correlational Associations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Haslimeier, Claudia; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Using a large longitudinal representative community sample, this study identified three groups of subjects who were depressed either in pre-adolescence, late adolescence or early adulthood, and matched by age and gender to controls without depression. The 90th percentile on one or two self-reported symptom scales [i. e. the Center for…

  12. Appalachian Adolescent Health Education Project (AAHEP): First-Year Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuVall, Lloyd A.; And Others

    This report is a first year summative and formative evaluation of the Appalachian Adolescent Health Education Project (AAHEP), a program designed to reduce adolescent pregnancy and provide care for pregnant teenagers in East Tennessee. It attempts to determine the impact of the project on teenage pregnancy in the 15-county target area and the…

  13. Sexuality in Adolescent Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Reported Behaviours and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-01-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group…

  14. Foregone Mental Health Care and Self-Reported Access Barriers among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samargia, Luzette A.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Elliott, Barbara A.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents forego mental health care in spite of self-perceived needs for services; this presents a significant public health problem. Using data from the 2001 Adolescent Health Care Access Survey of 16-year-olds in Saint Louis County, Minnesota, we assessed barriers to mental health care among the 878 respondents who reported ever needing…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Study of Adolescent Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella Y. F.; Yeo, Lay See

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we explore academic procrastination and associated motivation variables in 612 adolescents from Canada and Singapore. Few studies have explored adolescent procrastination and no previous studies have investigated adolescent procrastination using a cross-cultural framework. Singaporean adolescents reported higher levels of…

  16. Interpersonal and Affective Dimensions of Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents: Development and Validation of a Self-Report Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; Hunter, Simon C.; Khan, Umneea; Tan, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We report the development and psychometric evaluations of a self-report instrument designed to screen for psychopathic traits among mainstream community adolescents. Tests of item functioning were initially conducted with 26 adolescents. In a second study the new instrument was administered to 150 high school adolescents, 73 of who had school…

  17. Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were

  18. Multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptoms among high-functioning adolescents with Asperger syndrome or autism.

    PubMed

    Hurtig, Tuula; Kuusikko, Sanna; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Haapsamo, Helena; Ebeling, Hanna; Jussila, Katja; Joskitt, Leena; Pauls, David; Moilanen, Irma

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine psychiatric symptoms in high-functioning adolescents with autism spectrum disorders reported by multiple informants. Forty-three 11- to 17-year-old adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 217 typically developed adolescents completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR), while their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Teachers of adolescents with AS/HFA completed the Teacher Report Form (TRF). The informants reported significantly more psychiatric symptoms, especially withdrawn, anxious/depressed, social and attention problems, in adolescents with AS/HFA than in controls. In contrast to findings in the general population, the psychiatric problems of adolescents with AS/HFA are well acknowledged by multiple informants, including self-reports. However, anxiety and depressive symptoms were more commonly reported by adolescents with AS/HFA and their teachers than their parents, indicating that some emotional distress may be hidden from their parents.

  19. The Adjudicated Adolescent in Contemporary American Society: A Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M.; Reilly, Thomas F.

    The purpose of the investigation involving 200 adolescents was to develop a descriptive profile of the adjudicated adolescent. The investigator sought to determine if predictive factors were discernable from an ex post factor analysis of data. Six instruments were utilized in obtaining the data: the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC);…

  20. Progress for Children: A Report Card on Adolescents. Number 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is a formative period during which children grow into their rightful place as full citizens and agents of change in their own lives and the lives of their societies. This publication provides an overview of the situation of adolescents, including of their vulnerabilities in critical areas. It makes a compelling case for increased…

  1. Great Transitions: Preparing Adolescents for a New Century. Concluding Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, Washington, DC.

    The Carnegie Corporation's Council on Adolescent Development builds on the work of many organizations and individuals to stimulate sustained public attention to the risks and opportunities of adolescence, and generates public and private support for measures that facilitate the critical transition to adulthood. This document explores some of the…

  2. Brief report: the adolescent Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire: an examination of aggressions against parents in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E; Gamez-Guadix, M; Orue, I; Gonzalez-Diez, Z; Lopez de Arroyabe, E; Sampedro, R; Pereira, R; Zubizarreta, A; Borrajo, E

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a questionnaire to assess child-to-parent aggression in adolescents and to document the extent of the problem. The questionnaire developed in this study, the Child-to-Parent Aggression Questionnaire (CPAQ), includes forms of physical and psychological aggression directed at both the mother and the father. It also includes open questions about the reasons for the aggressive acts. The CPAQ was completed by a sample of 2719 adolescents (age range: 13-18 years old, 51.4% girls). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor correlated structure (physical aggression against mother, physical aggression against father, psychological aggression against mother, and psychological aggression against father). Psychological and physical aggression against the mother was more frequent than against the father. However, there were no differences with regard to severe forms of aggression. Girls scored significantly higher on all indicators of psychological aggression, including severe psychological aggression. Nevertheless, except for the prevalence of physical aggression against mothers, which was higher in females, there were no significant differences in physical aggression against parents. Finally, the reasons provided by the adolescents for the aggression included both instrumental (e.g., to obtain permission to get home late and to access their computers) and reactive reasons (e.g., anger and self-defense). These findings highlight the complexity of child-to-parent aggression in adolescence.

  3. Brief report: improving the validity of assessments of adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion.

    PubMed

    Laird, Robert D; Marrero, Matthew D; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S

    2013-02-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years, 5 months; 47% female; 50% European American, non-Hispanic, 46% African American) and their mothers. A model specifying separate factors for privacy invasion and monitoring behavior fit adolescent-reported and parent-reported data significantly better than a single factor model. Although privacy invasion and monitoring behavior were positively associated, privacy invasion and monitoring behavior correlations were significantly different from one another across all ten variables reported by adolescents and across eight of the nine variables reported by mothers. The pattern of results strongly supports a recommendation for researchers to exclude items assessing monitoring behaviors to provide a more valid assessment of privacy invasion.

  4. Self-reports versus parental perceptions of health-related quality of life among deaf children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire, which was adapted to Spanish sign language for children, with a written version for parents. Respondents completed a self-administered paper questionnaire. Parents' and children's mean scores differences were not significant, except for the "Autonomy and Parents" and "Peers and Social Support" dimensions. Children aged 8-11 years scored higher in some domains of QoL compared to those aged 12-18 years. The level of agreement between children/adolescents' and parents/proxies' responses was acceptable, except for the dimension "Autonomy and Parents." Overall, deaf children/adolescents' self-ratings of HRQoL did not differ from their parents' proxy reports; however, differences were found in the dimensions that explored the quality of the interaction of children/adolescents and parents, the perceived level of autonomy, and social relations and support.

  5. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  6. Diversity Leadership in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr., Ed.; Martinez, Ruben O., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph examines and discusses the context for diversity leadership roles and practices in higher education by using research and theoretical and applied literatures from a variety of fields, including the social sciences, business, and higher education. Framing the discussion on leadership in this monograph is the perspective that American…

  7. Report of the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board on Higher Education Cost Efficiencies to the Governor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document contains the estimated impacts of the recommendations of the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board on Higher Education Cost Efficiencies and descriptions of current practices in other states that are representative of each recommendation. The estimates provide a reasonable expectation of impacts within an order of magnitude of…

  8. Marital and severe parent-to-adolescent physical aggression in clinic-referred families: mother and adolescent reports on co-occurrence and links to child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Annette; Donnelly, William O; Boxer, Paul; Lewis, Terri

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the interplay of marital and severe parental physical aggression, and their links to child behavior problems, in 232 families of clinic-referred adolescents. Combined reports from mothers and adolescents indicated that two thirds of adolescents exposed to marital aggression in the past year had also experienced parental aggression. Mothers and fathers who used and/or were victims of marital aggression were both more likely to direct aggression toward their adolescent. Mother and youth reports of marital aggression were tied to each party's report of greater externalizing problems and to youth reports of greater internalizing problems. Severe parental aggression uniquely predicted maternal reports of both behavior problems, after controlling for marital aggression; the reverse was not true. Also, adolescents exposed to both types of family aggression did not display greater maladjustment than those subjected to only one type of family aggression.

  9. Agreement between Parent- and Self-Reports of Algerian Adolescents' Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petot, Djaouida; Rescorla, Leslie; Petot, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined agreement between scores obtained from self-reports of behavioral and emotional problems obtained from 513 Algerian adolescents on the Youth Self-Report (YSR) with scores obtained from reports provided by their parents on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The correlations between self- and parent-report were larger…

  10. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents.

  11. When faith divides family: religious discord and adolescent reports of parent-child relations.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Charles E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    What happens to family relations when an adolescent and her parent do not share the same religious convictions or practices? Whereas previous work on religion and intergenerational relations looks at relationships between parents and their adult children, we shift the focus to younger families, assessing how parent-child religious discord affects adolescents' evaluation of their relationship with their parents. Exploring data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find several interesting patterns of association between religious discord and parent-child relations. Overall, religious discord predicts lower quality intergenerational relations. When parents value religion more than their teens do, adolescents tend to report poorer relations with parents. Relationship quality is not lower, however, when it is the adolescent who values religion more highly. We also find that religious discord is more aggravating in families where parent and child share religious affiliation and in families where the parent is an evangelical Protestant.

  12. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p = 0.039). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  13. Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

  14. Substance Use in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients: Self-Report, Health Care Providers' Clinical Impressions, and Urine Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzer, Laurent; Pihet, Sandrine; Passini, Christina Moses; Feijo, Isabelle; Camus, Didier; Eap, Chin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of substance use among adolescent psychiatric outpatients using a variety of data sources. Method: Using a questionnaire, 3-month prevalence of substance use data were obtained from 50 adolescents and their health care providers. Adolescents' self-reports and providers' clinical impressions were compared with…

  15. Brief report: do delinquency and community violence exposure explain internalizing problems in early adolescent gang members?

    PubMed

    Madan, Anjana; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Adolescent gang members are at higher risk for internalizing problems as well as exposure to community violence and delinquency. This study examined whether gang membership in early adolescence is associated with internalizing problems (depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior) and whether these associations are mediated by delinquency and witnessing community violence. In a sample of 589 ethnically diverse early adolescents, gang membership was related to suicidal behavior but not depression or anxiety. Both delinquency and witnessing community violence mediated this association. Professionals working with gang members should assess these youth for suicidal behavior and provide interventions as needed.

  16. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical report--sport-related concussion in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Mark E; Walter, Kevin D

    2010-09-01

    Sport-related concussion is a "hot topic" in the media and in medicine. It is a common injury that is likely underreported by pediatric and adolescent athletes. Football has the highest incidence of concussion, but girls have higher concussion rates than boys do in similar sports. A clear understanding of the definition, signs, and symptoms of concussion is necessary to recognize it and rule out more severe intracranial injury. Concussion can cause symptoms that interfere with school, social and family relationships, and participation in sports. Recognition and education are paramount, because although proper equipment, sport technique, and adherence to rules of the sport may decrease the incidence or severity of concussions, nothing has been shown to prevent them. Appropriate management is essential for reducing the risk of long-term symptoms and complications. Cognitive and physical rest is the mainstay of management after diagnosis, and neuropsychological testing is a helpful tool in the management of concussion. Return to sport should be accomplished by using a progressive exercise program while evaluating for any return of signs or symptoms. This report serves as a basis for understanding the diagnosis and management of concussion in children and adolescent athletes.

  17. Tennessee Higher Education Commission Statutory Data Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Statutory Data Report" is prepared pursuant to T.C.A. (Tennessee Code Annotated) Section 49-7-210. As specified, this report provides information as required for public four-year institutions, public two-year institutions and public technology centers. (Contains 18 tables.) [For the 2008 report, see ED512313.

  18. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  19. Beyond Grade Inflation: Grading Problems in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 30, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Shouping, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    College grades play important educational and social roles (Milton, Pollio, and Eison, 1986; Walvoord and Anderson, 1998). What is not well understood are the types of problems that exist in college grading practices. Conversations about grade inflation in higher education are often based on sparse anecdotal evidence and charged with value…

  20. Public Service in Higher Education: Practices and Priorities. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosson, Paticia H.

    Public service in American colleges and universities is reviewed. Major controversies related to the mission of public service in higher education are discussed by examining three metaphors commonly used to characterize the nature of colleges and universities: ivory tower, social service station, and cultural mart. Attention is also addressed to…

  1. Rethinking the "L" Word in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 31, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J., Ed.; Carducci, Rozana, Ed.; Contreras-McGavin, Melissa, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Given the major changes that have occurred, it is important to examine the state of leadership research in higher education. This volume updates the 1989 Bensimon, Neumann, and Birnbaum volume. Rather than rewrite a book that nicely summarized research on leadership until the late 1980s, this book focuses on reviewing advances in paradigms,…

  2. New Mexico Higher Education Department Annual Report, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The performance of higher education in New Mexico--measured by cost-efficiency, degree production, graduation rates, and a host of other metrics--remains exceptionally low in comparison with all but two or three other states. For most of the 2013 calendar year the Higher Education Department worked on various fronts to address the most pressing…

  3. Minnesota Measures: 2007 Report on Higher Education Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Office of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, Governor Tim Pawlenty and the Minnesota Legislature charged the Minnesota Office of Higher Education with developing an accountability system to measure the higher education sector's effectiveness in meeting state goals. Minnesota's leaders recognized that the knowledge, creativity and intellectual capacity of the state's people are the…

  4. Higher Education Pay and Prices Index. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The higher education pay and prices index (HEPPI) measures the general price level facing higher education institutions in the UK. It was produced at six-monthly intervals since it was started in 1956 but from the July 2006 edition it has been published annually, reflecting the fact that we are in a period of (relatively) low inflation in the UK…

  5. Disciplinary Perspectives on Higher Education and Research. Report No. 37.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Group for the Study of Higher Education and Research Policy.

    The contributions of various disciplines to the field of higher education and research studies are discussed in 10 seminar papers, which also review Burton R. Clark's work, "The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective." Titles and authors are as follows: "Internal and External Regulatives in…

  6. Measuring Up: The Promises and Pitfalls of Performance Indicators in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaither, Gerald; And Others

    This report examines the development and implementation of performance indicators in higher education, focusing on the factors driving increased demand for accountability in higher education and the use of performance indicators in the United States and other countries. It discusses the public and political concern for increased productivity,…

  7. Characteristics of adolescent work injuries reported to the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, D L; Carl, W R; French, L R; Martin, F B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of the study was to provide descriptive data and incidence data on adolescent work-related injuries and to determine whether such injuries are underreported to the Minnesota Department of Labor and Industry. METHODS. The study consisted of a 1-year survey of 534 adolescent work-related injuries reported to the Department of Labor and Industry and a cross-sectional survey of 3312 public high school students from throughout Minnesota. The high school survey used an abbreviated questionnaire with a subset of items from the Department of Labor and Industry survey. RESULTS. Ninety-six percent of the injuries were strains and sprains, cuts and lacerations, burns, bruises and contusions, and fractures. There were 11 hospitalizations; 4 were for burns that occurred during work in restaurants. Eighty workers (15%) reported permanent impairment as a result of their injuries. It was estimated that there were 2268 reportable injuries to working adolescents in Minnesota during the study year. CONCLUSIONS. The most common serious injuries were injuries to the lower back and burns. The demographic characteristics of adolescents whose injuries were reported to the Department of Labor and Industry were similar to those of injured adolescent workers identified through the high school survey. The results suggest that there is substantial underreporting of adolescent work injuries. PMID:8154564

  8. [The major issues of an "assault and battery" report for an adolescent].

    PubMed

    Depallens, Sarah

    2014-06-11

    Adolescents who are confronted to violence rarely consult health services about this problem. Family maltreatment is the origin of most violence against adolescents, but remains very often hidden from the eyes of professionals. The "assault and battery" reports produced by emergency services are largely about community violence situations. The medical consultation following an assault requires a global evaluation of the teenager confronted to violence. This evaluation will have to take into account not only the adolescent's requests (such as confidentiality), but also professional duties to prevent recidivism.

  9. The Emerging System of Higher Education in Italy: Report of a Seminar. Conference Report Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burn, Barbara B.

    The report explores the inner life of the Italian university system and describes the results of increased student access to a university that remains essentially elitist. It highlights the tensions and constraints that have placed Italian higher education in a state of suspended animation between mass entry and elitist structures. It is predicted…

  10. Legislative Analyst's Office Report on Coordinating Higher Education in California. Report 10-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On January 28, the Legislative Analyst's Office (LAO) released a report examining the coordination of California postsecondary education. LAO concludes that the state faces many challenges in maintaining a high-quality higher education system, and that reform of its coordination structure is needed to help meet those challenges. The LAO report…

  11. Peer Review and the Assessment of Higher Education Quality: An International Perspective. Higher Education Report No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, John; And Others

    This report examines the practices of 19 peer review agencies in the United States, Britain, Denmark, Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong to determine variations in peer review in the field of higher education. The report addresses: (1) the sources of authority for peer review; (2) the types and status of peer reviewers; (3) the…

  12. Tennessee Higher Education Commission Statutory Data Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Statutory Data Report" is prepared pursuant to T.C.A. (Tennessee Code Annotated) Section 49-7-210. As specified, this report provides information as required for public four-year institutions, public two-year institutions and public technology centers. (Contains 18 tables.)

  13. Predictors and consequences of developmental changes in adolescent girls' self-reported quality of attachment to their primary caregiver.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lori N; Whalen, Diana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Beeney, Joseph E; Pilkonis, Paul A; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2013-10-01

    In an at-risk community sample of 2101 girls, we examined trajectories, predictors, and consequences of changes in a central aspect of adolescents' perceived quality of attachment (QOA), i.e., their reported trust in the availability and supportiveness of the primary caregiver. Results demonstrated two distinct epochs of change in this aspect of girls' perceived QOA, with a significant linear decrease in early adolescence (ages 11-14) followed by a plateau from 14 to 16. Baseline parent-reported harsh punishment, low parental involvement, single parent status, and child-reported depression symptoms predicted steeper decreases in attachment during early adolescence, which in turn predicted greater child-reported depression and conduct disorder symptoms in later adolescence. Results suggest that both parent and child factors contribute to trajectories of self-reported QOA in adolescence, and a faster rate of decrease in girls' perceived QOA to caregivers during early adolescence may increase risk for both internalizing and externalizing symptoms.

  14. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  15. Self-reported alcohol use and sexual behaviors of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Michael S; Bartee, R Todd; Perko, Michael A

    2003-02-01

    Research has demonstrated a relation between alcohol use and engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. Alcohol use, especially binge drinking, has been linked to a host of problems including high-risk sexual behavior, date rape, and academic problems. As such, the purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of alcohol consumption among adolescents and to examine the relations of alcohol use (lifetime, current, binge) with sexual activity variables (sexual initiation, multiple sex partners, condom use, and pregnancy) among adolescents completing the 1993-1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Analysis showed alcohol use was associated with high-risk sexual activity. Binge drinking had stronger relations with sexual activity variables than lifetime use and current use of alcohol. This result is of particular concern, in that binge drinking has been implicated in many problem behaviors. As such, it is of great importance to intervene in the high-risk practices of adolescents before problems occur.

  16. Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Annual Report 1987-88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    Activities of the Alabama State Commission on Higher Education are described. Three sections discuss the following: (1) planning and coordination activities (unified budget recommendation, statewide planning process, research and service program inventory, new program approval, off-campus instruction, non-resident institutional review, conference…

  17. The Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This White Paper presents the work of the Consortium for Higher Education Tax Reform, a partnership funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as part of the second phase of its Reimagining Aid Design and Delivery (RADD) initiative. Consortium partners are the Center for Postsecondary and Economic Success at CLASP, the Education Trust, New…

  18. Higher Education-Business Interaction Survey. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, David; Conway, Cheryl

    A survey was conducted to study the interactions between higher education and business in the United Kingdom, updating previous surveys, and capturing the key outputs of such interactions, taking into account the institutions' differing missions, strategies, capacities, and expertise. Additional purposes were to quantify a baseline for the…

  19. The Report of the Governor's Task Force on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Higher education in New Jersey has arrived at a decisive moment. After twenty years of declining State funding and increased tuitions, the fortunes of citizens and the state hang in the balance. Student access to an affordable college education and the economic prosperity of the state are at stake. Increased funding is essential, but so too are…

  20. Maryland Health and Higher Educational Facilities Authority. 1996 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Health and Higher Educational Facilities Authority, Baltimore.

    The Maryland Health and Higher Educational Facilities Authority performs various functions including: issuing bonds and bond anticipation notes; fixing rates and collecting user rents and fees; constructing, acquiring, and maintaining institutional projects; contracting for operation and maintenance of projects; establishing rules and regulations…

  1. Higher Education Studies, Reports and Surveys in the SREB States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolich, Anjanette M., Comp.

    This leaflet is a partial listing of studies on postsecondary education that have been conducted or are under way in states belonging to the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). Higher education agencies or coordinating boards in the states supplied the information. The name of the study commission is included in parentheses, as is the date…

  2. Higher Education Studies, Reports and Surveys in the SREB States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Heather, Comp.

    This document is a partial listing of studies on postsecondary education that have been completed or are under way in the member states of the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB). Higher education agencies or coordinating boards in the states supplied the information, which may help other states that are conducting or considering similar…

  3. Educational Technologies: Productivity in Higher Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Shelley A., Ed.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Full texts are provided of the individual papers presented at a symposium held to investigate technology-based systems for improving productivity in higher education. These systems, which marry an engineering systems approach with behavioral objectivism, are studied in the context of three specific learning environments: 1) grouped and bounded…

  4. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  5. Risk Behavior and Personal Resiliency in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-reported risk behaviors and personal resiliency in adolescents; specifically whether youth with higher personal resiliency report less frequent risk behaviors than those with lower personal resiliency. Self-reported risk behavior is surveyed by the "Adolescent Risk Behavior Inventory"…

  6. Alabama Commission on Higher Education 1986 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    The 1986 annual report outlines planning and coordination activities and student financial aid programs. The following planning and coordination activities are considered: statewide planning and facilities planning, a new program approval procedure, approval of off-campus offerings, studies of the state's engineering programs and needs and allied…

  7. Technology and Higher Education: Report from the Front.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Mara; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Includes two reports on the current integration of technology in postsecondary education. Mara Mayor and Peter Dirr discuss the relationship between technology and access and quality. Valerie Crane presents study results on how students use and evaluate telecourses compared to on-campus courses. (DMM)

  8. Why Families Invest in Higher Education. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Walter W.

    In this document, differences in what students expect to earn and what the census data indicates is eventually being earned at each age is considered. The difference between private returns and social rates of return is defined and reported by occupational field. Finally, the primary emphasis on why students and their families invest in graduate…

  9. Strategic Reporting Tool: Balanced Scorecards in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyddon, Jan W.; McComb, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    In this toolbox article, the authors describe the recommended steps for creating a community college balanced scorecard that measures and reports on key performance indicators based on targets and signal values to end-users, college constituents and external stakeholders. Based on extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a…

  10. The NMC Horizon Report: 2012 Higher Education Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Adams, S.; Cummins, M.

    2012-01-01

    The internationally recognized "NMC Horizon Report" series and regional "NMC Technology Outlooks" are part of the NMC Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years in education around the globe. This volume, the "NMC…

  11. Accuracy of self-reported versus measured weight over adolescence and young adulthood: findings from the national longitudinal study of adolescent health, 1996-2008.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Sastry, Narayan; Duffy, Denise; Ailshire, Jennifer

    2014-07-15

    Many studies rely on self-reports to capture population trends and trajectories in weight gain over adulthood, but the validity of self-reports is often considered a limitation. The purpose of this work was to examine long-term trajectories of self-reporting bias in a national sample of American youth. With 3 waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1996-2008), we used growth curve models to examine self-reporting bias in trajectories of weight gain across adolescence and early adulthood (ages 13-32 years). We investigated whether self-reporting bias is constant over time, or whether adolescents become more accurate in reporting their weight as they move into young adulthood, and we examined differences in self-reporting bias by sex, race/ethnicity, and attained education. Adolescent girls underreported their weight by 0.86 kg on average, and this rate of underreporting increased over early adulthood. In contrast, we found no evidence that boys underreported their weight either in adolescence or over the early adult years. For young men, self-reports of weight were unbiased estimates of measured weight among all racial/ethnic and educational subpopulations over adolescence and early adulthood.

  12. The case report of treatment strategy for Anorexia nervosa with psychotic elements in adolescent.

    PubMed

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Pozgain, Ivan; Filaković, Pavo

    2010-09-01

    Eating disorders in early childhood are the same frequency in boys and girls. During adolescence eating disorders are ten (10) times more frequent in girls than in boys. Worrying is the fact that eating disorders are the third chronic illness among adolescents after obesity and asthma. Depicting this adolescent we tried to show difficulty of treatment of this disorder, where in the beginning is important to stabilize body weight and prevent somatic damages such as: heart damage, amenorrhoea, changes in EKG (electrocardiogram) and electrolyte dysbalance that could endanger the life of patient. Simultaneously it is important to recognize and treat comorbid psychological disturbances such as in this case: depression, delusions with occasional psychotic reactions combined with unrealistic thinking about the layout of her own body. There is still no cure for the treatment of eating disorders which are in growing number of reports among male adolescents.

  13. Brief report: Executive functions in adolescent offspring of mothers with a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Clara; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-10-01

    Deficits in executive functions (EFs) have been documented among individuals with unipolar depression, but controversy exists as to whether such deficits are state-dependent or are trait markers that precede disorder onset. The present study examined whether maternal history of unipolar depression was associated with deficits in EFs in early adolescent offspring, a finding that would support a trait marker conceptualization of EF deficits. Participants were a diverse sample (N = 493) of adolescents and their mothers recruited through local schools. Measures included semi-structured diagnostic interviews of mother and adolescent, mother-report forms assessing demographic information, and tests of executive function. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between maternal depression diagnosis and adolescent offspring performance on tests of EF. Maternal lifetime history of depression was not associated with offspring EF task performance. Findings are not consistent with the conceptualization of impaired executive functions as trait markers of unipolar depression.

  14. Adolescent inpatient girls׳ report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsey B; Liu, Richard T; Yen, Shirley

    2014-09-30

    Adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior are especially vulnerable for future suicide attempts, particularly following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric admission. This study is the first to test whether adolescents׳ tendency to generate stress, or report more dependent events to which they contributed, was predictive of prospective suicide events. Ninety adolescent psychiatric inpatients who were admitted for recent suicide risk, completed diagnostic interviews, assessments of history of suicidal behavior, and a self-report questionnaire of major life events at baseline. Participants were followed over the subsequent 6 months after discharge to assess stability vs. onset of suicide events. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to predict adolescents׳ time to suicide events. Results supported hypothesis, such that only recent greater dependent events, not independent or overall events, predicted risk for prospective suicide events. This effect was specific to adolescent girls. Importantly, dependent events maintained statistical significance as a predictor of future suicide events after co-varying for the effects of several established risk factors and psychopathology. Results suggest that the tendency to generate dependent events may contribute unique additional prediction for adolescent girls׳ prospective suicide risk, and highlight the need for future work in this area.

  15. Adolescent caffeine consumption and self-reported violence and conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S; James, Jack E

    2013-07-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the relationship between adolescent caffeine use and self-reported violent behaviors and conduct disorders in a population-based cross-sectional sample of 3,747 10th grade students (15-16 years of age, 50.2 % girls) who were enrolled in the Icelandic national education system during February 2012. Through a series of multiple regression models, while controlling for background factors, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and current medication and peer delinquency, and including measures on substance use, our findings show robust additive explanatory power of caffeine for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. In addition, the association of caffeine to the outcomes is significantly stronger for girls than boys for both violent behaviors and conduct disorders. Future studies are needed to examine to what extent, if at all, these relationships are causal. Indication of causal connections between caffeine consumption and negative outcomes such as those reported here would call into question the acceptability of current policies concerning the availability of caffeine to adolescents and the targeting of adolescence in the marketing of caffeine products.

  16. Cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior differences between pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Holden, G W; Nelson, P B; Velasquez, J; Ritchie, K L

    1993-01-01

    A wide variety of variables have been related to the occurrence of adolescent pregnancy. However, many previous studies have produced conflicting results and are univariate in nature. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in pregnant and nonpregnant adolescents on variables from three domains: cognitive, psychosocial, and reported sexual behavior. Sixty-nine pregnant adolescents and 58 comparison adolescents filled out nine questionnaires presented on microcomputers. Significant differences were found on 10 of 24 univariate tests. The strongest differences concerned areas of scholastic functioning and reported sexual behavior; pregnant teenagers were more likely than nonpregnant peers to be doing poorly in school and less likely to use contraceptives. In addition, pregnant teenagers were more likely to have a relative or friend who was an adolescent mother and to expect child rearing to be easier than did the nonpregnant adolescents. A discriminant analysis was computed which correctly classified 83% of the sample, based on variables from each of the three domains. This study has served to replicate, refute, and expand on previous findings concerning the antecedents of teenage pregnancy. More importantly, this study has empirically demonstrated the multivariate and interrelated nature of variables associated with teenage pregnancy.

  17. Skills for Adolescence. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Lions Quest "Skills for Adolescence" is a schoolwide program designed for middle school students (grades 6-8). The program was designed to promote good citizenship skills, core character values, and social-emotional skills and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol, and violence. The program includes a classroom curriculum, schoolwide…

  18. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  19. ACUTE PELVIC PAIN IN THE ADOLESCENT: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Samuels-Kalow, M.; Mollen, C.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of acute pelvic pain in the adolescent female requires differentiating among a broad differential diagnosis that includes potentially serious illness across several organ systems. The case presented provides an illustration of the assessment and management of acute pelvic pain, and key teaching points about important potential causes. PMID:26273230

  20. Adolescent Internet Use: What We Expect, What Teens Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation…

  1. Improving Adolescent Learning: An Action Agenda. A TASC Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    At a recent national forum at the Ford Foundation in New York, 140 education and youth development professionals discussed how to better support adolescent learning. Drawing on the discussion and the latest research in neuroscience, psychology and cognitive learning science, TASC presents an action agenda that can be tailored to circumstances in…

  2. Measurement of Social Incompetency in Adolescents. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deJung, John E.; Edmonson, Barbara

    Project activities involved: (1) examination of exploratory measures of social incompetency of junior high school adolescents, (2) development and trial of educational units designed in response to problems in black urban schools, and (3) a compilation and review of cross-sectional Test of Social Inference (TSI) data. Extensive test data was…

  3. Inconsistent Self-Report of Delinquency by Adolescents and Young Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Margaret H.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Babinski, Dara E.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the ability of adolescents and young adults with childhood ADHD to reliably self-report delinquency history. Data were examined from the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study (PALS), a follow-up study of children diagnosed with ADHD between 1987 and 1996. Self-report of lifetime delinquency history was…

  4. Colorado Commission on Higher Education Legislative Report on Remedial Education, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report documents action taken and data gathered by the Colorado Department of Higher Education (DHE) as required by statute to report annually on students taking basic skills courses at Colorado's public higher education institutions. DHE has prepared this report which summarizes: (1) actions by DHE and the Commission on Higher Education…

  5. Colorado Commission on Higher Education Legislative Report on Remedial Education, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report documents actions taken and data gathered by the Colorado Department of Higher Education (DHE) as required by statute to report annually on students taking basic skills courses at Colorado's public higher education institutions. DHE has prepared this report which summarizes: (1) actions by DHE and the Commission on Higher Education…

  6. Report to the Higher Education Policy Commission. West Virginia Higher Education Facilities Information System Statewide Institution Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Higher Education Policy Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The West Virginia Higher Education Facilities Information System was formed as a method for instituting statewide standardization of space use and classification; to serve as a vehicle for statewide data acquisition; and to provide statistical data that contributes to detailed institutional planning analysis. The result thus far is the production…

  7. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, T.W.

    1992-07-01

    Cell division is arguably the most fundamental of all developmental processes. In higher plants, mitotic activity is largely confined to foci of patterned cell divisions called meristems. From these perpetually embryonic tissues arise the plant`s essential organs of light capture, support, protection and reproduction. Once an adequate understanding of plant cell mitotic regulation is attained, unprecedented opportunities will ensue for analyzing and genetically controlling diverse aspects of development, including plant architecture, leaf shape, plant height, and root depth. The mitotic cycle in a variety of model eukaryotic systems in under the control of a regulatory network of striking evolutionary conservation. Homologues of the yeast cdc2 gene, its catalytic product, p34, and the cyclin regulatory subunits of the MPF complex have emerged as ubiquitous mitotic regulators. We have cloned cdc2-like and cyclin genes from pea. As in other eukaryotic model systems, p34 of Pisum sativum is a subunit of a high molecular weight complex which binds the fission yeast p13 protein and displays histone H1 kinase activity in vitro. Our primary objective in this study is to gain baseline information about the regulation of this higher plant cell division control complex in non-dividing, differentiated cells as well as in synchronous and asynchronous mitotic cells. We are investigating cdc2 and cyclin expression at the levels of protein abundance, protein phosphorylation and quaternary associations.

  8. Profiles of the forms and functions of self-reported aggression in three adolescent samples.

    PubMed

    Marsee, Monica A; Frick, Paul J; Barry, Christopher T; Kimonis, Eva R; Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2014-08-01

    In the current study, we addressed several issues related to the forms (physical and relational) and functions (reactive and proactive) of aggression in community (n = 307), voluntary residential (n = 1,917), and involuntarily detained (n = 659) adolescents (ages 11-19 years). Across samples, boys self-reported more physical aggression and girls reported more relational aggression, with the exception of higher levels of both forms of aggression in detained girls. Further, few boys showed high rates of relational aggression without also showing high rates of physical aggression. In contrast, it was not uncommon for girls to show high rates of relational aggression alone, and these girls tended to also have high levels of problem behavior (e.g., delinquency) and mental health problems (e.g., emotional dysregulation and callous-unemotional traits). Finally, for physical aggression in both boys and girls, and for relational aggression in girls, there was a clear pattern of aggressive behavior that emerged from cluster analyses across samples. Two aggression clusters emerged, with one group showing moderately high reactive aggression and a second group showing both high reactive and high proactive aggression (combined group). On measures of severity (e.g., self-reported delinquency and arrests) and etiologically important variables (e.g., emotional regulation and callous-unemotional traits), the reactive aggression group was more severe than a nonaggressive cluster but less severe than the combined aggressive cluster.

  9. Adolescent Consumption of Sports and Energy Drinks: Linkages to Higher Physical Activity, Unhealthy Beverage Patterns, Cigarette Smoking, and Screen Media Use

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicole; DeWolfe, Jessica; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine patterns of adolescent sports and energy drink (SED) consumption and identify behavioral correlates. Design Data were drawn from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), a population-based study. Setting Adolescents from 20 middle and high schools in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota completed classroom-administered surveys. Participants 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls) in grades 6–12. Variables Measured Beverage patterns; breakfast frequency; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); media use; sleep; and cigarette smoking. Analysis Linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between health behaviors and SED consumption, adjusting for demographics. Results Over a third of adolescents consumed sports drinks and 14.7% consumed energy drinks at least once a week. Among boys and girls, both sports and energy drink consumption were related to higher video game use; sugar-sweetened beverage and fruit juice intake; and smoking (P<0.05). Sports drink consumption was also significantly related to higher MVPA and organized sport participation for both genders (P<0.01). Conclusions and Implications Although sports drink consumption was associated with higher MVPA, adolescents should be reminded of recommendations to consume these beverages only following vigorous, prolonged activity. There is also a need for future interventions designed to reduce SED consumption to address the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24809865

  10. The Relationship Between Reported Sleep Quality and Sleep Hygiene in Italian and American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Giannotti, Flavia; Cortesi, Flavia; Wolfson, Amy R.; Harsh, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality and sleep hygiene in Italian and American adolescents and to assess whether sleep-hygiene practices mediate the relationship between culture and sleep quality. Methods Two nonprobability samples were collected from public schools in Rome, Italy, and Hattiesburg, Mississippi. Students completed the following self-report measures: Adolescent Sleep-Wake Scale, Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, Pubertal Developmental Scale, and Morningness/Eveningness Scale. Results The final sample included 776 Italian and 572 American adolescents 12 to 17 years old. Italian adolescents reported much better sleep hygiene and substantially better sleep quality than American adolescents. A moderate-to-strong linear relationship was found between sleep hygiene and sleep quality in both samples. Separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on both samples. Demographic and individual characteristics explained a significant proportion of the variance in sleep quality (Italians: 18%; Americans: 25%), and the addition of sleep-hygiene domains explained significantly more variance in sleep quality (Italians: 17%; Americans: 16%). A final hierarchical multiple regression analysis with both samples combined showed that culture (Italy versus United States) only explained 0.8% of the variance in sleep quality after controlling for sleep hygiene and all other variables. Conclusions Cross-cultural differences in sleep quality, for the most part, were due to differences in sleep-hygiene practices. Sleep hygiene is an important predictor of sleep quality in Italian and American adolescents, thus supporting the implementation and evaluation of educational programs on good sleep-hygiene practices. PMID:15866860

  11. Higher Education Report Card: 1995. Comparisons of State Public Higher Education Systems and National Trends. 1st Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, Kent

    This report presents the key trend indicators of public higher education systems for the fiscal year 1994-95, and national trend data for the years 1978-95, for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Two brief introductory sections summarize the more exceptional findings, and define the purpose and design of the study and the indicators used.…

  12. Benchmarking in Higher Education: Adapting Best Practices To Improve Quality. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.

    This report concerns the use of benchmarking as a strategy for assessing and improving efficiency and productivity of administrative processes and instructional models in colleges and universities. The introductory chapter addresses the need for new tools and strategies to meet the increased competition and the higher demand for accountability…

  13. Academic Freedom in American Higher Education: Rights, Responsibilities and Limitations. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Robert K.

    This report synthesizes the literature and applicable case law concerning academic freedom in higher education and addresses the following issues: (1) popular notions concerning academic freedom; (2) whether academic freedom is a legal right; (3) whether faculty at private institutions have the same rights as faculty in public schools; and (4)…

  14. Independent Higher Education: Fifth Report on Financial and Educational Trends in the Independent Sector of American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, W. John; Bowen, Howard R.

    The fifth report in an annual series designed to provide timely and reliable information on the condition of the independent sector of American higher education is presented. Information was gathered from a sample of 127 institutions representative of all independent, nonprofit, accredited institutions, except free-standing professional schools…

  15. Adolescents' Expectations for Higher Education in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forste, Renata; Heaton, Tim B.; Haas, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on status attainment models, the authors examine the effects of family, peer, and school factors on expectations to graduate from a university for a sample of high school students in Bogota, Colombia, and La Paz, Bolivia. The expansion of higher education in these countries has followed different strategies. In Bolivia, the policy has been…

  16. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical…

  17. Major depressive disorder in an adolescent with Turner syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shujiong; Sun, Liying; Li, Rong; Zhao, Zhengyan; Yang, Rongwang

    2016-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, of which the presence and impact of coexisting psychiatric morbidity has received little attention. The present report describes an adolescent with mosaic karyotype TS who had major depressive disorder with the predisposing cause of psychosocial burden, and relieved with the treatment of sertraline and complete remission with combined use of estradiol valerate. The report suggests us to pay more attention on the mood disorders in children with TS, especially in adolescents. For treatment aspect, medications for improving the puberty development and short stature should be added to in addition to antidepressants if they had mood disorders.

  18. The Costs and Benefits of Self-Monitoring for Higher Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Heather A.; Ono, Kim E.; McMahon, Camilla M.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Usher, Lauren V.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to regulate behaviors and emotions depends in part on the ability to flexibly monitor one's own progress toward a goal. Atypical patterns of response monitoring have been reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the current study we examined the error related negativity (ERN), an electrophysiological index…

  19. Interpersonal factors associated with depression in adolescents: are these consistent with theories underpinning interpersonal psychotherapy?

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Gabrielle; Spence, Susan H; Donovan, Caroline L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether depressed adolescents differed from non-depressed adolescents in terms of constructs consistent with those that are proposed to underpin interpersonal psychotherapy. In particular, it was hypothesized that compared with non-depressed adolescents, depressed adolescents would demonstrate a greater number of negative life events associated with interpersonal loss and major life transitions, a more insecure attachment style and poorer communication skills, interpersonal relationships and social support. Thirty-one clinically diagnosed depressed adolescents were matched with 31 non-depressed adolescents on age, gender and socio-economic status. The 62 participants were aged between 12 and 19 years and comprised 18 male and 44 female adolescents. On a self-report questionnaire, depressed adolescents reported a greater number of negative interpersonal life events, a less secure attachment style and scored higher on all insecure attachment styles compared with the non-depressed adolescents. In addition, depressed adolescents demonstrated lower levels of social skill (on both adolescent and parent report), a poorer quality of relationship with parents (on both adolescent and parent report) and lower social competence (adolescent report only). Parents of depressed adolescents also reported more negative parental attitudes and behaviours towards their adolescent compared with parents of non-depressed adolescents. Thus, the results of this study are consistent with the constructs underlying interpersonal psychotherapy and suggest their usefulness in the assessment, conceptualization and treatment of adolescent depression. Clinical implications are discussed.

  20. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  1. Wernicke Encephalopathy in Adolescents After Bariatric Surgery: Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Javors, Amy; Pratt, Janey; Kharasch, Sigmund

    2016-12-01

    Roughly 1% of all weight loss surgery is performed in adolescents. There is strong evidence demonstrating significant postsurgical weight loss, improvement in quality of life, and reduction in comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes. Reports of postoperative complications in adolescents are few because of the small sample size in most series. Despite vitamin supplementation, nutritional deficiencies requiring hospitalization occur occasionally after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Wernicke encephalopathy, a triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and altered mental status, is a serious consequence of thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency. Few cases of Wernicke encephalopathy after weight loss surgery have been reported in the literature and even fewer in the pediatric population. Here we describe a teenage girl who develops vomiting after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and presented with nystagmus, irritability, and ataxia. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of Wernicke encephalopathy in adolescents after bariatric surgery are discussed.

  2. Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring: Comparisons with overt monitoring and links with information management.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Skyler T

    2017-02-01

    This study compared Chinese adolescents' reports of covert parental monitoring with the overt strategies of solicitation and control. We investigated these behaviors in terms of unique associations with adolescents' perceived privacy invasion and the information management behaviors of disclosure and secrecy. High school students (N = 455, 61.5% female; Mage = 17.39, SD = 0.83) from a predominantly rural province of Mainland China reported a high incidence of covert monitoring (60.40%). Covert monitoring predicted privacy invasion more strongly than solicitation or control. Solicitation positively predicted disclosure, while covert monitoring negatively predicted disclosure and positively predicted secrecy. Privacy invasion fully mediated links between covert monitoring and information management. These latter effects were significantly stronger for girls than for boys. Similar to Western adolescents, Chinese youth might apply selective resistance when parents violate their personal domain. The findings suggest linkage between some parental monitoring behaviors and disruptions in Chinese family communication.

  3. Professional caregiver's knowledge of self-reported delinquency in an adolescent sample in Swiss youth welfare and juvenile justice institutions.

    PubMed

    Dölitzsch, Claudia; Schmid, Marc; Keller, Ferdinand; Besier, Tanja; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmeck, Klaus; Kölch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Since an important goal of the youth welfare system is to prevent troubled adolescents from committing acts of delinquency in future, professional caregivers need to possess accurate knowledge about past behaviors in order to implement appropriate interventions. As part of a comprehensive study on youth in state care, adolescents at 30 residential care facilities in Switzerland were surveyed about past acts of delinquency, and their responses were compared to those of their professional caregivers to see how well they correlated. A sample of 267 male and female adolescents aged 11-18years completed questionnaires about the frequency, nature, and seriousness of different types of offenses, while a designated caregiver for each resident completed a corresponding questionnaire. The majority of residents (86.1%) reported having committed at least one offense, which confirms the prevalence of problem behaviors in this population and the need for strategies to prevent it. The overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was 77.2%, with both parties reporting that the resident had committed at least one offense in 69.7% of cases, and both reporting that no offense had been committed in 7.5% of cases. Agreement was substantially higher for offenses that were serious than for those that were minor or moderate. Cohen's kappa reached slight to moderate values with regard to individual and categorized offenses. Seriousness scales of delinquency for self-reports and caregiver reports were moderately associated. While the overall rate of agreement between the residents and their caregivers was high, increasing it still further might lead to improvements in strategies for the prevention of recidivism.

  4. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ban Hyung; Kang, Seung Gul; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for both genders. Increased weekend catch-up sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents.

  5. Identifying key parent-reported symptoms for detecting depression in high risk adolescents.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Ajay K; Hood, Kerenza; Collishaw, Stephan; Hammerton, Gemma; Mars, Becky; Sellers, Ruth; Potter, Robert; Craddock, Nick; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2016-08-30

    Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at particularly heightened risk of developing early onset Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) yet are unlikely to access services. We therefore aimed to identify a parsimonious combination of parent-reported symptoms that accurately detected offspring MDD. We used a multi-sample study comprising a development sample of 335 offspring of adults with recurrent MDD assessed on three occasions (mean age 12.4-14.8 years) and an independent validation sub-sample of 807 adolescents from a general population cohort (mean age 13.1 years). Parent ratings of psychiatric symptoms in adolescent offspring were assessed using established questionnaires. The best performing four-item combination of symptoms was identified. Accuracy in detecting concurrent DSM-IV MDD diagnosis, assessed by direct adolescent and parent interviews, was compared to the well-established 13-item short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) using ROC curve analysis. The combination identified (concentration problems, anhedonia, worrying excessively and feeling unloved) performed equivalently to the sMFQ both in the development dataset and in the validation dataset. We concluded that a combination of four parent-reported mental health items performs equivalently to an established, longer depression questionnaire measure in detecting a diagnosis of adolescent major depressive disorder among offspring of parents with recurrent MDD and needs further evaluation.

  6. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001, respectively) for both genders. Increased weekend catch-up sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents. PMID:27822941

  7. Exploratory and Higher-Order Factor Analyses of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) Adolescent Subsample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2010-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) with the adolescent participants (ages 16-19 years; N = 400) in the standardization sample was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher-order exploratory factor analyses. Results from…

  8. Financing Higher Education in the New Century: The Second Annual Report from the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    This is the second in an annual series of reports that summarize financing trends affecting higher education. The report notes that state appropriations to higher education reached $56.7 billion in fiscal year (FY) 2000, an increase of 7 percent over FY 1999, and the largest ever appropriated by states for higher education. The 1999 legislative…

  9. Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 Annual Report for the Missouri Department of Higher Education takes a close look at the performance of Missouri's system of postsecondary education in Fiscal Year 2010. The annual report follows the format of the state's public agenda for higher education, "Imperatives for Change: Building a Higher Education System for the 21st…

  10. Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Coordinating Board for Higher Education (CBHE) and the Missouri Department of Higher Education (MDHE) present this Annual Report of accomplishments, benchmarks and statistics related to Missouri higher learning for Fiscal Year 2011. This report provides a snapshot of the issues, policies and goals considered by the CBHE during the 2011 fiscal…

  11. Higher Education Counts: Accountability Measures for the New Millennium. 2005 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  12. Metacognitive Awareness of Facial Affect in Higher-Functioning Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Heather A.; Newell, Lisa; Jaime, Mark; Mundy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Higher-functioning participants with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) viewed a series of face stimuli, made decisions regarding the affect of each face, and indicated their confidence in each decision. Confidence significantly predicted accuracy across all participants, but this relation was stronger for participants with typical development than participants with ASD. In the hierarchical linear modeling analysis, there were no differences in face processing accuracy between participants with and without ASD, but participants with ASD were more confident in their decisions. These results suggest that individuals with ASD have metacognitive impairments and are overconfident in face processing. Additionally, greater metacognitive awareness was predictive of better face processing accuracy, suggesting that metacognition may be a pivotal skill to teach in interventions. PMID:26496991

  13. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N = 172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress and that their children are…

  14. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Camilla M; Lerner, Matthew D; Britton, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) for adolescents (ages 10–20 years) with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex) and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity) vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments) are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention); future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions regarding the efficacy of GSSIs for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23956616

  15. An Investigation of Two Self-Report Measures of Obsessional Phenomena in Obsessive-Compulsive Adolescents: Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David A.; Bolton, Derek

    1985-01-01

    The Leyton Obsessional Inventory and the Maudsley Obsessional Compulsive Inventory were administered to 11 obsessive-compulsive adolescents and 10 anxious non-obsessional patients. Obsessional adolescents scored significantly higher than controls on the Maudsley total score and checking factors alone. (Author/RH)

  16. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Catherine A; Usher, Lauren V; Schwartz, Caley B; Mundy, Peter C; Henderson, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the spectrum hypothesis, which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ quantitatively but not qualitatively from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional tendencies, which relate to maladaptive behaviors across clinical populations. Quantitatively, participants with HFA (N = 104, aged 10-16) self-reported less surgency and more negative affect but did not differ from comparison participants (N = 94, aged 10-16) on effortful control or affiliation. Qualitatively, groups demonstrated comparable reliability of self-reported temperament and associations between temperament and parent-reported behavior problems. These findings support the spectrum hypothesis, highlighting the utility of self-report temperament measures for understanding individual differences in comorbid behavior problems among children and adolescents with HFA.

  17. Adolescent Self-Reported Health in Relation to School Factors: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Karina; Bergström, Erik; Janlert, Urban; Nygren, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine school-related determinants of self-reported health among adolescents. Questionnaire survey data comprising 4,972 students, Grades 7 through 9, from 20 schools in northern Sweden were used. Also, complimentary data about each school were collected from the Swedish National Agency for Education. Using multilevel…

  18. Supporting the Spectrum Hypothesis: Self-Reported Temperament in Children and Adolescents with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Catherine A.; Usher, Lauren V.; Schwartz, Caley B.; Mundy, Peter C.; Henderson, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the "spectrum hypothesis," which posits that children and adolescents with high functioning autism (HFA) differ "quantitatively" but not "qualitatively" from typically developing peers on self-reported temperament. Temperament refers to early-appearing, relatively stable behavioral and emotional…

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Three Select Populations of Black Unmarried Adolescent Fathers. Volume II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    This document is the final report of a study of Black, unmarried adolescent fathers designed to identify and describe quantitatively the difficulties they faced and their problem solving methods. The data were secured through a nonprobability sample of 20 Black, unwed fathers in Tulsa, Oklahoma, 27 fathers in Chicago, Illinois, and 48 fathers and…

  20. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  1. Inhalant Use and Delinquent Behaviors among Young Adolescents. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the prevalence of inhalant use among young adolescents aged 12 or 13, the association between inhalant use and delinquent behaviors within this age group, and the association between early onset of inhalant use and problems later in life. Early onset of substance use has been linked to substance use disorders, delinquent…

  2. Epidemiological Comparisons of Problems and Positive Qualities Reported by Adolescents in 24 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Dumenci, Levent; Almqvist, Fredrik; Bilenberg, Niels; Bird, Hector; Broberg, Anders; Dobrean, Anca; Dopfner, Manfred; Erol, Nese; Forns, Maria; Hannesdottir, Helga; Kanbayashi, Yasuko; Lambert, Michael C.; Leung, Patrick; Minaei, Asghar; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Novik, Torunn S.; Oh, Kyung-Ja; Roussos, Alexandra; Sawyer, Michael; Simsek, Zeynep; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Weintraub, Sheila; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Zilber, Nelly; Zukauskiene, Rita; Verhulst, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age…

  3. Nebraska Adolescents' HIV/AIDS Attitudes, Knowledge and Related Practices: 1989. Technical Report 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; And Others

    This report presents information from a survey of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Nebraska adolescents (N=1,240) in grades 9-12 related to the Human-Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Schools were selected at random from each of the six classifications of Nebraska schools, and two or three…

  4. Staff Behavior toward Children and Adolescents in a Residential Facility: A Self-Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huitink, C.; Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Veerman, J. W.; Verhoeven, L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine psychometric properties of the Staff Behavior toward Clients questionnaire (SBC), a self-report measure for care staff working with children and adolescents with mild to borderline intellectual disabilities in residential care. Ninety-nine care staff completed the SBC and the Strengths and…

  5. Pittsburgh Board of Public Education Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting: Minority Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaleida, Phillip; And Others

    This minority report is a rebuttal to the recommendations made by the Task Force on Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting of the Pittsburgh Board of Public Education. It takes issue with the way in which decisions were made and especially with the recommendation to establish school-based clinics (SBCs) in or near high risk schools. This minority…

  6. Self-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents with Myelomeningocele

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller-Godeffroy, E.; Michael, T.; Poster, M.; Seidel, U.; Schwarke, D.; Thyen, U.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (MMC) and to examine the impact of clinical impairments and limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). Fifty patients (28 females, 22 males) between 8 and 16 years of age (mean age 12y 1mo [SD 2y…

  7. Functional Assessment and Treatment of Migraine Reports and School Absences in an Adolescent with Asperger's Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvans, Rebecca K.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Psychological interventions for migraines typically include biofeedback training, stress-management training, or relaxation training and are implemented without consideration of environmental variables that might maintain migraines or complaints of migraines. An adolescent with daily reports of migraines that negatively impacted school attendance…

  8. Age Effects of Reported Child Maltreatment in a Canadian Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Diane C.

    2005-01-01

    The general purpose of this study was to examine the proportions of children and adolescents identified with behavioral, emotional and cognitive clinical findings and disabilities. Data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) were used in this study. Participants in this study included 7672 children aged 0 to 15…

  9. Brief Report: The Salience of the Family in Antisocial and Delinquent Behaviors among Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrente, Ginesa; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relations between self-report measures of parental support, communication, and psychological control and measures of antisocial and delinquent behavior in a sample of 641 Spanish adolescents (M age = 14.35 years, SD = 1.53 years). Findings revealed similarities in the relations between parenting processes and both measures…

  10. Global Self-Esteem, Appearance Satisfaction, and Self-Reported Dieting in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Erin T.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2010-01-01

    Global self-esteem, appearance satisfaction, and self-reported dieting are interrelated. This study examines the temporal ordering of global self-esteem and appearance satisfaction across the early adolescence transition, from age 10 to age 14, as well as the independent associations of self-esteem and appearance satisfaction on self-reported…

  11. Students' and teachers' perceptions of aggressive behaviour in adolescents with intellectual disability and typically developing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pavlović, Miroslav; Zunić-Pavlović, Vesna; Glumbić, Nenad

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated aggressive behaviour in Serbian adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) compared to typically developing peers. The sample consisted of both male and female adolescents aged 12-18 years. One hundred of the adolescents had ID, and 348 adolescents did not have ID. The adolescents were asked to complete the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and their teachers provided ratings of aggression for the adolescents using the Children's Scale of Hostility and Aggression: Reactive-Proactive (C-SHARP). Results indicated that adolescents reported a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviour than their teachers. Reactive aggression was more prevalent than proactive aggression in both subsamples. In the subsample of adolescents with ID, there were no sex or age differences for aggression. However, in the normative subsample, boys and older adolescents scored significantly higher on aggression. According to adolescent self-reports the prevalence of aggression was higher in adolescents without ID, while teachers perceived aggressive behaviour to be more prevalent in adolescents with ID. Scientific and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Fiscal Year 2007 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Coordinating Board for Higher Education (CBHE) and the Missouri Department of Higher Education (MDHE) present this report on Missouri higher education for fiscal year 2007. 2007 is an exciting year. The omnibus higher education bill, which was signed in May and became law in August 2007, represents a major transformation in the structure of…

  13. Higher Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adolescent and Young Adult Girls Belonging to Different Indian Tribes with Varied Socio-Sexual Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kirti; Kathait, Atul; Jain, Asha; Kujur, Karmila; Raghuwanshi, Shirish; Bharti, Alok Chandra; Saklani, Asha Chandola; Das, Bhudev Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in Indian women, no study has been done in tribal populations whose socio-sexual lifestyle is different. Therefore, HPV screening has been carried out in pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adult tribal girls using self-collected urine samples. Methods 20–35 ml self-collected midstream urine samples were obtained from a total of 2278 healthy tribal girls (9–25 years) comprising pre-adolescent, adolescent and young adults from three Indian states: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. β-globin positive 2034 samples were employed for HPV detection and genotyping. Results The overall prevalence of HPV infection in tribal girls was 12.9% (262/2034). More than 65% (172/262) of them were infected with HR-HPV types of which HPV16 was the most predominant type (54%). Young adult girls aged 18–25 years showed a significantly higher prevalence of HPV infection (19.2%; OR = 3.36; 95% CI 2.97–6.34, P<0.001) as compared to that in adolescent (11.4%; OR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.20–2.76, P<0.01) or pre-adolescent girls (6.6%). Conclusion This is a first study showing significantly a very high prevalence of HPV infection in adolescent and young adult tribal girls possibly due to different socio-sexual behavior, indicating a serious health concern for Indian tribal women. PMID:25954813

  14. Adolescents' reported hearing symptoms and attitudes toward loud music.

    PubMed

    Landälv, Daniel; Malmström, Lennart; Widén, Stephen E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the adolescents' attitudes toward loud music in relation to a set of self-perceived auditory symptoms and psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment in noisy situations. A questionnaire on hearing and preventive behavior was distributed to 281 upper secondary school students aged 15-19 years. The questionnaire included youth attitude to noise scale, questions about perceived hearing symptoms such as tinnitus and sound sensitivity and finally statements on perceived behavioral norms regarding hearing protection use, risk-taking and risk-judgment in noisy settings. Self-perceived auditory symptoms such as sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus had a significant relationship with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music. Permanent tinnitus and sound sensitivity together accounted for 15.9% of the variation in attitudes toward loud music. Together with the psychological variables norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment 48.0% of the variation in attitudes could be explained. Although perceived hearing symptoms (sound sensitivity and permanent tinnitus) was associated with less tolerant attitudes toward loud music, psychological variables such as norms, preparedness to take risks and risk-judgment were found to be more strongly associated with attitudes toward loud music and should therefore be considered more in future preventive work. Health promotive strategies should focus on changing not merely individual attitudes, but also societal norms and regulations in order to decrease noise induced auditory symptoms among adolescents.

  15. Sexuality in adolescent boys with autism spectrum disorder: self-reported behaviours and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Dewinter, Jeroen; Vermeiren, Robert; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; Lobbestael, Jill; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-03-01

    Differences in sexual functioning of adolescents with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are understudied. In the current study, self-reported sexual behaviours, interests and attitudes of 50 adolescent boys, aged 15-18, with at least average intelligence and diagnosed with ASD, were compared with a matched general population control group of 90 boys. Results demonstrated substantial similarity between the groups in terms of sexual behaviours. The only significant difference was that boys with ASD reacted more tolerant towards homosexuality compared to the control group. Results reveal that sexuality is a normative part of adolescent development in high-functioning boys with ASD. Hence, attention should be given to this topic in education and mental health care.

  16. Mental health and adjustment to juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Level of agreement between parent and adolescent reports according to Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Katarzyna A.; Niedziela, Marek; Głowacki, Maciej; Głowacki, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were threefold. Firstly, to analyze the psychometric properties of the Polish-language Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) questionnaire in the self-report Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire (adolescents, 11–18 years of age) and in the parent-report Adolescent Outcomes Questionnaire (completed by a parent or guardian of an adolescent aged 11–18 years). Secondly, to determine the level of agreement between parents and adolescents in rating dysfunction in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and thirdly, to examine associations between psychological adjustments of patients to JIA and disease as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. The study sample consisted of 52 participants. 26 adolescents between the ages of 11 and 18 years with a diagnosis of JIA and 26 parents were considered for inclusion. Disease course was classified as pauciarticular (n = 12, 46.2%) and polyarticular (n = 14, 53.8%). Participants completed the PODCI (self- and parent- report) twice and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-25 (SDQ-25). Considering the distribution of results regarding PODCI normative scores, 73.1% of parents and 69.2% of patients scored below 50 on the Global Functioning Scale; that is lower than the average for the general healthy population. Regarding the parent report, the total score of the SDQ-25 equaled 11.86 (SD 2.66), whereas the patient report equaled 11.23 (SD 2.78). The study groups do not differ significantly in regards to either the PODCI or the SDQ-25 results. Parents and adolescents with JIA appear to hold very similar perceptions of patients' health. Greater differences emerge as disease severity and age of patients increase. Excellent internal consistency, intrarater and test-retest reliability of the Global Functioning Scale have been confirmed in the Polish version of the PODCI, the questionnaire may therefore aid identification of patients reporting significant problems in this group. PMID

  17. Self-reported peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients: the mediating role of negative self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Jones, Heather A; Bilge-Johnson, Sumru; Rabinovitch, Annie E; Fishel, Hazel

    2014-10-01

    The current study investigated relationships among self-reported peer victimization, suicidality, and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Sixty-seven adolescent psychiatric inpatients at a Midwestern children's hospital completed measures of bullying and peer victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression during their inpatient stay. Analyses indicated significant moderate correlations among victimization, suicidal ideation, and depression in adolescents. Results from mediational analyses found that negative self-esteem mediated the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation. To date, this study is the first to directly examine the mechanisms underlying the relationship between peer victimization and suicidal ideation in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

  18. Prevalence of self-reported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Montalverne Hb; Rösing, Cassiano K; Colussi, Paulo Roberto G; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mg; Linden, Maria Ss

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Passo Fundo, Brazil. Additionally, we studied adolescents' concern with their own breath and whether anyone had ever told them that they had halitosis. A crosssectional observational survey was conducted on 15to 19year old high school students from public and private schools in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil. The random sample consisted of 736 adolescents from 20 schools. An interview with a structured questionnaire was administered. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors was analyzed by either the chisquare test or Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis was 39.67%. The mother's level of education was associated with the outcome. Gender and behavioral habits were not associated with selfreported halitosis. Halitosis reported by others presented a prevalence of 10.73% and was associated to male gender and oral hygiene habits. Individuals with less toothbrushing frequency and no use of dental floss were associated to halitosis reported by others. It was observed that 88.58% of the participants are concerned with halitosis. It is concluded that there is high prevalence of selfreported halitosis, which is associated with a socioeconomic pattern. Most adolescents report concern with their own breath.

  19. The Use of a Group Approach in the Rehabilitation of Severely Retarded Adolescents in Agriculture in Israel. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chigier, E.

    The project investigated aspects of group dynamics and group behavior with mentally retarded adolescents, aged 18 to 25 years with a mental age ranging from 3 to 7 years, who worked in citriculture in Israel. The report began with an examination of the peer group principle, its relationship to childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and its…

  20. Effects of higher-order cognitive strategy training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamino, Jacquelyn F; Chapman, Sandra B; Hull, Elizabeth L; Lyon, G Reid

    2010-01-01

    Improving the reasoning skills of adolescents across the United States has become a major concern for educators and scientists who are dedicated to identifying evidence-based protocols to improve student outcome. This small sample randomized, control pilot study sought to determine the efficacy of higher-order cognitive training on gist-reasoning and fact-learning in an inner-city public middle school. The study compared gist-reasoning and fact-learning performances after training in a smaller sample when tested in Spanish, many of the students' native language, versus English. The 54 eighth grade students who participated in this pilot study were enroled in an urban middle school, predominantly from lower socio-economic status families, and were primarily of minority descent. The students were randomized into one of three groups, one that learned cognitive strategies promoting abstraction of meaning, a group that learned rote memory strategies, or a control group to ascertain the impact of each program on gist-reasoning and fact-learning from text-based information. We found that the students who had cognitive strategy instruction that entailed abstraction of meaning significantly improved their gist-reasoning and fact-learning ability. The students who learned rote memory strategies significantly improved their fact-learning scores from a text but not gist-reasoning ability. The control group showed no significant change in either gist-reasoning or fact-learning ability. A trend toward significant improvement in overall reading scores for the group that learned to abstract meaning as well as a significant correlation between gist-reasoning ability and the critical thinking on a state-mandated standardized reading test was also found. There were no significant differences between English and Spanish performance of gist-reasoning and fact-learning. Our findings suggest that teaching higher-order cognitive strategies facilitates gist-reasoning ability and student

  1. Measuring Up 2004: The State Report Card on Higher Education. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This state report card is derived from "Measuring Up 2004," the national report card for higher education. Its purpose is to provide the public and policymakers with information to assess and improve postsecondary education in each state. "Measuring Up 2004" is the third in a series of biennial report cards. The report card…

  2. Measuring Up 2004: The State Report Card on Higher Education. South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This state report card is derived from "Measuring Up 2004," the national report card for higher education. Its purpose is to provide the public and policymakers with information to assess and improve postsecondary education in each state. "Measuring Up 2004" is the third in a series of biennial report cards. The report card…

  3. Insomnia symptoms, behavioral/emotional problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac and non-insomniac parents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xianchen; Zhao, Zhongtang; Jia, Cunxian

    2015-08-30

    The aim of this study was to examine insomnia symptoms, behavioral problems, and suicidality among adolescents of insomniac parents (IP) and non-insomniac parents (NIP). A family survey of sleep and health was conducted among 1090 adolescents and their parents in Jinan, China. Adolescents completed a sleep and health questionnaire to report their sleep and mental health problems. Parents reported their insomnia symptoms and history of mental disorders. Insomnia, behavioral problems, and suicidal behavior were compared between IP adolescents and NIP adolescents. IP adolescents were more likely than NIP adolescents to report insomnia symptoms, use of sleep medication, suicidal ideation, suicide plan, and suicide attempt. IP adolescents scored significantly higher than NIP adolescents on withdrawn and externalizing behavioral problems. After adjustment for demographics and behavioral problems, parental insomnia remained to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation and suicide plan. Our findings support the need for early screening and formal assessment of sleep and mental health in adolescents of insomniac parents.

  4. Abnormal Central Pulsatile Hemodynamics in Adolescents With Obesity: Higher Aortic Forward Pressure Wave Amplitude Is Independently Associated With Greater Left Ventricular Mass.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Gary L; Pajaniappan, Mohanasundari; DiPietro, Amy; Darracott-Woei-A-Sack, Kathryn; Kapuku, Gaston K

    2016-11-01

    We hypothesized that increased aortic forward pressure wave amplitude (Pf), which is determined by characteristic impedance (Zc) in the proximal aorta, is the primary hemodynamic determinant of obesity-associated higher left ventricular (LV) mass in adolescents. Aortic pulsatile hemodynamics were measured noninvasively in 60 healthy adolescents (age 14-19 years; 42% male; 50% black) by sequential recordings of pulse waveforms via tonometry, brachial blood pressure, and pulsed Doppler and diameter of the LV outflow tract using 2-dimensional echocardiography. Adolescents who were overweight/obese (n=23; age 16.0±0.3 years; body mass index ≥85th percentile) had higher LV mass index, brachial and carotid systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, normalized Zc and Pf compared with adolescents with healthy weight (n=37; 16.7±0.3 years; body mass index <85th percentile, all P<0.01). In contrast, there was no difference in mean or diastolic blood pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, or aortic backward wave amplitude (all P>0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis that included age, sex, race, normalized Zc, and brachial systolic blood pressure revealed that body mass index (B±SE; 0.49±0.20, P=0.02, R(2)=0.26), aortic Pf (0.22±0.07; P<0.02, R(2) change=0.11), and cardiac output (2.82±1.02, P<0.01; R(2) change=0.08) were significant correlates of LV mass index (total R(2)=0.44, P<0.01). These findings suggest that higher aortic Pf is a major hemodynamic determinant of increased LV mass in adolescents with elevated adiposity. Improper matching between aortic diameter and pulsatile flow during early systole potentially contributes to the early development of LV hypertrophy in childhood obesity.

  5. Tightly Linked Systems: Reciprocal Relations Between Maternal Depressive Symptoms And Maternal Reports of Adolescent Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph P.; Manning, Nell; Meyer, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The frequently observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and heightened maternal reporting of adolescent externalizing behavior was examined from an integrative, systems perspective using a community sample of 180 adolescents, their mothers, fathers, and close peers, assessed twice over a three-year period. Consistent with this perspective, the maternal depression-adolescent externalizing link was found to reflect not simply maternal reporting biases, but heightened maternal sensitivity to independently observable teen misbehavior as well as long-term, predictive links between maternal symptoms and teen behavior. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted relative increases over time in teen externalizing behavior. Child effects were also found, however, in which teen externalizing behavior predicted future relative increases in maternal depressive symptoms. Findings are interpreted as revealing a tightly-linked behavioral-affective system in families with mothers experiencing depressive symptoms and teens engaged in externalizing behavior, and further suggest that research on depressive symptoms in women with adolescent offspring should now consider offspring externalizing behaviors as a significant risk factor. PMID:21090880

  6. Adolescent inpatient girls’ report of dependent life events predicts prospective suicide risk

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey Beth; Liu, Richard; Yen, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents with a history of suicidal behavior are especially vulnerable for future suicide attempts, particularly following discharge from an inpatient psychiatric admission. This study is the first to test whether adolescents’ tendency to generate stress, or report more dependent events to which they contributed, was predictive of prospective suicide events. Ninety adolescent psychiatric inpatients who were admitted for recent suicide risk, completed diagnostic interviews, assessments of history of suicidal behavior, and a self-report questionnaire of major life events at baseline. Participants were followed over the subsequent 6 months after discharge to assess stability vs. onset of suicide events. Cox proportional hazard regressions were used to predict adolescents’ time to suicide events. Results supported hypothesis, such that only recent greater dependent events, not independent or overall events, predicted risk for prospective suicide events. This effect was specific to adolescent girls. Importantly, dependent events maintained statistical significance as a predictor of future suicide events after co-varying for the effects of several established risk factors and psychopathology. Results suggest that the tendency to generate dependent events may contribute unique additional prediction for adolescent girls’ prospective suicide risk, and highlight the need for future work in this area. PMID:24893759

  7. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper complies with the requirements established in T.C.A. Section 49-1-302(a)(10). The act directs the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to provide a report to the Governor and General Assembly, all public schools, and institutions of higher learning and their respective boards. This report is to include,…

  8. Colorado Commission on Higher Education Legislative Report on Remedial Education, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Colorado Commission on Higher Education (CCHE) is required to prepare an annual report on students taking basic skills courses at Colorado's public higher educations institutions. CCHE has prepared this report which summarizes: (1) Commission activities since adopting the Remedial Policy in 2000; and (2) data on assessed and remediated…

  9. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report complies with the requirements established in T.C.A. (Tennessee Code Annotated) Section 49-1-302(a)(10). The act directs the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to provide a report to the Governor and General Assembly, all public schools, and institutions of higher learning and their respective…

  10. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee" complies with the requirements established in T.C.A. Section 49-1-302(a)(10). The act directs the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to provide a report to the Governor and General Assembly, all public schools, and…

  11. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report complies with the requirements established in T.C.A. (Tennessee Code Annotated) Section 49-1-302(a)(10). The act directs the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to provide a report to the Governor and General Assembly, all public schools, and institutions of higher learning and their respective…

  12. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This paper complies with the requirements established in T.C.A. Section 49-1-302(a)(10). The act directs the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission to provide a report to the Governor and General Assembly, all public schools, and institutions of higher learning and their respective boards. This report is to include,…

  13. Curriculum Alignment Initiative Report to the Coordinating Board for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is recommended that the Coordinating Board for Higher Education approve the Curriculum Alignment Initiative (CAI) report, with recognition of the dynamic nature of competencies. It is further recommended that the board direct the Commissioner of Higher Education to make the CAI Report available online to interested government agencies and…

  14. Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bel, Sarah; Michels, Nathalie; De Vriendt, Tineke; Patterson, Emma; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Diethelm, Katharina; Gutin, Bernard; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Manios, Yannis; Leclercq, Catherine; Ortega, Francisco B; Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frederic; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Garaulet, Marta; Molnar, Denes; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Gilbert, Chantal C; Hallström, Lena; Sjöström, Michael; Marcos, Ascensión; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2013-09-14

    Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ≥ 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (β = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.

  15. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development.

  16. Evaluating the validity of self-reported smoking in Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Valladolid-López, María del Carmen; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to evaluate the validity of the self-reported smoking indicator used in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Setting 43 middle and high-school classrooms from 26 schools were selected from Mexico City and Cuernavaca, Morelos. Participants A total of 1257 students provided both a questionnaire and a urine sample. Primary and secondary outcome Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking compared to urinary cotinine. Validity indices were evaluated by subgroups of gender, social acceptability of smoking (ie, smoking parents or friends) and smoking frequency. Results Sensitivity and specificity for current smoking were 93.2% and 81.7%, respectively. Validity indices remained stable across gender. Parental smoking status moderated the validity of self-report, which had lower sensitivity in adolescents with non-smoking parents (86.7%) than in adolescents with smoking parents (96.6%). Sensitivity and specificity increased with smoking frequency. Conclusions This first validation study of self-reported current smoking used in the GYTS among Mexican adolescents suggests that self-reported smoking in the past 30 days is a valid and stable indicator of current smoking behaviour. This measure appears suitable for public health research and surveillance. PMID:26453588

  17. Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Coordinating Board for Higher Education and the Department of Higher Education are pleased to present this Annual Report of accomplishments, benchmarks and statistics related to Missouri higher learning for fiscal year 2008. Chief among this year's accomplishments is the coordinated plan, "Imperatives for Change: Building a Higher…

  18. Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education Annual Report, Fiscal Year 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Department of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Coordinating Board for Higher Education and the Missouri Department of Higher Education present this FY2009 Annual Report to inform individuals of the state's status and progress in higher education. This year's shortened format is intended to provide a snapshot of how Missouri measures up in the goals outlined by the state's coordinated plan…

  19. Report on Progress toward the Statewide Public Policy Initiatives and Goals for Missouri Higher Education, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Coordinating Board for Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    This annual report extends and updates information presented to the State Coordinating Board for Higher Education (CBHE) and the CBHE Presidential Advisory Committee since April 1996. It describes progress by the state's system of higher education in implementing the Board's Blueprint for Missouri Higher Education. It also provides a baseline of…

  20. Public Higher Education Performance Accountability Framework Status Report. Commission Report 07-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    At the March 2007 meeting, the Commission received a progress report and a work plan for completing its accountability framework measure reports by December 2007. This report updates the Commission on progress to date.

  1. Eating Behaviour among Multi-Ethnic Adolescents in a Middle-Income Country as Measured by the Self-Reported Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Debbie Ann; Moy, Foong Ming; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2013-01-01

    Background Escalating weight gain among the Malaysian paediatric population necessitates identifying modifiable behaviours in the obesity pathway. Objectives This study describes the adaptation and validation of the Children’s Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) as a self-report for adolescents, investigates gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour and examines associations between eating behaviour and body mass index (BMI) z-scores among multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents. Methodology This two-phase study involved validation of the Malay self-reported CEBQ in Phase 1 (n = 362). Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability tests were performed. In Phase 2, adolescents completed the questionnaire (n = 646). Weight and height were measured. Gender and ethnic differences in eating behaviour were investigated. Associations between eating behaviour and BMI z-scores were examined with complex samples general linear model (GLM) analyses, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and maternal educational level. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35-item, 9-factor structure with ‘food fussiness’ scale split into two. In confirmatory factor analysis, a 30-item, 8-factor structure yielded an improved model fit. Reliability estimates of the eight factors were acceptable. Eating behaviours did not differ between genders. Malay adolescents reported higher Food Responsiveness, Enjoyment of Food, Emotional Overeating, Slowness in Eating, Emotional Undereating and Food Fussiness 1 scores (p<0.05) compared to Chinese and Indians. A significant negative association was observed between BMI z-scores and Food Fussiness 1 (‘dislike towards food’) when adjusted for confounders. Conclusion Although CEBQ is a valuable psychometric instrument, adjustments were required due to age and cultural differences in our sample. With the self-report, our findings present that gender, ethnic and weight status influenced eating

  2. Faculty Salaries in Washington Public Higher Education, 1977-79. Report No. 78-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    This report on faculty salaries in Washington public higher education is divided into two parts: a status report and a commentary dealing with the questions emanating from an analysis of faculty salaries and fringe benefits. The status report provides background information on faculty salary recommendations made by the Council for Postsecondary…

  3. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  4. Prospective association of childhood receptive vocabulary and conduct problems with self-reported adolescent delinquency: tests of mediation and moderation in sibling-comparison analyses.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.

  5. [Atypical celiac disease in an adolescent girl--case report].

    PubMed

    Hozyasz, Kamil; Czerwińska, Barbara

    2004-11-01

    Coeliac disease is characterized by life-long gluten intolerance. There are a wide variety of clinical presentations, which range from severe diarrhoea and weight loss to asymptomatic forms. The primary treatment for coeliac disease is the removal of gluten from the diet to prevent both immediate and long-term complications. The case of 16-year-old girl with coeliac disease was presented. At the age of 2 years the patient with impaired growth and abnormal stools was suspected to have coeliac disease. She experienced symptomatic improvement on gluten-free diet, but after 3 years the treatment was discontinued. The patient denied gastrointestinal or skin problems. At the age of 14 years Raynaud's phenomenon was observed for the first time. Two years later episodes of Raynaud's phenomenon involved all fingers and toes. Body mass index (BMI) was 23.8 kg/m2. Levels of free-carnitine, tocopherol, vitamin B12 were below normal limits and homocysteine level was increased. Antiendomysial IgA, antireticulin IgA, antigliadin IgA and IgG antibodies were positive. The duodenal mucosa showed total villous atrophy. Gluten free-diet and multivitamin supplementation provided some benefit in reducing Raynaud's phenomenon. The patient's well being has improved markedly. Atypical coeliac disease is usually seen in adolescents and adults in whom features of overt malabsorption are often absent. In cases of health problems occurring in persons with history of malabsorption syndrome in childhood suspicion of coeliac disease should be heightened and appropriate evaluation undertaken.

  6. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis presenting as atypical anorexia nervosa: an adolescent case report.

    PubMed

    Mechelhoff, David; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Weschke, Bernhard; Bachmann, Christian J; Wagner, Christiane; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Winter, Sibylle

    2015-11-01

    Since 2007, more than 600 patients have been diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, with almost 40 % of those affected being children or adolescents. In early phases of the illness, this life-threatening disease is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, obsessions, hallucinations or delusions. Consequently, a high percentage of patients receive psychiatric diagnoses at first, hindering the crucial early diagnosis and treatment of the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report on a 15-year-old girl initially presenting with pathological eating behaviour and significant weight loss resulting in an (atypical) anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. Her early course of illness, diagnostic process, treatment and short-term outcome are described. This case report aims to raise awareness about the association between anorectic behaviour and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary teams in child and adolescent services.

  7. Help, I Am Losing Control! Examining the Reporting of Sexual Harassment by Adolescents to Social Networking Sites.

    PubMed

    Van Royen, Kathleen; Poels, Karolien; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment is often encountered by adolescents on social networking sites (SNS). One option to cope with a situation of harassment on SNS is to alarm the provider by reporting the transgressive content. It is yet unclear what the determinants of reporting a sexual harassment situation on SNS are, as well as the subsequent actions to these reports from the part of the SNS provider. In this article, we seek to address these gaps, and in particular examine whether control-by-the-self over the situation and negative emotions play a role in the reporting of sexual harassment on SNS. Findings indicate that a low situational control-by-the-self, indirectly (namely through a higher experience of negative emotions such as anger and shame) increases the reporting of sexual harassment by the victim. Public visibility of the incident and the impossibility to remove the content reduce the situational control-by-the-self. Results further suggest that SNS providers often ignore reported situations of sexual harassment. The study concludes with suggestions for responses to reported harassment on SNS, which should be directed toward increasing behavioral control and thereby alleviating negative emotions.

  8. Physeal growth arrest of the distal phalanx of the thumb in an adolescent pianist: a case report.

    PubMed

    Attkiss, K J; Buncke, H J

    1998-05-01

    A case of premature closure of the distal phalanx growth plate of the thumb is reported in an adolescent, presumably caused by accumulated repetitive trauma incurred during years of piano playing. The injury may be analogous to overuse injury to certain growth plates reported in child and adolescent athletes. Upper extremity problems in musicians due to the unusual and excessive demands of playing an instrument are discussed.

  9. Case report: imaging the clinical course of FOPE—a cause of adolescent knee pain

    PubMed Central

    Bochmann, Thomas; Forrester, Richard; Smith, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Focal periphyseal oedema (FOPE) is a rare MRI finding associated with pain in adolescent patients with very few reported cases. We present a case of FOPE in a 13-year-old girl and the only follow-up imaging available for an isolated presentation of this condition.This article describes a clinical course that correlates well with the imaging obtained. This article describes a clinical course that correlates well with the imaging obtained. PMID:27887018

  10. A Validity and Reliability Study of a Report of Self Concept Scale: Adolescent Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Sherman

    In this self-concept scale for adolescents based on Havighurst's developmental task, the person is asked to read a paragraph which explains the task and to report the way he sees and feels about his ability to achieve the task in relation to what he can do, what others do, and what it takes to be successful at the task. Response is on a scale of…

  11. Consistency of Self-Reported Concussion History in Adolescent Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Iverson, Grant L; Silverberg, Noah D; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Maxwell, Bruce; Berkner, Paul D

    2017-01-15

    Relying on self-reported concussion injury history is common in both clinical care and research. However, young athletes may not provide consistent medical information. To date, little is known about the reliability of self-reported concussion history in high school students. This study examined whether student athletes reported their lifetime history of concussions consistently over time. Self-reported concussion history was examined in 4792 student athletes (ages 13-18) from Maine who completed a preseason health survey on two occasions (median re-test interval = 23.7 months; standard deviation = 7.3; interquartile range = 12.4-24.5). Consistency of self-reported concussion history was determined by differences in the number of concussions reported during the second survey. Inconsistent concussion history was defined primarily by a decrease in the number of lifetime concussions reported at the second testing, compared with at the first testing. The majority of the sample (80.3%) reported no change in the number of concussions between the two baseline assessments. A minority (15.9%; n = 763) reported more concussions during the second assessment. Only 3.8% (n = 181) of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories, defined as fewer concussions at the second assessment. Boys provided inconsistent concussion histories a little more frequently, compared with girls (5.3% and 2.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). Similarly, athletes with self-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) provided inconsistent concussion histories somewhat more frequently, compared with those without ADHD (7.8% and 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Of the athletes with inconsistent concussion histories, greater degree of inconsistency was associated with a greater number of concussions initially reported at baseline (rs = 0.54; p < 0.001). Only a small proportion of student athletes provided inconsistent concussion histories. Male

  12. Status of Higher Education in Connecticut: A Report to the Governor and General Assembly. BHE Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Higher Education, Hartford.

    Current data on enrollment, degrees conferred, academic programs, finances, student financial assistance, and capital facilities in Connecticut higher education institutions are summarized, and significant policy issues that the state must address on both a short-term and long-range basis are examined. Findings from the Board of Higher Education…

  13. Combatting anemia in adolescent girls: a report from India.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S

    1994-01-01

    In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting

  14. Towards an understanding of salient neighborhood boundaries: adolescent reports of an easy walking distance and convenient driving distance.

    PubMed

    Colabianchi, Natalie; Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Porter, Dwayne E; Almeida, Maria João Ca; Pate, Russell R

    2007-12-18

    Numerous studies have examined the association between the surrounding neighborhood environment and physical activity levels in adolescents. Many of these studies use a road network buffer or Euclidean distance buffer around an adolescent's home to represent the appropriate geographic area for study (i.e., neighborhood). However, little empirical research has examined the appropriate buffer size to use when defining this area and there is little consistency across published research as to the buffer size used. In this study, 909 12th grade adolescent girls of diverse racial and geographic backgrounds were asked to report their perceptions of an easy walking distance and a convenient driving distance. These two criterions are often used as the basis for defining one's neighborhood.The mean easy walking distance in minutes reported by adolescent girls was 14.8 minutes (SD = 8.7). The mean convenient driving distance in minutes reported was 17.9 minutes (SD = 10.8). Nested linear multivariate regression models found significant differences in reported 'easy walking distance' across race and BMI. White adolescents reported on average almost 2 minutes longer for an easy walking distance compared to African American adolescents. Adolescents who were not overweight or at risk for overweight reported almost 2 minutes fewer for an easy walking distance relative to those who were overweight or at risk for overweight. Significant differences by urban status were found in the reported 'convenient driving distance'. Those living in non-urban areas reported on average 3.2 minutes more driving time as convenient compared to those living in urban areas. Very little variability in reported walking and driving distances was explained by the predictors used in the models (i.e., age, race, BMI, physical activity levels, urban status and SES).This study suggests the use of a 0.75 mile buffer to represent an older female adolescent's neighborhood, which can be accessed through walking

  15. Meeting the State's Future Needs through a Competitive Higher Education Facility and Technology Infrastructure. Second Report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The First Condition Report provided policymakers and the general public a snapshot of where Ohio stands in providing the higher education services Ohio needs to be competitive in today's world. This Second Report focuses on facilities and technology. Five questions form the core of The Condition Report. These are: (1) Are Ohio's higher education…

  16. Early, Partial and Phased Retirement Programs in Public Higher Education: A Report on Institutional Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L,; Trainer, Aileen C.

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness in meeting institutional objectives and the costs of early, partial, and phased retirement plans in operation at 51 public higher education institutions, as reported in a survey, are discussed. (MSE)

  17. Higher Education in Kentucky. Final Report of the SCR 30 Study Committee. Program Evaluation. Research Report No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiala, Joseph; And Others

    A report on higher education in Kentucky is presented, with attention to governance, funding, tuition, financial aid, staffing and salary comparisons for administrators and faculty, enrollment, degree production, cooperation, and quality issues. The statutory organization of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education is specified, along with the…

  18. Exploration of the Factor Structure of ADHD in Adolescence through Self, Parent, and Teacher Reports of Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Nichols, J Quyen V A; Shoulberg, Erin K; Garner, Annie A; Hoza, Betsy; Burt, Keith B; Murray-Close, Dianna; Arnold, L Eugene

    2017-04-01

    Factor analytic studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults have shown that second-order and bifactor models better represent ADHD symptoms than two- or three-factor models, yet there is far less evidence for a bestfitting model of ADHD in adolescence. Thus, the current study examined the factor structure of ADHD in adolescence and further evaluated the external validity of the best fitting model. Participants were 588 adolescents (22 % female; 366 with a childhood ADHD diagnosis; mean age 15.9 years) from the 8-year assessment of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA). ADHD symptoms were assessed via adolescent self-report, parent report, and teacher report on the SNAP-IV scale. Potential factor structures for the 18 symptoms of ADHD were tested for each informant, which included traditional one-factor, two-factor, and three-factor models of ADHD, as well as second-order factor (specific factors loading onto general factor) and bifactor (items loading onto both specific and general factors) models. Unique associations between external criteria and the identified factors of each informant's best fitting model were examined. Although several of the proposed models exhibited good fit, the second-order two-factor model best accounted for ADHD in adolescence according to self-report and parent report, and the second-order three-factor model was optimal according to teacher report. Several key measurement issues emerged for the hierarchical bifactor models, such as numerous Heywood cases and out-of-bound parameter estimates, which rendered them unfit as optimal representations of ADHD in adolescence. These findings and the implications of the best fitting model of ADHD in adolescence suggest that a possible reorganization of this disorder may eventually aid clinicians in the accurate diagnosis of ADHD in adolescents.

  19. The Uses and Effects of Video Viewing among Swedish Adolescents. An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Video Users. Media Panel Report No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Keith; Salomonsson, Karin

    This report is one in a series dealing with Swedish adolescents' uses of video based upon the Media Panel research program, a three-wave, longitudinal research program on video use conducted at the Department of Sociology, the University of Lund, and the Department for Information Techniques, the University College of Vaxjo, Sweden. Data were…

  20. Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

  1. Financing Higher Education in the New Century: The Third Annual Report from the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown-Moak, Mary P.

    This is the third in a series of annual reports that summarize financial trends affecting higher education. State appropriations to higher education reached $60.6 billion in fiscal year (FY) 2001, an increase of 7.0% over FY 2000 in current funds, and a 5.0 constant dollar increase. However, total state general fund appropriations for all…

  2. Higher Education Finance Manual. Technical Report No. 53. Field Review Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Douglas J.

    The primary goal of the Higher Education Finance Manual project is to assist in higher education decisionmaking as it relates to the need for and the use of financial information. The objectives of this manual are to: (1) provide uniform definitions and procedures for displaying and reporting those financial data used most often in higher…

  3. Report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio: Meeting the State's Future Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Report on the Condition of Higher Education in Ohio" is issued annually as a statutory responsibility. Its purpose is to provide policymakers and the general public a snapshot of where the state stands in providing the higher education services Ohio needs in the competitive world. The Regents believe that Ohio needs college…

  4. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 2003-04. Research Report 1-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiaoyun

    2004-01-01

    The University of North Carolina presents the thirty-sixth annual Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina. This report covers the breadth of higher education activities in the State in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among…

  5. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  6. Preserving the Higher Education Legacy: A Conversation with California Leaders. Report No. 95-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerwahr, John; Boese, Jill

    This study reports the results of confidential, in-depth interviews with 29 business, education, and community leaders in California to determine their attitudes toward the higher education needs of the state. The interviews examined areas of consensus and controversy in many facets of higher education policy. The most important findings included:…

  7. The Future Is Excellence. Report of the New Mexico Governor's Commission on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Santa Fe.

    A report on two- and four-year colleges in New Mexico is presented, including 50 recommendations of the Governor's Commission on Higher Education. An overview of higher education in the state and the different types of state-supported colleges is provided. Excellence in state institutions is discussed, with attention to governing boards;…

  8. Self-reported attachment, interpersonal aggression, and personality disorder in a prospective community sample of adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Thomas N; Shaver, Phillip R; Cohen, Patricia; Pilkonis, Paul A; Gillath, Omri; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-08-01

    Anxious and avoidant attachment were assessed in the Children in the Community (CIC) Study during adolescence and adulthood using self-report scales developed for this prospective study. The convergent and discriminant validity of the new CIC attachment scales were evaluated and their stability was assessed across a 17-year interval. Attachment scales predicted DSM-IV personality disorders in theoretically coherent and clinically meaningful ways, especially when supplemented with a separate measure of interpersonal aggression. Cluster B and C personality disorder symptoms were associated with elevated anxious attachment. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with Cluster A symptoms and inversely associated with Cluster B and C symptoms. Interpersonal aggression was higher in Cluster B symptoms and lower in Cluster C symptoms, thus differentiating between these symptom clusters.

  9. Higher Education in South Carolina: An Agenda for the Future. Report to the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Water, Gordon; Augenblick, John

    Higher education in South Carolina was evaluated, with attention to college missions, financial resources for colleges, and the role of the South Carolina Commission on Higher Education. The development of higher education during the last 30 years and the state's role in organizing and managing the higher education enterprise are described. The…

  10. High-dose compared with low-dose vitamin B-12 supplement use is not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, and older adults.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, Amanda J; Shi, Yipu; Greene-Finestone, Linda S

    2014-06-01

    Over-the-counter vitamin supplements on the Canadian market are permitted to contain a daily vitamin B-12 dose of up to 1000 μg. Our objective was to determine the association between total daily vitamin B-12 supplement dose and markers of vitamin B-12 status in Canadians. Blood collected from a nationally representative sample aged 6-79 y (n = ∼5600) in the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009) was analyzed for serum vitamin B-12 and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Total daily intake of vitamin B-12 from single and multivitamin supplements was calculated. Individuals that indicated proton pump inhibitor or vitamin B-12 injection treatment were excluded from the supplement dose and tHcy analyses; folate-deficient individuals were also excluded from the tHcy analysis. Twenty-three percent of children, 12.3% of adolescents, and 25.5% of adults consumed a vitamin B-12-containing supplement. Supplement users had 33% higher serum vitamin B-12 and 4.2% higher prevalence of adequacy than did non-supplement users. Children and adolescents consuming >10 μg/d supplemental vitamin B-12 did not demonstrate higher serum vitamin B-12, higher prevalence of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy, or lower tHcy than did those consuming >0-10 μg/d. The association between serum vitamin B-12 reached a plateau at doses of >25 and >10-25 μg/d in adults aged 46-59 and 60-79 y, respectively. The prevalences of serum vitamin B-12 adequacy and normal tHcy, and tHcy did not differ by vitamin B-12 supplement dose in adults >45 y. In this cross-sectional study, vitamin B-12 supplement doses >10-25 μg/d were not associated with higher vitamin B-12 status in children, adolescents, or older adults compared with lower doses.

  11. Psychopathic-like traits in detained adolescents: clinical usefulness of self-report.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Pauline; Colins, Olivier F; Lodewijks, Henny P B; Markus, Monica T; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2014-08-01

    Studies have demonstrated that self-report tools can be used to reliably and validly examine psychopathic-like traits in adolescents. However, it is unclear if self-report instruments are still reliable and valid when confidentiality cannot be guaranteed, such as during routine assessments in juvenile detention centres. To address this issue, the current study used data from the routine mental health screening of 365 detained male adolescents (12-18 years) in two juvenile detention centres. With the intention of gaining insight in the clinical usefulness of self-reported psychopathic-like traits, we examined relations known from literature with emotional and behavioural features. Self-reported psychopathic-like traits, measured by the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short version (YPI-S), were uniquely associated with substance abuse, anger/irritability, conduct problems and hyperactivity, but not with internalizing problems. YPI-S-dimensions showed several specific relationships with variables of interest. For example, only the callous unemotional dimension was negatively related with prosocial behaviour and only the behavioural dimension was positively related with hyperactivity. In conclusion, self-reported psychopathic-like traits showed expected relations with relevant variables. These findings suggest that self-report can be used to identify detained youths with high levels of psychopathic-like traits outside a research context, thus, even when anonymity and confidentiality are not guaranteed.

  12. Mothers' Management of Adolescent Peer Relationships: Associations With Aggressive, Prosocial, and Playful Behavior.

    PubMed

    Gerardy, Haeli; Mounts, Nina S; Luckner, Amy E; Valentiner, David P

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between adolescents' reports of mothers' management of peer relationships and adolescents' reports of their own aggressive, prosocial, and playful behaviors. The sample comprised 92 adolescents (M age = 15.41 years, SD = 1.81 years) enrolled in a residential summer camp. Higher levels of consulting were related to lower levels of adolescents' relational aggression, physical aggression, playful teasing, and rough-and-tumble play. Higher levels of consulting were related to higher levels of prosocial behavior. Higher levels of guiding were related to higher levels of adolescents' relational aggression and social inclusion. Higher levels of granting access to peers were related to higher levels of adolescents' prosocial behavior and social inclusion. Moderate levels of granting access to peers were related higher levels of playful teasing.

  13. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors.

  14. Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colver, Allan; Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Ehlinger, Virginie; Thyen, Ute; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Children with cerebral palsy who can self-report have similar quality of life (QoL) to their able-bodied peers. Is this similarity also found in adolescence? We examined how self-reported QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy varies with impairment and compares with the general population, and how factors in childhood predict adolescent QoL. Methods We report QoL outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up and cross-sectional analysis of individuals included in the SPARCLE1 (childhood) and SPARCLE2 (adolescent) studies. In 2004 (SPARCLE1), a cohort of 818 children aged 8–12 years were randomly selected from population-based cerebral palsy registers in nine European regions. We gathered data from 500 participants about QoL with KIDSCREEN (ten domains); frequency of pain; child psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). At follow-up in 2009 (SPARCLE2), 355 (71%) adolescents aged 13–17 years remained in the study and self-reported QoL (longitudinal sample). 76 additional adolescents self-reported QoL in 2009, providing data for 431 adolescents in the cross-sectional sample. Researchers gathered data at home visits. We compared QoL against matched controls in the general population. We used multivariable regression to relate QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy to impairments (cross-sectional analysis) and to childhood QoL, pain, psychological problems, and parenting stress (longitudinal analysis). Findings Severity of impairment was significantly associated (p<0·01) with reduced adolescent QoL on only three domains (Moods and emotions, Autonomy, and Social support and peers); average differences in QoL between the least and most able groups were generally less than 0·5 SD. Adolescents with cerebral palsy had significantly lower QoL than did those in the general population in only one domain (Social support and peers; mean difference −2·7 [0·25 SD], 95% CI −4·3 to −1·4

  15. LANGUAGE POLICY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, FINAL DRAFT OF CONSULTANT'S REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A FIELD INVESTIGATION FOR THIS REPORT WAS CONDUCTED FROM SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 1964 THROUGH THE FACILITIES OF THE JOINT UNESCO-IAU RESEARCH OFFICE ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN KUALA LUMPUR. IN FIVE OF THE EIGHT COUNTRIES COVERD BY THE REPORT (MALAYSIA, THAILAND, CAMBODIA, SOUTH VIETNAM, AND THE PHILIPPINES), IT WAS POSSIBLE TO MAKE "FAIRLY…

  16. Colorado Commission on Higher Education Legislative Report on Remedial Education, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The information in this report is presented to encourage continued conversation regarding preparation for college and remedial or developmental education in Colorado. This report documents action taken and data gathered by the Colorado Department of Higher Education (DHE) for academic year 2010 (Summary 2009-Spring 2010) as required by statute to…

  17. Learn Smart: Missouri Department of Higher Education FY 2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    This annual report tells of educators and administrators in Missouri working through serious economic challenges to achieve the most important goals of higher education: increased economic growth, more educational opportunity, and achievement and improved quality. Data in this report show that public colleges and universities have reduced expenses…

  18. Case Study of Utah Higher Education. National Center Report #05-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracco, Kathy Reeves; Martinez, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This report examines state policies and performance in the areas of enrollment and affordability. The authors' goal was to better understand the Utah's generally good performance in "Measuring Up 2004: The National Report Card on Higher Education." Utah's historically strong performance, especially in terms of providing affordable higher…

  19. Colorado Commission on Higher Education Tuition and Fees Report, Fiscal Year 2010-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Commission on Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the tuition and fee rates Colorado public institutions of higher education charge to resident and nonresident students in Fiscal Year 10-11. While this report focuses on tuition and fee rates charged to undergraduate students, the attached summary tables provide greater detail and information for resident and nonresident…

  20. The Soundtrack of Recklessness: Musical Preferences among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Adolescents (n=248) with various musical preferences were compared. Adolescents who preferred hard rock or heavy metal music reported higher rates of reckless behavior and were associated with higher levels of sensation seeking, negative family relationships, and, among girls, lower self-esteem. The relationship between sensation seeking, reckless…

  1. Comparison of adolescents' reports of sexual behavior on a survey and sexual health history calendar.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Colleen M; Lee, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Assessing sexual risk is critical for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention with adolescents. This article compares sexual risk reports from two self-administered instruments, a standard survey and a sexual health history calendar (SHHC), among racially diverse youth (n = 232) ages 14 to 21 seeking services at a public health clinic. Agreement between methods was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots. Lin's CCC showed poor to moderate agreement between instruments on reports of sexual partners in the past 3 (0.47), 6 (0.55), and 12 (0.49) months. While individual sexual partner questions were refused a total of 179 times on the survey, youth reported having sexual partners during the same time period on the SHHC in most (77.1%) of these instances. Poor agreement was also found for condom use frequency (CCC = 0.17), with youth's frequency of condom use on the SHHC differing from that reported on the survey for more than half (55.6%) of the months they were sexually active. While lack of objective sexual behavior measures limits conclusions about the accuracy of reports, the ways in which youth's responses varied across instruments may offer insight into the complexity of adolescent sexual risk taking as well as have important implications for development of HIV/STI preventive interventions.

  2. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  3. Dimensions of Evaluation. Report of the IMHE Study Group on Evaluation in Higher Education. Higher Education Policy Series 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahllof, Urban; And Others

    This book presents seven essays on evaluation in higher education. In "Threats and Opportunities of Evaluation in Higher Education" Roeland in't Veld sets the policy frameworks for increased emphasis on evaluation. In "Institutional Evaluation: The Role of the Main Actors in Higher Education" Andre Staropoli describes the roles of the forces which…

  4. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment among Chinese American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lisa L.; Benner, Aprile D.; Lau, Anna S.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who…

  5. Institutional Performance Accountability Report. Board of Trustees Report. Submitted to the Maryland Higher Education Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This document presents Prince George's Community College's (PGCC) institutional accountability report. It summarizes the following: (1) the college's mission, aspirational goals, significant trends in academics, demographics, and finance; (2) institutional assessment of instructional budget, African American full-time faculty, and students in good…

  6. Atrial fibrillation in healthy adolescents after highly caffeinated beverage consumption: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. Case presentations We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. Conclusion With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption. PMID:21247417

  7. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical report--gynecologic examination for adolescents in the pediatric office setting.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Paula K; Breech, Lesley

    2010-09-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics promotes the inclusion of the gynecologic examination in the primary care setting within the medical home. Gynecologic issues are commonly seen by clinicians who provide primary care to adolescents. Some of the most common concerns include questions related to pubertal development; menstrual disorders such as dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and abnormal uterine bleeding; contraception; and sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted infections. The gynecologic examination is a key element in assessing pubertal status and documenting physical findings. Most adolescents do not need an internal examination involving a speculum or bimanual examination. However, for cases in which more extensive examination is needed, the primary care office with the primary care clinician who has established rapport and trust with the patient is often the best setting for pelvic examination. This report reviews the gynecologic examination, including indications for the pelvic examination in adolescents and the approach to this examination in the office setting. Indications for referral to a gynecologist are included. The pelvic examination may be successfully completed when conducted without pressure and approached as a normal part of routine young women's health care.

  8. Associations between parenting style, physical discipline, and adjustment in adolescents' reports.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, Marjorie Lindner

    2013-06-01

    Recollections of physical discipline as absent, age-delimited (ages 2-11), or present into adolescence were associated with youths' evaluations of their mothers' and fathers' parenting styles and their own adjustment. Data were from the Portraits of American Life Study-Youth (PALS-Y) a diverse, national sample of 13- to 18-year-olds (N = 158). The modal experience of youth with authoritative parents was age-delimited spanking; the modal experience of youth with permissive parents was no spanking; the modal experience of youth with authoritarian or disengaged parents was physical discipline into adolescence. The age-delimited group reported the best adjustment (less maladjustment than the adolescent group; greater competence than both other groups). The positive association between fathers' age-delimited spanking and youths' academic rank persisted even after accounting for parenting styles. The eschewing of spanking should not be listed as a distinguishing characteristic of authoritative parenting, which was more often associated with age-delimited spanking than with zero-usage.

  9. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  10. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  11. Frostbite in an Adolescent Football Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rivlin, Michael; King, Marnie; Kruse, Richard; Ilyas, Asif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To present the case of vascular compromise of a finger from a confluent circumferential blister due to an inappropriately applied commercial cold pack in a high school athlete and to describe the mechanism of iatrogenic injury, acute surgical management, rehabilitation, and pathophysiology of frostbite and constriction injuries. Background: A 17-year-old male football player presented with a frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger secondary to prolonged use of a cooling pack after a mild traumatic injury to the digit. He developed a prolonged sensory deficit from thermal injury, as well as acute vascular compromise requiring urgent operative intervention. Differential Diagnosis: Frostbite and constriction injury to the index finger. Treatment: Emergency surgical decompression and occupational therapy. Uniqueness: Frostbite injuries can occur iatrogenically because of inappropriate use of cooling devices or gel packs. Fingers are commonly injured extremities that are particularly susceptible to frostbite and compression injuries. To our knowledge, no case of vascular compromise from the blister constriction of digits has been reported. Conclusions: Patients and their caregivers must be educated about how to properly use cooling devices. Clinicians need to fully evaluate patients with iatrogenic frostbite injuries, giving particular attention to neurovascular status, and must recognize the need for surgical release of constriction syndrome to prevent substantial morbidity. PMID:24143903

  12. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks.

  13. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  14. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  15. Differences in Sexual Risk Behaviors Between Lower and Higher Frequency Alcohol-Using African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica McDermott; Monahan, Jennifer L.; Brooks, Carolyn; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve; Samp, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine differences between lower and higher frequency alcohol users in sexual behaviors and psychosocial correlates of risk for HIV among young African-American females. Methods Data were collected from sexually active African-American females aged 15–20 years, seeking services at a STD clinic in Atlanta, GA, to assess sexual behavior, correlates of risk, and a non-disease biological marker of unprotected vaginal sex. Results Number of drinking occasions was significantly related to three of four psychosocial correlates and with all self-reporting sexual behavior measures. Also, heavier drinking per occasion was associated with the presence of semen in vaginal fluid. Conclusion Non-abuse levels of drinking were related to increased sexual risk-taking in this sample of young African-American females. Incorporating messages about the intersection of alcohol use and sexual decision making into HIV/STD prevention programs would strengthen STD prevention messaging in this vulnerable population. PMID:25053364

  16. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  17. Does higher screw density improve radiographic and clinical outcomes in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis? A systematic review and pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Shen, Mingkui; Luo, Xin; Xia, Lei

    2017-02-03

    OBJECTIVE The radiographic and clinical outcomes of low-density (LD) versus high-density (HD) screw constructs in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated with all-pedicle screw constructs are still controversial. A systematic review and pooled analysis were performed to compare radiographic, perioperative, and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes and complications in patients with moderate AIS treated with LD or HD screw constructs. METHODS The MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for English-language articles addressing LD versus HD screw constructs in AIS patients treated with all-pedicle screw constructs. The division of LD and HD groups was based on relative screw density and screw techniques. This systematic analysis strictly followed the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, and all articles included in the analysis met the criteria specified in the guidelines. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Date on radiographic, perioperative, and QOL outcomes and complications were extracted from the included studies. RESULTS Twelve studies, involving a total of 827 patients (480 treated with LD constructs, 347 with HD), were analyzed-1 randomized controlled trial, 1 quasi-randomized controlled trial, and 10 retrospective studies. The patients' age at surgery, preoperative Cobb angle of the major curve, amount of thoracic kyphosis, and major curve flexibility were reasonably distributed, and no statistically significant differences were found. Regarding the outcomes at most recent follow-up, there were no significant differences in the Cobb angle of the major curve (mean difference 0.96°, 95% CI -0.06° to 1.98°, p = 0.06, I(2) = 1%), major curve correction (mean difference -0.72%, 95% CI -2.96% to 1.52%, p = 0.53, I(2) = 0%), thoracic kyphosis (mean difference -1.67°, 95% CI -4.59° to 1.25°, p = 0.26, I(2) = 79

  18. Demographic group differences in adolescents' time attitudes.

    PubMed

    Andretta, James R; Worrell, Frank C; Mello, Zena R; Dixson, Dante D; Baik, Sharon H

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we examined demographic differences in time attitudes in a sample of 293 adolescents. Time attitudes were measured using the Adolescent Time Attitude Scale (Mello & Worrell, 2007; Worrell, Mello, & Buhl, 2011), which assesses positive and negative attitudes toward the past, the present, and the future. Generally, African Americans and Asian Americans reported higher scores for negative time attitudes and lower scores for positive time attitudes than European Americans and Latinos, with medium sizes. Adolescents in the low socioeconomic status group reported a less favorable evaluation of their past than middle and high SES peers, but there were no meaningful differences in time attitudes by gender. Findings indicate that middle SES adolescents, high school juniors and seniors, Latinos, and European Americans had higher representation in positive time attitude clusters (i.e., Positives and Balanced) than high SES adolescents, high school freshmen and sophomores, and African Americans.

  19. Status of Doctoral Education in Arkansas. An Arkansas Department of Higher Education Report to the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    As demands for a more advanced workforce increase, the relationship between higher education and economic success is more recognized by leaders in both academia and economic development. As Larry Walther, Director of Arkansas Department of Economic Development, stated in a recent presentation to the Blue Ribbon Committee on Higher Education,…

  20. The Changing Functions of Higher Education: Implications for Innovation. Reports from the 1984 OECD/Japan Seminar on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    College curricula and instruction, differentiation, and innovation and change in American and Japanese higher education are discussed in 18 papers presented at the 1984 international seminars of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Higher education in three European countries is also addressed. Titles and authors…

  1. Osteomyelitis due to Bacillus cereus in an adolescent: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Schricker, M E; Thompson, G H; Schreiber, J R

    1994-06-01

    Non-anthracis Bacillus species associated with clinical infections are usually dismissed as contaminants or nonpathogens. As opportunists, however, Bacillus organisms can cause significant systemic infections including bacteremia, endophthalmitis, and pneumonia. Osteomyelitis with non-anthracis Bacillus organisms has been described in adults, although to our knowledge it has been described only once in a child. We report a case of chronic osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and superinfection with Bacillus cereus in a 13-year-old adolescent. A Bacillus isolate should be considered a true pathogen in children with chronic osteomyelitis who have a poor clinical response to antistaphylococcal therapy.

  2. A Preliminary Study of Self-Reported Food Selectivity in Adolescents and Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Emily S.; Eisenberg, Ian W.; Orionzi, Bako; Simmons, W. Kyle; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well-established that picky eating is a common feature of early development in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), far less is known about food selectivity during adolescence and adulthood. Using portions of the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile, food selectivity self-ratings were obtained from 65 high-functioning adolescents/young adults with ASD and compared to those of 59 typically developing controls matched on age, IQ, and sex ratio. Individuals with ASD reported preferring familiar foods (food neophobia) and disliking foods with particular textures and strong flavors. Providing linkage to everyday behavior, parent ratings of daily living skills were lower among individuals with ASD and food neophobia than among those without food neophobia. Food selectivity continues to be an important issue for adolescents/young adults with ASD. PMID:26309446

  3. Meta-analysis of quality of life in children and adolescents with ADHD: By both parent proxy-report and child self-report using PedsQL™.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yi-chen; Yang, Hao-Jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Lee, Wan-Ting; Teng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chung-Hui; Gossop, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent developmental disorder that seriously and negatively impacts a child's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to examine the magnitude of impact, domains affected and factors moderating the impact. This review included nine studies that compared HRQOL of children or adolescents with ADHD with those with typical development using both child self-reports and parent proxy-reports. Seven among nine studies were meta-analytically synthesized to examine the degree of impact of ADHD on children and adolescents, parent-child discrepancy, and the moderators. The results indicate that ADHD impact a child's or adolescent's HRQOL negatively with a moderate effect in physical and a severe effect in psychosocial (i.e., emotional, social, and school) domains. Parental ratings of overall HRQOL in children or adolescents with ADHD were not significantly different from child's ratings when compared with typically developing children and adolescents. Age was negatively associated with all domains of HRQOL in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent- and child-ratings, and the strongest effect was found in parental ratings of child's emotional HRQOL, with a moderate correlation. This meta-analysis suggests that HRQOL may be assessed in children and adolescents with ADHD both by parent proxy- and child self-reports, and that interventions may be planned accordingly. Future meta-analysis may explore how measures of HRQOL and other factors including child, parental, familiar and school characteristics influence the impact of ADHD and the parent-child agreement in children and adolescents.

  4. Health for Adolescents and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschamps, Jean-Pierre; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the health of adolescents and youth in the tropics. The report is divided into five sections. The first section defines adolescence, youth, the duration of adolescence, the age group and its problems, and societies in adolescence. The second section discusses adolescence in relation to society and culture and focuses on the…

  5. Promoting Women's Participation in Higher Education: The Status of Women in OSSHE. A Report to the Oregon State Board of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State System of Higher Education, Eugene.

    This report presents a profile of enrollment, employment, and institutional climate factors by gender in the Oregon State System of Higher Education. The report consists of a written analysis and 40 tables of data on which the analysis is based. Following an introduction which describes the history of the committee that produced the report, the…

  6. Faculty Compensation Systems: Impact on the Quality of Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 28, Number 2. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Terry P.; Bergerson, Peter J.

    Public debate over higher education has changed from questions about education, learning, scholarship, and professional service to performance criteria measured in quantitative, business-like indicators, such as revenues and costs of operation. The rules have changed, and new consumers have new concerns and challenges for higher education. Faculty…

  7. The Incidence of Human Papillomavirus in Tanzanian Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; Baisley, Kathy; Bravo, Ignacio G.; Kapiga, Saidi; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acquisition of human papillomavirus (HPV) in women occurs predominantly through vaginal sex. However, HPV has been detected in girls reporting no previous sex. We aimed to determine incidence and risk factors for HPV acquisition in girls who report no previous sex in Tanzania, a country with high HPV prevalence and cervical cancer incidence. Methods We followed 503 adolescent girls aged 15–16 years in Mwanza, Tanzania, with face-to-face interviews and self-administered vaginal swabs every 3 months for 18 months; 397 girls reported no sex before enrollment or during follow-up; of whom, 120 were randomly selected. Samples from enrollment, 6-, 12-, and 18-month visits were tested for 37 HPV genotypes. Incidence, clearance, point prevalence, and duration of any HPV and genotype-specific infections were calculated and associated factors were evaluated. Results Of 120 girls who reported no previous sex, 119 were included, contributing 438 samples. HPV was detected in 51 (11.6%) samples. The overall incidence of new HPV infections was 29.4/100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 15.9–54.2). The point prevalence of vaccine types HPV-6,-11,-16, and -18 was .9%, .9%, 2.0%, and 0%, respectively. Spending a night away from home and using the Internet were associated with incident HPV, and reporting having seen a pornographic movie was inversely associated with HPV incidence. Conclusions Incident HPV infections were detected frequently in adolescent girls who reported no previous sex over 18 months. This is likely to reflect under-reporting of sex. A low-point prevalence of HPV genotypes in licensed vaccines was seen, indicating that vaccination of these girls might still be effective. PMID:26725717

  8. Differences in Caregiver-Reported Health Problems and Health Care Use in Maltreated Adolescents and a Comparison Group from the Same Urban Environment

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Kools, Susan; Negriff, Sonya; Smith, Sharon; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Maltreated youth have a high prevalence of acute and chronic mental and physical health problems, but it is not clear whether these problems are related to maltreatment or to a disadvantaged environment. To compare health status and health care use of maltreated youth receiving child protective services to comparison youth living in the same community, we conducted a secondary analysis of caregiver reports for 207 maltreated adolescents (mean age 11.9 years) and 142 comparison adolescents (mean age 12.3 years) living in urban Los Angeles, using questionnaire data from a larger longitudinal study framed in a socio-ecological model. Caregivers included biological parents, relatives, and unrelated caregivers. Analyses included t-test, MANOVA, chi-square, and multivariable logistic regression. Caregivers reported similar rates of physical health problems but more mental health problems and psychotropic medicine use in maltreated youth than in the comparison youth, suggesting that maltreated youths’ higher rates of mental health problems could not be attributed to the disadvantaged environment. Although there were no differences in health insurance coverage, maltreated youth received preventive medical care more often than comparison youth. For all youth, having Medicaid improved their odds of receiving preventive health and dental care. Attention to mental health issues in adolescents receiving child welfare services remains important. Acceptance of Medicaid by neighborhood-based and/or school-based services in low-income communities may reduce barriers to preventive care. PMID:25557881

  9. Low dose quetiapine in the treatment of an adolescent with somnambulism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Koh, Ong Hui; Jambunathan, Stephen Thevanathan

    2011-06-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient.

  10. Adolescent Self-Reported Physical Activity and Autonomy: A Case for Constrained and Structured Environments?

    PubMed

    Rachele, Jerome N; Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy L; Cuddihy, Thomas F; McPhail, Steven M

    2015-09-01

    The provision of autonomy supportive environments that promote physical activity engagement have become popular in contemporary youth settings. However, questions remain about whether adolescent perceptions of their autonomy have implications for physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between adolescents' self-reported physical activity and their perceived autonomy. Participants (n = 384 adolescents) aged between 12 and 15 years were recruited from six secondary schools in metropolitan Brisbane, Australia. Self-reported measures of physical activity and autonomy were obtained. Logistic regression with inverse probability weights were used to examine the association between autonomy and the odds of meeting youth physical activity guidelines. Autonomy (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.49-0.76) and gender (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83) were negatively associated with meeting physical activity guidelines. However, the model explained only a small amount of the variation in whether youth in this sample met physical activity guidelines (R(2) = 0.023). For every 1 unit decrease in autonomy (on an index from 1 to 5), participants were 1.64 times more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. The findings, which are at odds with several previous studies, suggest that interventions designed to facilitate youth physical activity should limit opportunities for youth to make independent decisions about their engagement. However, the small amount of variation explained by the predictors in the model is a caveat, and should be considered prior to applying such suggestions in practical settings. Future research should continue to examine a larger age range, longitudinal observational or intervention studies to examine assertions of causality, as well as objective measurement of physical activity. Key pointsAutonomy was negatively associated with meeting physical activity recommendationsThe findings suggest that more structured environments would

  11. Labour Market Information for Higher Education: A Guide. IES Report 363.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maginn, Andrew; Dench, Sally

    This guide is written for people in British higher education institutions (HEIs) who use, or would like to use, regional and local labor market information (LMI) in strategic, operational, and business planning. It is also designed for agencies who commission and produce regional and local labor market, skills, and economic reports. Chapter 1…

  12. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This 2008 Annual Joint Report of the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission identifies four joint priorities and nine associated goals addressing areas of need in both student learning and educator development for the advancement of education in Tennessee. The joint priorities and initiatives focus on points of…

  13. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This 2006 Annual Joint Report of the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission identifies four joint priorities and nine associated goals addressing areas of need in both student learning and educator development for the advancement of education in Tennessee. The joint priorities and initiatives focus on points of…

  14. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 Annual Joint Report of the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission identifies four joint priorities and nine associated goals addressing areas of need in both student learning and educator development for the advancement of education in Tennessee. The joint priorities and initiatives focus on points of…

  15. Annual Joint Report on Pre-Kindergarten through Higher Education in Tennessee, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This 2007 Annual Joint Report of the State Board of Education and the Tennessee Higher Education Commission identifies four joint priorities and nine associated goals addressing areas of need in both student learning and educator development for the advancement of education in Tennessee. The joint priorities and initiatives focus on points of…

  16. Security on Virginia's Campuses. Report of the State Council of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    This report is in response to a Virginia state legislature mandate of a study of security on the campuses of Virginia public institutions of higher education. The study scope included institutional characteristics, security department characteristics, personnel and training, information about relations on and off campus, needs and concerns of the…

  17. Higher Education and Development in South-East Asia. Volume I, Director's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard

    This document reports a study of the role of institutions of higher education in the development of countries in South-East Asia covering Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet-Nam. Emphasis is placed on the geographical, historical and social background; patterns of education within the region;…

  18. Quality Assessment in Scottish Higher Education 1992-93. Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sizer, John

    This first evaluation in a Scottish national program of higher education quality assessment reports on evaluation of programs in the fields of economics and electrical and electronic engineering. Section 1 contains background information about legislation establishing the evaluation program, quality assessment and quality audit, the role of the…

  19. Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States: 2016 Historical Trend Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahalan, Margaret; Perna, Laura; Yamashita, Mika; Ruiz, Roman; Franklin, Khadish

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this publication are: (1) to report the status of higher education equity in the United States and to identify changes over time in measures of equity; and (2) to identify policies and practices that promote and hinder progress; and to illustrate the need for increased support of policies, programs and practices that not only…

  20. Strategic Plan To Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education. 2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Board of Governors for Higher Education, Hartford.

    This report describes progress made on Connecticut's strategic plan to ensure racial and ethnic diversity. Connecticut's public colleges and universities are becoming more diverse every year, and 2001 was no exception. The overall numbers of students, graduates, and professional employees from minority groups are higher than ever, although…

  1. Higher Education in Indiana Needs and Resources 1968-85: Current Status Report: Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Patricia L.

    This report, the fourth segment of the first phase of the Indiana Education Facilities Comprehensive Planning Study reviews the effects of college student migration on the enrollments in Indiana institutions of higher education. Data were compiled from the first semester or quarter of the academic years 1949, 1958, 1963 and 1967. Chapters cover…

  2. Telling the Truth. A Report on the State of the Humanities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    This report examines the problem of the pervasiveness of politics in today's higher education, particularly in the humanities, and argues the need for college and university campuses to return to seeking the truth and telling it rather than straying into the position that the aim of education is for students to become politically transformed. Too…

  3. The Johnson-Hinton Report on Continuing Education: Some Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Ruth; Lindsay, Alan

    1986-01-01

    The main features of the 1986 Johnson and Hinton Report concerning the status and future of continuing education in Australia are examined as they relate to the broad spectrum of adult and continuing education, from informal community programs to the universities. Implications for higher education institutions are discussed. (MSE)

  4. Higher Education and the Future of Iraq. United States Institute of Peace Special Report 195

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harb, Imad

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the past record, current condition, and potential of Iraq's higher education sector. Iraqis have traditionally valued intellectual achievement, but the legacy of Baathist rule and the current tide of instability are crippling the universities' ability to function effectively. The future, however, could see those universities…

  5. Flexibility in Course Provision in Higher Education. Annual Report November 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Winnie, Ed.; Sutton, John, Ed.

    This publication contains interim reports from 26 programs developed at 22 British higher education institutions in response to a government "White Paper" that called for development of more flexible patterns of teaching and learning. Each description includes the institution's title, names of key personnel, short description of the…

  6. Marijuana-induced mania in a healthy adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Joseph W; Griffeth, Benjamin; Sharma, Taral

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal substance by adolescents in the United States. According to a 2009 survey conducted by Monitoring the Future, there were about 11.8% of 8th graders, 26.7% of 10th graders and 32.8% of 12th graders who had abused marijuana at least once in the year (Johnston L.D., Bachman J.G., O'Malley P.M., Schulenberg J.E. Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (12th-Grade Survey), 2009 [Computer file]. ICPSR28401-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-10-27. doi:10.3886/ICPSR28401). A retrospective review of published literature disclosed case reports of marijuana-induced mania in adult patients with no prior psychiatric history (Bonnet U., Chang D.I., Wiltfang J., Scherbaum N., Weber R. A case of cannabis-induced mania. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr. 2010 Apr; 78(4):223-5. Epub 2010 Feb3; Henquet C., Krabbendam L., de Graaf R., ten Have M., van Os J. Cannabis use and expression of mania in the general population. J Affect Disord. 2006 Oct;95(1-3):103-10. Epub 2006 Jun 21). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document that marijuana induced manic symptoms in an adolescent with no known prior psychiatric history.

  7. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  8. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  9. Affordability of Higher Education: California and Other States. Presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee. Report 11-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    This is a summary of a presentation to the Assembly Higher Education Committee on college fee and total cost comparisons of California public universities with comparator universities in other states. This summary also includes grant award estimates and net cost of college by family income.

  10. Planning for Microcomputers in Higher Education. Strategies for the Next Generation. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 7, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrante, Reynolds; And Others

    An in-depth look is presented at how institutions are currently planning for microcomputers. The question is not whether the computer network on campus and between campuses will be the single most important technological event of the century for higher education, but rather how it will occur. Six sections include: the coming of age of…

  11. Reported electronic cigarette use among adolescents in the Niagara region of Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Michael; Manlhiot, Cedric; Fan, Chun-Po Steve; Gibson, Don; Stearne, Karen; Chahal, Nita; Dobbin, Stafford; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among adolescents has not been fully described, in particular their motivations for using them and factors associated with use. We sought to evaluate the frequency, motivations and associated factors for e-cigarette use among adolescents in Ontario. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Niagara region of Ontario, Canada, involving universal screening of students enrolled in grade 9 in co-operation with the Heart Niagara Inc. Healthy Heart Schools’ Program (for the 2013–2014 school year). We used a questionnaire to assess cigarette, e-cigarette and other tobacco use, and self-rated health and stress. We assessed household income using 2011 Canadian census data by matching postal codes to census code. Results: Of 3312 respondents, 2367 answered at least 1 question in the smoking section of the questionnaire (1274 of the 2367 respondents [53.8%] were male, with a mean [SD] age of 14.6 [0.5] yr) and 2292 answered the question about use of e-cigarettes. Most respondents to the questions about use of e-cigarettes (n = 1599, 69.8%) had heard of e-cigarettes, and 380 (23.8%) of these respondents had learned about them from a store sign or display. Use of e-cigarettes was reported by 238 (10.4%) students. Most of the respondents who reported using e-cigarettes (171, 71.9%) tried them because it was “cool/fun/new,” whereas 14 (5.8%) reported using them for smoking reduction or cessation. Male sex, recent cigarette or other tobacco use, family members who smoke and friends who smoke were strongly associated with reported e-cigarette use. Reported use of e-cigarettes was associated with self-identified fair/poor health rating (odds ratio [OR] 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–3.0), p < 0.001), high stress level (OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.7), p < 0.001) and lower mean (33.4 [8.4] × $1000 v. 36.1 [10.7] × $1000, p = 0.001) and median [interquartile range] (26.2 [5.6] × $1000 v. 28.1 [5.7]

  12. Higher Adolescent Body Mass Index Is Associated with Lower Regional Gray and White Matter Volumes and Lower Levels of Positive Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, James T.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9–20 years, BMI% range: 5.16–99.56). Variations in gray and white matter volume and BMI% were then linked to individual differences in personality measures from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). After controlling for age and other covariates, BMI% correlated negatively with gray matter volume in the bilateral caudate (right: partial r = −0.338, left: r = −0.404), medial prefrontal cortex (partial r = −0.339), anterior cingulate (partial r = −0.312), bilateral frontal pole (right: partial r = −0.368, left: r = −0.316), and uncus (partial r = −0.475) as well as white matter volume bilaterally in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (right: partial r = −0.34, left: r = −0.386), extending to the left middle frontal subgyral white matter. Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM-AG) was correlated negatively with BMI% (partial r = −0.384). PEM-AG was correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right uncus (partial r = 0.329). These results suggest that higher levels of adiposity in adolescents are associated with lower trait levels in reward-related personality domains, as well as structural variations in brain regions associated with reward processing, control, and sensory integration. PMID:27660604

  13. Consistency in the reporting of sensitive behaviors by adolescent American Indian women: a comparison of interviewing methods.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lorenzo, Sherilyn; Walkup, John T

    2013-01-01

    Computer-assisted interviewing techniques have increasingly been used in program and research settings to improve data collection quality and efficiency. Little is known, however, regarding the use of such techniques with American Indian (AI) adolescents in collecting sensitive information. This brief compares the consistency of AI adolescent mothers' reporting of sensitive sexual and drug use behaviors gathered through three distinct interviewing techniques: computer-assisted (ACASI), self-administered questionnaire (SAQ), and face-to-face interview (FTFI). Endorsement of drug use and reporting of sexual activity was highest for ACASI, followed by SAQ, and was significantly lower for FTFI. Relatively strong agreement was measured between ACASI and SAQ, and relatively poor agreement was measured between the ACASI and FTFI. Findings support the use of computer-assisted interviewing techniques with AI adolescents, and implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Self-reported weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating among high school adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Keith; Ubbes, Valerie A; Pyle, Jennifer; Valois, Robert F

    2006-03-01

    This study explored the relationships among weight perceptions, dieting behavior, and breakfast eating in 4597 public high school adolescents using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were constructed separately for race and gender groups via SUDAAN (Survey Data Analysis). Adjusted odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine the strength of relationships. Approximately 42% of the sample reported not eating breakfast within the past 5 days, while 41% were trying to lose weight, and 37% were dieting to lose weight. Excessive dietary practices (eg, fasting, taking diet pills or laxatives, and vomiting to lose weight) were reported by approximately 25% of the sample. When compared to those eating breakfast within the past 5 days, all race and gender groups that did not report eating breakfast were significantly more likely to report fasting to lose weight (ORs = 1.70-2.97). In addition, all race/gender groups, with the exception of black females, were significantly more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (ORs = 1.44-1.61) and trying to lose weight (ORs = 1.40-1.72). Among males, not eating breakfast was significantly associated with taking diet pills to lose weight (ORs = 2.31-2.40), eating fewer calories to lose weight (ORs = 1.38-1.49), and inversely associated with trying to gain weight (ORs = 0.71-0.74). Results suggest that these adolescents may be skipping breakfast as part of a patterned lifestyle of unhealthy weight management and that efforts to encourage youth to eat breakfast will likely not ameliorate all dietary challenges that appear beyond the scope of increased breakfast offerings.

  15. Predictors of Parenting and Infant Outcomes for Impoverished Adolescent Parents

    PubMed Central

    Whitson, Melissa L.; Martinez, Andrew; Ayala, Carmen; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent mothers and their children are at risk for a myriad of negative outcomes. This study examined risk and protective factors and their impact on a sample (N=172) of impoverished adolescent mothers. Multiple regression analyses revealed that depressed adolescent mothers report higher levels of parenting stress, and that their children are more at risk for maltreatment and are developmentally behind other babies. In addition, adolescent mothers with restricted social support have babies who are at higher risk for maltreatment. Finally, mothers who were older during pregnancy were more likely to stay in school. Implications for program development are discussed. PMID:25378892

  16. Adolescent Literacy Programs: Costs of Implementation. Final Report from Carnegie Corporation of New York's Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.; Catlin, Doran; Elson, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Many educators and researchers have proposed reforms for dealing with the ongoing adolescent literacy crisis. Progress in strengthening young people's literacy now depends on schools a) choosing appropriate programs and b) implementing them consistently and effectively. Yet the history of school reform is littered with reforms that were adopted…

  17. Differences in Life Satisfaction and School Satisfaction among Adolescents from Three Nations: The Role of Perceived Autonomy Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Yuna L.; Kasser, Tim; Jahng, Seungmin

    2011-01-01

    Past research shows that higher well-being is reported by adolescents who live in individualistic rather than collectivistic nations. Such cross-national differences may be due to the amount of autonomy support adolescents receive from authority figures. To examine this hypothesis, in the current study, 322 adolescents from Denmark, South Korea,…

  18. Beyond Assimilation: Contributions of Sociodemographic Factors and Social Supports to Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Between Immigrant and Native Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Jennifer Braga

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of assimilation, sociodemographic factors, and social supports to depressive symptoms in immigrant adolescents, using Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,263). Immigrant adolescents reported more risk factors and higher levels of depressive symptoms than native…

  19. An Assessment of Computer Science Degree Programs in Virginia. A Report to the Council of Higher Education and Virginia's State-Supported Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    This report presents the results of a review of all significant instructional efforts in the computer science discipline in Virginia institutions of higher education, with emphasis on those whose instructional activities constitute complete degree programs. The report is based largely on information provided by the institutions in self-studies. A…

  20. "We've Got a Gun?": Comparing Reports of Adolescents and Their Parents about Household Firearms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Susan B.; Cook, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Firearms are a leading cause of mortality among adolescents, and the guns that adolescents use to harm themselves or others often come from their own homes. In this statewide, multilanguage, community-based survey of 5,704 coresiding pairs of adolescents and their parents, we asked about guns in the home and compared their responses. The…

  1. Some Social and Psychological Factors Associated with Black Unmarried Adolescent Fatherhood: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Leo E.

    Preliminary findings are presented to address the issue of the extent to which measures of external locus of control, contraception use, educational achievement, and religiosity discriminate between black unmarried adolescent fathers and nonfathers. Forty-eight unmarried adolescent fathers and 50 unmarried adolescent nonfathers were identified by…

  2. Adolescent Caffeine Consumption and Self-Reported Violence and Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir L.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Frost, Stephanie S.; James, Jack E.

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world and currently the only one legally available to children and adolescents. The sale and use of caffeinated beverages has increased markedly among adolescents during the last decade. However, research on caffeine use and behaviors among adolescents is scarce. We investigate the…

  3. Narratives and traits in personality development among New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona

    2014-07-01

    Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures.

  4. Parenting Stress of Parents of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Judith; Biondic, Daniella; Grimbos, Teresa; Herbert, Monique

    2016-04-01

    This study examined parenting stress among parents of adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 138 adolescents (84 ADHD, 52 boys, 32 girls; 54 non-ADHD, 24 boys, 30 girls) age 13 to 18 and their parents. Mothers (n = 135) and fathers (n = 98) of participating teens completed the Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. Mothers and fathers of adolescents with ADHD reported more stress than parents of adolescents without ADHD with regard to their children's challenging behaviors (Adolescent domain stress). Mothers of adolescents with ADHD also reported that they experienced elevated levels of stress in terms of role restrictions, feelings of social alienation, conflict with their partner, feelings of guilt and incompetence (Parent domain stress), and relationship with their children (Adolescent-Parent Relationship domain stress; APR). The extent to which clinical levels of adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms or externalizing behavior in general were associated with parenting stress depended on the rater of these behaviors. Parenting stress was associated with higher levels of ODD and other externalizing behaviors when these behaviors were rated by parents but not when they were rated by teachers. In addition, over and above adolescent ADHD classification, mothers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with higher parenting stress in the Adolescent and Parent domains, and fathers' self-reported ADHD symptoms were associated with lower APR stress. The results suggest directions that should be considered for addressing parenting stress when designing interventions for families of adolescents with ADHD.

  5. Assessing Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescence: Is There a Role for Multiple Informants?

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, SA; Aloisio, KM; Horton, NJ; Sonneville, KR; Crosby, RD; Eddy, KT; Field, AE; Micali, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiologic studies of adolescent psychiatric disorders often collect information from adolescents and parents, yet most eating disorder epidemiologic studies rely only on adolescent report. Methods We studied the eating disorder symptom reports provided by 7,968 adolescents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), and their parents, who were sent questionnaires at participants’ ages 14 and 16 years. Both adolescents and parents were asked questions about the adolescent's eating disorder symptoms, including binge eating, vomiting, laxative use, fasting, and thinness. We assessed the concordance of parent and adolescent report cross-sectionally using kappa coefficients, and further looked at how the symptom reports were predictive of adolescent body mass and composition measured at a clinical assessment at 17.5 years. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the symptom reports’ associations with risk factors and clinical outcomes. Results Parents and adolescents were largely discordant on symptom reports cross-sectionally (kappas<0.3), with the parent generally less likely to report bulimic symptoms than the adolescent but more likely to report thinness. Female adolescents were more likely to report bulimic symptoms than males (e.g., 2-4 times more likely to report binge eating), while prevalence estimates according to parent reports of female vs. male adolescents were similar. Both parent and adolescent symptom reports at ages 14 and 16 years were predictive of age-17.5 body mass and composition measures; parentally-reported binge eating was more strongly predictive of higher body mass and composition. Discussion Parent report of eating disorder symptoms seemed to measure different, but potentially important, aspects of these symptoms during adolescence. Epidemiologic eating disorder studies should consider the potential value added from incorporating parental reports. In particular, studies of male eating

  6. Peer relations among adolescents with female same-sex parents.

    PubMed

    Wainright, Jennifer L; Patterson, Charlotte J

    2008-01-01

    This study examined associations among family type (same-sex vs. opposite-sex parents), adolescent gender, family and relationship variables, and the peer relations of adolescents. Participants included 44 adolescents parented by same-sex female couples and 44 adolescents parented by opposite-sex couples, matched on demographic characteristics and drawn from a national sample. On both self-reported and peer-reported measures of relations with peers, adolescents were functioning well, and the quality of their peer relations was not associated with family type. Regardless of family type, adolescents whose parents described closer relationships with them reported higher quality peer relations and more friends in school and were rated as more central in their friendship networks.

  7. Factors associated with reporting of abuse against children and adolescents by nurses within Primary Health Care1

    PubMed Central

    Rolim, Ana Carine Arruda; Moreira, Gracyelle Alves Remigio; Gondim, Sarah Maria Mendes; Paz, Soraya da Silva; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the factors associated with the underreporting on the part of nurses within Primary Health Care of abuse against children and adolescents. METHOD: cross-sectional study with 616 nurses. A questionnaire addressed socio-demographic data, profession, instrumentation and knowledge on the topic, identification and reporting of abuse cases. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used. RESULTS: female nurses, aged between 21 and 32 years old, not married, with five or more years since graduation, with graduate studies, and working for five or more years in PHC predominated. The final regression model showed that factors such as working for five or more years, having a reporting form within the PHC unit, and believing that reporting within Primary Health Care is an advantage, facilitate reporting. CONCLUSION: the study's results may, in addition to sensitizing nurses, support management professionals in establishing strategies intended to produce compliance with reporting as a legal device that ensures the rights of children and adolescents. PMID:25591102

  8. Personality, Social Skills, Anomie and Delinquency: A Self-Report Study of a Group of Normal Non-Delinquent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian

    1984-01-01

    Over 200 'normal' adolescents were administered self-report measures of personality (extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism), social skills, anomie, and delinquency in order to establish which of three theories best predicted delinquency. Eysenck's personality factors, particularly psychoticism, correlated most highly with delinquency. (RH)

  9. Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS Branch. Report to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Center for Research for Mothers and Children.

    This report describes current research activities and future plans of the Pediatric, Adolescent, and Maternal AIDS (PAMA) Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Center for Research for Mothers and Children. The mission statement of the Branch notes that PAMA develops, implements, and directs a wide range of…

  10. Roles of Interpersonal and Media Socialization Agents in Adolescent Self-Reported Health Literacy: A Health Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Reber, Bryan H.; Lariscy, Ruthann W.

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a health socialization model and applies it to examine direct, relative and mediating roles of interpersonal and media health socialization agents in predicting adolescent self-reported health literacy. We conducted a paper-and-pencil survey among 452 seventh graders in rural and urban school districts. Our regression analysis…

  11. Brief Report: Parsing the Heterogeneity of Adolescent Girls' Sexual Behavior--Relationships to Individual and Interpersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate; Chung, Tammy; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of pre-sexual and sexual behaviors were identified in an urban US sample of 546 mid-adolescent girls. No distinct group of girls engaging in sexually risky behavior was revealed. Sexually active girls were older, lived with a single parent, and reported more substance use and depression, but similar levels of conduct problems, impulsivity…

  12. Deaf English--An Investigation of the Written English Competence of Deaf Adolescents. Technical Report No. 236.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charrow, Veda R.

    Presented is support for the existence of "Deaf English," a non-standard dialect common to the prelingually deaf; and reported is an investigation of the written English competence of deaf adolescents. In the first half of the document the author discusses the historical background of deaf education and the linguistic and cognitive abilities of…

  13. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    PubMed

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence.

  14. Pedal Gangrenous Changes in the Digits of an Adolescent With Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bhoola, Prashant H; Shtofmakher, Garry; Bahri, Ankur; Patel, Ankur A; Barlizo, Sharon R; Trepal, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the colon and is occasionally associated with thrombosis. We report the case of an adolescent with ulcerative colitis who presented with bilateral gangrenous toes without signs of ascending cellulitis. Radiographs indicated the presence of bilateral and erosive changes in the distal phalanges. The vascular team referred the patient for podiatric intervention for distal vasculitis and thrombosis of the digital vessels. Transphalangeal amputations were performed, and postoperative antibiotics were initiated. The surgical sites healed uneventfully, and the patient was able to resume daily activities. Thrombosis of the foot in the context of ulcerative colitis is a rare, but serious, complication that can lead to serious comorbidities, including amputation.

  15. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  16. Acute lymphocytic leukemia mimicking spondyloarthritis in an adolescent: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    XU, DANYI; XU, GUANHUA; XU, LIQIN; CAO, HENG; XU, BEI; CHEN, WEIQIAN; SUN, CHUANYIN; YUE, LIHUAN; LIN, JIN

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the case of an 18-year-old adolescent male exhibiting acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), complicated by the onset of the symptom of sacroiliitis mimicking spondyloarthritis. Atypical features including an enlarged spleen, poor effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy, low levels of hemoglobin, a low platelet count, a low neutrophil count and increased levels of monocytes, indicated the possibility of hematological malignancy. Bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of ALL. The patient received chemotherapy and the symptoms were dramatically relieved. To the best of our knowledge, the current study reports the second published case of a patient with ALL presenting with sacroiliitis. Sacroiliitis as an onset manifestation of ALL may result in misdiagnosis, therefore, a differential diagnosis is essential when atypical features are present. PMID:26893708

  17. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.

  18. [Beta thalassemia major and pregnancy during adolescence: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Trigo, Lucas Augusto Monteiro Castro; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Parpinelli, Mary Angela; Pereira, Belmiro Gonçalves; Fertrin, Kleber Yotsumoto; Costa, Maria Laura

    2015-06-01

    Beta thalassemia major is a rare hereditary blood disease in which impaired synthesis of beta globin chains causes severe anemia. Medical treatment consists of chronic blood transfusions and iron chelation. We describe two cases of adolescents with beta thalassemia major with unplanned pregnancies and late onset of prenatal care. One had worsening of anemia with increased transfusional requirement, fetal growth restriction, and placental senescence. The other was also diagnosed with hypothyroidism and low maternal weight, and was admitted twice during pregnancy due to dengue shock syndrome and influenza H1N1-associated respiratory infection. She also developed fetal growth restriction and underwent vaginal delivery at term complicated by uterine hypotonia. Both patients required blood transfusions after birth and chose medroxyprogesterone as a contraceptive method afterwards. This report highlights the importance of medical advice on contraceptive methods for these women and the role of a specialized prenatal follow-up in association with a hematologist.

  19. Pharmacogenetics Informed Decision Making in Adolescent Psychiatric Treatment: A Clinical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Teri; Sharp, Susan; Manzardo, Ann M.; Butler, Merlin G.

    2015-01-01

    Advances made in genetic testing and tools applied to pharmacogenetics are increasingly being used to inform clinicians in fields such as oncology, hematology, diabetes (endocrinology), cardiology and expanding into psychiatry by examining the influences of genetics on drug efficacy and metabolism. We present a clinical case example of an adolescent male with anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder who did not tolerate numerous medications and dosages over several years in attempts to manage his symptoms. Pharmacogenetics testing was performed and DNA results on this individual elucidated the potential pitfalls in medication use because of specific pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic differences specifically involving polymorphisms of genes in the cytochrome p450 enzyme system. Future studies and reports are needed to further illustrate and determine the type of individualized medicine approach required to treat individuals based on their specific gene patterns. Growing evidence supports this biological approach for standard of care in psychiatry. PMID:25710722

  20. Perception makes the difference: the association of actual and perceived weight status with self-reported and parent-reported personal resources and well-being in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Tanja; Eschenbeck, Heike; Krug, Susanne; Schlaud, Martin; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter

    2012-11-01

    The study analyzed associations between actual weight status and weight perceptions with personal resources, physical and psychological health, as well as physical performance among adolescents (N = 5,518; age: 11-17 years). Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Self-report measures, parental reports, as well as objective test data were considered. Results indicate that weight perceptions, rather than actual weight status, were associated with personal resources, health, and perceived physical performance. Comparing groups, we found that adolescents who felt they had "just the right weight" achieved more favourable results than those who perceived themselves as "too fat", regardless of their actual weight status. However, actual physical performance was predicted better by actual weight status. Furthermore, weight perceptions were found to mediate the link between actual weight status and all the assessed outcomes (personal resources, health, and physical performance). With respect to self-reports, the mediational effect was consistently stronger for girls, whereas the reverse was true regarding physical performance. Parental reports were not moderated by sex. Findings provide further evidence that among overweight adolescents there are subgroups that differ significantly with regard to risks and resources. Implications for practice are discussed.

  1. Impact of Exercise on Clinical Symptom Report and Neurocognition after Concussion in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Manikas, Vicky; Babl, Franz E; Hearps, Stephen; Dooley, Julian; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-03-21

    Recovery from concussion in childhood is poorly understood, despite its importance in decisions regarding return to normal activity. Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is widely employed as a marker of recovery in clinical practice; however, it is unclear whether subtle impairments persist only to re-emerge in the context of increased physical or cognitive demands. This study aimed to examine the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptom report and neurocognition in children and adolescents after PCS resolution after concussion. We recruited children and adolescents with concussion (n = 30) on presentation to an Emergency Department (ED). At Day 2 and Day 10 post-self-reported symptom resolution, participants completed a strenuous exercise protocol, and pre- and post-exercise assessment of PCS and neurocognition. Results demonstrated an overall reduction in PCS from Day 2 to Day 10 post-symptom resolution, with no evidence of symptom increase after strenuous exercise at either time point. Neurocognitive performance was linked to task complexity: on less cognitively demanding tasks, processing speed was slower post-exercise and, unexpectedly, slower on Day 10 than Day 2, while for more demanding tasks (new learning), Day 2 exercise resulted in faster responses, but Day 10 processing speed post-exercise was slower. In summary, we found the expected recovery pattern for PCS, regardless of exercise, while for neurocognition, recovery was dependent on the degree of cognitive demand, and there was an unexpected reduction in performance from Day 2 to Day 10. Findings provide some suggestion that premature return to normal activities (e.g., school) may slow neurocognitive recovery.

  2. The influence of father absence on the self-esteem and self-reported sexual activity of rural southern adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Constance Smith; Cesario, Sandra K; Murdaugh, Carolyn; Gibbons, Mary E; Servonsky, E Jane; Bobadilla, Rodel V; Hendricks, Denisha L; Spencer-Morgan, Barbara; Tavakoli, Abbas

    2005-01-01

    The absence of the father in the resident home is an increasing trend in the United States, and the belief that the absence of fathers is lined with a variety of social pathologies is gaining national momentum. This study explored the relationship of father absence on self-esteem and self-reported sexual activity among rural southern adolescents. A sample of 1,409 adolescents (558 males and 851 females) aged 11 to 18 years was surveyed, and the Miller Self-Esteem Questionnaire (MSQ) was used to measure self-esteem. Analysis revealed that increased sexual activity occurred by adolescents in homes where no father present in the residence. Although a statistical significance was noted in the relationship between father absence and lower self-esteem, the magnitude of the difference was not large. Further, no relationship between self-esteem and sexual activity was noted. Seemingly, the absence of the father has a potentially detrimental effect on adolescents' lifestyle choices. Consideration of the notion that the phenomena of fathering rather than the mere presence of a father may contribute to differences in adolescent's lifestyle choices should be studied.

  3. Adverse Outcomes Among Homeless Adolescents and Young Adults Who Report a History of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Harpin, Scott B.; Grubenhoff, Joseph A.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of self-reported traumatic brain injury (TBI) among homeless young people and explored whether sociodemographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, substance use, exposure to violence, or difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs) were associated with TBI. Methods. We analyzed data from the Wilder Homelessness Study, in which participants were recruited in 2006 and 2009 from streets, shelters, and locations in Minnesota that provide services to homeless individuals. Participants completed 30-minute interviews to collect information about history of TBI, homelessness, health status, exposure to violence (e.g., childhood abuse, assault), and other aspects of functioning. Results. Of the 2732 participating adolescents and young adults, 43% reported a history of TBI. Participants with TBI became homeless at a younger age and were more likely to report mental health diagnoses, substance use, suicidality, victimization, and difficulties with ADLs. The majority of participants (51%) reported sustaining their first injury prior to becoming homeless or at the same age of their first homeless episode (10%). Conclusions. TBI occurs frequently among homeless young people and is a marker of adverse outcomes such as mental health difficulties, suicidal behavior, substance use, and victimization. PMID:25122029

  4. Daily life impairments associated with self-reported childhood/adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and experiences of diagnosis and treatment: results from the European Lifetime Impairment Survey.

    PubMed

    Caci, H; Doepfner, M; Asherson, P; Donfrancesco, R; Faraone, S V; Hervas, A; Fitzgerald, M

    2014-06-01

    The Lifetime Impairment Survey assessed impairment and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children/adolescents from six European countries. Parents/caregivers of children/adolescents aged<20 years with ADHD (ADHD group; n = 535) and without ADHD (control group; n=424) participated in an online survey. History of ADHD diagnosis was self-reported. ADHD and control groups were compared using impairment and symptom scales; higher scores indicate greater impairment. Mean (SD) age at ADHD diagnosis was 7.0 (2.8) years, following consultation of 2.7 (2.6) doctors over 20.4 (23.9) months. Parents/caregivers (64%; 344/535) reported frustration with some aspect of the diagnostic procedure; 74% (222/298) were satisfied with their child's current medication. ADHD had a negative impact on children/adolescents in all aspects of life investigated. The ADHD group had a higher mean (SD) school impairment score (2.7 [0.7]) compared with the control group (2.1 [0.7]; P<0.001) and were more likely to be in the bottom of their class (P<0.001). These data provide insights into impairments associated with ADHD in childhood/adolescence, and identify areas for improvement in its management and treatment.

  5. Daily diary reports of social connection, objective sleep, and the cortisol awakening response during adolescents' first year of college.

    PubMed

    Sladek, Michael R; Doane, Leah D

    2015-02-01

    Poor sleep and alterations in the stress-sensitive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be mechanisms through which loneliness impacts adolescents' well-being. Few researchers have explored whether daily variation in experiences of social connection predict day-to-day variation in sleep and HPA axis activity among adolescents navigating the college context. Using daily diary reports of social connection, objective measures of sleep (actigraphy), and naturalistic salivary assessment, the present study examined within-person associations between first-year college students' social connection during the day and sleep that night, as well as diurnal cortisol activity the following day. The present study also explored trait-level loneliness as a moderator of these associations after adjusting for baseline loneliness assessed in high school. Seventy-one first-year college students (23% male; M age = 18.85; 52% non-Hispanic White) completed daily diary reports, wore a wrist-based accelerometer (actigraph watch), and provided saliva samples five times daily across three consecutive weekdays. The results from hierarchical linear models indicated that within-person increases in daily social connection were significantly associated with longer time spent in bed and more actual time asleep that night only for adolescents high on loneliness. Within-person increases in daily social connection were associated with a greater cortisol awakening response (CAR) the next day, regardless of trait loneliness. These findings illustrate that more daily social connection with others than usual may predict improved sleep quantity for lonely adolescents and a physiological index of anticipating upcoming daily demands (CAR) in general. Future intervention programs might consider including strategies focused on enhancing daily social interactions among adolescents starting college, particularly for lonely adolescents.

  6. Troubled Parents, Motivated Adolescents: Predicting Motivation to Change Substance Use among Runaways

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Erdem, Gizem; Budde, Hannah; Letcher, Amber; Bantchevska, Denitza; Garren, Rikki

    2009-01-01

    Runaway adolescents engage in high rates of substance use and report significant family and individual problems. However, in general, adolescents report low motivation to change their substance use. Because a higher level of motivation for changing substance use is associated with greater substance abuse treatment success, identifying variables associated with motivation for change can be useful for enhancing treatment success. In this study, predictors of motivation for changing substance use were examined among 140 shelter-recruited adolescents and their parents/primary caretakers. Several findings were noteworthy. A perceived negative family environment increased parents' and adolescents' depressive symptoms, which increased adolescent's motivation to change. Also, greater severity of adolescent substance use predicted higher motivation to change. Consideration of the family environment and parent problems when addressing motivation for changing substance use among these adolescents might be important foci for motivational interventions and future research. PMID:19411144

  7. Using Self- and Parent-Reports to Test the Association between Peer Victimization and Internalizing Symptoms in Verbally Fluent Adolescents with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Fredstrom, Bridget K.; Duncan, Amie W.; Holleb, Lauren J.; Bishop, Somer L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested the associations between peer victimization and internalizing symptoms in 54 verbally fluent adolescent males with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Adolescent- and parent-reports of multiple types of peer victimization and internalizing symptoms were used. First, the validity and reliability of the…

  8. Exposure to Adult Substance Use as a Risk Factor in Adolescent Substance Use Onset: Part 1. Technical Report #97-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Allison J.; Collins, Linda M.; Graham, John W.

    The influence of parents and other important adults on adolescent substance use is becoming recognized as a salient topic of research. A study designed to assess the impact of adult substance use on adolescents' progression through increasingly more advanced stages of substance use is reported here. Latent Transition Analysis was used to estimate…

  9. How Mental Health Interviews Conducted Alone, in the Presence of an Adult, a Child or Both Affects Adolescents' Reporting of Psychological Symptoms and Risky Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-02-01

    The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures of neuropathy in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Lillian; Stark, Daniel; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Rosenberg, Abby R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Peripheral neuropathy is an important, yet poorly studied, side effect of pediatric cancer treatment. There are many measures of patient-reported peripheral neuropathy in adults but very few in children. We aimed to systematically review and summarize reliable and valid patient-reported peripheral neuropathy scales used in pediatrics. Methods Four major electronic databases (Medline, Embase, EBSCO Host in Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO) were reviewed for studies that measured peripheral neuropathy in pediatric patients. Studies eligible for inclusion were those that described use of any patient-reported scale of peripheral neuropathy among children, adolescents, and young adults with any underlying diagnosis (not limited to cancer). Results From a total of 765 articles retrieved, 5 met eligibility criteria and were included. One was a neuropathy symptom score used in patients with diabetes, and the remaining four were in oncology patients and all were based on the total neuropathy score. All involved objective assessments conducted by trained professionals; none relied purely on patient report. Conclusions There are no validated instruments that consist solely of a patient-reported outcome measure of neuropathy in pediatrics and adolescents. Because the clinical evaluation of neuropathy requires specialized training, it is not generalizable in large studies conducted in many diverse institutions. Future studies should validate adult patient-reported neuropathy scales in pediatric and adolescent populations, or develop novel instruments designed for this population. PMID:27037813

  11. Brief report: Benefit finding and identity processes in type 1 diabetes: Prospective associations throughout adolescence.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Ramsey, Meagan A; Kelly, Caitlin S; Wiebe, Deborah J; Mello, Daniel; Oris, Leen; Prikken, Sofie; Verschueren, Margaux; Berg, Cynthia A

    2016-06-01

    Identity formation constitutes a core developmental task during adolescence, but may be challenged when having a chronic illness such as type 1 diabetes. The present study examined whether viewing positive benefits to one's diabetes across adolescence was related to greater identity exploration and commitment later in time. A total of 55 adolescents (10-14 years; 47% female) with type 1 diabetes participated in a six-wave study spanning 3 years (with six-month measurement intervals). Through latent growth curve modeling, Time 6 identity scores were regressed on intercept and slope terms of benefit finding through Times 1-4, simultaneously controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Identity exploration (but not commitment) at Time 6 was positively predicted by the intercept and slope of benefit finding: adolescents who find benefits in diabetes are more inclined to explore different alternatives later on in adolescence. Benefit finding may constitute a resource facilitating identity formation in adolescents with diabetes.

  12. Creativity Lost: The Importance of Testing Higher-Level Executive Functions in School-Age Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delis, Dean C.; Lansing, Amy; Houston, Wes S.; Wetter, Spencer; Han, S. Duke; Jacobson, Mark; Holdnack, James; Kramer, Joel

    2007-01-01

    In school settings, students are typically evaluated using group achievement tests, IQ scales, and college entrance exams that focus more on rote-verbal skills (e.g., vocabulary, mathematical facts) than on higher level executive functions (e.g., abstract thinking, problem solving). However, recent neuropsychological findings suggest that…

  13. Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome: A Case Report in an Adolescent Nigerian Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ikpeme, Anthonia Asanye; Usang, Usang Edet; Inyang, Akan Wilson; Ani, Nchiewe

    2015-01-01

    AIM: This is to report a case of Klippel Trenauay Weber syndrome in a fifteen year old Nigerian boy. This is a rare syndrome and it is the first case to be reported in UCTH Calabar. CASE PRESENTATION: Product of a full term uneventful pregnancy, delivered to non-consanguineous apparently healthy parents. At birth was noted to gradually develop swelling on the right leg, worse at the right foot. There was crossed hemi-hypertrophy with right leg bigger than the left. As child grew symptoms worsened, parents separated and eventually he was abandoned to the streets. He presented at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital for medical care at the age of fifteen years with lymphatic obstruction, persistent foul smelling drainage, lipodermatosclerosis of right foot as well psycho-social and financial constraints. The diagnosis was made with x-rays and Doppler studies of the lower limb vessels. He is currently being managed conservatively with compression dressings on the affected limbs, Antibiotics for the infection and analgesics. De-bulking surgery is being anticipated at this time. CONCLUSION: This is a case of KTWS presenting in adolescence and due to its rarity in Nigeria, this report is to increase awareness. PMID:27275244

  14. Elevated objectively measured but not self-reported energy intake predicts future weight gain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    Background Although obesity putatively occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed for metabolic needs, numerous risk factor studies have not observed significant positive relations between reported caloric intake and future weight gain, potentially because reported caloric intake is inaccurate. Objective The present study tested the hypothesis that objectively measured habitual energy intake, estimated with doubly labeled water, would show a stronger positive relation to future weight gain than self-reported caloric intake based on a widely used food frequency measure. Design 253 adolescents completed a doubly labeled water (DLW) assessment of energy intake (EI), a food frequency measure, and a resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment at baseline, and had their body mass index (BMI) measured at baseline and at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Results Controlling for baseline RMR, elevated objectively measured EI, but not self-reported habitual caloric intake, predicted increases in BMI over a 2-year follow-up. On average, participants under-reported caloric intake by 35%. Conclusions Results provide support for the thesis that self-reported caloric intake has not predicted future weight gain because it is less accurate than objectively measured habitual caloric intake, suggesting that food frequency measures can lead to misleading findings. However, even objectively measured caloric intake showed only a moderate relation to future weight gain, implying that habitual caloric intake fluctuates over time and that it may be necessary to conduct serial assessments of habitual intake to better reflect the time-varying effects of caloric intake on weight gain. PMID:24930597

  15. Preliminary data suggest rates of male military sexual trauma may be higher than previously reported.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Sean C; Hickling, Edward J; Earleywine, Mitch; Hoyt, Tim; Russo, Amanda R; Donati, Matthew R; Kip, Kevin E

    2015-11-01

    Stigma associated with disclosing military sexual trauma (MST) makes estimating an accurate base rate difficult. Anonymous assessment may help alleviate stigma. Although anonymous research has found higher rates of male MST, no study has evaluated whether providing anonymity sufficiently mitigates the impact of stigma on accurate reporting. This study used the unmatched count technique (UCT), a form of randomized response techniques, to gain information about the accuracy of base rate estimates of male MST derived via anonymous assessment of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) combat veterans. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 180 OEF/OIF male combat veterans, recruited via online websites for military populations, provided data about history of MST via traditional anonymous self-report and the UCT. The UCT revealed a rate of male MST more than 15 times higher than the rate derived via traditional anonymous assessment (1.1% vs. 17.2%). These data suggest that anonymity does not adequately mitigate the impact of stigma on disclosure of male MST. Results, though preliminary, suggest that published rates of male MST may substantially underestimate the true rate of this problem. The UCT has significant potential to improve base rate estimation of sensitive behaviors in the military.

  16. Building Opportunity in Mississippi through Higher Education: A Report from the Steering Committee for the Mississippi Leadership Summit on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2002

    2002-01-01

    The Steering Committee of the Mississippi Leadership Summit on Higher Education anticipates a future in which Mississippi is regarded as a state of promise and opportunity. This report discusses the priorities and initiatives of a shared framework for educational, economic, and social progress. All of Mississippi's children and their families, as…

  17. Preparing for a Global Community. Achieving an International Perspective in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 2, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickert, Sarah M.

    This report discusses the response of colleges and universities in the United States to the need of graduate students to become equipped to make personal and public policy decisions as citizens of an international society. Curriculum changes are showing a tightening of foreign language standards in schools of higher education and, throughout the…

  18. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  19. Longitudinal relations between adolescent and parental behaviors, parental knowledge, and internalizing behaviors among urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Rachel C; Sullivan, Terri; Kliewer, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    High prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among adolescents underscore the importance of identifying parental and adolescent behaviors that may lessen the risk for these outcomes. Previous research has shown that parental acceptance, parental knowledge, and child disclosure are negatively associated with internalizing behaviors. It is also important to explore the impact of internalizing behaviors on these parental and child constructs. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between parental acceptance, parental knowledge, child disclosure, and internalizing symptoms across a one-year time period. Participants were 358 adolescents (54 % female) and their primary caregivers, who were primarily African American (92 %). Parents and adolescents provided data through face-to-face interviews. Results showed that parental knowledge and parental acceptance predicted child disclosure, and child disclosure predicted parental knowledge one year later. Higher levels of parental acceptance predicted lower levels of adolescent-reported depressive symptoms, while higher levels of parental report of adolescents' internalizing symptoms predicted lower levels of parental knowledge. No differences in the strength of these relationships were found across grade or gender. These findings highlight the role of the adolescent's perceived acceptance by parents in promoting children's disclosure, and the benefits of parental acceptance in decreasing depressive symptoms over time. Overall, these results show the impact that both adolescent and parental behaviors and internalizing behaviors have on each other across time.

  20. Mandated Reporters' Perceptions of and Encounters With Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking of Adolescent Females in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M; Trouteaud, Alex R; Matos Johnson, Jodien

    2016-03-17

    This is the first study to explore whether mandated reporters who work with adolescent females, ages 10 to 17, recognize domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and associated risk factors. Because mandated reporters are required by law to report child abuse, neglect, and child exploitation, lack of specific DMST training or not believing DMST exists in communities continues to place young females at risk for revictimization. Results indicate that 60% of mandated reporters in the sample (N = 577) had no specific training on DMST. Furthermore, almost 25% of respondents did not believe DMST existed in their communities. Implications for practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p < 0.0001) and reported multiple (>4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p < 0.001). About 1/3 of adolescents in both groups were unaware that sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  2. Planning and Grants Committee, Council for Higher Education. Annual Report No. 12, Academic Year 1984/85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiyah, Yael, Ed.

    The 1984-1985 annual report of the Planning and Grants Committee of the Council for Higher Education in Israel is presented. Reports by the Chairman and Director-General note budgetary developments, including increased government allocation to higher education; the imposition of an additional, temporary tuition charge; and the award of new…

  3. Planning And Grants Committee, Council for Higher Education. Annual Report No. 11, Academic Year 1983/84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiyah, Yael, Ed.

    The 1983-1984 annual report of the Planning and Grants Committee of the Council for Higher Education in Israel is presented. Reports by the Chairman and Director-General note the severe budgetary cuts to higher education. The main activities of the Committee and its subcommittees are identified, along with 1983-1984 recommendations to the Council.…

  4. A longitudinal study of family obligation and depressive symptoms among Chinese American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Juang, Linda P; Cookston, Jeffrey T

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this 2-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of Chinese American adolescents was to examine how family obligation behaviors and attitudes change over time; how gender, nativity, and birth order predict these trajectories; and whether family obligation relates to depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that family obligation behaviors decreased over the 2-year period but that family obligation attitudes were stable. Moreover, foreign-born adolescents reported higher levels of family obligation behavior than U.S.-born adolescents, and firstborn adolescents reported higher family obligation attitudes than laterborn adolescents. There were no gender differences in family obligation behaviors or attitudes. The findings also suggest that initial higher levels of family obligation were associated with subsequently fewer depressive symptoms. Finally, changes in family obligation behaviors related to changes in depressive symptoms over time such that increasing family obligation behaviors related to decreasing depressive symptoms. The results highlight the importance of understanding the role of family obligation to Chinese American adolescents' mental health.

  5. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  6. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  7. Racial Differences in Adolescent Self-Report: A Comparative Validity Study Using Homogeneous MMPI Content Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobel, Nancy Howells; Lachar, David

    1995-01-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPIs) were administered to an urban mixed-race sample of 218 adolescent psychiatric patients. Wiggins scale elevations for African Americans and whites were compared, and the validity of the scales was assessed through comparison with parent observations. Implications for the MMPI-Adolescent content…

  8. Brief Report: Adolescent Adjustment in Affluent Communities: The Role of Motivational Climate and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Lea V.; Bohnert, Amy M.; Randall, Edin T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers now recognize that affluent youth experience tremendous achievement pressures, yet contributing factors or outcomes are rarely explored. Using a sample of affluent adolescents, the present study investigates the mediating role of goal orientation (GO) on relations between school motivational climate (MC) and adolescent adjustment.…

  9. Brief Report: The Assessment of Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Schry, Amie R.; Maddox, Brenna B.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety may exacerbate interpersonal difficulties and contribute to secondary behavioral problems in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). This study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of measures of anxiety with a sample (n = 30) of adolescents with HFASD and comorbid anxiety…

  10. The PICA Project. Year 2. Project Interim Report. Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Harold L.; And Others

    An operant conditioning program for 12 problematic adolescent boys is described in detail. Complete procedures are discussed, including criteria for student selection and the Programming Interpersonal Curricula for Adolescents (PICA) academic and psychological test battery. The academic component of the program focuses on mathematics and English…

  11. Reporting Empirical Research on Adolescence: Reflections on the Appeal of Coherence, Purpose and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Roger J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The study of adolescence has come of age. Many successful journals now provide researchers with a wide variety of reasonable options for contributing to our understanding of adolescents and their place in society. This article explores these options and offers suggestions to prospective authors, especially those who expect to publish in the…

  12. Brief Report: Improving the Validity of Assessments of Adolescents' Feelings of Privacy Invasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of privacy invasion have relied on measures that combine items assessing adolescents' feelings of privacy invasion with items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors. Removing items assessing parents' monitoring behaviors may improve the validity of assessments of privacy invasion. Data were collected from 163 adolescents (M age 13 years,…

  13. Brief Report: Piloting the Positive Life Changes (PLC) Program for At-Risk Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ariel A.; Dierkhising, Carly B.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot the Positive Life Changes (PLC) program, a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral intervention for at-risk adolescents that aims to promote social competencies and to prevent aggression. The program was piloted in 4 intervention groups with a sample of 31 self-referred adolescents (M age 15.64) attending an…

  14. Message Processes and Their Associations with Adolescents' Executive Function and Reports of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, John P.; Harvey-Knowles, Jacquelyn A.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Substantial research has identified the negative health outcomes associated with bullying for adolescent victims. Researchers have examined expressive writing as a possible method by which to decrease violence among adolescents. Results of these studies, however, suggest that expressive writing is associated with positive, negative, and neutral…

  15. Retrospective Reports of the Lived School Experience of Adolescents after the Death of a Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study was done to better understand the school experience of adolescents after the death of a parent. The participants were adults over the age of 19 and between 3 and 43 years past the death of a parent during adolescence. The study involved personal, reflective interviews with each of the participants. The…

  16. Brief Report: A Quality of Life Instrument for Adolescents with Growth Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, J.A.; Claude Simeoni, M.; Auquier, P.; Robitail, S.; Brasseur, P.; Beresniak, A.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the psychometric properties of a recently developed health-related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument (Vecu et Sante Percue de l'Adolescent -Malade, VSP-AM) in 172 adolescents receiving growth hormone. The VSP-AM was cross-culturally adapted into English and tested for internal consistency (@a=0.78-0.89 subscales, 0.74 Summary…

  17. Legislation on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention. Wisconsin Legislative Council Report No. 13 to the 1991 Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard; And Others

    Wisconsin legislation on adolescent pregnancy prevention is discussed in this document. The 1991 Senate Bill 324 and Assembly Bill 630, identical bills which relate to adolescent pregnancy prevention, school district instruction in human growth and development, medical assistance services, and making appropriations, are discussed. Part I notes…

  18. Brief report: Overgeneral autobiographical memory in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Katelynn; Burkhouse, Katie L; Woody, Mary L; Feurer, Cope; Sosoo, Effua; Gibb, Brandon E

    2016-10-01

    The current study examined whether overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) bias serves as a state-like marker of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence or whether it would also be observed in currently nondepressed adolescents with a history of MDD. We examined differences in OGM to positive and negative cue words between adolescents (aged 11-18 years) with current MDD (n = 15), remitted MDD (n = 25), and no history of any depressive disorder (n = 25). Youth and their parents were administered a structured diagnostic interview and adolescents completed the autobiographical memory test. Compared to never depressed adolescents, adolescents with current or remitted MDD recalled less specific memories in response to positive and negative cue words. The difference between the two MDD groups was small and nonsignificant. These findings suggest that OGM is not simply a state-like marker in currently depressed adolescents, but is also evident in adolescents with remitted MDD, indicating that it may represent a trait-like vulnerability that increases risk for relapse.

  19. Attribution Style of Adolescents with School-Reported Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maras, P. F.; Moon, A.; Gridley, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between attribution style and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs), and to explore differences in attribution tendencies between adolescents with and without SEBDs. In total, 72 adolescents attending a school in London were recruited; 27 were receiving support for SEBDs…

  20. Social desirability is associated with some physical activity, psychosocial variables and sedentary behavior but not self-reported physical activity among adolescent males

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined whether controlling for social desirability improved the association between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among adolescent males and the extent that psychosocial variables predict physical activity after controlling for social desirability. Participant...

  1. The effect of adolescents' sports clubs participation on self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations.

    PubMed

    Gísladóttir, Thórdís Lilja; Matthíasdóttir, Asrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Hafrún

    2013-01-01

    Sports clubs create conditions for people of all ages to pursue a healthy lifestyle through exercise in sports and attend to constructive pedagogical work which creates much value for society. This study investigates the relationship between adolescents' sports clubs participation and self-reported mental and physical conditions and future expectations. The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (aged 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires administered to students in the classroom relating to health and behaviour. The results indicate that participation in sports clubs influences adolescents positively; adolescents who work hard at sport not only believe they are in better mental and physical condition, they also believe they can succeed in other areas such as their studies. Sports clubs promote positive influence on adolescents' mental and physical conditions and their future expectations toward work and happiness. It can be concluded that participation in organised sports clubs affects the participants in a positive way.

  2. Primary tuberculosis in a malnourished adolescent.

    PubMed

    Zawaideh, Mazen; Chao, Cherng; Poole, Patricia; Naheedy, John

    2012-07-01

    Although the overall prevalence of tuberculosis has decreased in the United States, with the increasing prevalence of tuberculosis globally, higher rates of tuberculosis in some states and localities have been reported, with some component probably related to immigrant populations. We report a case of primary pulmonary tuberculosis in a malnourished adolescent.

  3. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Desai, Sanjay M.; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Somanath, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words — Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary), we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:27904567

  4. Self-Reports versus Parental Perceptions of Health-Related Quality of Life among Deaf Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo-Guijarro, María Jesús; Martínez-Andrés, María; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between deaf children's and adolescents' self-ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and their parents' proxy reports. This observational cross-sectional study included 114 deaf 8- to 18-years-old students and proxy family members. HRQoL was measured using the KIDSCREEN-27 questionnaire,…

  5. Adolescent experiences of discrimination, harassment, connectedness to community and comfort with sexual orientation reported by adult men who have sex with men as a predictor of adult HIV status.

    PubMed

    Raymond, H Fisher; Chen, Yea-Hung; Stall, Ron D; McFarland, Willi

    2011-04-01

    Using data from a probability based sample of adult men who have sex with men (MSM) we examined the association of negative life factors during adolescence and adult HIV status. 521 MSM reported on experiences of connectedness to community, comfort with sexuality, harassment and discrimination due to their sexual orientation at ages 12-18 years. HIV status was determined by serological testing. Overall, men reported moderate levels of being harassed, being discriminated against and high levels of feeling disconnected from gay communities while reporting high levels of being uncomfortable with their sexuality at those ages. However, in analyses of scores on these factors, higher experiences of harassment, higher levels of discrimination and more discomfort with sexuality at these ages are associated with HIV-negative status as adults. This study suggests that the relationship between negative adolescent experiences among MSM and adult HIV infection may not be straightforward, but may also dependent upon aspects of the intensity of the negative experiences, the relationship of the victim and the perpertrator(s), the sexual identity of the victim at the time and/or the number of these experiences or the length of time over which they occurred. Studies investigating specific multiple stressors in adolescent gay development and their effect on adult health outcomes are needed.

  6. Overweight adolescents with type 2 diabetes have significantly higher lipoprotein abnormalities than those with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Lynae J.; Pelham, James Heath; Vaid, Shalini; Casazza, Krista; Ashraf, Ambika P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Diabetes-associated glucoregulatory derangements may precipitate atherogenesis in childhood and CVD risk, particularly with obesity. We aimed to delineate lipoprotein profile differences between children with type 1 and 2 diabetes who are overweight/obese. Methods Data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients ≥85th BMI percentile with type 1 (n=159) and type 2 (n=77) diabetes, ages 12–19y. Group differences were evaluated by correlations and general linear modeling analysis, adjusting for BMI, HbA1c, and diabetes duration. Results There were no group differences in TC, LDL, or non-HDL. Fewer subjects with type 1 diabetes had low HDL (17 vs. 30%; P<0.05). While no difference in HbA1c level was observed between groups, HbA1c was positively correlated with TC (P≤0.0001), LDL (P≤0.0001), non-HDL (P≤0.0001), ApoB100 (P≤0.0001), and LDL pattern B (P≤0.0001). In adjusted models, apoB100 (85.4 vs. 91.3mg/dl; P<0.05) and incidence of LDL pattern B (21 vs. 42%; P<0.01) were lower in subjects with type 1 diabetes. BMI was inversely correlated with HDL, HDL-2 and HDL-3 (all P≤0.0001). The correlation of BMI with HDL-2 and HDL-3 were attenuated when evaluating subjects by diabetes type. Conclusions Despite having no difference in absolute LDL levels, children with type 2 diabetes were more likely to have small, dense LDL particle pattern, higher apo B100 and lower total HDL, HDL-2, and HDL-3 fractions. Furthermore, poor glycemic control was associated with abnormal lipoprotein profiles in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes. PMID:27242127

  7. Objectively measured versus self-reported physical activity in children and adolescents with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Miriam; Seidel, Corinna Caroline; Kesting, Sabine Verena; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Boos, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Existing research recognizes low levels of physical activity in pediatric patients with cancer, but much uncertainty exists about their capability to self-reflect physical activity levels. The objective of this study was to compare results of subjective self-reports and objective accelerometers regarding levels of daily walking as well as moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Methods Results of the objective assessment tool StepWatchTM Activity Monitor and self-reporting with a standardized questionnaire were compared in 28 children and adolescents during cancer treatment. Results The patients were 13.8±2.8 years of age and 3.4±2.0 months after cancer diagnosis. The Bland-Altman plots indicated a fairly symmetrical under- and over-estimation for daily minutes of walking with the limits of agreement ranging from -100.8 to 87.3 min (d = -6.7 min). Mean difference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was almost zero but limits of agreement are ranging from -126.8 to 126.9 min. The comparison for the days with at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed a marked difference with 3.0±2.6 self-reported days versus only 0.1±0.4 measured days. Conclusions These findings suggest that physical activity in pediatric cancer patients should preferably be assessed with objective methods. Greater efforts are needed to implement supervised exercise interventions during treatment incorporating methods to improve self-reflection of physical activity. PMID:28207820

  8. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Catherine F.; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Baisley, Kathy; Changalucha, John; Ross, David A.; Kapiga, Saidi; Godinez, Jose M.; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are recommended for girls prior to sexual debut because they are most effective if administered before girls acquire HPV. Little research has been done on HPV prevalence in girls who report not having passed sexual debut in high HPV-prevalence countries. Methods. Using attendance registers of randomly selected primary schools in the Mwanza region of Tanzania, we enrolled girls aged 15–16 years who reported not having passed sexual debut. A face-to-face interview on sexual behavior and intravaginal practices, and a nurse-assisted self-administered vaginal swab were performed. Swabs were tested for 13 high-risk and 24 low-risk HPV genotypes. Results. HPV was detected in 40/474 (8.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9–11.0) girls. Ten different high-risk and 21 different low-risk genotypes were detected. High-risk genotypes were detected in 5.3% (95% CI, 3.5–7.8). In multivariable analysis, only intravaginal cleansing (practiced by 20.9%) was associated with HPV detection (adjusted odds ratio = 2.19, 95% CI, 1.09–4.39). Conclusion. This cohort of adolescent Tanzanian girls had a high HPV prevalence prior to self-reported sexual debut, and this was associated with intravaginal cleansing. This most likely reflects underreporting of sexual activity, and it is possible that intravaginal cleansing is a marker for unreported sexual debut or nonpenetrative sexual behaviors. PMID:24740630

  9. Brief Report: Nature and Implications of Personal Projects Among Adolescents With and Without Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Akiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examined the relation of adolescent goals to psychological well-being and diabetes health. Method We used personal project analysis to elicit the goals that adolescents with (n = 110) and without type 1 diabetes (n = 117) have. Adolescents evaluated several project dimensions (progress, stress, typicality, happiness, extent desired by others). Psychological well-being and diabetes health were assessed. Results Adolescents with and without diabetes described similar projects, with academic projects being most frequently named. Adolescents with diabetes were more likely to identify appearance projects, and healthy adolescents were more likely to identify self-improvement projects. Among the project dimensions, project progress was associated with better psychological and diabetes health, and project stress was associated with poorer psychological and diabetes health. Conclusion Results suggest that aspects of the general goals that adolescents set for themselves may have implications for their psychological well-being as well as how they care for their diabetes. PMID:19372267

  10. 12-year old adolescent with super morbid obesity, treated with laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass (LOAGB/BAGUA): A case report after 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Carbajo Caballero, Miguel Angel; Vázquez-Pelcastre, Raul; Aparicio-Ponce, Rodolfo; Luque de Leon, Enrique; Jimenez, José María; Ortiz-Solorzano, Javier; Castro, María José

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of morbid obesity among adolescents has being on the increased in the recent decades specifically in developed countries around the world. In Europe, Spain has the highest prevalence of obese adolescents with more than 18% of the population of children and adolescents. There is evidence that the only effective and permanent treatment for morbid obesity and the comorbidities is surgical treatment, however there exists many controversies about which treatment is the best for obese adolescents. We report a case of a 12 year old patient with super obesity (58.5 kg/m(2) of BMI) and metabolic syndrome who underwent LOAGB/BAGUA and monitored during the last 5 year. The patient after five years follow-up maintains a 22.4 kg/m(2) of BMI. We consider that LOAGB/ BAGUA could be an effective and safe procedure as a treatment of obesity and comorbidities as well, for adolescent patients.

  11. Psychosis in an adolescent with Wilson's disease: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Jhanda, Soumya; Chawla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in Wilson's disease and mainly include extrapyramidal and cerebellar symptoms. Presentations with psychotic symptoms have been described less frequently. In this report we present the case of a young boy with Wilson's disease who developed psychotic symptoms. A 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with Wilson's disease on the basis of the physical examination findings and low ceruloplasmin levels (8.1 mg/dl). After 2 weeks of being diagnosed with Wilson's disease, he developed an acute onset illness, characterized by delusion of persecution, fearfulness, hypervigilence and decreased sleep. These symptoms were not associated with any confusion, clouding of consciousness, hallucinations and affective symptoms. There was no past or family history of psychosis. One week after the onset of the symptoms he was prescribed tab penicillamine, initially 250 mg/day, which was increased to 500 mg/day after 3 days. After increase in the dose of penicillamine, his psychiatric symptoms worsened and led to hospitalization. A diagnosis of organic delusional disorder (F06.2) due to Wilson's disease was considered. Tab risperidone 1 mg/day was started, and the dose of penicillamine was reduced with which symptoms resolved. Whenever a young adolescent develops psychosis, especially of delusional type, the possibility of Wilson's disease must be considered. PMID:25568485

  12. Brief report: the influence of posttraumatic stress on unprotected sex among sexually active adolescent girls and boys involved in the child welfare system of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E

    2013-10-01

    While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population.

  13. On the Beat: A Former Higher Education Reporter Reflects on Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Jon

    1998-01-01

    The media continues to be blamed by higher education administrators for blowing college costs out of proportion. While there may be reasonable answers to questions about higher education costs and productivity, the media have to ask them and institutions must respond. Weak coverage of higher education by the media does not help higher education.…

  14. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  15. Adolescent-parent conflict in the age of social media: Case reports from India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ruchita; Chauhan, Nidhi; Gupta, Anoop Krishna; Sen, Mahadev Singh

    2016-10-01

    Social media activities have gained popularity amongst children and adolescents as a means of communication; giving them the opportunity for independence and social development as well as rendering them vulnerable to negative influences. In traditionally collectivistic societies like India, moving rapidly towards modernisation, not only is there a divide between parents and adolescents over the endorsement of these sites, but also regarding value systems related to autonomy and dating that are facilitated by such activities. We present cases of two adolescent girls to highlight adolescent parent conflict that arises in the age of social media in a cultural context. Further, the cases underscore that value systems and culture play an important role in resolution of such conflict.

  16. Nonpathological and pathological narcissism: which self-reported characteristics are most problematic in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Barry, Christopher T; Kauten, Rebecca L

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates that dimensions of adolescent narcissism differ in their associations with indicators of positive and negative psychological functioning (e.g., Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, 2007 ; Barry & Wallace, 2010 ). This study investigated correlates of 2 empirically derived factors of adolescent narcissism (i.e., pathological and nonpathological narcissism) from 2 measures thought to differ based on their inclusion of pathological versus nonpathological content. In a sample of 188 at-risk adolescents ages 16 to 18, pathological narcissism was associated with various indicators of maladjustment, including aggression, low self-esteem, internalizing problems, and poor perceived interpersonal relationships. On the other hand, nonpathological narcissism was positively associated with self-esteem and aggression but negatively associated with internalizing problems. The implications for the conceptualization of adolescent narcissism are discussed.

  17. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS.

  18. Health Risk Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms among Hispanic Adolescents: Examining Acculturation Discrepancies and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J.; Castillo, Linda G.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Romero, Andrea J.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Lizzi, Karina M.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning two models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement six months post-baseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms one year post-baseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning, (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS, (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. PMID:26301514

  19. International note: Maternal warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control: Relations to adjustment of Ghanaian early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salaam, Braima; Mounts, Nina S

    2016-06-01

    This investigation addressed the relation between maternal warmth, behavioral control, psychological control, and psychological adjustment in a sample of 119 Ghanaian adolescents (42% boys) living in an urban area (mean age = 14.19). Adolescents in the sample reported clinically elevated levels of depression and anxiety. Significant associations were found between warmth, behavioral control, and psychological control and adolescents' anxiety, physical aggression, relational aggression, positive friendship quality, and conflict with friends. Warmth moderated the effect of behavioral control on anxiety, physical aggression, and relational aggression such that higher levels of warmth in combination with higher levels of behavioral control were related to more positive adjustment. Higher levels of warmth in conjunction with higher psychological control were related to higher levels of anxiety. Boys who reported lower levels of warmth in combination with higher behavioral control reported higher levels of physical aggression. For boys reporting higher levels of warmth, higher behavioral control was associated with lower physical aggression.

  20. A multidimensional perspective of relations between self-concept (Self Description Questionnaire II) and adolescent mental health (Youth Self-Report).

    PubMed

    Marsh, Herbert W; Parada, Roberto H; Ayotte, Violaine

    2004-03-01

    Relations between self-concept and mental health are best understood from a multidimensional perspective. For responses by 903 adolescents (mean age = 12.6) to a new French translation of the Self Description Questionnaire II (SDQII), confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a well-defined multidimensional factor structure of reliable, highly differentiated self-concept factors. Correlations between 11 SDQII factors and 7 mental health problems (Youth Self-Report; YSR) varied substantially (.11 to -.83; mean r = -.35). Single higher-order factors could not explain relations among SDQII factors, among YSR factors, or between the SDQII and YSR factors. This highly differentiated multivariate pattern of relations supports a multidimensional perspective of self-concept, not the unidimensional perspective still prevalent in mental health research and assessment.

  1. Adolescent self-harm and suicidal thoughts in the ALSPAC cohort: a self-report survey in England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substantial numbers of adolescents self-harm, but the majority of cases do not reach the attention of medical services, making community studies essential. The prevalence of suicidal thoughts and plans at this age, and the inter-relationships between suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm remain largely unexplored. Method Cross-sectional analysis of self-reported questionnaire data collected from members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort, England. Respondents (n = 4810) were aged 16–17 years old and have been followed up since birth. Results Altogether 905 (18.8%) respondents had ever self-harmed. The prevalence of lifetime self-harm was higher in females (25.6%) than males (9.1%). The most commonly used method was self-cutting: this was used alone or in combination in 73.5% of episodes, compared to 10.0% who took overdoses alone or in combination with other methods. Of those who reported self-harm, 25.3% wanted to die during the most recent episode. Concurrent depression was associated with a greatly increased risk of self-harm (OR 5.43). Only 12.4% of participants sought medical help following their most recent episode of self-harm, although this figure was higher (30.1%) where self-harm was carried out with desire to die. Of the whole sample, 15.8% had ever thought of killing themselves, and 4.3% had ever made plans to kill themselves. Compared to those who had never self-harmed, those who had self-harmed but not wanted to die during the most recent episode were at increased risk of ever having had suicidal thoughts (37.6% compared to 7.8% χ2 =102.3, p < 0.001) and ever making suicidal plans (8.7% compared to 0.7%, χ2 =166.9, p < 0.001). As the frequency of self-harm increased, so did the risk of suicidal thoughts and plans. Conclusions Self-harm and suicidal thoughts are common among 16/17 year olds. Although the majority of self-harm behaviour is not accompanied by a desire to die, all

  2. Academic Achievement, Academic Self-Concept, and Academic Motivation of Immigrant Adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the self-reported academic achievement, academic self-concept, and academic motivation of 573 immigrant and nonimmigrant adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) secondary schools. Descriptive Discriminant Analyses indicated that the immigrant adolescents had higher performance in mathematics, higher math and school…

  3. Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context.

    PubMed

    Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2005-06-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca within the context of the Brazilian ayahuasca churches often starts during late childhood or early adolescence. Premature access to psychoactive drugs may represent a risk factor for drug misuse. Conversely, religious affiliation seems to play a protective role in terms of substance abuse. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of drug use in a sample of adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious setting. Forty-one adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 43 adolescents who never drank ayahuasca. No significant differences were identified in terms of lifetime substance consumption. Throughout the previous year period, ayahuasca adolescents used less alcohol (46.31%) than the comparison group (74.4%). Recent use of alcohol was also more frequent among the latter group (65.1%) than among ayahuasca drinkers (32.5%). Although not statistically significant, slight differences in terms of patterns of drug use were definitely observed among groups. Despite their early exposure to a hallucinogenic substance, adolescents using ayahuasca in a controlled setting were mostly comparable to controls except for a considerably smaller proportion of alcohol users. Religious affiliation may have played a central role as a possible protective factor for alcohol use. Thus, ayahuasca seems to be a relatively safe substance as far as drug misuse is concerned.

  4. Self-Reported Psychosomatic Complaints In Swedish Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults Living in Rural and Urban Areas: An Internet-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Matilda; Chen, Yun; Friberg, Peter; Osika, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background Frequencies in reported psychosomatic illnesses have increased in Sweden among children, adolescents, and young adults. Little is known about demographic differences in self-reported psychosomatic complaints, such as between urban and rural areas, and whether surveys launched on the Internet could be a useful method in sampling such data. Objectives This study examines the connection between psychosomatic illnesses and demographics in Swedish children and youth. The feasibility of using the Internet to gather large amounts of data regarding psychosomatic complaints in this group is another major objective of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study using 7 validated questions about psychosomatic health, were launched in a controlled way onto a recognized Swedish Internet community site, which targeted users 10 to 24 years of age. The subjects were able to answer the items while they were logged in to their personal domain. The results were analyzed cross-geographically within Sweden. Results In total, we received 100,000 to 130,000 individual answers per question. Subjects of both sexes generally reported significantly higher levels of self-reported psychosomatic complaints in major city areas as compared with minor city/rural areas, even though the differences between the areas were small. For example, 12.00% (4472/37,265) of females in minor regions reported always feeling tense, compared with 13.80% (3156/22,873) of females in major regions (P<.001). In males, the answer pattern was similar, 16.40% (4887/29,801) in major regions versus 15.60% (2712/17,386) in minor regions, (P=.006). Females reported significantly higher frequencies of psychosomatic complaints than males (P<.001). Conclusions In subjects aged 10 to 24 years, higher levels of psychosomatic complaints appear to correlate with living in major city areas in comparison with minor city/rural areas. Surveys launched on the Internet could be a useful method in sampling data regarding

  5. The MAPI as a Treatment Outcome Measure for Adolescent Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersma, Harry L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Administered Millon Adolescent Personality Inventory at admission and discharge to 215 hospitalized adolescent psychiatric patients. Found significant mean score differences for both internalizing (affective disorder) and externalizing (disruptive behavior disorder) adolescents. Internalizing adolescents reported significantly greater distress at…

  6. Self-reported sleep disturbances associated with procedural learning impairment in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R; Dean, Derek J; Mittal, Vijay A

    2017-03-16

    Sleep disturbance contributes to impaired procedural learning in schizophrenia, yet little is known about this relationship prior to psychosis onset. Adolescents at ultra high-risk (UHR; N=62) for psychosis completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a procedural learning task (Pursuit Rotor). Increased self-reported problems with sleep latency, efficiency, and quality were associated with impaired procedural learning rate. Further, within-sample comparisons revealed that UHR youth reporting better sleep displayed a steeper learning curve than those with poorer sleep. Sleep disturbances appear to contribute to cognitive/motor deficits in the UHR period and may play a role in psychosis etiology.

  7. Adolescent and Young Adult Patient Engagement and Participation in Survey-Based Research: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer" Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Bona, Kira; Wharton, Claire M; Bradford, Miranda; Shaffer, Michele L; Wolfe, Joanne; Baker, Kevin Scott

    2016-04-01

    Conducting patient-reported outcomes research with adolescents and young adults (AYAs) is difficult due to low participation rates and high attrition. Forty-seven AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer at two large hospitals were prospectively surveyed at the time of diagnosis and 3-6 and 12-18 months later. A subset participated in 1:1 semistructured interviews. Attrition prompted early study closure at one site. The majority of patients preferred paper-pencil to online surveys. Interview participants were more likely to complete surveys (e.g., 93% vs. 58% completion of 3-6 month surveys, P = 0.02). Engaging patients through qualitative methodologies and using patient-preferred instruments may optimize future research success.

  8. Higher Education Faculty Institute Multidisciplinary Inservice Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Mary Beth; And Others

    The Higher Education Faculty Institute was designed to increase the capacity of institutions of higher education to offer coursework, practicum, and specialty course sequences across personnel preparation programs for disciplines involved in early intervention. During the 3 years of the project, 38 higher education faculty were enrolled in…

  9. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Annual Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) serves as the coordinating board for South Carolina's 33 public institutions of higher learning and is responsible for serving a dual role within state government acting both as an advocate for higher education as well as an oversight entity on behalf of the General Assembly. The agency's…

  10. Purposes, Policies, Performance: Higher Education and the Fulfillment of a State's Public Agenda. National Center Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, CA.

    This essay is based on a roundtable of higher education leaders and policy officials convened in June 2002 as part of a larger research effort undertaken by the Alliance for International Higher Education Policy Studies (AIHEPS), an international collaboration for comparative research on higher education policy. The roundtable focused on AIHEPS…

  11. Development of hypertension in overweight adolescents: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Rebecca K; Magnussen, Costan G; Sabin, Matthew A; Cheung, Michael; Juonala, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The upward trend in adolescent hypertension is widely attributed to the adolescent obesity epidemic. Secular trends in adolescent prehypertension and hypertension have risen in congruence with increasing trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. The correlation between body mass index and blood pressure in adolescence is moderate to strong in most studies and strongest in those classified as overweight or obese. The mechanisms relating to the development of hypertension in overweight adolescents are unclear; however, a number of nonmodifiable and modifiable factors have been implicated. Importantly, certain clinical and biochemical markers in overweight adolescents are indicative of high risk for hypertension, including family history of hypertension and hyperinsulinemia. These characteristics may prove useful in stratifying overweight adolescents as high or low risk of comorbid hypertension. The treatment of overweight and obesity related hypertension in this population focuses on two key modalities: lifestyle change and pharmacotherapy. These approaches focus almost exclusively on weight reduction; however, a number of emerging strategies target hypertension more specifically. Among adolescents with overt hypertension there are also several factors that indicate higher risk of concurrent subclinical disease, persistent adult hypertension, and adult cardiovascular disease. This group may benefit substantially from more aggressive pharmacological treatments. Limitations in the literature relate to the paucity of studies reporting specific effects for the adolescent age group of overweight and obese individuals. Nonetheless, intervention for adiposity-related hypertension in adolescence may partially mitigate some of the cardiovascular risk in adulthood. PMID:26543386

  12. Serving a Public Purpose: A Report by the Commission on the Future of Independent Higher Education in New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Independent Colleges and Universities in New Jersey, Summit.

    In 1987, the first Commission on the Future of Independent Higher Education charted a path for independent colleges and universities in New Jersey. Many changes have taken place in New Jersey higher education in the 15 years since this "Boyer" report was issued, and in 2000, a new Commission was formed to review progress since the 1987…

  13. The Hunt Report and Higher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland: "An International Solution to an Irish Problem?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; Loxley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The "National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030" in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes…

  14. The Economics of Higher Education: A Report Prepared by the Department of the Treasury with the Department of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of the Treasury, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the current state of higher education, with a brief high-level overview of the market and a more detailed discussion and analysis of the financial aid system. It also discusses the important changes President Obama has made to make higher education more accessible and affordable. The key findings are: (1) The economic returns…

  15. University Reforms and Academic Governance Reconsidered: Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Research Project. RIHE International Publication Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arimoto, Akira, Ed.

    This report contains papers from the Six Nation Higher Education Research Project, an initiative that has focused on making a comparative study of the reform of higher education at the stage of postmassification in six countries: China, Germany, Singapore, Switzerland, the United States, and Japan. The papers are: (1) The Six Nation Higher…

  16. Planning and Grants Committee, The Council for Higher Education [Israel]. Annual Report No. 8, Academic Year 1980/81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel Planning and Grants Committee, Jerusalem.

    The academic year 1980-1981 annual report of the Planning and Grants Committee (PGC) of the Council for Higher Education in Israel is presented. The PGC is an independent body operating between the Israeli government and the national institutions on the one hand, and the institutions of higher education, on the other, in matters relating to…

  17. Drinking Patterns and Going-Out Behavior as Predictors of Illicit Substance Use: An Analysis among Dutch Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Goor, Ien; Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina; Knibbe, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This study examines relations between drinking patterns, going-out behavior, and illicit substance use among Dutch adolescents ages 15 to 24 who reported alcohol use at least once per week (N = 711). Logistic regression analyses indicated that adolescents reporting heavy drinking patterns showed higher risks of lifetime and current illicit…

  18. Maternal and Adolescent Temperament as Predictors of Maternal Affective Behavior during Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Emily; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined maternal and early adolescent temperament dimensions as predictors of maternal emotional behavior during mother-adolescent interactions. The sample comprised 151 early adolescents (aged 11-13) and their mothers (aged 29-57). Adolescent- and mother-reports of adolescent temperament and self-reports of maternal temperament were…

  19. Anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Joo; Ryu, Hosihn; Han, Kuem Sun; Kwon, Jung Hye; Kim, Han Kyeom; Kang, Hyun Cheol; Yoon, Ji-Won; Cheon, Suk-Hee; Shin, Hyunjeong

    2010-06-01

    This study described the levels of anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. Data from 18,752 adolescents were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Anger, anger expression, and suicidal ideation exhibited significant differences according to school level and gender. The group with higher anger and anger expression showed a higher average suicidal ideation score than that of the group with lower anger and anger expression, suggesting that school-based programs which alleviate anger may be needed to decrease suicidal ideation among Korean adolescents.

  20. Concordance Between Self-Reported Childhood Maltreatment Versus Case Record Reviews for Child Welfare-Affiliated Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Schneiderman, Janet U; Trickett, Penelope K

    2017-02-01

    The present study used data from an ongoing longitudinal study of the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development to (1) describe rates of maltreatment experiences obtained from retrospective self-report versus case record review for adolescents with child welfare-documented maltreatment histories, (2) examine self-reported versus child welfare-identified maltreatment in relation to mental health and risk behavior outcomes by maltreatment type, and (3) examine the association between the number of different types of maltreatment and mental health and risk behavior outcomes. Maltreatment was coded from case records using the Maltreatment Case Record Abstraction Instrument (MCRAI) and participants were asked at mean age = 18.49 about childhood maltreatment experiences using the Comprehensive Trauma Interview (CTI). Results showed that an average of 48% of maltreatment found by the MCRAI for each type of maltreatment were unique cases not captured by the CTI, whereas an average of 40% self-reported maltreatment (CTI) was not indicated by the MCRAI. Analyses with outcomes showed generally, self-reported maltreatment, regardless of concordance with MCRAI, was related to the poorest outcomes. The difference in associations with the outcomes indicates both self-report and case record review data may have utility depending on the outcomes being assessed.

  1. The associations of self-reported and peer-reported relational aggression with narcissism and self-esteem among adolescents in a residential setting.

    PubMed

    Golmaryami, Farrah N; Barry, Christopher T

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations of self-reported and peer-nominated relational aggression (RA) with self-esteem and narcissism among 43 at-risk 16- to 18-year-olds. Self-reported and peer-nominated RA were positively intercorrelated, and each was positively correlated with narcissism. An interaction between self-esteem and narcissism predicted peer-nominated RA, such that narcissism was related to peer-nominated RA particularly for individuals with high self-esteem. Maladaptive, but not adaptive, narcissism uniquely predicted peer-nominated RA. The implications and limitations of this study for research on adolescent self-perception and RA are discussed.

  2. Ethnic socialization and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Virginia W; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in the frequency and types of ethnic socialization messages that 524 eleventh-grade adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds received from their parents were examined. Results indicated that adolescents from both Mexican and Chinese backgrounds reported more cultural socialization and preparation for bias messages than their peers from European backgrounds. Chinese adolescents reported more promotion of mistrust messages than their peers with European backgrounds. Moreover, promotion of mistrust messages negatively predicted academic achievement, whereas positive cultural socialization messages accounted for the higher levels of motivation among adolescents from Chinese and Mexican backgrounds as compared with their equally achieving peers from European backgrounds.

  3. A Stronger Nation through Higher Education: Closing the Gaps in College Attainment. An Annual Report from Lumina Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    2014-01-01

    As Lumina Foundation releases a new edition of the signature report, "A Stronger Nation Through Higher Education," the central message is the same one conveyed since the first of this series of reports in 2009. Lumina remains convinced that significantly increasing college attainment is the key to ensuring a brighter future for our…

  4. Widening Our Horizons: Report of the Review of the Teaching of Modern Languages in Higher Education. Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian National Languages Inst., Melbourne.

    A report on the teaching of modern languages in Australian higher education is presented in two volumes. The first volume contains the text of the report. An introductory section describes the aims and methodology of the national review and places it in a historical context. The remainder of this volume is in three parts. The first part identifies…

  5. Senate Select Committee on Higher Education To Study Tuition Policy at Michigan Colleges and Universities: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Legislature, Lansing.

    This report contains the final recommendations of the Michigan Senate Select Committee on Higher Education on tuition policy at Michigan public colleges and universities. The report presents its findings and recommendations in three large parts. The first section contains the final recommendations of the Committee including goals of affordability…

  6. Building on Success: Educational Diversity and Equity in Kentucky Higher Education. Choices before the Commonwealth. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancheta, Angelo; Ledesma, Maria; Trent, William; Kurlaender, Michal; Yun, John; Lee, Chungmei; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Driscoll, Anne; Orfield, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This report is an effort to assess what has been accomplished in successfully diversifying and desegregating historically segregated and unequal higher educational institutions across Kentucky, and how this was done. The report discusses the changing legal setting for these initiatives, analyzes the educational achievements and challenges, and…

  7. Links of Adolescent- and Parent-Reported Eating in the Absence of Hunger with Observed Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Mooreville, Mira; Reina, Samantha A.; Courville, Amber B.; Field, Sara E.; Matheson, Brittany E.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) typically is assessed by measuring snack intake after consumption of a meal. There are no validated self-report measures of EAH. We sought to examine the relationship of adolescent self-report and parent-reported EAH to adolescents’ measured intake in the absence of hunger. Design and Methods Ninety adolescents completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (EAH-C) to describe eating when not hungry. Parents described children’s EAH on a parallel version designed for parents (EAH-P). In a randomized crossover study, adolescent EAH in response to external cues was measured as snack intake after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of daily energy requirements and after a large array (>10,000 kcal). Results Parents’ reports of children’s EAH in response to external cues were associated with greater EAH after both meals, adjusting for body composition, sex, age, race, puberty, and meal intake. Adolescent-reported EAH was unrelated or showed an inverse association with observed EAH. Conclusions Parent-reported EAH showed a positive association with adolescents’ observed EAH and may be a useful research and clinical tool for assessing EAH in response to external cues in conditions when laboratory assessments are not feasible. PMID:23913735

  8. [Emotion Regulation and Emotional Vulnerability in Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.

  9. Parenting and Adolescent Problem Behaviors: A Comparative Study of Sons and Daughters in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Miller, Brenda A.; Cupp, Pamela K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates parenting practices and the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among Thai adolescents, by focusing on the difference between sons and daughters. Data were derived from 420 families whose adolescents aged 13–14 were randomly selected from seven districts in Bangkok using the probability proportional to size (PPS) method. Interviews were conducted with one parent and one adolescent. Female adolescents reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental rules, communication about sex and parental disapproval of sex, as compared to males. There were no gender differences in the reported sexual and delinquent behaviors among the adolescents. For males, high levels of parental monitoring, greater perception of parent disapproval of sex, and being raised by authoritative parents were associated with less delinquent behaviors. Among females, parental monitoring and parental closeness served as protective factors against sexual and delinquent behaviors. These findings should be useful for developing a body of knowledge and understanding on adolescent rearing among Thai parents. PMID:20420103

  10. Neither too much, nor too little. The dilemma of identifying personality disorders in adolescents patients with self-reports.

    PubMed

    Magallón-Neri, Ernesto; De la Fuente, José Eugenio; Canalda, Gloria; Forns, Maria; García, Raquel; González, Esther; Lara, Anais; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2014-03-30

    The study aimed to compare methods of identification of Personality Disorders (PD) in adolescent patients with psychiatric disorders. A sample of 120 Spanish adolescents with clinical disorders was assessed using the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) interview, its Screening Questionnaires (IPDE-SQ) comprising the ICD-10 and DSM-IV modules, and also the Temperament Character Inventory (TCI) to identify risk of PD. The IPDE-SQ identified a risk of PD around 92-97% of the sample; 61.7% when adjusting the stricter cut-off points. The TCI showed a PD risk of 20%, whereas the prevalence of PD identified by the IPDE clinical interview was around 36-38%. The differences between the IPDE, IPDE-SQ and TCI were significant, and a low agreement among instruments was obtained. Large discrepancy between self-report instruments in identifying PD with regard to the clinical interview raises several questions concerning the use of these instruments in clinical settings on adolescents with psychiatric disorders.

  11. Measuring Up 2006: The State Report Card on Higher Education. Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this state report card is to provide the general public and policymakers with information they can use to assess and improve postsecondary education in each state. "Measuring Up 2006" is the fourth in a series of biennial report cards. The report card grades states in six overall performance categories: (1) Preparation:…

  12. Measuring Up 2006: The State Report Card on Higher Education. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this state report card is to provide the general public and policymakers with information they can use to assess and improve postsecondary education in each state. "Measuring Up 2006" is the fourth in a series of biennial report cards. The report card grades states in six overall performance categories: (1) Preparation:…

  13. Measuring Up 2006: The State Report Card on Higher Education. Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this state report card is to provide the general public and policymakers with information they can use to assess and improve postsecondary education in each state. "Measuring Up 2006" is the fourth in a series of biennial report cards. The report card grades states in six overall performance categories: (1) Preparation:…

  14. Brief report: The association between adolescents' characteristics and engagement in sexting.

    PubMed

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Van Gool, Ellen; Ponnet, Koen; Walrave, Michel

    2014-12-01

    The potential emotional and legal consequences of adolescents' engagement in sending sexually explicit pictures through the internet or the mobile phone (i.e., sexting) have caused significant concern about the behavior among practitioners and academics. The present study compares the characteristics of students who engage in sexting to those who do not. A survey among 1028 adolescents of 11 secondary schools in Belgium was administered. Logistic regression analyses suggest that sexting is significantly linked with sensation seeking, experiential thinking styles and depression, while controlling for gender, age, family status and students' response to economic stress. The results are of importance to practitioners who could adapt their prevention and intervention campaigns to better reach this complex youth. Differences with the findings of previous studies highlight the importance of continuing research on sexting and the need to pay attention to the specific context in which adolescent sexting takes place.

  15. Brief report: British adolescents' views about the rights of asylum-seeking children.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Martin D; Tenenbaum, Harriet R; Sines, Jennie

    2007-08-01

    The present study examined 60 (30 early-to-middle adolescents and 30 late adolescents) British adolescents' understanding of the rights of asylum-seeker children. Participants completed semi-structured interviews designed to assess judgments and evaluations of hypothetical asylum-seeker children's nurturance and self-determination rights in conflict with the practices of authority. Findings indicated that participants were more likely to endorse asylum-seeker children's nurturance rights over their self-determination rights. Reasoning about both types of rights was multifaceted and focused on moral, social-conventional and psychological considerations. In addition, significant differences were found between males and females with regard to both endorsement and reasoning. The limitations of the study are discussed and future research is considered.

  16. Parent-child discrepancies in reports of parental monitoring and their relationship to adolescent alcohol-related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies between parents and adolescents regarding parenting behaviors have been hypothesized to represent a deficit in the parent-child relationship and may represent unique risk factors for poor developmental outcomes. The current study examined the predictive utility of multiple methods for characterizing discrepancies in parents’ and adolescents’ reports of parental monitoring on youth alcohol use behaviors in order to inform future study design and predictive modeling. Data for the current study came from a prospective investigation of alcohol initiation and progression. The analyzed sample consisted of 606 adolescents (6th – 8th grade; 54% female) and their parents were surveyed at baseline, with youth followed up 12 months later. A series of hierarchical logistic regressions were performed for each monitoring-related construct examined (parental knowledge, parental control, parental solicitation, and child disclosure). The results showed that adolescents’ reports were more closely related to outcomes than parents’ reports, while greater discrepancies were frequently found to be uniquely associated with greater likelihood of alcohol use behaviors. Implications for future work incorporating parents’ and adolescents’ reports are discussed. PMID:24964878

  17. Suicidal Expression in Adolescents in Nicaragua in Relation to Youth Self-Report (YSR) Syndromes and Exposure to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Obando Medina, Claudia María; Herrera, Andres; Kullgren, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal expressions among young people represent a major public health problem worldwide. Most studies are from high-income countries, and it remains unclear whether prevalence and risk factors show a similar pattern in other settings. This study aims to assess the prevalence of suicidal expressions and serious suicidal expressions (ideation, plans and attempts) among adolescents in Nicaragua, in relation to previously reported risk factors, such as exposure to suicide in significant others (parents, siblings, partners or friends) and mental health problems. Methods: 368 adolescents aged 15-18 years were randomly selected from public secondary schools in León, Nicaragua. Data was collected using Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS) and Youth Self-Report questionnaires (YSR). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Suicide ideation prevalence in the past year was 22.6%, suicide plans 10.3%, and suicide attempts 6.5%. Girls were significantly more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multivariate analyses showed that anxious/depressed, somatic complaints and exposure to suicidal behavior in significant others were significantly associated with own serious suicidal expressions. Conclusions: The prevalence of serious suicidal expressions among young people in Nicaragua is within the range reported from Western high-income countries. An attempted or completed suicide in someone close, is associated with own suicidal expressions even in the absence of increased mental distress. Furthermore, somatic complaints should alert health care professionals of the possibility of increased suicide risk. PMID:21559237

  18. Stability of Self-Reported Same-Sex and Both-Sex Attraction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.

  19. Impact of air pollution on vitamin D deficiency and bone health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feizabad, Elham; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ramezani, Majid; Hashemian, Roxana; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-12-01

    The association between air pollution and bone health was evaluated in adolescents in the city of Tehran. This study is essentially ecological. Vitamin D deficiency among adolescents has been reported at higher rates in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. Additionally, residence in polluted areas is associated with lower levels of bone alkaline phosphatase.

  20. Cultivating the Academic Integrity of Urban Adolescents with Ethical Philosophy Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seider, Scott; Novick, Sarah; Gomez, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study considered the effects of ethical philosophy programming at a high-performing, high-poverty urban high school upon the academic integrity of participating adolescents ("n" = 279). Analyses of pre-post survey data revealed that participating adolescents reported significantly higher levels of academic integrity…